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Volume 20, 1887
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Art. XXVII.—On new Phœnogamic Plants of New Zealand.*

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 12th September, 1887.]

Class I.—Dicotyledons.
Order I.—Ranunculaceæ.

Genus 3. Ranunculus, Linn.

1. R. reticulatus, sp. nov.

Plant a dwarf tufted perennial, 2–3 inches high. Root-stock thick, 1 inch long, ½ inch diameter, composed of many old and loose coalescent petioles; roots several, long, stout, spreading. Leaves few, all radical, erect, spreading, thickish, light-yellowish-brown or tawny-yellow and glabrous on the upper surface, yellow beneath with long silky scattered white hairs, orbicular-reniform, 1 ¼–1 ½ inches broad, 8–9 lines long, petiolate, basal sinus very large, 3-parted; segments flabelliform, spreading, cut to base, ¾-1 inch wide at top, very narrow (sub 1 line) at base; sinuses very large and open; each segment sub 3–4-lobed; lobes deeply cut (⅓), outer margins coarsely crenate-serrate; teeth very obtuse; veins yellowish-brown, sunk, obscure, rather distant, anastomosing; veinlets dark-brown, numerous, largely reticulate, compoundly anastomosing throughout the whole leaf, extending into the smallest teeth. Petioles 1–1 ¼ inches long, stoutish, channelled above, coarsely striate, very hairy; hairs long, white, patent; largely dilated at base into a kind of loosely sheathing glabrous stipule, auricled upwards, margins very membranous.

Hab. Sides of Mount Ngaruahoe, “altitude 3,000 feet,” County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill (“apparently scarce”).

Obs. I. A peculiar (and, as far as I know, a unique) species, differing widely from all its congeners; perhaps its nearest ally is R. pinguis, Hook, f., which is said in “Handbook Flora N.Z.” to have “veins reticulated;” (though such is not stated in the very long and minute description of that species given in “Flora Antarctica,” vol. 1., p. 3; neither is any such character shown in the large plate containing several specimens of that plant with dissections in the accompanying drawing in that work;) but this plant is also widely different from R. pinguis in several other characters. Its main veins are irregular with copious areolæ between them with free clavate veinlets, somewhat like what obtains in the venation of Polypodium billardieri.

[Footnote] * Mounted specimens of the plants herein described were exhibited at the meeting.

[Footnote] † The numbers attached to the orders and genera in this paper are those of them in the “Handbook, Flora of New Zealand.”

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II. Of this plant I have received three entire specimens, in leaf only, but evidently mature and old from their thick root-stocks; one (the largest) has 3, one 4, and one (the smallest plant) 6 leaves; the plants are pretty nearly alike. Unfortunately I have not seen any flowers or fruit, nor any old vestiges of the same; but the peculiar shaped and striking reticulated leaves have induced me to describe it and make it known.

Oreer IV.—Violarieæ.

Genus 2. Melicytus, Forst.

1. M. microphyllus, sp. nov.

Female.—Free, small, and slender, much like the male plant described,* trunk bare, erect, once forked at 6 feet from the ground; young branchlets very long and slender, almost filiform, dark purple, finely puberulous. Leaves few and scattered, as in male plant, but smaller, usually 2–3 (rarely 4) lines long, base sub-truncate; petioles 1–1 ½ lines long. Flowers rather numerous, scattered, small, scarcely 1 line diameter, axillary and lateral, solitary, sometimes 2 (very rarely 3) together; peduncles short, about 1 line long, puberulous and bibracteate; bracts deltoid, brown, scarious, laciniate, with several similar stipellæ at base. Calyx persistent, dark purple, thickish; lobes 5, broadly oblong, with produced membranous brown laciniate-fringed tips; petals 5, sub-orbicular-oblong, white, with a delicate greenish tinge, sometimes purple-streaked, margins thickened and incurved, tips finely laciniate - ciliate, recurved; anthers 5, sessile, small, alternate with petals, sub-orbicular, with 2 minute erect horns at tip of connective, and a fleshy scale at back; style short, thick; stigma large, depressed, spreading, somewhat irregular, papillose or sub-rugulose, usually with 3 acute angles, their tips brown and incurved; ovary large, oblong, sub-cylindrical. Berry 2 ½ lines long, 1 ½ lines broad, oblong-ovoid, obtuse, dark-purple, smooth, a little fleshy; stigma and calyx persistent. Seeds 2, ovoid, 1 ½ lines long, largely gibbous on one side, the other flat, glossy, purple-spotted, one edge raised and thickened, tip a little incurved, sub-acute.

Hab. On the banks of a small stream in a forest south of Danneverke, County of Waipawa; February, 1887: W.C. (But only one tree seen; bearing ripe fruit, in May.)

Obs. The discovery of this plant pleased me much, as it served to confirm the validity of the species. In my description of the male plant (in vol. xix.), I had mentioned it being very near to M. micranthus, Hook, f., though with larger flowers and smaller leaves, etc.; the female plant, however, differs more largely and materially, particularly in the peculiar shape of its

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., p. 260.

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stigma, and in its much larger and differently shaped berry. I was too early for mature fruit in February, for while there were plenty of flowers, only a very few young berries were detected. Ripe fruit, however, were obtained early in May from the same tree; which, though adhering firmly, and not beginning to shrivel, were but few in number, and much scattered; only in one instance did I detect two growing together.

Order XXVII.—Halorageæ.

Genus 4. Callitriche, Linn.

1. C. microphylla, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, tender, delicate, light-green. Stems very slender, 6–12 inches long, branched, rooting at nodes. Leaves opposite rhomboidal, ½–1 ½ lines long, usually broader than long, obtuse with a slight point, the larger and upper leaves with a single tooth at lateral angle (sub-ivy-leaf-shaped); veins 3–5 (tri-sub-quintupli-nerved), but returning circularly to midrib and not running to tip; petioles length of leaves. Flowers: Male and female together in axil, solitary; peduncle very short, bracts O. Male: stamen short, much shorter than fruit; anther minute, sub-trilobed, brown, Female: style short; stigmas 2, short, obtuse. Fruit rather large, light-brown, obcordate, emarginate, sinus deep, base truncate, double-winged all round margins; wings crisped, shining, very membranous, whitish; style persistent; seeds narrow, oblong, turgid.

Hab. On the ground in forests, forming thickish beds; and also in watercourses, in open lands near Danneverke, County of Waipawa; 1887: W.C.

Obs. I. This plant appears to be very distinct from the known published New Zealand species of this very small genus, (C. verna, Linn., and C. verna, β, Linn., or C. stagnalis, Scopoli,) also from those other British and European species, C. pedunculata, and C. autumnalis, which, with one other North American species, C. terrestris, compose the genus. From Sir J. D. Hooker's remarks on C. verna and its varieties, as severally and exhaustively given by him in his “Botany, Antarctic Voyage,”* this plant, as a species, seems to be wholly separate. I know it is from C. verna and its var. β, as found here in New Zealand, as I myself had early collected and sent specimens of those plants to Kew.

II. All the described species and varieties of Callitriche have their two stigmas very long acuminate and acute, without a

[Footnote] * Vol. 1., p. 11; vol. 11., p. 272; vol. 111., p. 64; and vol. v., p. 124.

[Footnote] † “Half-inch long and upwards;” teste Hooker, 1.c., vol. 1., p. 12.

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style, and the stamen much longer;* but in this plant the opposite is the case, besides its minute, very peculiar, and angled upper leaves, with their different venation.

