Art. XVII.—On new Species of Araneidea.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 31st October, 1887.]
Genus Linyphia, Latr.
Linyphia rufocephala, sp. nov. Plate XI., fig. 1.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2.5; broad, 2. Abd., long, 4; broad, 2.3. Legs, 4, 1, 2, 3. Length of 1st pair, 8.8 mm.
Cephalothorax red-mahogany colour; oval, clathrate, slightly compressed forwards; lateral index equals breadth of ocular area; thoracic indentation longitudinal, deep; radial and caput striæ defined by dark streaks; profile contour rises with a low curve, at an angle of 30°, pars cephalica moderately arched; clypeus vertical, convex, height rather exceeds depth of facial space.
Posterior row of eyes sensibly procurved, central pair separated by about their diameter from hind-laterals, half that interval from each other; anterior row sensibly recurved, median pair much the smallest of eight, their radius apart, rather more than their space from hind-centrals, and fore-laterals; side eyes slightly exceed posterior median pair in size, have their pearlgrey lustre; seated obliquely on moderate tubercular eminences; contiguous.
Legs yellow-brown; broad, faint annuli; moderately long hairs; few spines on tibiæ of 1–2, and tibiæ and metatarsi of 3 (three terminal joints of 4 were missing). Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, about 16 short, close teeth; inferior claw, 2 teeth.
Palpi slender, length 3 mm.; yellow-brown; rather strong spines on radial and digital joints; palpal claw long, slender, rather straight, 7 teeth, 6 small, close.
Falces light red-mahogany; tumid near base in front, directed somewhat forwards and outwards, stouter than femora of 1st pair of legs; fang strong, double row of teeth, inner short; outer row, 6 strong teeth, 4 central longest.
Maxillœ linear, apex pointed, inclined towards labium, which is short, twice as broad as long, apex everted; organs chocolate-brown, apices brownish-yellow.
Sternum cordate, brownish-yellow.
Abdomen oviform, rather sparsely clothed with moderately strong hairs; pale stone-grey; two, somewhat faint, blackish bands, with three or four long, tapering, dentate projections on either side, converge from base to spinners, enclosing a linearoval
space, spotted with a few dark flecks; from the blackish ventral surface several not clearly defined dark streaks curve upwards and backwards on lateral margins. Corpus vulvæ large, transversely wrinkled, convex above, broader than long, inferior side rather the widest, centrally produced into a pale-yellow ladle-like scape; lateral margins of corpus project forwards, curve inwards towards the amber-coloured bole-like apex of scapus, with which they form a nearly even line. Corpus vulvæ pale greenish-yellow; pale-yellow streak, in line with scapus, intersects two broad, brown, longitudinal bands.
Male.—Ceph. th., long, 2.3; broad, 1.7. Abd., long, 3; broad, 1.2. Legs, 1–4, 2, 3 = 7, 6, 5.2 mm.
Cephalothorax red-mahogany colour; clathrate; oval, slightly compressed forwards; caput convex, roundly truncated; thoracic indentation large, ovate; caput and radial striæ fairly well-defined, but shallow; profile contour rises at an angle of about 40°, slightly depressed across indentation, pars cephalica arched; clypeus slightly convex, height almost exceeds depth of facial space.
Posterior row of eyes sensibly procurved, median pair their radius from each other, rather more than their breadth from laterals next to them; anterior row sensibly recurved, centrals small, more than one-third their diameter apart, about their space from posterior-centrals, three-fourths their space from fore-laterals; side eyes placed obliquely on strong tubercles, contiguous.
Legs moderately long and strong, brownish-yellow; annuli, mostly, rather faint; armature, fine, erect black hairs, bristles on genual joints, 1st pair femora, slender spine on inner side; tibiæ have three long bristles—two above, one beneath; 2nd pair, single spine on tibiæ; tibial joints of 3–4 have, respectively, 4–8; metatarsi two long, and circle of four short spines; superior tarsal claws,—1st pair, 10 close, comb teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw short, free, and directed outwards, 2 stout teeth, basal shortest.
Palpi, humeral joint one-third longer than cubital and radial joint together, colour of legs; cubital joint concolorous, nearly equals radial in length, rather dilated in centre, projects from apex, a strongish bristle; radial joint light mahogany colour, furnished with numerous long bristle-like black hairs; nearly one-third longer than broad, cyathiform, base rather slender; digital joint about equal to humeral in length; lamina bulbi long, tapering, breadth rather exceeds length at radial joint, similar to latter article in colour and armature, disconnected almost its entire length from the genital bulb; on inner side of clava a long, slender, apophysis curves upwards and backwards; on outer side, projecting from margin of radial joint, is a lake-brown,
broad, membranous process, directed downwards and forwards, concave on outer side; bulb yellow-brown, less than half length of lamina; view from superior side, somewhat cam-panulate, forepart concave, margin at concavity produced on lower side into a short spur, directed downwards; extending over most of the outer face of bulb is a large, oval, yellowish membrane, with lake-coloured tumid margins; an olive-green, semi-transparent, involute, pointed membrane projects forwards nearly to apex of the lamina bulbi; between this membrane and the concave surface of the latter is a long dark membranous apophysis, directed forwards, apex pointed, curved downwards.
