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Volume 21, 1888
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Art. IV.—A Description of some newly-discovered Cryptogamic Plants; being a further Contribution towards the making known the Botany of New Zealand.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 12th November, 1888.]

Order IV.—Musci.

Genus 67. Hypopterygium, Bridel.
α. Leaves not mixed with bristles.

1. H. vulcanicum, sp. nov.

Root thickish, sub-rigid, 3-pinnately branched, much im-

[Footnote] † The numbers here attached to orders and to genera are those of the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.”

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plexed; branches alternate, distant, straight; tips flexuous, acute. Stem 1in. high, pale, succulent, with red hairs in scattered dense bunches. Frond sub-flabellate-ovate, ½in. long, pinnately branched; branches few (4–9), simple, close not imbricate, pale-green. Leaves—lower on main stem, scale-like, distant, deltoid, entire, apiculate; nerve O, instead of a nerve longitudinal cells extending throughout to apex, and cells of lamina oblong-hexagonal: upper on main stem, close not imbricate, oblong-ovate, dimidiate, margined, slightly serrate on upper apical portion, more so on the anterior margin, tip much apiculate, biserrate: on branches, narrower acuminate: dorsal leaves on main stem, sub-orbicular, margined, much apiculate; nerve stout, extending two-thirds of leaf; cells clear, oblong, rather small, with minute cellules, smallest at margins, large at centre and base: leaves on branches narrower, broadly oval, entire, margin slightly uneven; tip very apiculate, the mucro long and flexuous.

Hob. Among stones and pumice, sides of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Owen.

Obs. The roots of this little plant are curious, widely differing from those of other species of this genus, no doubt owing to its high, exposed, and arid habitat. I regret not receiving any fruiting specimens.

2. H. marginatum, sp. nov.

Stem 1½in. long, sub-rigid, dry, flexuous, flattened, with distant small scarious scales, reddish with dark-red rootlets scattered in little bunches. Frond small, oblate-orbicular, ½in. wide, with 16 short spreading branches, pale-green. Leaves close, imbricate, ovate, acute, apiculate, margined, a few minute teeth near tip; nerve stout, extending nearly to apex; cells small, regular, oval, with double walls and minute cellules; dorsal leaves on main stem deltoid - rotund, margined, entire, very apiculate; nerve broad, strong, percurrent; cells small, oblong and rhomboidal, with minute cellules, very long at centre and base, smallest at margins; leaves on branches orbicular, strongly margined, minutely uneven, serrulate at tip, cuspidate, stout; nerve excurrent, stout, prominent.

Hab. With preceding, sides of Mount Tongariro; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. A single specimen picked out from among a lot of scrap and damaged mosses.

3. H. flaccidum, sp. nov.

Stem slender, ¾in. high; branches simple, ¾in. long, loosely spreading, soft, flaccid. Leaves—on stem, ovate, acute, serrate, cuspidate; on branches, ovate, acute, serrate: dorsal,

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ovate, very acuminate, serrate: perichætial, long, subulate, flexuous. Cells linear, long.

Hab. Dry sides of watercourses among small Hepaticæ, woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. Only one specimen of this very distinct species detected among my collected specimens.

Genus 71. Hookeria, Smith.

§ 2. Mniadelphus, C. Muell.

1. H. semiserrulata, sp. nov.

Plant terrestrial, tufted; stems brownish, 1½in.–2¼in. high, 4 lines broad at top, tips curved; basal leaves small, distant, with a number of brown rootlets implexed among them. Leaves on main stem sexfariously disposed, but quadrifarious on the lower part of branches, imbricate, light-green, transparent, wavy, recurved, broadly margined, the upper half and apex finely serrate, the lower slightly irregular but scarcely denticulate: lateral leaves oblong, spreading, 2 lines long, apiculate, base dimidiate: dorsal and ventral, orbicular, apiculate; binerved, nerves united and very stout at base, unequal, divergent, the longest extending one-third to two-fifths of leaf; cells hexagonal, smaller around margins, larger oblong and rhomboidal at base. Perichætial leaves oblong-obovate, suddenly very acuminate, the narrow tip two-fifths the length of leaf, flexuous, tip acute, slightly margined and serrulate at apex; nerve 0; cells sub-linear-lanceolate, their ends thickened. Fruit-stalk ¼in. long, pale-green, scabrid. Calyptra (young) narrow or straight, base fimbriate; tip obtuse, fimbriate with long wavy irregular whitish fimbriæ.

Hab. Low wet shaded woods, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. This plant dries both crisp and green.

§ 3. Pterygophyllum, Bridel.

2. H. sexfaria, sp. nov.

Plant large, terrestrial, gregarious. Stems stout, flattish, sub-erect, 3in.–3½in. high, ½in. wide at top; branches few; leafy from base. Leaves sexfariously disposed, not margined, largely serrate, tips obtuse; pale-green: lateral leaves oblong, dimidiate, 3 lines long, spreading, young tips bearing a reddish hue: dorsal and ventral, orbicular-ovate; nerve stout, extending three-fifths of leaf, bifid about the middle of leaf, colour same as leaf, but brownish-red at base. Cells large, orbicular, with clear minute triangular intermediate spaces. Perichætial leaves small, sub-ovate-acuminate, entire; tips truncate, serrate; cells narrow oblong-lanceolate; nerve 0. Fruit-stalk (young) 5–7 lines long, stout, flexuous, red, glossy, five on a

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branch and near each other. Calyptra long, narrow, smooth, the base slightly laciniate.

Hab. Boggy spots, low woods, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

3. H. atrovirens, sp. nov.

Plant terrestrial, loosely tufted, sub-erect, 1½in. high. Stem simple (rarely branched), dark-coloured (young stems reddish-brown, glossy), stout, leafy, with many dark-brown rootlets at base. Leaves quadrifariously disposed, free, loosely imbricated at top, dark olive-green (young leaves green); margins entire, but under a powerful lens slightly and irregularly denticulate near tip, though not serrated; cells large, hexagonal-orbicular, but hexagonal-oblong at base, their centres blotched with irregular dark dots, very small at margins: lateral leaves spreading, 2 lines long, elliptic or elliptic-ovate, tip obtuse; nerve very stout, colour of leaf, extending two-thirds length of leaf, and slightly bifid near top: dorsal and ventral sub-orbicular, a little shorter than lateral. Perichætial small, numerous, orbicular, apiculate, apex blunt and excised on each side, serrulate; cells smaller; nerve 0. Fruit-stalk very stout, ½in.–¾in. long, black, shining, curved, 4–6 on a branch, thick and bulbous at base. Capsule (old) small, 1 line long, oval, slightly tubercled at base, dark-brown, nodding. Calyptra (young) linear, sub-acute, 1½ lines long, black, smooth, grey and slightly jagged at base. Antheridia, several at base of fruit-stalk, linear, swollen and brown at middle.