III. I may further observe that the finer specimens of this plant I found growing on the land in the woods, and not in watery places or in water; and when found in water the tips of the upper branches did not possess that crowded sub-rosulate appearance which is so common with C. verna.

Order. XXXIII.—Umbelliferæ.

Genus 1. Hydrocotyle, Linn.

1. H. echinella, sp. nov.

Plant rather small, 5–6 inches long, procumbent, straggling, weak, branched; stems (and peduncles) compressed flat; the whole plant hairy; hairs on stems curved, hyaline, sub-jointed: on leaves, strigose, thick, white. Leaves few, distant, scattered, orbicular, ½ inch diameter, with a large spreading basal sinus, sub-membranaceous, dark-green, 4–6-parted; nerves 6, segments broadly obovate-cuneate, cut half-way to base, their sinuses open, rounded, margined; each segment sub-3-lobed; lobes 3–4-toothed; teeth acute, mucronulate. Petioles 1–1¼ inches, slender, filiform, flexuous. Stipules small, sub-orbicular, membranous, nerved, laciniate-toothed; teeth erect, acute, and mucronate. Peduncles very much longer than leaves, very slender, flexuous, weak, 3 inches long; pedicels sub-20, 1 ½ lines long, slender, patent. Involucral leaves many, small, narrow lanceolate, mucronate. Fruit small, orbicular, sub ½ line diameter, turgid, slightly cordate at base, brownish, densely echinate; carpels with one prominent rib on each face, their back-edge obtuse and partly concealed with the echinate hairs; styles long, divergent.

Hab. Among herbage, woody glen, base of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. I. This little species differs considerably from all its known New Zealand congeners (and from all others known to me); the great length of its filiform peduncles and their being (together with the stems) compressed flat, and its densely echinated fruit, are peculiar and conspicuous characters, as also its leaves and stipules, in their many sharply acute mucronate teeth, and the margined sinuses of the leaves.

II. Unfortunately I have had but one imperfect specimen without flowers, and that not in very good condition, to examine; and I should not care to describe the plant were it not for its striking characters.

[Footnote] * “Stigmas 2, long, filiform;” i.c., vol. iii., p. 64.

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Order XXXIV.—Araliaceæ.

Genus 2. Panax, Linn.

1. P. integrifolia, sp. nov.

A small glabrous straggling shrub. 5–6 feet high, with a close rounded top. Branches (specimens) straight, stoutish, 4–5 inches long, scarred below, much branched and bushy at top; branchlets small and slender, close, bark black. Leaves very numerous, crowded, oblong-lanceolate and narrow obovate-lanceolate, tapering, ¾–1 ½ inches long, but usually about 1 inch or less, jointed, petiolate, tips sub-acute, recurved, mucronulate, thickened; sub-membranaceous inclining to coriaceous, green, paler and longitudinally wrinkled on lower surface, glabrous but not glossy, midrib and veins obscure, margins entire, sometimes (but rarely) a leaf is slightly serrulate with 1–2 very small teeth near apex, a few leaves bifoliolate and also trifoliolate, and when so the leaflets are sessile, divergent, and entire; petioles slender, mostly ½–¾ inch, longer when the leaf is compound. Stipules O, but small subulate acute stipellæ at bases. Umbels simple, terminal and axillary, on erect peduncles 1 inch long, about 14-flowered; rays ¼ inch, patent, bibracteolate about middle; bracteoles deltoid, scarious, very small; 2 bracts at base thick, obtuse; involucral leaves very small sub-linear. Fruit sub-orbicular, broader than long, 2 lines diameter, compressed, dark olive, glossy, coriaceous, sunk and corrugated transversely between carpels; calycine teeth stoutish, acute, recurved; styles 2, recurved, divergent.

Hab. Base of Mount Ruapehu, County of East Taupo; “altitude 5,400 feet;” 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. I have received several specimens of this plant, but all past flowering. It does not appear to be closely allied to any of our New Zealand (and South Pacific) species; perhaps it approaches more nearly in a general way to P. simplex, Forst., and to P. sinclairii, Hook. f.

Order XXXVIII.—Rubiaceæ.

Genus 3. Galium, Linn.

1. G. triloba, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, light green. Stems many, 2–3 feet (or more) long, slender, weak, scaberulous, channelled, tetragonous, angles sharp or slightly sub-winged. Leaves few and scattered, distant in whorls of 4 on the main stem (sometimes 3, and on ultimate branches only 2, and very small), linear-lanceolate, ½ inch long, 3-nerved, scaberulous on margins and midrib, tips acute and obtuse. Flowers very minute, in long open lax axillary panicles, 3–6 inches long, bearing filiform sub-panicles

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(or peduncles) 1–2 inches long, of 3 (rarely 4) fasciculated pedicels, each sub ½ inch long, with two small opposite bract-like leaves at their base; corolla cream-coloured, trilobed; lobes broadly-ovate or deltoid-rotund; tips sub-acute, their upper margins slightly fringed tubercular, with a strong central nerve, and a coloured intra-marginal nerve-like line. Fruit sub-globose, minutely papillose (sub lente), dark-coloured, nearly black.

Hab. Edges of streamlets in dense shaded woods near Danneverke, County of Waipawa; 1887: W. C.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Obs. This species is rather peculiar from its very small trilobed corolla with tuberculate margins, and its thickly entangled habit of growth, forming thick beds. It may, however, prove to be a southern variety of A. Cunningham's northern New Zealand species, G. tenuicaule; of which only an imperfect description (omitting its flowers) is given by him in his “Prodromus;” while Hooker f., in his “Handbook,” merely says in addition, of the corolla of that species: “Flowers white, 1/12th inch diameter.”

Order XXXIX.—Compositæ.

Genus 1. Olearia, Mœuch.

1. O. xanthophylla, sp. nov.

A small, low, diffuse, much-branched shrub, “1 foot 6 inches high;” branchlets erect, 2–4 inches long, simple, rather slender, glabrous, yellow (as are the leaves beneath) with dry gummy exudation. Leaves numerous, small, closely imbricated and adpressed, somewhat sub-decussately arranged, obovate-spathulate, 3 lines long, 1 ½ lines broad at widest, obtuse, coriaceous, entire, glabrous with a few weak woolly hairs at tips; brownish on the upper surface, bright yellow (almost orange) on the lower and covered with a thick yellow scurf or gum very closely adhering, corrugated, the midrib stout; margined, the margin thick, dark-brown with a shining gummy appearance; petioles thick, dilated and rugulose at base. Flowers terminal at tips of branches, in thick globular compact corymbs, ½–¾ inch diameter; heads small, obconical, 2 lines diameter, containing about 9 florets; peduncles 2 lines long, grooved, bi-bracteolate; bracteoles opposite, small, ovate, acute, spreading, woolly (as also pedicels); pedicels ½ line long with 1 small bracteole at base of head; the outer involucral scales imbricate in 2 rows (inner row longest), pale yellowish-brown, sub-scarious, loosely silky, edges very membranous, tips obtuse and irregularly cut; the inner scales, tips pure white, much laciniate, recurved, their lateral margins serrulate, slightly and loosely woolly, base bifid. Pappus few, white, short, equal, a very little longer than florets, thickened and dilated at tips. Achene small, sub-cylindrical, slightly grooved, dilated at base, glabrous.