Falces red-mahogany colour; transversely wrinkled; out-wardly armed with a few rows of short, dark papillæ; tumid at base, on outer side, tapering, apices directed outwards, fangs long, double row of teeth, two central long.
Maxillœ strong, apices dilated, rounded, and somewhat obtusely pointed, curve over lip; base dark-brown, graduating to a bright red-mahogany. Labium rather broader than long, nearly semicircular, about half length of maxillæ, margin strongly everted; red-mahogany colour, base dark-chocolate colour.
Sternum ovate, lacunose, chocolate-brown.
Abdomen oval; stone-grey; curved bands on dorsal field are of a darker hue, and the dentation less defined than those of females; the genital aperture is covered by a rather prominent, semi-oval, transversely-wrinkled hood.
This species was contained in a collection kindly sent me by P. Goyen, Esq., from Dunedin.
Linyphia lagenifera, sp. nov. Plate XI., fig. 4.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.2. Abd., long, 6; broad, 3.2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 21, 14, 11, 7 mm.
Cephalothorax yellow-brown; broad median band and marginal zone brown; hairs sparse, light; oval, rugulose; caput roundly truncated, rather depressed; lateral index equal to space from a fore-lateral eye to the hind-central furthest from it; median fovea circular; normal grooves faint, brown; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of about 45°, slopes moderately forward across pars cephalica; clypeus in height about three-fourths depth of ocular area.
Posterior row of eyes sensibly recurved, nearly straight, equidistant; median pair separated by a space about equal to their diameter and rather more than that interval from fore-centrals, which are slightly further apart than former pair; anterior row recurved, centrals rather further from each other than they are from fore-laterals; side eyes seated obliquely on strong, cup-shaped tubercles, separated by a space nearly equal to their diameter.
Legs yellow - brown, broad chestnut - brown annulations; armature moderately long hairs; long, slender, black spines on femoral, genual, tibial, and metatarsal joints; 1—2 pair stoutest, about equal in strength. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 15 short, nearly even teeth; inferior claw, 2 close teeth.
Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw moderately curved, slender, 9 teeth.
Falces strong, tapering, project forwards at base in front, directed moderately outwards; chocolate-brown.
Maxillœ somewhat spathulate, obtusely pointed, inclined towards lip, which is semicircular; organs dark-brown, apices lighter shade.
Sternum cordate, brownish, well-developed, somewhat conical, eminences opposite coxœ of 3rd pair of legs.
Abdomen oblong-oval, moderately convex above; rather sparsely clothed with short yellowish hairs; olive - brown, mottled with yellow-brown flecks; dorsal mark similar tint, lageniform, extends three-fourths length of abdomen from base, margined, and marked with dark-brown; nearly in centre of basal part—which is large, and nearly circular—is a small yellowish cross; beyond the neck-like posterior end are two dark angular marks, apices directed forwards; ventral surface yellowish. Vulva, brownish, moderately convex eminence, concave within, centrally produced into a broad, rounded scapus, directed backwards.
Otago, P. Goyen.
Genus Theridium, Walck.
Theridium nigrofolium, sp. n. Plate XI., fig. 3.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1.5; broad, 1; Abd., long, 2.3; broad, 2. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 7, 6.8, 5.2, 3.5 mm.
Pars thoracica light - brown, somewhat streaked; pars cephalica and marginal zone dark-brown; oval, rugulose, slightly compressed forwards, ocular eminence prominent, transverse groove behind first row of eyes; caput strongly convex, groove well-marked; thoracic fovea oval, radial striæ rather faint; profile line represents a rather abrupt curve posteriorly, slight arch across caput; clypeus directed forward; in height rather less than depth of facial space.
Posterior row of eyes moderately procurved; centrals exceed laterals in size by about one-fourth, nearly their diameter apart, about twice that space from anterior pair, rather more than former interval from side-eyes; anterior row strongly recurved, centrals prominent, perceptibly smaller than posterior pair, rather further from each other than are the hind-median eyes; laterals have the pearl-grey lustre of posterior-centrals, seated obliquely on strong brownish tubercles, nearly contiguous.
Legs slender, pale brownish-yellow, annuli brown, faint above, except at articulation of joints; hairs very sparse, few bristles, chiefly on metatarsi; bristle-like hairs on penultimate and terminal joints; superior tarsal claws partially broken; inferior 1 tooth, point behind.
Palpi yellowish; few hairs; 2 strong, erect bristles on cubital joints, basal curved, shortest; palpal claw, 7 open comb teeth, increasing in length and strength.
Falces slender, vertical, nearly equal in length to three, terminal joints of palpus; brownish-yellow.
Maxillæ strong, obliquely truncated on superior side, inclined towards lip; yellow - brown. Labium semicircular, everted, about one-third length of maxillæ; dark-brown.