Hab. On the ground in a boggy spot in a low wood, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. This plant shrivels much and becomes black in drying. Its nearest affinity seems to be with H. quadrifaria, Sm., and H. robusta, Hook. f.

4. H. flava, sp. nov.

Plant small, ¼in.–½in. long, leafy to base, stems branched above, main stem and branches dark-red. Leaves yellowish-green, sub-quadrifariously disposed, thickly set, imbricate, ½ line long, obovate-spathulate, apiculate, tapering to base, margined, entire, slightly uneven, very crisp when dry; nerve strong, single, flexuous, extending through four-fifths of leaf. Perichætial few, erect, sub-linear-oblong, apiculate. Cells compact, orbicular, very minute at tips, larger at centre and increasing in size to base, where they are very clear parallelogrammatic and oblong-hexagonal. Fruit-stalk (immature) short. Calyptra smooth, beak very long.

Hab. Growing among and over Zoopsis muscosa (infra), woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

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Order V.—Hepaticæ.

Genus 2. Jungermannia, Linn.

§ 1. Stipules 0: leaves entire.

1. J. consimilis, sp. nov.

Plant small, procumbent, tips ascending, simple and dichotomously forked, 1in.–1½in. long, scarcely 1 line wide, leafy throughout, the under side of stem densely clothed with fine rootlets. Leaves pale-green, close, imbricate, erect and conniving, very regular, triangular-ovate, much apiculate, narrowly margined; margins entire but uneven, slightly decurrent. Stipules 0. Cells numerous, small, orbicular, distinct, ranged in longitudinal lines, larger in centre and at base.

Hab. Growing half concealed in tufts of moss (Leptostomum inclinans, Br.) on branches of living trees, low woods, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A species closely allied to J. monodon, Hook. f. and Tayl., but differing in size, colour, leaves broader, more largely and sharply apiculate, with their margins uneven, and with smaller and much more numerous cells.

2. J. frullanioides, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant pleasing green, prostrate, creeping, with numerous short dark rootlets in tufts on the main stem, 2in.–4in. long, 3-pinnately branched; branches alternate, numerous, close, spreading, slender, 1/30in. wide, very leafy. Leaves sub-opposite, close, imbricate, spreading, flat (concave and recurved when dry), broadly elliptic or sub-rotund, dimidiate, the upper portion finely serrulate, sub-apiculate, tapering to base and rather narrow there with a nerve-like thickening, obliquely set; the anterior basal portion overlapping stem; the posterior basal margin excised, slightly decurrent. Stipules 0. Cells very minute, sub-orbicular, regular, compact, very obscure.

Hab. On branches of living trees, forming small thick patches, woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. This is rather a peculiar looking species; it grows closely intermixed and thickly overrunning itself, having much of the habit and general appearance (at first sight) of some of our small Frullaniæ. Not having met with it in fruit, I place it under this genus with some doubt.

Genus 3. Plagiochila, Nees and Montagne.

§ 2. Stems sparingly branched.

1. P. pallescens, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant pale, slender, weak, drooping, 2½in.–3in. long, 1/20in. wide, simple and 2–3 branched, leafy throughout;

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branches long, their tips much drawn out, flagellate, with their leaves very minute and distant. Leaves alternate, subobovate-elliptic, dimidiate, close not imbricate, lacinio-denticulate on two margins, the lower side entire and nearly straight and very slightly decurrent; teeth few (5–9), very irregular in length, two (sometimes three) outermost at tip very long and straight, their sinuses large and broad. Cells minute, orbicular, sub-opaque.

Hab. Forests near Lake Waikare, County of Whakatane; 1888; Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A delicate species, with the habit of P. laxa, Lehm. and Lind.

2. P. parkinsoniana, sp. nov.

Rhizome long, wiry. Plant very slender; stems distant on rhizome, 2in. long, 1 line wide, simple and forked; branches long, flexuous, leafy throughout. Leaves very minute at base and some distance up main stem, alternate, close not imbricate, sub-parallelogrammatic; tips truncate, 2-toothed, one at each angle, and generally one minute tooth (rarely two) just below on anterior margin, which is also slightly arched; posterior margin straight (sometimes slightly curved), entire, very slightly decurrent on dorsal side of stem. Cells minute, compact, obscure.

Hab. Dry sides of ravines, among other Hepaticæ, woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A long, narrow, neat species, having affinity with P. laxa and its allies.

3. P. intermixta, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Stems very slender, erect, simple, and once-forked near base, dark-coloured, shining, 1in.–1½in. long, 1/20in. wide. Leaves brownish, alternate, distant, patent, sub-oblate-orbicular, oblique, rather free, only a small portion attached to stem and half-clasping, concave, largely denticulate all round save the extreme base; teeth distant, irregular, straight, acute and obtuse, cellular, sinuses rounded. Cells small, sub-quadrilateral, larger and oblong-quadrilateral at base.

Hab. On rotten logs, growing closely intermixed with Gottschea and other Hepaticæ, woods, Dannevirke; 1888: W. C.

4. P. orbiculata, sp. nov.

Plant diffuse, spreading, sub-erect, slender, curved, 2in. long, 1 line wide, sub-bipinnately branched; branches few, very distant, simple, leafy throughout. Leaves alternate, close but not imbricated, orbicular, margins entire, slightly contracted at base with a nerve-like plait, patent, obliquely set on stem and decurrent across it, brownish-green. Cells

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small, compact, sub-orbicular, larger at base, with thick irregular double walls and cellules in them.

Hab. On ground, sides of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. Only a few specimens of this very distinct species seen; picked out from among P. alpina (infra).

5. P. subconnata, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant pale-brownish, slender, erect, 1in.–2in. high, 1½ lines wide, simple and once-forked (about middle), flexuous, leafy nearly to base, the leaves very small and distant below. Leaves opposite, orbicular, very nearly connate, 1/15in. diameter, margins slightly uneven, with a few (2–5) minute denticulations at top, sometimes sinuate only, wavy, sub-amplexicaul, patent, recurved, the lowest entire. Cells sub-orbicular, of two sizes, one large distant and clear, and one minute close and numerous surrounding the larger ones. Male spikes on the middle of branches, large (for plant), 2–3 lines long, with 9–14 pairs of scales, sometimes two spikes at a short distance from each other; tips recurved, entire.

Hab. Among other Hepaticæ and mosses forming patches on trees, woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

§ 3. Stems erect from a creeping rhizome, tall, much branched, dendroid.

6. P. longissima, sp. nov.

Plant large, sub-erect and pendulous, sub-rigid, 4in. high; stems black, leafy to base, branched above; branches few, very long (2in.–4in.), 3 lines wide, bipinnate, sometimes subfascicled and opposite at middle of main stem, divergent; branchlets few, sub-opposite, spreading. Leaves brownish-green, sometimes green splashed with brown (giving out a brown colour in soaking), close, imbricate, concave, subtrapezoid-triangular, 1½ lines long; tips truncate, 3-toothed, with usually two teeth below apex on each margin, the rest entire and straight save 5–7 long flexuous ciliate teeth on basal anterior margin, which largely overlaps on stem, meeting and standing out like a ridge, their sinuses broad and rounded; posterior margin recurved lengthways, decurrent on stem, almost meeting at lowest points. Cells orbicular, with round interstitial cellules. Perianth (old) narrow oblongovate, mouth sub-truncate, obtuse, with a few coarse teeth. Cells linear-oblong, close together.