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Hab. High plains, Waimarino, west side of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

2. O. hillii, sp. nov.

A small stout erect glabrous bushy shrub, “12–18 inches high”,; branches thick, many, the upper portions very leafy, the lower scarred; branchlets dark-coloured, grooved, shining, gummy. Leaves small, numerous, close, sub-adpressed and sub-imbricate, elliptic, elliptic-orbicular and obovate, 1 ½–3 lines long, entire, petiolate; tips rounded with a few loose scattered woolly, hairs, also about margins; the upper surface brown, reticulated and glossy; the lower pale primrose-colour, with dry gummy scurf, mid-rib very dark-coloured; margins thickened and recurved; petioles dark-coloured, channelled, shining, sub-½ Hue long, those of obovate leaves tapering, those of elliptic, etc., suddenly formed. Flowers sub-terminal in single axillary heads; peduncle slender, ½ line long; heads campanulate, sub-½ inch long, 3–4 lines broad, each containing about 7 florets; involucral scales in 4 rows, glabrous, shining, tipped and margined with dry gummy exudation; the inner longest, narrow, linear-lanceolate, 1-nerved, sub-acute; the outer broader and sub-ovate; margins and tips slightly hairy and ciliate. Pappus reddish-brown, long, spreading, equal, very slender below; tips thickened and much serrulate, somewhat bushy. Achene long, slender, sub-cylindrical, irregularly uneven, dark-brown with black nerves, glabrous, with a very few scattered white hairs near base, and sometimes forming a single broken longitudinal line.

Hab. High plains, Waimarino, west side of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

3. O. rigida, sp. nov.

Shrub, “2 feet high,” diffuse with a rounded dome-like top; branches (specimens) 3–5inches long, very stout (as thick as a common-size lead pencil), rigid, densely clothed with closely-adpressed greyish wool. Leaves numerous, opposite, very thick and rigid, almost sub-woody, regularly elliptic, usually about 1 inch long, sometimes on same branchlet only ½ or ¼ inch, often concave, abruptly joined to petiole, not narrowed or tapering, tips recurved; glabrous, glossy, reticulated and rugulose, dark-olive and greenish-brown on the upper surface; densely pilose on the lower with short closely-adpressed light-reddish-grey hairs; margins entire and much thickened, narrowly and regularly woolly on the upper rim; petioles long, 3–7 lines, varying, with the sizes of leaves, stout, channelled, and densely pilose, their bases very thick, dilated, clasping. Flowers terminal, corymbose at tips of branches; corymb subrotund, 1–1 ½ inches diameter, rather loosely branched in sub-panicles of 3 heads, the base closely surrounded with

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leaves; heads small, turbinate, spreading, 3 lines diameter, containing sub 20 florets; pedicels 2 lines long, very, stout, woolly with a small bracteole; wool faint dingy yellowish-white with a tinge of red. Involucral scales in sub 2 series of 8 spreading scales, alike, very thick, rigid, oblong, very obtuse, concave deeply grooved, densely woolly without, glabrous within, tips and margins incurved. Pappus white, very short (length of achene), unequal, wavy, irregular, scabrous throughout and not thickened at tips. Achene rather long, 1 ½ lines, slender, linear, curved, grooved, glabrous, striate, brown.

Hab. High plains, Waimarino, west side of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Genus 13. Raoulia, Hook. fil.

1. R. albo-sericea, sp. nov.

Plant perennial, small, prostrate, 8–10 inches long, spreading stems slender, leafy, woody, reddish-brown, rooting; roots very long and fibrous; much and irregularly branched; branchlets sub-ascending, 1–3 inches high, glabrous. Leaves numerous, close, not imbricate save at tips, opposite, sub-decussately arranged, close and ascending above on branchlets, distant and patent below, linear-spathulate or rotund, 1 ½–2 lines long including petiole, lamina spreading and folded (conduplicate), tips largely rounded, 1 line broad, pure white, silky, the glossy hairs closely adpressed, more so on the outside than on the inside (upper surface), where they only form a small semicircular spot at tip; petioles as long as lamina, adpressed, linear, very broad, glabrous, brown, 3-nerved, nerves dark. amplexicaul, their bases overlapping. Heads (few seen) single, terminal on lateral branchlets, small, half-concealed among the leaves. Involucral scales in 2 (sub 3) rows, glabrous, glossy, brownish, 1-nerved, lateral margins hyaline, largely dilated; the outer linear, tips much and deeply laciniate; the inner linear-spathulate, tips retuse and emarginate, slightly crenulately notched, recurved, florets few, sub 6–8. Pappus very few (sub 8 to achene), white, slender, upper part scaberulous, the lower slightly and distantly so, tips acute. Achene glabrous, minutely striate, olive-coloured, slightly tapering and angular, base a little produced and pointed.

Hab. On the dry lower slopes of Mount Ngaruahoe (Tongariro Range), “altitude 5,300 feet,” County of East Taupo; 1887: Messrs. Hill and Owen.

Obs. I. This interesting little species belongs to Hooker's 1st subsection,* and is pretty closely allied to two of his species there described—R. australis and R. munroi (but with more of the habit of a third species, R. tenuicaulis); it differs, however,

[Footnote] * “Handbook New Zealand Flora,” p. 148.

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from them in habit and in dimensions, in the shape, size, colour, and silkiness of its leaves and involucral scales, and especially in the fewness of its pappus hairs.

II. Only three heads of florets were found on several specimens that were collected, and these were much advanced, with the florets of the one dissected gnawed by insects; the other parts of the head, however, were perfect.

Order XL.—Stylidieæ.

Genus 1. Forstera, Linn.

1. F. truncatella, sp. nov.

Plant small, herbaceous; stem stout, erect, simple, 2 ½–4 inches long, red, succulent, ½–1 ½ inches of the basal portion bare of leaves and scarred, with many simple fibrous rootlets, the upper portion leafy. Leaves light-green, close-set, imbricating, sessile, 3 semi-amplexicaul, 3 lines long, obovate-oblong, thickish, obsoletely veined (seen when held up between eye and light), margins narrowly cartilaginous, a circular green pore at tip within margin upper surface, which becomes dark-brown in age. Scape 2 inches long, filiform, red, erect, 1–2-flowered; bracts, on 2-flowered specimens, 6–7, on 1-flowered specimens, 4–5, linear, truncate, 1-nerved, nerve strong, simple; tips ciliate. Calyx large, 4–5 lines long, 6-lobed; lobes oblong, suddenly acuminate, tips truncate, strongly nerved, nerve branched, branches diagonal, short, straight; margins glandular-ciliate. Corolla ½ inch diameter, membranaceous, slightly waved, much veined; veins flexuous and branched; tube short; lamina 6-lobed, cut nearly to base; lobes oblong somewhat broader near apex, spreading, the upper half white, the lower reddish; tips rounded, sub-retuse; margins uneven, tubercular-ciliate. Style erect, divided at base; anthers and stigma exserted.

Hab. Banks of a small mountain stream on the west side of Mount Ngaruahoe; “altitude 5,200 feet;” County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. I. A species allied to those three New Zealand species already described, (“Flora New Zealand,”) but differing from them all in several particulars; especially in its larger membranaceous flowers with glandular and tuberculate-ciliate margins to both corolla and calyx, which are also much veined, and in the tips of the calycine lobes, and of the bracts, being much truncate.

II. I have received but a few perfect specimens in flower of this interesting little plant, and as I have only dissected one flower (taken from a 2-flowered scape), my description is not so complete as I could wish it to be; it is, however, quite correct as far as it goes: there were just as many 2-flowered as 1-flowered scapes in the lot.