Sternum broad between coxal joints of 3rd pair of legs, tapering to a point between coxæ of 4th; rugosity scale-like; olive-brown, clouded with brown.
Abdomen ovoid, crenate depression on base; integument pale olive-brown, numerous lobate flecks of a paler hue; more than three-fourths of dorsal field covered by an ovate black-brown leaf-like mark, with somewhat acute crenate margins; on posterior half are a series of yellowish-brown spots, terminating above spinners in a large, somewhat elliptical, centrally constricted mark of a similar hue; petiole black, extends to basal notch, few black dots on either side; on lateral margins are a few black flecks; two black streaks curve obliquely backwards from base of petiole; on ventral field are three dark spots, two beneath the branchial opercula, one contiguous to spinners. Vulva represents a transverse oval depression, margin wrinkled; projecting outwards from inferior margin are two dark-brown conical processes, separated from one another by a space equal to their basal diameter.
Port Waikato, A.T.U.
Theridium helvolum, sp. nov. Plate XI., fig. 2.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1.5; broad, 1. Abd., long, 2.5; broad, 1.8. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 10, 7.5, 6, 4.2 mm.
Cephalothorax light-brown, median band and marginal zone wide, two latter and pars cephalica mottled and streaked with dark-brown; pale radial streaks on pars thoracica have a somewhat metallic lustre; clathrate; broad-oval, moderately compressed forwards; caput not very convex, lateral index rather less than space from a hind-lateral eye to the hind-central furthest from it; median fovea somewhat oval, deep; normal grooves, faint; profile contour represents a slight arch across caput, the posterior curve somewhat abrupt and uneven; clypeus directed forwards, height equal to about two-thirds of facial space.
Anterior row of eyes recurved; posterior row moderately procurved, centrals nearly one-third larger than laterals, separated from one another by a space slightly exceeding their diameter, rather more than that interval from lateral eyes next to them and anterior median pair, with which they nearly form a square; fore-centrals placed on a moderate prominence, nearly equal laterals in size, rather further from each other than they are from latter eyes; laterals seated obliquely, close together, on moderate tubercles, have the pearl-grey lustre of hind-median eyes.
Legs moderately long and slender, dark straw - colour, numerous dark-brown spots; genua and annuli at articulation of joints red-mahogany colour; strong black hairs on inferior side of metatarsi and tarsi. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 5 teeth, 3 terminal strong; inferior claw, 2 small teeth.
Palpi slender, about equal to cephalothorax in length, resemble legs in colour; palpal claw similar to tarsal claw, 5 teeth.
Falces conical, vertical, about equal to humeral joint of palpus in length; dark straw-colour, mottled with dark-brown.
Maxillœ more than twice as long as broad, obliquely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is broader than long, nearly semicircular; organs yellowish, olive tinge.
Sternum broad - cordate; dull olive - yellow, spotted and margined with chestnut-brown.
Abdomen oviform, pointed posteriorly; light stone-colour; folium large, not well-defined, shade darker than ground-colour, flecked with black, few red-lake spots, latter numerous on posterior half; longitudinal band, or midrib, creamy-colour; on lateral margins broad bands, with lake-coloured spots, extend from base to the reddish portion of dorsal folium; beneath these bands and on ventral surface the integument is spotted with black.
Vulva, viewed from above, somewhat reniform, projects forwards over the rima genitalis, blackish; red-chestnut, fanshaped mark above; margins on inferior side very tumid, cleft by a broad longitudinal groove, on either side of groove are large circular fovea.
Var. a, nov.
Cephalothorax and legs of a lighter hue than type form; spots and annulations on legs less defined. Abdomen pale stone-colour, folium faintly defined, posterior margins picked out with black-brown, mid-rib and oblique marks creamy colour, yellowish-red spots.
Three specimens were captured on Leptospermum, Port Waikato, A.T.U.
Theridium truncatum, sp. nov. Plate XI., fig. 5.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1.9; broad, 1. Abd., long, 3 broad, 2. Legs, 4, 1, 2, 3 = 6, 5.9, 5, 4.2 mm.
Cephalothorax brown, marginal zone dark-brown; oval, rugulose, moderately compressed forwards; ocular prominence moderate, lateral index rather exceeds space from a fore-lateral eye to the anterior-central furthest from it; thoracic indentation deep, transverse, radial and caput striæ well-marked; profile line slightly arched across pars thoracica, rising a little to posterior row of eyes; clypeus projects a little forwards, sensibly convex, height nearly equals depth of ocular area.
Posterior row of eyes sensibly recurved, median pair three-fourths their diameter from each other, rather more than that interval from fore-centrals, their breadth and a half from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, centrals smallest of eight, separated by their diameter and a half, rather less than that interval from side-eyes next to them; laterals have the pearly lustre of hind-median pair, seated obliquely on rather strong, dark-brown tubercles, one-fourth their diameter apart.