Hab. On trees, thick woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

7. P. subpetiolata, sp. nov.

Rhizome long, slender, branched, creeping. Plant sub-

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dendroid erect, 1½in. high; stem dark red-brown, shining, bare below, simple, also 3-branched about the middle, and sometimes dichotomous; tops of branches curviform. Leaves alternate, rather distant on stem, patent (appressed and conniving in pairs when dry, and then slightly imbricate), orbicular, 1 line wide, denticulate, pale-green, thickish, and coloured (reddish) at junction with stem, and only slightly adhering as if sub-petiolate, not decurrent; much smaller on tips of old branches, which are drawn out and very acuminate. Cells minute, distinct, sub-orbicular, with dark walls; the centre and base of leaf black-dotted (microscopically) in transverse wavy lines. Fruiting specimens not seen.

Hab. Forests near Lake Waikare, County of Whakatane; 1887: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A peculiar neat-looking species, much resembling in general appearance of stems and leaves the drawing given of Jungermannia falcata, Hook. (“Musci Exotici,” tab. 89), now Adelanthus falcatus, Mitten (“Handbook N.Z. Flora”).

8. P. spenceriana, sp. nov.

Plant densely tufted; rhizome matted, creeping, wiry. Stems slender, erect, wiry, shining, sub-translucent, brown, somewhat dendroid in the large specimens, 2in.–2½in. long, 3 lines broad (including leaves), leafy to base with the leaves decreasing in size, simple and branched; branches few, lower (one or two) diverging, long, flexuous, (male plant) generally sub-fascicled above (top of main stem) into 4–5 erect equal branchlets, each bearing a terminal spike, linear-lanceolate, obtuse, flattish, canaliculate, distichous, 1½ lines long, 10–15 jugate, their edges rounded, tips of perigonial leaves entire and slightly decurved. Leaves distant, patent, alternate, decurrent on dorsal side, biformed, olive-green: those on main stem sub-orbicular, distantly cilio-serrate at apex and upper portion of anterior margin, the posterior margin entire, recurved, slightly amplexicaul, reddish at junction with a wavy rumple or twist owing to leaf being set obliquely on stem: those on branches broadly obovate and much smaller. Cells very minute, orbicular, guttulate, crowded, obscure, with smaller cellules in their angles; slightly clearer and more regular at extreme base; those of perigonial leaves elliptic and black-beaded.

Hab. On trees, forests near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. I. This plant in its slender habit resembles P. prolifera, Mitt., although its main stems are both stouter and wider and its branches not proliferous, with leaves more closely and largely ciliate, alternate, and not coadunate; and its perigonial leaves are also entire. It is also allied to P.

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exilis, Col., and P. distans, Col.,* but differs in its entire perigonial leaves, &c., and also to P. polystachya, Col. (infra). The male spike resembles that of P. brauniana, Nees.

II. Sometimes 3–4 male spikes are found adnate on a single main stem, beginning at a little distance from the base, and so on from each other, with a few pairs of small leaves between them. A very graceful little species.

9. P. polystachya, sp. nov.

Rhizome creeping, long, much-branched. Plant erect, dendroid, stiff, 3in. high; main stem woody, simple, 3½ lines wide, leafy to base, dark-brown, branched above; branches few, long, slender, spreading, alternately and equidistantly spiked, 4–6 on a branch, the leaves between them small. Leaves green, close, imbricate at bases, regular, patent, sub-deltoid, apex broad, rounded and truncate, with a few (4–5) short teeth, and 2–3 longer and more acute at anterior ventral base, sometimes 1–3 distant and minute ones on ventral lateral margin, which is overlapping; dorsal margin very oblique, straight, entire, largely decurrent; both margins wavy and recurved. Cells small, densely crowded, orbicular, each surrounded by a chain of very minute and clear cellules. Male spikes sub-lanceolate, 3–2 lines long, deeply sulcate on dorsal surface, turgid on ventral, brownish-yellow, lower ones 9–10 jugate, gradually decreasing in size (6–4 jugate) to top, and so their intermediate leaves; also, sometimes five together are fascicled at apex. Perigonial leaves rather large, tips recurved, sharply acute, and 2–3-toothed.

Hab. In deep woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A species having affinity with P. spenceriana (supra), but differing in its larger and more robust size, in habit, in shape of leaves, and in the apices of the perigonial leaves being toothed.

10. P. subflabellata, sp. nov.

Rhizome creeping, main stems erect, dendroid, wiry, stiff, woody, leafy to base, 1½in.–2in. high, 3 lines wide, including leaves, but narrower at base and on branches; bipinnately branched at top; branches few, regular, spreading nearly at right angles, graceful, almost sub-flabellate. Leaves very thin, pellucid, lively green, rather distant, not imbricate (young stem-leaves sub-imbricate), patent, 1½ lines long, sub-trapeziform (in outline), decurrent across stem; apex blunt, rounded; base sub-amplexicaul, wavy with a central hollow, convex, margins recurved; ventral and apical margins cilio-serrate,

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., pp. 282, 283.

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teeth 14–16, irregular, rather distant, filled with minute cells; sinuses large, rounded, semicircular, the base much arched and overlapping stem; dorsal margins straight, entire, thickened, with rarely 1–2 very minute blunt (budding?) teeth on upper margin. Involucral leaves at tips of branches erect, broader and more largely ciliate. Cells crowded, of 2–3 kinds—(1) orbicular and clear, with minute cellules between them; and (2) beaded with black dot-like centres, these last mostly marginal.

Hab. Woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

11. P. alpina, sp. nov.

Plant sub-dendroid, 2in.–2½in. high, 2 lines wide; stems sub-succulent, 3-pinnately branched above; branches irregular, leafy, pale-green young, dark-coloured in age. Leaves sub-vertical, distant and smaller on main stem, sub-imbricate on branches, rotund, 1 line diameter, slightly dimidiate, set obliquely, contracted at base, slightly amplexicaul, much decurrent, concave and slightly plaited, toothed; teeth irregular, mostly alternately long and short, margins of both anterior and posterior bases entire. Cells compact, sub-orbicular, their walls thick and dark, with minute cellules in them.