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Genus 4. Oreostylidium, Berggren.*

1. O. affine, sp. nov.

Plant very small, short, cæspitose, densely tufted, 1–1 ¼ inches high, erect; stem 0; roots long, fibrous, from bases of leaves. Leaves radical ¾-inch long, ½ line wide, rather thickish, linear-subulate with a slender mucro, concave on one side, dilated at base, glabrous, margins entire, green, yellowish and sub-rigid in age. Scape slender, erect, ½ inch high, with a broad foliaceous bract about the middle, glandular-hairy (as also the calyx and ovary), hairs tipped with globular black heads. Flower single, at top of scape; calyx erect, stout, very broad (nearly as broad as ovary), margin irregularly lobed; lobes? 6. Corolla, etc., not seen. Ovary large (for plant), 1 ½ lines long, oblong, sub-cylindrical, tapering and jointed on to scape.

Hab. In swampy ground at west base of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. I. This plant resembles Oreostylidium subulatum, Berggren, as carefully drawn by him; (which is also the “Stylidium? subulatum, n. sp.,” of Hook. f., as given by him with doubt, from his imperfect specimens, in the “Handbook N.Z. Flora,” p. 168;) and it would be by me referred to that species were it not for its differential characters-viz., its long and bracteated scape, its broader calyx, with, probably, the larger number of its lobes, its differently-shaped ovary, and its mucronate leaves; none of which characters are given or mentioned by either Hooker or Berggren-in fact, they both give the opposite; and this plant has, also, no long proliferous runners as is shown in Berggren's figure. Unfortunately, the few fruiting specimens I have (three together) were all defective in the margins of their calyces, as if gnawed by some insect, and there was a similar large hole in one of their ovaries, and no corollas; the other parts of the plants were perfect.

II. Curiously enough, Berggren gives “locis uliginosis ad montem Ruapehu,” as one of the places in New Zealand (and the only one in the North Island), where he had detected his little plant; and this place is very near the locality where Mr. Hill found his specimens.

[Footnote] * Oreostylidium, gen. nov., Berggren. Of this he says: “A stylidio differt hoc genus corollæ laciniis conformibus, columna brevi erecta, stigmate latiore, capsula indehiscente.” Stylidium, proper, is a very large Australian genus, containing nearly 100 species.

[Footnote] † In his carefully-executed work on some of our New Zealand plants, and mostly species novœ discovered by himself-which, unfortunately for me (for us?) is written mainly in the Swedish language-entitled, “Nagra nya,” etc. And in mentioning this work here, I must not omit to thank Dr. Berggren for it, and particularly for its most elaborately and exhaustively prepared and beautifully executed plates of plants with their dissections.

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Order XLII.—Ericeæ.

Genus 1. Gaultheria, Linn.

1. G. divergens, sp. nov.

Shrub “2 feet 6 inches high,” erect, much branched; branches 6–8 inches long, slender; branchlets finely and sparsely pubescent, with scattered long rigid stout adpressed sub-spinous hairs, glabrous and shining; extending, also, on midrib of leaves below; the young branchlets with scattered long simple linear adpressed leaf-like bracteoles, which are fugacious. Leaves alternate, numerous, sub-erect, flat, oblong and broadly lanceolate, usually 8–9 lines long, sometimes (but rarely) only 3–4 lines, coriaceous, largely reticulated on both sides, the upper surface sub-rugulose, varnished, glossy, reddish-brown; margins thickened, finely serrate-mucronate; petioles short, stout, pilose, 1 line long. Flowers in simple terminal and sub-terminal loose axillary racemes, 2 inches long, distant, spreading; peduncles and pedicels pilose; pedicels slender, curved, 3 lines long, bibracteate as well as having bracts at their bases. Calyx much corrugated at base; lobes large spreading, cut nearly to base, narrow ovate-acuminate very acute, sub-membranaceous, 3-nerved, margins entire. Corolla not seen, past flowering. Capsule small, dry, erect (not depressed), sub-poculiform, 5-angled; style dark-red, long, stout, erect, 1 line long, persistent, minutely puberulent near tip; stigma depressed, slightly capitate.

Hab. On the slopes of Mount Tongariro, west side, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. A species allied to G. rupestris, Br., (of which I have two large drawings with dissections,*) but differing widely in its margined leaves, in its long and pilose bibracteate pedicels, in its long narrow free-spreading and entire calycine lobes, and in its fruit not being depressed but erect like a small gun-cap.

Genus 4. Leucopogon, Br.

1. L. heterophyllus, sp. nov.

Plant low, shrubby, diffuse, spreading, much branched; branches slender, erect, 4–8 inches high, leafy; young ones pubescent. Leaves imbricate, small, 1–1 ½ lines long, of various shapes and sizes-oblong, narrow-oblong, ovate, and elliptic; tips thickened and very obtuse, concave, glabrous, shining, coriaceous, 3–5-nerved, striate below, pale green, narrowly margined; margins finely ciliate; petioles red, glossy, those of the narrow leaves slender, ½ line long, not dilated at base, in-

[Footnote] * Viz., A. Richard, “Flora N.Z.,” tab. 27; Hook, fil., “Flora N.Z.,” tab. 42.

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creasing in length at tips of branches around flower, those of the wider and smaller leaves very short, broad, dilated and sub-amplexicaul. Flowers few (seen), small, terminal, solitary, sessile; bracts very small; calycine lobes ovate, nerved, striate; margins membranaceous, ciliate. Corolla tubular, 2 lines long-, red, glabrous on the outside; lobes 5, narrow, sub-linear-ovate, one-third length of tube, slightly spreading, densely bearded within with white wool. Anthers oblong, wholly enclosed in top of tube; style capitate, stout, nearly half the length of tube. Drupe globular, rather large, 2 lines diameter, dark-pink-red; style persistent.

Hab. “On the arid lava-flow, among scoria, etc., altitude, 3,000 to 4,000 feet,” western slopes of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. Of this plant I have only seen three flowering specimens, each specimen though much branched bearing only a single flower. I suspect the true flowering season was long past, and though I had several leafing specimens, two only bore fruit,-a single drupe on each! It is, however, very distinct from the other known New Zealand species, and may possibly prove to be identical with one of the many described Australian ones; to some of them it evidently approaches very closely.

Genus 6. Epacris, Smith.

1. E. affinis, sp. nov.

Plant shrubby; branches slender, close, ascending, 9–10 inches high, leafy from near base; branchlets pilose. Leaves dusky-olive-green, numerous, imbricate, sub-adpressed, ½–2 lines long, mostly broadly ovate, sometimes sub-rhomboidal and orbicular-oblong, obtuse, coriaceous, smooth, shining, keeled; tip thickened; margin slightly incurved; petioles very short. Flowers numerous in corymbs at tips of branches; pedicels short, 1 line long; bracts broadly ovate and (with calyx lobes) 1-nerved, striate; calyx lobes ovate, margins finely ciliate, incurved. Corolla lobes wavy, rather long, rounded, obtuse, much recurved, red-brown; anthers large, oblong, exserted, dark-red; filaments curved. Seeds very small, triangular, smooth, edges thickish, obtuse, yellow-brown, flattish on one side and gibbous on the other.

Hab. “On the arid lava-flow, altitude, 3,000 to 4,000 feet,” western slopes of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. This species is nearly allied to E. alpina, Hook. f., (discovered by me in the same mountainous region,) but differs in its more close habit, its smaller adpressed and variable leaves, its narrower and ciliated bracts, and its corymbose flowers. In this last character (rather unusual in the genus) it approaches

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E. corymbiflora, Hook, f., a Tasmanian species. It flowers plentifully; but my specimens had long passed flowering, and I have (after a careful search) only seen two flowers, which appeared remarkable for their large exserted anthers. Better specimens, however, are much wanted.