Legs moderately strong; brownish-yellow; armature, erect black hairs, few slender bristles; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 10 comb teeth; inferior claw fine, 2 points.
Palpi slender, shorter than cephalothorax, brownish-yellow, digital joint brown; dark hairs; palpal claw, 6 teeth.
Falces mahogany-brown; vertical, somewhat linear, about one-third longer than clypeus.
Maxillœ long, tapering, slightly rounded on superior side inclined over lip; yellow-brown, greenish tinge. Labium oval, half as long as maxillæ; dark-brown.
Sternum cordate, clathrate, light-brown.
Abdomen oviform, somewhat aplanate above, projects over base of cephalothorax; posterior end dips abruptly to spinners; sparely clothed with rather coarse light hairs; dorsal field light yellow-brown, two broad chocolate-brown sinuate bands—posterior fourth, acutely dentate—extend from base to spinners; ventral surface and lateral margins chocolate-brown; between the dorsal bands and sinuated lateral margins are broad light streaks.
Vulva yellowish; low, conical, almost circular, wrinkled eminence, slightly indented on inferior side. (Possibly an immature specimen.)
Otago, P. Goyen.
Theridium exornatum, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1.5; broad, 1. Abd., long, 3; broad, 2.8. Legs, 1, 2–4, 3 = 9.8, .7, 4 mm.
Cephalothorax light-brown, reddish hue about occiput and clypeus; two median streaks, and marginal zone dark-brown;
somewhat clathrate; oval, compressed forwards; caput rather prominently convex, lateral index nearly equals half breadth of caput; fovea on pars thoracica large, oval; normal grooves fairly marked; profile contour represents a somewhat even arch, posterior dip most abrupt; clypeus directed a little forwards, height nearly equals depth of ocular area.
Eyes about equal in size, four central nearly form a square, posterior side shortest; hind row slightly procurved; median pair encircled by dark rings, separated by their diameter, space between them and side-eyes next to them slightly exceeds latter interval; anterior row recurved, median pair rather further from each other than they are from fore-laterals; side-eyes seated obliquely on dark tubercles, nearly contiguous.
Legs moderately slender, 2–4 about equal in length; light yellow-brown, brown annulations, chiefly at articulation of joints; 1st pair speckled with olive-green; armature darkish hairs, erect bristle on tibiæ; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, well-curved, 7 teeth; inferior claw rather strong, 2 teeth.
Palpi moderately long, yellowish-brown, dark hairs; palpal claw rather weak, 5 teeth.
Falces vertical, nearly equal to femora of 1st pair of legs in thickness; yellow-brown.
Maxillœ long, somewhat linear, rounded on superior side, curve inwards; lip oval, half length of maxillæ; organs yellowish.
Sternum, forepart broad, base attenuated; somewhat areolate; yellow-brown, margins dark.
Abdomen ovoid; yellowish-brown, base and lateral margins flecked with numerous creamy-coloured spots; folium runcinate, deeper hue, margins black, midrib wide, creamy colour, black spot near centre; very sparsely clothed with fine hairs. Vulva glossy brown-black, prominent, projects outwards, nearly circular, superior side concave, margins broad, introflexed, deeply notched in front.
Port Waikato, A.T.U.
Genus Epeira, Walck.
Epeira viridicans, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3.6; broad, 2.6; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 6; broad, 4.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 14, 13, 11.5, 7.3 mm.
Cephalothorax greenish straw-colour, rather faintly mottled with pea-green; hairs sparse, whitish; oval, compressed forwards, rather depressed, equal in length to the femoral joint of a leg of 4th pair; caput roundly truncated, ocular eminence low; lateral index equals space between anterior-lateral eyes;
thoracic fovea somewhat oval, rather deep; caput and radial striæ moderately defined; profile contour rises at an angle of about 30°, slopes moderately forwards across pars cephalica; clypeus in height equals radius of a fore-central eye.
Eyes have a lake-brown tinge, encircled by rings of a similar hue; fore and hind row—somewhat angular—recurved; posterior-centrals separated by an interval nearly equal to their diameter, nearly their space and a-half from hind-laterals; anterior-centrals rather larger and darker than posterior median eyes, interval between them equal to about twice that of the latter pair, rather further from one another than they are from hind-centrals; lateral eyes seated obliquely on separate and moderately prominent tubercles, one-third their diameter apart.
Legs moderately strong; straw-colour, slightly suffused with pea-green; metatarsi and tarsi brownish; armature, light hairs, sparse; spines yellow-brown; moderately numerous, but irregular, on tibiæ and metatarsi of 1st pair, tibial spines less than diameter of article in length; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, inner 9, outer 12 comb teeth; inferior claw 2 small teeth.
Palpi equal in length genual and tibial joints of a leg of 4th pair; straw-colour; hairs sparse, whitish; spines numerous; palpal claw 9 teeth.
Falces clear, pale straw-colour, fangs and teeth lake-brown; conical, vertical, project forwards at base, in thickness about equal to femora of 4th pair; teeth, inner row 3; outer 3 small, 2 large.