Hab. On the ground in tufts among other small plants, sides of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

12. P. berggreniana, sp. nov.

Plant largely tufted, sub-erect, densely overgrowing. Stems 1in.–3in. long, 2½ lines wide, light-brown, leafy to base, simple, forked and branched irregularly above; a sub-flagellate branch usually springs from base of perianth. Leaves light-green: those on main stem sub-opposite, regular, close not imbricate, spreading, sub-obovate-reniform, dimidiate, narrowest at base; tip obtuse and (with anterior margin) distantly toothed; posterior margin entire, straight and slightly curved, slightly decurrent: those on branches smaller and more distant, with fewer (3–4) teeth at apex. Involucral leaves similar to those on main stem, broader, erect, more toothed. Cells rather large, compact, obscure, oval and sub-orbicular, with minute interstitial ones. Perianth terminal and axillary between two divergent branches, obovate, mouth small, slightly and irregularly toothed, two of the teeth rather long and coarse. Fruit-stalk short, scarcely exserted. Capsule brown; valves oblong-lanceolate, sub-acute.

Hab. On trees, woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

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Genus 5. Lophocolea, Nees.

1. L. submuricata, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant minute, creeping, simple, 1in. long, 1/20in. wide, pale greenish-white, having a rough sub-muricated appearance; pinnatifid, lobes cut nearly to base, close but not imbricate, adnate, sub-trapeziform, broadest at base, tip truncate and sub-trifid, spiny ciliate at apex and on anterior margin; posterior margin entire and largely oblique; cells minute, circular, obscure, with a few scattered clear ones; ciliæ close, irregular, straight and branched, the sinuses very broad and rounded at bases. Stipules minute, capillary, forked, each ray compound of two or more branches.

Hab. On the ground among other and larger Hepaticæ, damp low forests, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. This is a very peculiar-looking plant, differing widely from other Hepaticæ I have seen: its almost jagged leaves and compound or branched spiny ciliæ give it a unique appearance. From not finding it in a fruiting state it is only provisionally placed under this genus, Lophocolea, as it may prove to be a Leioscyphus or a Chiloscyphus.

Genus 7. Gottschea, Nees.

Leaves stipulate.

1. G. guttata, sp. nov.

Plant small, gregarious, sub-procumbent, broadly obovate, ¾in.–1in. long, 5 lines wide at top, simple, sometimes shortly branched below, leafy from base; rootlets numerous, very stout, wiry, dark-purple. Leaves close, imbricate; ventral lobe narrow ovate, irregularly laciniate-serrate, tip sub-acute; dorsal lobe extending two-thirds of leaf, tip truncate, the anterior base largely rounded and produced beyond leaf, the margin uneven with small and distant denticulations; the posterior margin nearly straight, and not near margin of ventral lobe, with a straight plait running from the lower corner of the tip to the margin of ventral lobe. Stipules large, sub-orbicular (in outline), narrowest at base, bilobed, each lobe truncate and laciniate, usually three laciniæ on each side and three at top; laciniæ curved, stout, 6–7 cells wide at bases, their tips acute; sinus deep, sub-cuneate. Cells very large, orbicular-elliptic, double-walled and guttulate, having a very peculiar and rich appearance, as if each cell were separately embossed.

Hab. Among mosses on decaying logs, low woods, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

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Obs. A species near to “G. compacta,”* Col. (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., p. 285), but differing in its smaller size, in its different habit of growth, in its lobes and stipules being less serrate and laciniate, and in the unique formation of its large cells.

2. G. longiciliata, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious, small, flat, spreading, broadly obovate, 1in. long, 4 lines wide at top, mostly simple, sometimes with two short opposite branches near apex. Stem stout, dark-coloured, leafy to base; rootlets numerous, wiry, dark-purple. Leaves pale-green, much and closely imbricate, translucid; ventral lobe ⅕in. long, ovate, obtuse, entire, finely serrulate; dorsal lobe short, two-fifths length of ventral, tip truncate, wide, anterior margin ciliate, not produced beyond ventral; the posterior margin oblique and much within that of ventral, with a strong plait running from the lower angle of apex to the margin of ventral. Cells large, orbicular, double-walled, with minute cellules in their angles. Stipule large, sub-orbicular (in outline), 1½ lines diameter, 4-fid, sinuses very broad, the two inner segments largest, much lacinio-ciliate; ciliæ very long, flexuous, brownish-olive coloured, 10-celled, branched, their bases 2-celled laterally within ciliæ; cells oblong, narrow.

Hab. On the ground, low damp woods, banks of river, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

3. G. longiseta, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious, procumbent, ¾in.–1in. long, broadly triangular (in outline), tip acute, pinnately branched at base; branches short, spreading. Stems stout, sub-succulent, leafy to base, thickly and coarsely matted below with dark-red rootlets. Leaves yellow-green, closely imbricated above, distant and smaller below, all margins laciniate-serrate, laciniæ flexuous; ventral lobe 3 lines long, triangular-ovate, strongly plaited at lateral junction of dorsal lobe, the plait laciniate; dorsal lobe much smaller, and within both margins of ventral, tip oblique, acute, base rounded, sub-dimidiate-cordate; perichætial leaves larger and broader, much and irregularly laciniate. Fruit-stalk 1½in. long, slender, flexuous; capsule red-brown, linear-oblong, 2½ lines long; valves 2 lines long,

[Footnote] * Here please observe and correct an error—or, rather, two errors—in vol. xix., “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” pp. 284, 285, where two new species of Gottschea described by me are both specifically named “compacta.” And what makes it still worse is the fact that in vo. xvi., p. 349 (same work) is another new species of Gottschea also named “compacta.” How that error occurred in vol. xix. I do not know, but the species described on p. 284 should have been specifically named laciniosa, and that on p. 285 gregaria, which names please substitute for those thus erroneously given.

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linear, minutely striate, tip sub-mucronulate. Stipule very-large (for plant), sub-quadrate, 2½ lines wide, slightly bifid, sub one-fourth from tip, laciniate-serrate. Cells large, of various shapes and sizes, orbicular to narrow oblong, their walls double.

Hab. On rotten logs among ferns, where it forms large spreading patches, low woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

4. G. heterodonta, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious, light-green, sub-procumbent; steins and branches stout, succulent, 1in.–1½in. high, 4–5 lines wide at top, branched above, bipinnate, branches long, spreading. Leaves distant below, closely imbricated above, half-clasping, ventral lobe oblong-ovate, tip acute, sharply cut serrate, a thick plait from tip of dorsal, with small short plaits running to margin, and all the plaits denticulate on the under side of lobe; anterior margin slightly toothed; posterior margin laciniate-serrate; dorsal lobe, anterior base arched, produced, denticulate, the bases overlapping each other on stem; tip sub-truncate, toothed; the posterior margin curved, thick, coarsely denticulate, and much within the margin of ventral. Cells large, oval, walls thick. Stipule broadly hippocrepiform, 1½–2½ lines wide, narrowest at base, bifid half-way down, lobes truncate, tips trifid, margins coarsely laciniate all round, each lobe with 5–10 broad laciniæ; sinus broad, rounded at base.