Genus 8. Dracophyllum, Lab.

1. D. rubrum, sp. nov.

A small shrub of (apparently) erect growth. Branches, 3–4 inches long, slender, erect, greyish, scarred; branchlets ½–1 inch long, very slender, distant and 1–2 together, erect, red-brown, glabrous, ringed, 10–14 leaves at tips. Leaves rigid, erect and sub-recurved, imbricate and sheathing at bases, 1 inch long, subulate, ½ line wide at widest part near dilated base, which is 2 lines wide, sub-quadrate, and many-nerved, very narrow and half-terete at top (not keeled), tip obtuse, margins finely and closely serrulate; the lower ⅔ of leaf canaliculate above and suddenly stopped, the leaves deeply marked (bass-relief) with 2–3 impressions of the leaves in their growth; margins of dilated sheathing portion finely ciliate. Flowers terminal in close sub-corymbose heads or broad short spikes of 9 flowers, shortly pedicelled; floral bracts shorter than flowers, deltoid, 2 ½ lines long, 2 ½ lines wide at base, amplexicaul, many-nerved; margins ciliate; tips thickened, obtuse. Calycine leaves much shorter than corolla-tube, ovate, acute, glabrous, veined, margins ciliate. Corolla orange-red, 3 lines long, 2 ½ lines diameter; lobes deltoid, tips thickened, incurved. Anthers broadly-oblong-ovate, tip truncate. Hypogynous scales obovate-oblong, truncate. Style short, stout; stigma capitate. Capsules (immature) very small at bottom of tube.

Hab. High lands, base of Mount Ruapehu (Tongariro Range), County of East Taupo; whence specimens were brought by a visitor and given to me (with some others) in 1879.

Obs. A species having affinity with D. recurvum, Hook, f., and also rosmarinifolium, Forst., but differing from them in its broader heads of larger and richly coloured flowers, shorter sepals and bracts, and leaves not keeled and very peculiarly marked.

Order L.—Boragineæ.

Genus 1. Myosotis, Linn.

1. M. hamiltonii, sp. nov.

A prostrate, perennial, spreading herb; the whole plant strigosely hairy. Stems sub-erect, 7–12 inches high, usually simple (one specimen seen forked). Leaves few, small; radical sub-orbicular, 4–6 lines diameter, slightly apiculate, tapering; petioles 6–8 lines long, much dilated at base, margins ciliate;

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cauline similar, but smaller, alternate, distant, those below the middle of stems very distant; hairs on upper surface coarse, from raised black points (and so on calyx). Racemes slender, 4 inches long, 16–20-flowered. Flowers pure white, distant, alternate, very distant below; pedicels 2 lines long, curved, hairy. Calyx dark-green, shining, 5-cleft, cut one-third down, segments ovate, 3-veined, sub-acute, coarsely hairy, largely ciliate; hairs stout, red, rather distant. Corolla infandibuli-form; tube cylindric, 2 lines long, veined (as also limb); scales of throat small, roundish, entire, dark-coloured; limb 4 lines diameter, lobes rounded, deeply cut, much spreading, smooth, margins slightly irregular; stamens included; anthers ovate-lanceolate, hastate; style exserted, curved, tip papillose. Nuts broadly ovoid or oval, dark-brown, shining, margined, sides nearly equal.

Hab. Stony edges of a watercourse on the Huiarau Mountain Range, running into Lake Waikare, County of Whakatane; 1887: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. I. This slightly rambling plant covers mossy, boulders in its native habitat, somewhat after the fashion of our creeping Epilobiums, presenting an elegant appearance from its profusion of virgin white flowers. As a species, it will rank under section 3, “Handbook N. Z. Flora,” being allied to M. australis and to M. forsteri, but widely differing in several characters.

II. I have much pleasure in naming it after its kind and zealous discoverer, Mr. A. Hamilton, of Napier.

Order LIII.—Scrophularineæ.

Genus 7. Veronica, Linn.
§ I. Capsule dorsally compressed.

1. V. cookiana, sp. nov.

Plant a low glabrous shrub, 1 ½ feet high; branches stout, short, diffuse. Leaves broadly-oblong 1 ½–2 inches long, ¾–1 ¼ inches wide, suddenly sub-acute; sub-coriaceous, sub-sessile; midrib lower half pubescent beneath; margins thickened, much and closely pubescent; petioles short, very broad, largely dilated, somewhat winged, pubescent, margins hairy. Flowers closely sub-terminal at tips of branches, presenting a thyrse-like appearance in 5 stout erect axillary racemes of many (000) flowers, very closely compacted, spreading in flower, but imbricated downwards (sub-pendulous) in fruit; peduncles 1–2inches long, the lower one-third bare, densely pubescent; bracts long, narrow, subulate, pubescent. Calyx small, 1 line long, adpressed, 5-lobed (3 large and 2 narrow lobes), cut half-way to base, acute, strongly nerved, roughly pilose; margins membranous, ciliate. Corolla light-coloured with a pinkish-violet hue,

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small, 2 lines diameter, 4-fid, lobes spreading, nerved, the upper 3 narrow obtuse, the lower lobe narrower and acute; tube short, of equal length with calyx, much veined. Anthers 2, exserted, large, cordate-reniform, bases divergent and much produced; filaments curved, stout, spreading; style 3 lines long, flexuous. Capsule broadly ovate or sub-rhomboid, 2 lines long, sub-compressed.

Hab. Cliffs, sea-side, near Table Cape; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. I. The affinities of this plant are with V. macroura, Hook, f., and with some states of V. salicifolia, Forst.; but I think it to be abundantly distinct from both. I regret my specimens having been damaged in their long transit.

II. I have with much pleasure named this sea-side species after our illustrious countryman and navigator, Cook; and that for two reasons: (1.) No plant of our New Zealand flora at present bears his honoured name, though a genus was early dedicated to him by the botanist Gmelin (since merged in Pimelea); and, nearly forty years ago, our second species of Phormium was named after him, which has also been altered: while several New Zealand plants bear the names of subsequent navigators in these our southern seas. (2.) In my selecting this seaside shrub for this purpose, I have pleasingly fancied that it was seen in its originally cliffy abode by Cook and his party, while slowly and closely coasting along the bold shores of Table Cape, on their leaving Poverty Bay for Hawke's Bay.

2. V. compacta, sp. nov.

Plant small, shrubby, sub-prostrate and ascending, 4–6 inches high, much and closely branched; branches short, slender, rooting, very leafy, pubescent, with a line of large white hairs decurrent on each side from petiole (resembling Stellaria media). Leaves small, numerous and close, elliptic and obovate, 1–2–3 lines long, obtuse, deeply cut-crenulate, 1–2 (or, rarely, 3) incisions on each side, thick, green, glandular-hairy and ciliate; margins thickened; midrib sunk and coloured on upper surface; petioles short, stout, dilated at base, semi-amplexicaul. Flowers sub-terminal, on rather long slender axillary sub-corymbose panicles, erect, 2–2 ½ inches long, 6–8-flowered; flowers distant, free; pedicels long, spreading, slender, ½ inch long; bracts ovate; peduncles, pedicels, bracts, and calyces glandular-hairy. Calycine lobes 4, cut to base, sub-ovate, obtuse, 3–4-nerved, half the length of capsule. Capsule large (for plant), sub-orbicular, 2 lines diameter, turgid, glabrous, not compressed. Seeds small, numerous, broadly-elliptic or sub-orbicular, smooth, flattish and sub-concave on one side, and slightly gibbous on the other.