Maxillæ rather longer than broad, obliquely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is rather broader than long, somewhat pointed, everted; organs straw-colour.
Sternum pea-green, interrupted yellow median line; few hairs, spine on forepart; cordate; eminences.
Abdomen oviform, sensibly convex above; on basal end, which is pointed, are three moderately-defined impressed spots forming a triangle, whose apex is directed backwards; the four central impressed spots are well marked and form a trapezoid; sparsely clothed with very short, light hairs; yellow, suffused with pea-green; series of fine green lines extend from spinners, which are moderately long, light-brown, to posterior pair of impressed spots; lateral margins deeper green, finely wrinkled; ventral surface yellowish; greenish, yellow-margined, shield-shaped mark extends from spinners to branchial opercula, which are light-brown. Corpus vulvœ semicircular, transversely wrinkled, moderately prominent, centrally depressed, margins tumid; scapus bright, deep, straw-colour, directed backwards, broad, rather more than three times as long as wide, transversely wrinkled, apex calceolate; projecting laterally from about centre of scapus are broad-oval, wing-like, wrinkled processes, extremities brownish, tumid; beneath them, viewed
from front, are rather prominent blackish fovea. The vulva of E. viridicans resembles that of E. verutum, but differs somewhat in the form of the wing-like projections and the deeper and rather conical form of the calceolate apex of the scapus. Taken on furze, single example. Te Karaka, A.T.U.
Epeira mulleola, sp. nov. Plate XI., fig. 6.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 5.5; broad, 4.5; facial index, 2.5. Abd., long, 9.5; broad, 8.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 19, 17, 14.5, 10 mm.
Cephalothorax reddish-brown; hairs yellowish, sparse; nearly equal in length to genual and tibial joints of a leg of 4th pair, depressed, sides rounded, moderately compressed forwards, ocular and mammiform eminences fairly prominent, lateral index nearly equals space between a fore-lateral and the fore-central eye furthest from it; median indentation transverse, radial and caput striæ moderately marked; profile contour represents a low arch, rising slightly at occiput; height of clypeus equal to about two-thirds of depth of facial space.
Fore and hind rows of eges moderately recurved, curvature of posterior nearly equals that of anterior row; posterior-centrals separated by an interval equal to about their diameter and a half, twice their space from hind-laterals; anterior median pair about one-fourth larger than posterior-centrals, rather further from one another than they are from the latter pair, a space which slightly exceeds their diameter; lateral eyes seated obliquely on moderate tubercles, anterior eye rather the largest, more than its radius from posterior eye.
Legs yellow-brown, brownish annulations on tibial, metatarsal, and tarsal joints; femora of 1, 2, 4, lake-brown; 1–2 rather stout; armature, yellowish hairs, short (less than diameter of tibia) yellow spines, base dark; double row of 6 beneath tibiæ and metatarsi; superior tarsal claws-1st pair, 9 teeth; inferior claw, 2 strong close teeth.
Falces yellow-brown; short, conical, vertical, project at base in front, nearly as thick as femoral joint of 1st pair of legs.
Maxillœ about as broad as long, somewhat pointed, inclined towards lip, which is rather broader than long, moderately pointed; organs chocolate-brown, apices light.
Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ; chocolate-brown.
Abdomen broad-oviform, depressed above, tubercles stout, short; anterior pair project outwards; posterior tubercles-transverse row of about equal length, central tubercle much the stoutest; tubercle of second row exceeds former in size; tubercle of third row small; sparsely clothed with pale short hairs; yellow-brown, flecked with dark-brown; folium trifid, creamy-white, covers dorsal field, on median line are two brown marks,
largest elongate, in centre of the four central impressed spots, which are well-defined, form a trapezoid; smallest mark between hind pair of impressed spots; series of oblique, dark-brown bands on lateral margins. On ventral surface is a dark-green, transversely wrinkled, shield-shaped mark; two large creamy spots beneath branchial opercula are prolonged into narrow bands along its lateral margins; two smaller spots of similar hue above spinners. Corpus of vulva cucullate, transversely wrinkled; margins, which are very tumid near scape, encircle chocolate-brown fovea beneath hood; corpus vulvæ centrally produced into a broad-oval scape, about as wide as long, its beaded margins are about one-half the maximum breadth of the corpus margin; yellow amber-coloured vermiform process at apex of scapus rather exceeds it in length.
Whangarei, T. Broun; Te Karaka, A.T.U.
Epeira helveo-guttata, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 4; facial index, 2. Abd., long, 7; broad, 7. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3=15, 14, 12.2, 8 mm.
Cephalothorax light chocolate-brown, caput palest; clothed, chiefly on margins, with yellowish hairs; equal in length to genual and tibial joints of a leg of 4th pair; sides rounded, moderately compressed forwards; caput depressed, lateral index about equal to space between a hind-lateral and hind-central eye next to it; ocular prominence, and mammiform eminences, moderately developed; thoracic indentation somewhat linearoval, transverse; normal grooves not well-marked; clypeus in height equal to two-thirds of depth of eye-area.