Hab. On rotten logs, woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

5. G. steno-carpa, sp. nov.

Plant bright yellow-green, gregarious, semi-prostrate and sub-erect; stems very stout, 1in.–1¼in. long, forked at top, branches short, 4–5 lines wide; main stem narrower, with rootlets at base. Leaves close, imbricate, wavy, 3¼ lines long; ventral lobe semi-ovate, serrate, tip acute, with one short plait running from tip of dorsal lobe towards margin of ventral; anterior margin, the basal portion coarsely laciniate-serrate; posterior margin nearly entire, with 1–2 small distant teeth, bases overlapping on stem; dorsal lobe, tip narrow, truncate, with a long curved tooth at the upper angle; anterior margin somewhat coarsely serrate; posterior margin curved slightly within ventral, coarsely toothed. Involucral leaves erect, narrow oblong, largely laciniate; laciniæ wavy. Stipule bifid, laciniate. Cells large, clear, oblong, double-walled. Fruit-stalk slender, 1½in. long. Capsule narrow linear, cylindrical, 3 lines long, brown; valves linear ligulate, sub-acute, with numerous broad longitudinal dark lines, and closer finer lateral ones; cells quadrate.

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Hab. On ground, forming large compact turf-like patches, low woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W. C.

6. G. mitteniana, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious, pale, prostrate; stem thick, succulent, hairy beneath, with dark-red wiry rootlets in small detached bunches at bases of stipules, simple, sometimes once-branched near top, 1in.–1¾in. long, 4 lines wide at top, oblong-ovate. Leaves amplexicaul above on stem, imbricate, dorsal bases largely overlapping and wavy, distant and smaller below; ventral lobe sub-oblong-ovate (lingulate), the apical half serrate, having 2–3 small laciniations on each side with thick diagonal plaits, tip obtuse, minutely sub-apiculate, the basal half of anterior margin produced, ciliate; ciliæ long, flexuous, branched; the posterior margin finely serrulate; dorsal lobe short, sub-trapeziform, truncate; anterior margin closely and finely serrulate, increasing at tip; posterior margin straight, distant from that of ventral lobe. Cells large, rather coarse and irregular, sub-orbicular and broadly elliptic. Stipule large, sub-flabelliform-quadrate, 4-lobed, sinuses deep narrow sub-acute, very much ciliate on all sides; ciliæ long, flexuous. Numerous stipellæ (phyllodia?) in the axils, the largest sub-quadrate, bifid, tips truncate; the others narrow linear, and all largely and finely ciliate.

Hab. On ground at bases of trees, low wet woods, Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W. C.

Obs. A species somewhat resembling G. balfouriana, Hook. f. and Tayl., in general appearance, but leaves without lamellæ, and the whole plant much more ciliate, the ciliæ longer, flexuous and cellular; the basal anterior margin of leaf finely ciliate, and the phyllodia more numerous and hairyciliate.

7. G. moniliformis, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious, prostrate, obovate-oblong, ¾in.–2in. long, 4 lines wide at top, slightly branched, leafy to base, stem stout, dark-coloured, for three-fourths of length beneath covered with dense blackish-purple rootlets. Leaves close, much imbricated above; ventral lobe narrow ovate, obtuse, with two plaits running to margin from angles of tip of dorsal; the tip and apical half of anterior margin serrate, the basal half ciliate; the posterior margin entire; dorsal lobe short, three-fifths of ventral, tip truncate, broad, and toothed; anterior base rounded, produced beyond ventral and largely overlapping stem, with a few distant minute marginal teeth and 2–3 fine plaits, slightly denticulate on lateral line of posterior margin. Cells large, sub-orbicular, sometimes oval, clear, their walls broad and double, with minute cellules. Stipule

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sub-flabelliform-orbicular, narrowest at base, deeply bifid (half-through) or quadrifid, the two outer lobes being smaller; sinuses large, round; all sparingly (4–5) lacinio-ciliate, the lower sides of stipule with usually one straight, horn-like cilia on each; ciliæ very long, straight, acute, peculiarly moniliform or strangulated, their alternate cells wanting or reduced to a fine black thread. Cells of stipule large, oblong, clear, their walls thick, larger at margins and at bases of ciliæ. In the axils between lobes 3–5 small patent stipellæ (or phyllodia), each 3–4 laciniate-branched.

Hab. Woods, Great Barrier Island, Frith of River Thames; 1888: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

8. G. epiphyta, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, creeping, flaccid, pale - green. Stems simple, and sparingly dichotomously branched, linear, 2in. long, 3–3½ lines wide, leafy throughout, adhering its whole length beneath by its numerous dark-red rootlets. Leaves rather distant below, close and sub-imbricate above; ventral lobe narrow oblong, sub-acute; anterior margin serrate, with an auricle at base cilio-fimbriate, several plaits in the apical half, the two larger ones from below tip of dorsal lobe, running diagonally to a notch in each margin, the largest broad and raised, its edge denticulate; posterior margin serrate with a few notches, base ciliate; dorsal lobe semi-cordate, serrate, tip broadly truncate, coarsely serrate, base ciliate; anterior basal portion much rounded and produced far beyond ventral lobe, slightly overlapping on back of stem; posterior margin considerably within that of ventral. Cells large, sub-orbicular, irregular, compact, thick-walled with minute cellules. Stipule very large, sub-oblong-quadrate, 4–5-fid, cut half through, sinuses rounded, lobes large oblong, tips truncate, margins sinuate, much ciliate; ciliæ long, flexuous, curly, 2-celled at bases and springing from marginal knobs; a row of ciliæ down centre of stipule from base of sinus; cells as in leaves, but coarser. Several small stipellæ (phyllodia?) of finely-curved fimbriæ in the axils of leaves.

Hab. On trunks of tree-ferns, growing downwards, low wet forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W. C.

9. G. winkelmannii, sp. nov.

Plant large, prostrate, horizontal, flat, narrow oblong or sub-oblong-lanceolate, 3in. long, 9 lines wide, tip broad, tapering and leafy to base, usually simple—a few specimens seen 1-branched about the middle, with numerous long pink rootlets from the middle and base of the stem. Leaves pale-green, membranous, imbricate; ventral lobe 4 lines long, sub-oblong-lanceolate, tip acute, the upper portion

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(both sides) deeply laciniate and finely toothed, the basal anterior margin distantly lacinio-ciliate, their sinuses broad and curved, the basal posterior margin entire; dorsal lobe half as long, tip acute, its basal anterior margin much arched, produced beyond margin of leaf and very minutely serrulate, sub-auricled and largely overlapping on stem, auricles sub-erect and recurved; the posterior margin considerably within the margin of the ventral lobe; both lobes a little plaited diagonally. Cells of various sizes, oblong-orbicular not clear, walls thick, smaller and distinct at margins. Stipule large, orbicular (in outline), 2 lines diameter, bifid two-thirds of depth, the basal portion plaited, each segment truncate, sub-tripartite (2-lobed on the outer and 1-lobed on the inner margin), edges recurved, largely lacinio-ciliate; laciniæ curviform; sinuses large, rather broad, their laciniæ and ciliæ crossing each other and them. Cells oblong-orbicular, clear, their walls very thick.