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Hab. On the lava slopes of Mount Ngaruahoe, Tongariro Range, “altitude 5,000 feet,” County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. A species near to V. nivalis, Hook, f., but a smaller and slenderer and more branched plant, differing in its smaller and glandular-hairy leaves of another form, which also dry green; in its longer and more lax peduncles and pedicels, and in its capsules not being compressed and much larger than their calyces. Unfortunately, I have not seen any flowers. The plant, in its upright and close dwarf growth and habit, strongly reminds one of the dwarf box edging used for garden borders.

§ II. Capsule laterally compressed, didymous.

3. V. vulcanica, sp. nov.

Plant herbaceous, perennial; roots long, fibrous; stem prostrate, sub-ascending, 8–9 inches long; the whole plant (except corolla) densely hairy; hairs white, curly, sub-strigose; stems woody at bases, slender, flexuous, rooting from nodes, much branched; branchlets short. Leaves numerous, opposite, round and rotund-obovate, thick, 2 lines diameter, coarsely crenate-lobed (4–5 divisions); petioles length of leaves, broad, channelled, tripli-nerved. Flowers in small corymbs at tips of branchlets; pedicels 1 line long with a foliaceous bract at base. Calyx 4-lobed, cut to base; lobes obovate, adpressed, 2 lines long, longer than capsule. Corolla large, 3 lines diameter, 4-lobed, cut half-way down, the three upper lobes broadly rounded, the lower narrower and much smaller, veined; veins branching at tips; tube 0. Anthers 2, included, cordate; filaments short; style long, exserted; stigma capitate, rugulose. Capsule broadly obcordate, emarginate, didymous, 1 ½ lines diameter, a little turgid, shorter than calyx. Seeds (immature) small, broadly oval, pale; apparently few.

Hab. On the lower slopes of Mount Ngaruahoe, Tongariro Range, “altitude 4,700 feet,” County of E. Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. A very peculiar and distinct species.

4. V. longiracemosa, sp. nov.

Plant herbaceous, annual; roots short, fibrous; stem decumbent and sub-erect, 14–20 inches long, simple, rather weak; whole plant roughish sub-strigosely hairy. Leaves reddish-brown (? in age), few and distant on stem at base, broadly cordate), 8 lines long, the same breadth at base, 5-nerved, veinlets reticulate; margins irregularly incised, coarsely crenulate; tips broadly rounded, obtuse; petiole very short; the lower stem leaves smaller and narrower, sub ½ inch, soon decreasing in size upwards. Main stem yellowish, racemed, 16

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inches long, simple, with 2 pairs of floral branches below, opposite and axillary (from a leaf), 8–9 inches long, flowers numerous, regular, free, sub ¼ inch apart; pedicel 1 line long, stout; bract at base lanceolate, obtuse, much ciliate, rather longer than calyx; petiole short. Calycine segments 4, split to base, linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved, ciliate, longer than capsule; tips obtuse. Corolla (?) very small, lobes rounded, pale, mem-branaceous, much veined, minutely punctulate with dark coloured dots; anthers rather large, reinform-cordate, blue; filaments yellow-brown; style erect, stoutish, ½ line long; stigma capitate, penicillate. Capsule yellowish, broadly obcordate-reniform, sub-didymous, deeply emarginate, 2 lines broad, slightly compressed, glabrous, veined, finely reticulated with numerous minute longitudinal cells; opening loculicidally along the margin; valves gaping; margins ciliate; style persistent. Seeds, 7–8 in each cell, oval, slightly narrower at base, ½ line long, smooth, pale-brown, a little convex on one side and flat on the other; semi-transparent, the nucleus being clearly seen in situ.

Hab. Among herbage, grassy spots, margins of forests south of Danneverke, County of Waipawa; February, 1887: W.C.

Obs. This appears to me to be an interesting species, from its simplicity and great length of floral racemes. Unfortunately I could not obtain a single good flowering specimen, the plants having long been past flowering (indeed, were withering), but after long search I found a single minute unopened flower at tip of a raceme, whence my description of the corolla, which is necessarily imperfect. As a species it is naturally allied to our New Zealand species, V. elongata, Benth.; also, to some similar herbaceous Australian ones, as V. calycina and V. plebeia, of Brown; but is widely distinct from them all.

Order LXIII.—Polygoneæ.

Genus 2. Muhlenbeckia, Meisn.

1. M. microphylla, sp. nov.

Plant shrubby, depressed, 3–4 feet high, forming dense, thickly branched, matted, round-topped, impenetrable elastic bushes; main stems, ¼–¾ inch diameter, much intermixed and crooked, 2–4 feet or more long, very tough and hard, sub-rigid, black; branchlets numerous, long, slender, flexuous, implexed and twining; bark light-red, glossy. Leaves very few, scattered, of various shapes and sizes, mostly sub-orbicular, oblate, and broadly elliptic, ½–1 line (rarely 2 lines) long, usually about 1 line, thickish, dull green with purple margins; tips emarginate, obtuse; petioles slender, of various lengths, generally the length of the leaf, sometimes longer, channelled, slightly puberulous; stipules minute, very membranous, sub-quadrate, wavy, brown;

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

ochrea rather large, bladdery, red-brown, margins irregular, denticulate. Flowers axillary, 3–5–7 together in short sub-corymbose racemes; pedicels very short, about 1/16th inch long, subsessile. Perianth membranous; segments cut nearly to base, large, very obtuse, crumpled, wavy, spreading, finely and closely reticulated; margins sub-crenulately-erose, white with a tinge of pink, sometimes green with white margins; adhering closely to ovary when in fruit and not succulent. Stigma large, spreading, red, sub-turbinate, very roughly papillose or irregularly and largely sub-muricate. Nuts small, 1/10th inch long, blackish-brown, sub-rhomboidal or broadly lanceolate, sub-acute, triquetrous, one-third exserted, finely tuberculate or rugulose, not glossy.

Hab. Dry stony places; on ridges and mounds on hills, various places in Hawke's Bay; 1850–1886: W.C.

Obs. This plant I have long known, but had always until lately considered it to be identical with M. axillaris, Hook. fil., without, however, having closely examined it. I now find it to differ largely from that species in several important characters; also from the M. axillaris of Australia and Tasmania, which is said to be the same as the New Zealand species. This plant is a considerably larger and stouter one, of a different habit, with much smaller leaves and more numerous flowers, that differ in many respects as to inflorescence, texture, form and colour of perianth, size and shape of stigma, form and appearance of nut, etc. Notwithstanding, it is closely allied to M. axillaris in natural sequence.

Order LXVII.—Thymeleæ.

Genus 1. Pimelea, Banks and Solander.

1. P. stylosa, sp. nov.

A (?) small shrub of compact erect growth; branchlets rather stout, erect, sub-fastigiate; bark reddish-grey, rough with numerous minute black muricated specks, and densely clothed with coarse short greyish hairs. Leaves yellowish-green, glabrous, close, erect, sub-imbricate, broadly lanceolate-ovate, obtuse, 4 lines long, coriaceous, much wrinkled below, very broadly keeled, petiolate; petiole thick, 1 line long. Floral leaves oblong, about same length as cauline but a little broader and more obtuse, sessile, margined, dark-green, veins closely and largely anastomosing, visible when held between eye and light. Flowers pinkish, terminal at tips of branches, 10–12 together, forming corymbose-like heads; perianth 7 lines long, thickly and coarsely hairy on the outside; limb 4 lines diameter, lobes oval, obtuse, strongly 1-nerved with veins much branched and anastomosing; tube red, rather slender, veined. Filaments exserted, long, stout, spreading; style very long.