Fore and hind row of eyes slightly, and somewhat evenly, recurved; four central eyes nearly form a square, anterior side being rather the widest; fore pair perceptably the largest, separated from one another by their diameter and a quarter, rather less than that interval from posterior-centrals, which are nearly twice their space from hind-laterals; side-eyes placed obliquely on low tubercles, about three-fourths their diameter apart.
Legs moderately stout; femora of 1–2, lake-coloured, of 3–4, colour of cephalothorax, other joints yellow-brown, light-brown annulations; longitudinal grooves on tibial joints rather faint; armature short light hairs; spines yellowish; tibial spines rather less than diameter of article in length; double row of 6 beneath tibiæ of 1–2; beneath metatarsi, outer row 5 spines, inner 6; superior tarsal claws-1st pair, 9 teeth; inferior claw 2 close, even teeth.
Palpi 4.5 mm. in length; armature and colour of legs; palpal claw 7 teeth.
Falces light-brown, vertical, conical, project at base in front, as thick as femora of a leg of 1st pair.
Maxilla nearly as broad as long, pointed, inclined towards labium, which is rather broader than long, pointed, everted; base of organs chocolate-brown, apices pale.
Sternum cordate, moderately broad; brown-black; whitish hairs.
Abdomen oviform, rather depressed above, anterior tubercles, short, conical; first row of posterior tubercles of about equal size, slightly longer than anterior pair; tubercles of second and third rows moderate; ground-colour dark-brown; folium darker, margins undulating, covered with more or less connected lobed flecks of a yellow-brown colour, spotted with lake-brown; on base and in centre of four impressed spots, hind pair deep, are dark-brown marks of irregular form; lateral margins thickly spotted with flecks, similar but smaller than dorsal; olive-brown yellow margined shield-shaped mark on ventral surface; yellow-brown, pyriform marks beneath branchial opercula; spots of similar hue above spinners. Vulva yellow-brown; corpus vulvæ cucullate, lateral margins nearly equal centre in depth, transversely wrinkled; fore-margin beaded, curves within, enclosing two chocolate-brown fovea; corpus vulvæ centrally produced into a somewhat elliptical process, fore-half of margin rather more tumid than margin of hood, and of a dark-brown colour; amber-coloured, vermiform scape at apex of process equals it in length.
Captured in the Tikitapu Bush, near Lake Tarawera, February, 1887, A.T.U.
Epeira tri-tuberculata, sp. nov. Plate XI., fig. 7, 8.
Male.—Ceph. th., long, 2.9; broad, 2. Abd., long, 2.9; broad, 2.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 12, 10, 9, 7 mm.
Cephalothorax olive-brown, shading off to a somewhat flesh-coloured light-brown about caput; two broad bands of a similar hue extend from base of latter to thoracic junction, enclosing a brown linear-oval space; lighter parts clothed with white hairs; pars thoracica nearly circular, median fovea oval, normal grooves slight; pars cephalica prominent in front, transverse indentation near centre.
Four central eyes on a strong eminence, hind pair smallest, separated from each other by about their diameter; fore pair rather more than their breadth apart, about that interval from posterior-centrals; laterals placed obliquely on rather strong tubercles, less than their radius apart.
Legs moderately slender, 2–4 nearly equal in length; pellucid, pale stone-colour, spotted, and more or less annulated with chocolate-brown; armature, fine light hairs, numerous, rather short, erect, black spines; tibia of 2nd pair strong, produced at fore-end, on inner side, into stout, somewhat conical,
tubercles, projecting strong curved spines. Superior tarsal claws-1st pair, 13 comb teeth.
Palpi straw-colour; humeral joint rather exceeds cubital and radial in length; cubital projects two long bristles from apex; radial joint dilated on outer side, furnished with a black bristle; digital joint oval; lamina bulbi hairy, base produced into a stout, dark lake-coloured apophysis; in centre of bulb, on outer side, is a stout, long, blackish apophysis, directed downwards, curving backwards, concave on superior side; bulb terminates with three membranous projections, apices of two upper processes spine-like, outer spine strongest; inferior process directed down-wards.
Abdomen resembles female's; depressed above, base rounded, tapers moderately to spinners; anterior tubercular eminences, prominent, pointed, project somewhat upwards and outwards; integument rich mahogany-brown, moderately clothed with orange, white, and somewhat bristle-like erect black hairs; fore tubercles connected by a whitish, slightly undulating band; directed backwards from centre of band are two short oblique bars, of similar hue; on fore part of a broad, dark-brown, longitudinal band on base of abdomen, are two whitish spots; folium tapers from fore pair to posterior tubercle, dark mahogany-brown, white acute-crenate margins.
This species appears to be rare; the female was described in “Trans. N.Z. Inst.” vol. xix., p. 78.
Te Karaka, A.T.U.
F [ unclear: ] peira orientalis.