Hab. On rotten wood, forests, Great Barrier Island, Frith of Thames; 1888: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs. A fine species, having affinity with G. appendiculata, Nees, but differing in several particulars, as in size, habit, short stipe, and being leafy to base; the leaves narrower and plaited; the ventral lobe having shallower laciniæ in the upper portion, and deeper and curved ones in the lower anterior margin; the dorsal lobe more produced, minutely serrulate, and auricled; the stipules, also, larger, more divided, and lacinio-ciliate.

Genus 8. Chiloscyphus, Corda.

§ 1. Leaves opposite, stipules united to both the leaves below them.

1. C. epibrya, sp. nov.

Plant large, creeping, 3in.–3½in. long, 2½ lines wide, simple and branched, usually 3-branched at top, and sometimes these again slightly forked at tip, leafy throughout, very membranous, pellucid, delicate pale-green. Leaves opposite, close, imbricate, patent, sub-trapeziform, very broad at base, narrowly decurrent, long and diagonal on dorsal surface of stem, tip truncate with one horn at each outer angle, the horns 4-celled, spreading, the sinus sub-sinuate and slightly produced not incised, margins delicately thickened. Cells pentagonal and sub-orbicular, with large clear double walls, and narrow linear interstitial cellules. Stipules large, sub-orbicular, 6-toothed, teeth large, connate with leaves below, the base of stipule hollow and rounded, with many fine rootlets.

Hab. Overrunning mosses, on the ground, wet thickets, Taupo, and interior.

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Obs. A species allied to C. colensoi, Mitten (“Handbook N.Z. Flora,” p. 753).

2. C. spruceana, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, creeping, 1½in.–2in. long, 2 lines wide, very pale-green; simple and with 1–3 short lateral branches; the under surface of stems clothed with very fine rootlets. Leaves opposite, close, imbricate, patent, 1 line long, sub-trapeziform or broadly pyramidal with the apex (one-fifth) cut off, very truncate, straight or slightly sinuate, 2-ciliate-horned, one at each outer angle, margined; margins entire and straight; very broad at base, decurrent. Cells very large, sub-quadrate-orbicular or sub-pentagonal, their walls double. Stipules large, sub-quadrate-reniform, with five (rarely six) cilio-fimbriæ, long, flexuous, subulate, 6–8-celled, the two lower cells geminate; connate rather broadly on both sides with leaves. Sinuses very large and broad at base.

Hab. Growing over and closely adhering to patches of Lepidozia leucocarpa (infra), low woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. The outline of leaf resembles that of Lophocolea ciliata, Mitt.

3. C. ammophila, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, spreading, dichotomously branched at top, 1½in.–2in. long, 3 lines wide at middle of main stem, 2 lines on branches, dusky dark-green, but when young light-green. Leaves imbricate throughout, deltoid-rotund, dimidiate, very wavy, shining, entire, margined, with a strongly-marked horizontal green line running towards apex; tip rounded, obtuse and sub-acute; decurrent on dorsal stem and meeting at their extreme bases. Cells sub-orbicular, walls double with minute cellules, oval and larger at centre. Stipule large, connate on both sides, reniform, concave, recurved, ciliate-toothed; teeth few, distant, smaller at the ends.

Hab. On the ground with other small plants, sandy spots, sides of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

4. C. vulcanica, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant small, sub-erect, simple and forked at base, sub ½in. high, 1/20in. wide. Leaves very close, slightly imbricated, regular, spreading, sub-deltoid, apex truncate straight, 2-horned (the upper one generally longer and curved), dimidiate, sides slightly rounded, irregularly ciliate-toothed, teeth straight; ventral margin produced at base and more ciliate, ciliæ curved. Stipule large (for plant), oblong-quadrate, retuse with ten long teeth, six at top and two at each side, connate with leaf below on both sides; margined, edges and

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tip coloured brown. Cells large, clear, sub-orbicular with a central bead, and minute cells in the angles.

Hab. Among other Hepaticæ and low mosses, on the ground, sides of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

5. C. marginata, sp. nov.

Plant pale, prostrate, creeping, 2in. long, stems 1½ lines wide, simple, and forked at tips. Leaves very membranous, sub-opposite, close, half imbricated, margined, sub-rotund-quadrate above on stem, deltoid, below their bases very broad; tips broad, emarginate and obtuse, wavy, recurved, decurrent and slightly diagonal on dorsal surface of stems, with their extreme ends overpassing. Cells compact, orbicular, dotted each with 2–5 spots, walls narrow but double with minute interstitial cellules. Stipules bifid, margins uneven; lobes long, acuminate, flexuous, with two long laciniate flexuous teeth on each outside near base; connate with leaf, largely amplexicaul. Sinus very large, sub-acute, spreading, with sometimes a tooth, and many small white rootlets from base.

Hab. On ground, among mosses, wet woods, Taupo.

§ 3. Leaves opposite or alternate, stipule free.

6. C. venustula, sp. nov.

Plant small, delicate, horizontal, creeping, 1in.–2in. long, scarcely 1 line broad, simple, and slightly branched near base; stems dark-coloured, wiry, rooting under each stipule. Leaves darkish, clear, pinnate, sub-opposite, sub-quadrate, adnate, detached not imbricate, the apex broadly rounded with three equidistant spiny ciliæ, which are two-fifths length of lamina, straight and celled. Cells large, sub-orbicular, clear. Stipule small, free, of three spreading rays, celled. Fruit not seen.

Hab. Among mosses, &c., on ground, sides of Mount Tongariro, East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. An elegant little and extremely delicate species; its manner of growth serving to show to advantage its rather peculiar and striking segments, with their long, straight, outstanding ciliæ. Not having met with it in a fruiting state, it is provisionally placed under this genus, as it may prove to be a Lophocolea; but, from its appearance and its rooting under the stipules, I believe it to be a Chiloscyphus. I only obtained a few specimens, laboriously picked out from other small cryptogams, and cleaned from pumice-dust.

7. C. insula, sp. nov.

Plant small, gregarious, erect, ½in. high, mostly simple, sometimes one-branched, broadest at top, tips recurved; 2–3

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stout flagellæ descending from middle of stem. Leaves closely imbricate, wavy, yellowish-green, broadly sub-oblong-ovate, entire, sometimes minutely, distantly, and irregularly denticulate. Stipules narrow reniform-oblong, contracted at base, sub-amplexicaul, margins irregular, slightly and distantly toothed. Cells large, orbicular, dotted, with minute cellules in their angles. Perianth basal, shortly peduncled, green, campanulate; mouth lacinio-ciliate, flexuous; involucral leaves—inner, small, entire; outer, erect, trifid.