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Hab. High lands near Mount Ruapehu (Tongariro Mountain Range), County of East Taupo; where specimens were gathered and brought away by a visitor, and given to me in 1879.

Obs. A species near P. buxifolia, Hook. f., but the leaves are without lateral nerves, (“so conspicuous and evident in that species and forming a good character,” Hook., “Handbook N. Z. Flora;”) the floral leaves are smaller, the flowers very much larger, coloured, with coarser hairs, the filaments very stout and long, and the bark not “black.”

Class II.—Monocotyledons.
Order I.—Orchideæ.

Genus 15. Thelymitra, Forst.

1. T. cornuta, sp. nov.

Tuber 3 inches long, sub ½ inch thick, cylindrical. Stem erect, 17 inches high, rather slender, with 3 membranaceous acuminate acute adpressed bracts. Leaf single near base, lanceolate, 3 inches long, ½ inch wide, stout, thickish, semigrooved, tip sub-acute. Flowers 6, small, rather distant on a 3-inch raceme; pedicels slender, 4–5 lines long; floral bracts shorter than ovary, 6–7 lines long, ovate-acuminate, acute, much veined. Perianth, petals clear pink, sub-rhomboidal, 4 lines long, obtuse with a slight mucro, obsoletely 5-nerved; sepals a little larger than petals, oblong-ovate, concave, dull pink with a green centre; column 2–2 ½ lines long, rather slender, pink, hooded; the hood smooth on the back, the base dark-red; tip bright yellow, emarginate, margins entire or very slightly erose, involute; the lower lateral margins between apex and staminodia produced into 2 little curved pointed horns, one on each side; the two lateral lobes (staminodia) sub-linear-spathulate, erect, bearing a globose bushy tuft of pinkish-white hairs, which rise above the column; hairs wavy, rugulose, obtuse, slightly knobbed at tips, hyaline with minute circular dots scattered within (not transversely barred, or septate, as in T. nuda); anther wholly concealed, erect, orbicular, very apiculate, tip obtuse; rostellum bifid, lobes rounded, margins thickened laciniate and jagged. Ovary long, ¾–1 inch, narrow obovoid, striate, tapering, trilateral; angles obtuse, thickish, and largely rounded.

Hab. Country near Pouto Point, North Kaipara, West Coast, north of Auckland; 1885: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs. I. This species differs in several respects, particularly in its column and appendages, from all our known indigenous species; and also from the Australian and Tasmanian ones. It will naturally range under Bentham's section Cucullaria, its

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affinities being with T. nuda and its allies. Its flowers are very small for the size of the plant, and its ovary long.

II. In the summer of 1885 I received several specimens of Thelymitra from Mr. Winkelmann, but from their being long in transit, partly smashed up in passing through several of our post-offices, and from their succulent nature and close-packing half-rotten, I could make nothing of their flowers; the tubers, however, of some of them were uninjured, and I planted them; one, in particular, being long and slender, I potted. This summer (December, 1886) it produced the specimen here described. I have closely examined three of its flowers in a living state for their internal parts, and find them to correspond closely.

2. T. concinna, sp. nov.

Plant small, stem 4 ½ inches high, slender. Leaf single, narrow, 3 inches long, thin, rather membranaceous. Flowers 2, small, sub ½ inch diameter; sepals ovate, acuminate, nerved, brown; petals blue with a tinge of purple, broadly ovate, apiculate, broader than lip; column slightly hooded; margins plain, largely winged below; staminodia arising from a strong nerve, long, curved, erect, finely filiform, with only a few long and free hairs at tip, springing from 2–3 branches; hairs reddish, clavate.

Hab. Open country near the east bank of the River Mohaka, north of Napier; 1884: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. I regret that I have only had a single specimen of this interesting little plant, which I believe to be a very distinct species. Mr. Hamilton was also struck with its peculiar and neat appearance when he gathered it, and though he sought other specimens he was unsuccessful; sheep being pastured there in that locality, soon destroy all small tender indigenous vegetation. Hitherto I have deferred publishing it, although I had examined and noted its characters (as above) while fresh, wishing first to obtain more specimens. Its small and graceful appearance, thin leaf, blue petals, narrow lip, and few reddish hairs springing in distinct bundles or branches from its staminodia, are peculiar characters. It is to be hoped that its discoverer may meet with more of the same plant when again in those parts.

3. T. nervosa, sp. nov.

Rather slender, straight, erect, 9–10 inches high; a white glossy sheath at base, 1 inch long, transparent, veined, truncate, margin entire with a long narrow linear mucro; 2 distant sheathing cauline bracts each 1 ½ inches long, acute, adpressed. Leaf single, 6 inches long, 3 lines wide, linear-acuminate, sub-membranaceous. Scape very slender almost wiry at top, bearing 3 distant flowers; floral bracts coloured, very broad, ½ inch

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long, acuminate with a long mucro, veined, minutely papillose on tips at outside, the upper flower having 2 bracts opposite, the inner one much smaller; pedicels slender, ¼ inch long. Perianth purple, 1 inch diameter, spreading, all segments much veined, veins branching; dorsal sepal oblong apiculate; lateral sepals ovate-acuminate apiculate; lateral petals sub-obovate apiculate; labellum broadly oblong-lanceolate, obtuśe; column black-purple above, largely bifid, each lobe 1-notched, incurved; the two appendages each on a long slender arm arising from below as high as the column; largely plumose at top in a globular ball; hairs very flexuous, sub-moniliform, twisted, their tips obtuse and rounded; anther broadly ovate, obtuse, apex below top of column. Ovary lanceolate, ½ inch long, coarsely ribbed.

Hab. High lands base of Mount Ruapehu (Tongariro Range), County of East Taupo; whence specimens were brought by a visitor in 1879, and given to me with some other plants (sps. nov. supra).

Obs. This is another small neat-looking species, with large dark-coloured flowers, their segments much veined (as also are their coloured bracts), the lower lobe or labellum being larger than the others. The number of the flowers on a plant vary, usually 3, but in one of my specimens 2, and in another only 1; each of these two plants being also smaller. A striking character is the low branching of its slender staminodiæ or lateral lobes of its column which are also elongated, and their peculiar wavy moniliform hairs. There may be more basal sheaths belonging to the plant, as my specimens do not include their roots or tubers.

A Note on Thelymitra.

I would here mention two deformed or abnormal specimens of this genus which have come under my notice; both of them obtained in 1884, in the hilly forests near Norsewood, and apparently varieties of T. purpureo-fusca, Col.*

1. A small 1-flowered specimen; the perianth consisting of only four equal segments.

2. Another small specimen; the column of its perianth containing 3 staminodiæ, one of them being in front, arising from the junction of the two wings at the lower front base, and with the other two lateral ones curiously enclosing the top of the column.

Genus 17. Prasophyllum, Brown.

1. P. variegatum, sp. nov.

Stem slender, erect, 5 inches high, green above, red below, minutely speckled with white papillose spots, sulcated on one

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvii., p. 349.

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side, with a loose sheath below near base. Leaf, ¼ inch under spike, very short, about ½ inch long, striate, adpressed, subacute, tip thickened. Spike short, ½–¾ inch long, few (3, 5, 8,) flowered; flowers rather distant, drooping; bracts very small, adpressed, broad, truncate and retuse. Perianth greenish tinged with red, small, 1–1 ½ lines long; dorsal sepal broadly ovate, 3-veined, tip acute; lateral sepals ovate-acuminate, 3-nerved, tips sub-mucronate, dilated; lateral petals very small, narrow, lanceolate-acuminate, 1-nerved, tips acute, labellum short, sub-cordate-ovate, sub-acute, reticulately veined, 1-nerved, the nerve central and very narrow, margins red, sub-tuberculate-fimbriate; anther large; column very short. Ovary sub-erect, 3 lines long.