All the specimens examined when describing this species (” Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., p. 79,) proved to be immature; in mature examples a black, somewhat oval, rather pointed, deep margined lip, about half as broad as long, one-fourth longer than breadth of vulva, projects backwards from beneath the semipendulous process of the corpus vulvæ.
Genus Marpissa, C. Koch.
Marpissa leucophæum, sp. nov. Plate XI., fig. 10, 11.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3.3; broad, 2.9. Abd., long, 4; broad, 2.1. Legs, 1–4, 2, 3=5.5, 5, 4.8 mm.
Cephalothorax yellow-mahogany, dark-brown spots contiguous to four lateral eyes; sparse patches of light-yellow hairs on median line and marginal zone, strong fringe across frontal margin; pars thoracica moderately dilated, one-third longer than pars cephalica, latter aplanate, limited posteriorly by a somewhat oval fovea; profile line rises with a slight arch from
thoracic junction, slopes slightly forwards from second row of eyes; height of clypeus less than radius of an anterior lateral eye.
Anterior row of eyes slightly recurved, laterals are about their radius from centrals, which are rather closer to one another, and much the largest; posterior pair are slightly further apart and perceptibly larger than fore-laterals, are placed on dark-brown tubercular eminences; eye-area rather less than one-fourth broader than long.
Legs, first pair rather stout, yellowish, tinged with reddish-brown; hind pairs deep straw-colour; armature sparse light hairs, black spines, short and curved on femoral joints; femora of 1st dilated and compressed; genua and tibiæ cylindrical, rather shorter than cephalothorax, latter articles rather the longest; metatarsi and tarsi shorter and much slighter than former articles; 1 spine on inner and under side of genua; beneath tibiæ 3–4; metatarsi 2–2; spines on tibial and metatarsal joints of 2, 3–4 fewer and less regular; tarsal claws—1st pair, outer 1 strong tooth; inner claw, about 14 close fine teeth; claw-tuft strong; hairs linear, longer than claws.
Palpi straw-colour; whitish hairs.
Falces sensibly directed forwards, rather longer than three terminal joints of palpus, stouter than femora of 1st pair, transversely rugose; dark lake-chocolate colour.
Maxillæ dilated at extremity, rounded; labiu oval, apex truncated, furnished with coarse hairs; organs brownish.
Sternum oval, nearly twice as long as broad; coxæ longer than broad; coxal joints of 1st pair strongest, about breadth of lip apart; yellowish.
Abdomen elongated, pointed at spinners, moderately convex above; hairs sparse, pale-yellowish; pale fulvous; dorsal mark linear-ovate, cinereous, enclosing a series of fulvous oblique bars.Vulva yellowish red-chestnut; somewhat oval; two deep, circular fovea, divided by a longitudinal septum; posterior margins tumid, with an apparently natural depression, black spot in centre.
Male.—Ceph. th., long, 3.3; broad, 2.9. Abd., long, 4; broad, 2.1. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 7.8, 7, 6.5, 6 mm.
Cephalothorax does not differ essentially in form or colour from female's.
Legs differ from female's in their actual and relative lengths, but not in colour, or spine-armature.
Palpi yellowish; hairs sparse; humeral joint nearly equals three terminal articles in length, projects a short curved spine, near its articulation with cubital joint, which is rather strong, broadest at fore-end, projects a fine bristle; radial joint less than half length of cubital, produced on outer side into a rather short, pointed, black apophysis; clava oval; lamina bulbi
moderately hairy; basal ⅔ of bulb convex, yellowish, fore-third depressed, concave, pointed, reddish colour.
Abdomen in form, colouration, and pattern resembles female. Port Waikato, A.T.U.
Marpissa arenaria, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2; broad, 1.—Abd., long, 2.8; broad, 1.5.—Legs, 4, 1, 2, 3.
Cephalothorax light olive-brown, two brown median streaks terminate at black spots, in line with second row of eyes; margins of pars cephalica fairly clothed with adpressed white hairs, few erect black; from median indentation two bands of white hairs curve obliquely across pars thoracica to marginal zone, which is furnished with similar hairs; sides moderately dilated, caput aplanate; profile line rises rather abruptly from thoracic junction, slight slope across occiput; clypeus furnished with rather strong white hairs, directed towards each other; slopes sensibly inwards, height less than radius of a fore-central eye.
Anterior row of eyes sensibly recurved; irides pale-yellow hairs; eyes nearly equidistant, space between a central and lateral nearly equal to diameter of latter; posterior eyes not on eminences; eye-area one-fourth broader than long.
Legs clear brownish straw-colour; sparse white hairs, few erect black bristles; legs moderately long and strong, do not differ greatly in length or strength; genual and tibial joints about equal in length; curved spines on femora; tibial and metatarsal spines of 1–2, 3–3, 2–2; few spines on 3–4; tarsal claws—1st pair, inner claw, 9 short even teeth, 1 strong terminal tooth; outer claw, 2 moderately stout teeth.