Hab. On rotten wood, among mosses, forming spreading patches, forests, Great Barrier Island, Frith of Thames; 1888: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

8. C. lingulata, sp. nov.

Stem procumbent, creeping, simple, straight, 1in.–2½in. long, 3 lines wide (in the larger specimens), spreading and growing over each other, stoutish, brown, shining, pinnatifid; lobes (or leaflets) of two sizes on stem, the lower being much smaller; cut nearly to rhachis (sometimes distinct), adnate, scarcely decurrent, alternate and sub-opposite, sub-imbricate, oblong-lingulate, entire, both margins nearly straight, the lower slightly oblique; tips rounded, very obtuse, with occasionally a very minute microscopical tooth or horn at the anterior apical corner; the segments in the small branches having their tips more truncate, and often minutely 2-horned, one at each of the outer angles; pale whitish-green. Cells large, compact, sub-quadrilateral, with free, thickish, dark rings within them. Stipules rather large, spreading, distant, bifid; tips acuminate, acute; sinus broad, the base rounded, each lobe 3–4 denticulate-ciliate; generally placed centrally under the upper lobe of a quasi pair of leaves, and sometimes at their junction on stem. Cells large, orbicular, clear, with a thick bunch of long flexuous white rootlets at base of each stipule. Perianth peduncled on ventral side near base, 4–5 pairs opposite and near each other, short, stout; perianth green, lobes long acuminate, laciniate, curved.

Hab. On the ground, damp shady forests near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A species having close affinity with C. supinus, Hook. f. and Tayl., and also with C. polycladus, Mitt. This peculiarity of its leaves being biformed, and bidentate on the smaller (or younger) branches, has also been noticed to obtain in the allied form C. supinus—viz.: “in ramis junioribus folia abnormalia varie bidentata” (“Fl. Nov. Zeal.,” vol. ii., p. 142).

9. C. epiphyta, sp. nov.

Plant small, delicate, simple, and forked, ¾in.–1in. long, 1 line wide, pale-green. Leaves close, scarcely imbricate,

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sub-oblong-quadrate, broadest at base, tip truncate, with a long cilia-like spreading tooth at each angle (sometimes, also, a similar tooth in the middle of sinus), sinus excised, irregular, broad and deep, margin entire; anterior margin slightly arched, and depressed near tip; posterior margin straight. Cells large, orbicular, walls double with connected linear cellules. Stipules free, small, largely bifid; lobes long, flexuous, recurved, spreading, each with 3–4 basal longitudinal geminate cells, and two small teeth on the outside; sinus very large. Perianth sessile, erect, often two together near base, campanulate; tips largely laciniate, recurved. Calyptra globose, urceolate, mouth laciniate. Fruit-stalk 8–9 lines long; valves oblong, obtuse, brown.

Hab. On trunks of tree-ferns (Dicksonia sps.), low wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W. C.

10. C. montana, sp. nov.

Plant small, prostrate, simple, linear, flexuous, very delicate, sub ½in. long, 1 line broad. Leaves sub-opposite, close, oblong-quadrate, sides straight entire; tips truncate, irregularly ciliate-toothed; teeth 2–5 (usually 4), straight, spreading. Cells large, clear, oblong-hexagonal, regular in almost lateral bands. Stipule small, free, broadly ovate, bifid; lobes acuminate, forked; sinus large, rounded; ciliate, ciliæ few; cells as in leaves.

Hab. On ground with other small Hepaticæ, sides of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. This plant in its young state is whitish pellucid, leaves with fewer and more distant teeth; when aged it is longer, dark-brown, more flexuous and sub-rigid, with its leaves more distinct: unless these, from more copious and better specimens, should form two species.

11. C. heterodonta, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, stems stout, about 1in.–1½in. long, lanceolate, 2 lines wide at middle, simple, and branched at base. Leaves green, sub-imbricate at middle of stem, oblong-quadrate; tips bifid (sometimes irregular) and much ciliate; lateral margins entire, but some leaves have one long ciliate tooth at the middle of the anterior lateral margin, or (but more rarely) one on the posterior margin. Stipule minute, free, narrow ovate, bifid, and sometimes trifid, with six ciliæ, three on each side. Cells large, clear, oblong-hexagonal.

Hab. With preceding, C. montana, Col.

Obs. This plant possesses several characters in common with C. montana, while it differs in others, which are also constant. Better specimens are wanting. I picked out both from a quantity of broken vegetable rejectamenta.

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12. C. compacta, sp. nov.

Plant small, sub-erect, ¾in.–1in. long, 1½ lines wide, mostly simple, sometimes 2–4 branched; branches short, tips recurved, leafy throughout; pale-green. Leaves sub-opposite, closely (one-third) imbricated above, less so below, sub-rotund and sub-orbicular-quadrate, margined, entire; tips broad, sub-sinuate, and slightly sub-emarginate. Cells large, orbicular, clear, with minute cellules in their angles. Stipules small, free, distant from bases of leaves, broadly ovate, 4-laciniate toothed; teeth flexuous, sharp, a middle one very long.

Hab. On the ground in wet woods in the interior, Taupo, &c., forming pretty large compact patches.

13. C. dicyclophora, sp. nov.

Plant small, sub-erect, ¾in.–1in. long, ½ line wide, simple, and slightly branched; of a pleasing green, with yellow recurved tips. Leaves densely imbricate, recurved, semi-rotund; anterior margin arched and with apex toothed, 10–12 blunt teeth; posterior margin produced at base, forming a complete circular dot-like auricle, which is doubled. Cells large, orbicular, walls thin with minute interstitial cellules in angles, also obscurely beaded. Stipules distant, narrow (sub-linear), reniform, clasping, with a hollow circular centre showing the stem, their ends free, obtuse, each terminating in a complete circular dot like those of leaves. Perigonial leaves, near base, sub-flabellate, erect, toothed, with linear, brownish, antheridia in threes, within a sub-campanulate receptacle with fringed margins.

Hab. Low wet woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A curious and pretty plant, nearly allied to C. cymbaliferus, Hook. f. and Tayl.

Genus 11 (1). Tylimanthus, Mitten.

1. T. novæ zealandiæ, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious; root creeping, long, stoutish, simple, naked. Stems sub-erect and drooping, 3in.–4in. high, simple, and few-branched; stipe 1in. long, bare below, with distant small leaf-like scales on its upper part; branches long, 1½in.–2½in. (sometimes two together from one base), 4–5 lines wide, linear, drooping, leafy throughout; pale yellowish-green. Leaves alternate, pinnate, very membranous, wavy and obliquely set, distant and small on lower part of branch, increasing in size upwards, close above, and sub-imbricate in middle of branch, semi-cordate-ovate, dimidiate, 3 lines long, 2 lines wide at broadest part near base, with several small marginal plaits; decurrent on dorsal side, their basal ends crossing; margins finely serrated, the basal portions entire,

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that of anterior margin much rounded, of the posterior straight; tips sub-truncate, retuse and very obtuse. Cells obscure. Involucre terminal, between two small narrow sub-vertical leaves, on a short simple stem, nodding, affixed by its base, cylindrical, 3½ lines long, 1 line wide, glabrous, or finely and sparingly pulverulent; light-brown.