Hab. Glenross, County of Hawke's Bay; 1887: Mr. D. P. Balfour.

Obs. I have received several specimens of this plant, but all, save one, had just passed flowering; they were very much alike, merely differing (as above noted) in the number of their flowers.

Order VII.—Liliaceæ.

Genus 5. Astelia, Banks and Solander.

1. A. planifolia, sp. nov.

Leaves sub-coriaceous, linear, very acuminate, 24–26 inches long, ½ inch wide at middle and 1 inch at dilated base, flat, upper surface glabrous, dull light-green; lower surface hairy; hairs short, closely adpressed in uniform dot-like patches; margins flat, entire, and slightly and sparsely sub-ciliate; 8-nerved, the two central nerves narrow, very prominent on upper surface; the base dilated with a few short hairs, margins very thin. Scape (fem.) 3–4 inches long (including short raceme), stout, erect, cylindrical below but obtusely sub-triquetrous above, clothed with short adpressed white hairs, (as also pedicels, and outsides of floral bracteoles,) with 4 cauline foliaceous bracts, the lowermost 8 inches long, very acuminate and nearly as wide as the leaves, sub-amplexicaul, slightly silky and shining; raceme sub-corymbose, short, about ½ inch long, composed of 10–20 flowers; pedicels very stout, 3 lines long, close together and subverticillate, each with a long subulate bracteole at base. Flowers: perianth whitish, glabrous, very membranous, spreading, sub-rotate, adhering to ovary below middle; segments 6 (sometimes 4, 8,) linear-ovate, split nearly to base, tips incurved; the three outer broader than the three inner ones, reddish, scarious, obsoletely 1-nerved, reflexed in age; style 0; stigma, short, sessile, obtuse, obscurely 3-lobed, papillose; anthers (abortive) long, narrow, opposite segments. Ovary sub-rhomboidal or broadly ovoid, green, glabrous; beak short, slightly grooved; seeds immature.

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Hab. Forests, Pohue, hilly country west of Napier, Hawke's Bay, growing in rather small tufts on rotten logs; 1884: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. I have received only one flowering specimen of this plant; and this I have had some time by me. At first sight I saw it was widely different from all the other (now) many species of this peculiar and interesting genus knówn to me, and I delayed making it known, hoping to obtain further specimens of it bearing ripe fruit (as Mr. Hamilton had planted it in his garden); also a specimen of the male flower from its native woods. A species having affinity with A. graminifolia, mihi.*

Order XI.—Cyperaceæ.

Genus 13. Uncinia, Persoon.

1. U. capillaris, sp. nov.

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Plant small, densely cæspitose in large patches. Culms few, 8–10 (rarely 12) inches long, exceedingly slender, almost capillary, sub-cylindrical, channelled smooth, erect, tips drooping; leafy, 4–5sheathing leaves on stem. Leaves numerous, a little shorter than culms (sometimes, though rarely, longer), 1/50th-inch wide, green, striate, channelled, keeled, sub-erect, drooping at tips, margins slightly scaberulous; tips truncate and thickly scaberulous; below 2–3sheathing basal bracts with long awn-like tips; young leaves capillary. Spikelets distichous, lax, 1 ½–2 ¼ inches long, with 4–7distant spreading fem. flowers; the upper portion, ½ inch, male flowers which are closer. Bract O. Glumes fugacious, ovate, sub-acute, ⅔rds length of utricle, smooth, nerve stout and more so at tip, margins around apex produced, hyaline. Utricle 3 lines long, narrow-lanceolate, triangular, smooth, striate, greenish (light-brown in age); bristle 2 lines long, slender, flexuous, spreading, white; hook large. Style long and very rough; stigmas 2, long, curled.

Hab. In thick dry woods, south of Danneverke, County of Waipawa; 1887: W.C.

Obs. A species peculiar for its mode of growth, forming large and thick spreading patches; also for its excessively narrow leaves and culms, lax, distant and few-flowered spikelet, and bifid stigma.

2. U. disticha, sp. nov.

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Plant forming straggling tufts, much drooping. Culms 22 inches high, slender, sub-augular, channelled on upper surface, scabrid, leafy with 4–6 sheathing leaves on culm. Leaves (and culms) green, about same length as culms, linear, 1/20th inch wide, flat, striate, veins red, keeled, scaberulous, very acuminate, tips sub-acute, much drooping. Spikelet small, weak, distichous, 1 ½–2 inches long; fem. flowers 6–7, lax; the upper ½ inch

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., p. 267.

[Footnote] † I note that Müeller has a species “debilio,”—W.C.

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male, and more compact. Glume persistent, ovate, sub-acute, nearly as long as utricle, whitish, smooth, 1-nerved; nerve stout, greenish. Utricle lanceolate, stoutish, 2 ½ lines long, sub-half-terete, scabrid towards top, whitish; bristle erect, 2 lines long, white; hook 1 line long, brownish, thick and dark at bend, tip excurved, sub-acute. Style long, stigmas 3, very long, flexuous, and (with style) roughish.

Hab. In dry woods with preceding species, U. capillaris, Col.; 1887: W.C.

3. U. variegata, sp. nov.

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Plant forming fine medium tufts. Culms 18 inches long, erect, rather stout, sub-rigid, smooth, pale green, finely striate with white lines, triquetrous, angles very obtuse, with one side broader and flat and two sides deeply channelled. Leaves longer than culms, 2 feet long, 2 lines broad, green, many-nerved, striate, sub-flaccid, keeled, keel white, minutely scaberulous on keel and margins. Spikelet cylindrical, stout, thickly set with flowers, sub-sexfariously disposed and closely imbricated by its long glumes concealing the utricles, 4 inches long, 4–5 lines broad, brownish variegated with green lines from glumes and bristles; the upper portion male, ½–¾ inch long, narrow, cylindrical, very compact. Bracts at base, 2, nearly close together and opposite, scabrid; one very long, foliaceous, flaccid and spreading, 9 inches long; and one much smaller, the length of spikelet, setaceous, erect, adpressed to spikelet; tips obtuse, sub-clavate. Glumes of female large, 4 ½ lines long, 1/20th inch wide, lanceolate, sub-acute, nearly covering both utricle and bristle, pale light-brown; 3-nerved (obsoletely 5-nerved at base), central nerve wide but not prominent, green, reticulated; cells long, narrow. Glumes of male very similar, but a little shorter. Utricle broadly ovate-acuminate (or sub-rhomboidal) tapering a little at base, 2 lines long, dark-reddish-brown, smooth, glossy, turgid; bristle slender, 2–2 ¼ lines long, erect, green; hook brown. Seed broadly-oblong, smooth, shining, sub-triangular, flattish and slightly concave on one side, edges obtuse, even, not raised or margined. Style very short, sub 1/50th inch, rough; stigmas 3, very long (2 lines), spreading, flexuous, rough and shaggy with broad flat patent hairs. Anthers linear, sub-acute, scarcely appearing from within glumes; filaments short.

Hab. Sides of streams in forests near Danneverke, County of Waipawa; 1887: W.C.

Obs. A species having pretty close affinity with U. australis, Persoon, and U. ferruginea, Boott; and also with U. alope-curoides,* Col.; differing, however, from them all in several important characters (vide descript.).

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xv., p. 335.