Palpi resemble legs in colour, sparse white hairs.
Falces short, stout, directed somewhat inwards; straw-colour.
Maxillæ strong, rounded and dilated at extremity; labium oval, less than one-half length of maxillæ; organs yellowish.
Sternum oval, yellowish.
Abdomen elongate-oviform, somewhat depressed above, projects moderately over cephalothorax; rather sparsely clothed with light-yellow and white hairs; light olive-brown, a dark-brown linear-lanceolate mark, enclosing a pale streak, furnished with white hairs, extends the length of dorsal line; this mark is bordered by a wide band of close white hairs; lateral margins somewhat clouded with brown; ventral surface paler than dorsal; spinners moderately long, yellow-brown. Vulva somewhat reniform, moderately concave, margins dark - brown, centrally produced on superior side into a long, vermiform process, directed backwards; margins incurved on inferior side.
I am indebted to R. Glasson, Esq., for this example, which was captured on the sand-hills at Port Waikato.
Marpissa ari-hirta, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2; broad, 1.6. Abd., long, 2.5; broad, 1.3. Legs, 1–4, 2, 3 = 4.8, 4, 3.8 mm.
Cephalothorax blackish-mahogany colour; sparsely clothed with black and lanceolate copper-coloured hairs; rugulose; sides moderately dilated; pars cephalica aplanate, sides rather abrupt, projects over falces, limited posteriorly by a somewhat triangular indentation; pars thoracica one-third longer than caput; profile contour between a posterior eye and thoracic junction represents an obtuse angle, hind slope of which forms an angle of 60°, caput slopes sensibly forwards; clypeus very narrow.
Ocular area nearly one-third broader than long; anterior row of eyes sensibly recurved, separated from one another by a space equal to the radius of a lateral eye; irides sparse, golden-orange hairs; posterior eyes, not on eminences, slightly exceed anterior laterals in size.
Legs moderately stout; 1st rather exceed 2nd in length and strength; mahogany-colour, suffused with brown, metatarsi and tarsi lake tinge; 2nd pair duller hue; 3–4 yellow-brown, well-defined brown annulations; armature, moderately long, black and pale-yellow hairs; 4 spines on femoral joints; fine bristle on genual; beneath tibiæ of 1–2, 3–4; metatarsi 2–2, strong spines equal article in length; tibiæ of 3–4, 4 beneath; metatarsi have, besides circle, a single spine on inner side; outer claw, 1st pair, 1 strong tooth near base; inner claw, about 12 close fine teeth, 1 strong terminal tooth; claw-tuft linear hairs.
Palpi yellow-brown, suffused with dark-brown; white hairs, coarse black; cubital joint slightly exceeds radial in length.
Falces red-mahogany; somewhat oval, nearly as broad as long, inclined forwards; transversely rugose.
Maxillæ brownish-orange, base dark; about twice as long as broad, dilated at extremity, which is rounded, more prominent on inner side. Labium dark-brown, light apex; conical, apex concave, less than half length of maxillæ.
Sternum oval; black-brown, few fine hairs.
Abdomen linear-oviform, somewhat aplanate above; black-brown; moderately clothed with coarse black and coppery-yellow hairs; not well-defined, somewhat angular, bare patches on dorsal line; superior and central pair of spinners straw-colour, inferior pair brown-black. Ventral surface brown-black, four converging, longitudinal, yellowish streaks. Vulva represents a glossy, reddish-brown, transversely rugulose, moderate eminence, in centre of which is a large circular depression, on posterior half are two oval fovea, margins prominent, divided by a broad, curved septum, somewhat attenuated posteriorly.
Te Karaka, A.T.U.
Attus bimaculosus. Plate XI., fig. 9.
The female was described in vol. xix., “Trans. N.Z. Inst.” Owing to the description of the vulva having been inaccurate, a drawing of that organ, taken from a fresh example, captured on the summit of Ngongotaha, Rotorua, is given on Plate XI. Corpus vulvæ centrally, produced into a tapering pendulous process; the concavity is only moderately depressed, of a yellowish colour; on the face is a light-brown, beaded, involute mark.
|Fig. 1.||Linyphia rufocephala, sp. nov., vulva of female; a, inner view of male's palpus; b, outer.|
|Fig. 2.||Linyphia lagenifera, sp. nov., female.|
|Fig. 3.||Theridium nigrofolium, sp. nov., female.|
|Fig. 4.||Theridium helveolum, sp. nov., vulva.|
|Fig. 5.||Theridium truncatum, sp. nov., female, four times natural size.|
|Fig. 6.||Epeira mulleola, sp. nov.|
|Fig. 7.||Epeira tri-tuberculata, sp. nov., male.|
|Fig. 8.||Epeira tri-tuberculata, palpus.|
|Fig. 9.||Attus bimaculosus, vulva.|
|Fig. 10.||Marpissa leucophæum, sp. nov., falces, maxillæ, and labium of female.|
|Fig. 11.||Marpissa leucophæum, palpus of male.|