Hob. On the ground in wet spots, low woods, near Norse-wood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W. C.

Obs. This is our largest (known) New Zealand species, and is also very distinct. Its larger leaves when flattened have a peculiar outline, closely resembling the profile of a large dog's head (setter); the retuse portion near the posterior margin, with its plait, forming the mouth, and a larger plait the eye.

Genus 11 (4). Balantiopsis, Mitt.

1. B. glandulifera, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, horizontal, flat, spreading, 1½in.–2in. long, 2 lines wide, slightly irregularly branched; stems thickish, rooting at stipules; rootlets long, flexuous, white and purplish; branchlets ¾in. long, pinnate, leaves nearly free, slightly imbricate, pellucid, pale, pinkish at tips, as also at stipules, broadly elliptic, obtuse; posterior margin crossing above on stem, laciniate lobed; sinuses broad, sub-margined, ciliate; ciliæ obtuse, celled, two cells wide at base. Stipules sub-flabellate in outline, 5-fid, laciniate-ciliate. Cells large, oblong - hexagonal and parallelogrammical, sub - orbicular at margins. Torus pendulous near apex, oblong, cylindrical, obtuse, 1–1½ lines long, hairy; hairs short, purple-pink, glandular, with globular dark-pink tips.

Hab. Among other Hepaticæ on the ground, Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. An interesting little species, having affinity with B. (Gymnanthe) diplophylla, Mitt., but differing in several characters. I have only detected two fruiting specimens: like other allied species and genera,* fruiting specimens seem to be very rare.

Genus 11 (5). Marsupidium, Mitt.

1. M. epiphyta, sp. nov.

Rhizome creeping. Plant gregarious, small, delicate; stems simple, forked and branched at bases, 6–8 lines long, 1 line (or less) wide, linear, flexuous, prostrate. Leaves pinnate, sub 20 jugate, alternate, distant, adnate, decurrent, sub-linear-spathulate, broadest at top, the lower ones very minute sub-oblong-quadrate, margins slightly uneven; the anterior margin arched, the posterior straight; tips bifid, lobes irregular

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., pp. 286, 287.

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acuminate, sharp, the upper one larger; sinus broad, with several very minute teeth on lobes and anterior apical margin. Cells (in young leaves) small, compact, sub-orbicular, walls thick with cellules in them; in old leaves obscure and beaded. Involucre at bases and at forks of branches, small, triangular-ovoid, 1 line long, brownish, glabrous, hairy at top, with a few scattered hairs below; hairs white.

Hab. Epiphytical on trunks of tree-ferns, low wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885: W. C.

Obs. A species very near to (?)Tylimanthus perpusillus, Col. (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., p. 286).

Genus 13. Lepidozia, Nees.

1. L. elegans, sp. nov.

Plant small, pale, slender, delicate, creeping, ¾in. long, ½ line wide, simple, and pinnately branched; main stem stoutish for size of plant, with straight longitudinal lines and cells; branches alternate, irregular, 3–4 lines long. Leaves alternate, close but not imbricate, horizontal, oblong-quadrate, sides straight, entire, tips truncate 3-ciliate; ciliæ three-fourths of length of leaf, subulate, acute, straight, extended, 4-celled; their sinuses rather broad and bases subangular. Cells large, sub-quadrate, distinct, walls thick, usually disposed in 6 lines with 6 cells in a line—sometimes, but rarely, less. Stipules minute, 3-rayed, with a dark-coloured knot or node, and fine short rootlets.

Hab. On rotten wood, forests, Great Barrier Island, Frith of Thames; 1888: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs. I. An elegant and curious little species, pretty closely allied to L. centipes, Tayl. (a Tasmanian plant), with which it may easily be confounded at first sight, but differing from that species in many characters, as in the main stem having differently-formed and longer cells; in the leaves having a less number of cells, with no long basal cells (double size), which are so very conspicuous in L. centipes, and only three (not four) ciliæ, with their bases usually single-celled; and in the stipules being 3- (not 4-) rayed.

II. In the very full and clear description of L. centipes given by Lindenberg and Gottsche (“Species Hepaticarum,” pp. 29, 30), they say: “Folia …. quadrifida fere ad medium; laciniæ sub-rectæ, quaternis cellulis, singula serie dispositis, binisque fultis constant….. Cellulæ foliorum basales reliquis fere duplo longiores unde singularem adspectum, cum aqua non cito penetrentur, præbent.” Which their accompanying drawing and dissections also clearly show.

2. L. leucocarpa, sp. nov.

Plant very small, densely tufted, main stem creeping, ½in.–

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¾in. long, branched; branches 1–2 lines long, erect, close, opposite and alternate, flexuous, simple forked and pinnate, few-leaved. Leaves 3-fid, lobes long, subulate, and spreading, 5–6 celled; lamina very short, 2 cells deep, cells narrow linear. Perichætial leaves larger and broader, ovate, tip laciniate. Stipule closely resembling leaves, only smaller in size. Perianth terminal and basal, large for plant, 2 lines long, whitish, lanceolate, plaited above, cells linear, parallelogrammic, clear; mouth lacinio - fimbriate (usually twelve fimbriæ, their cells very long). Fruit-stalk ½in. long. Capsule small, brown-red; valves sub-linear-lanceolate, margined, obtuse, with longitudinal parallel stout dark lines, and latitudinal fine brown ones; cells narrow parallelogrammic.

Hab. On the ground in low wet woods, forming thick spreading patches, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885: W. C.

Obs. A very peculiar-looking and striking little species, from its numerous long white perianths, which are very conspicuous owing to their erect position above the plant, their size, and colour.

3. L. minutissima, sp. nov.

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Plant very small, exceedingly slender, 1in.–2in. long, 1/60in. broad, prostrate, creeping, bipinnate, much branched; branches alternate, irregular, some very long for plant, and some ending with flagellæ; pale-green when fresh, but of a light-brown afterwards. Main stem (and flagellæ) translucent, composed of longitudinal parallelogrammic cells. Leaves distant on main stem, close together and patent on branches and branchlets, 3-rayed, cut nearly to base, the minute lamina composed of two small cells; segments capillary, sub-articulate, acute, spreading, 6-celled, the lowermost geminate. Stipules similar but smaller, with fine white rootlets descending from their bases.

Hab. On rotten logs among other Hepaticæ, particularly Gottschea sps., creeping between and over its leaves; forests near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A peculiar and minute, almost microscopical, plant; its known affinities are with L. lindenbergii, Gottsche, and L. capillaris, Lind.

Genus 14. Mastigobryum.

1. M. heterodontum, sp. nov.

Plant creeping, 2in.–3in. long, 1½ lines broad, stout, leafy to base, dichotomous; branches spreading at right angles; flagellæ stout, short. Leaves brownish - green, thickish, opaque, closely imbricated, sub-trapeziform, very broad at base, dimidiate, truncate, falcate, recurved, 3-fid, teeth

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irregular (and so sinuses), long and short, acute and blunt, margins sub-repand with minute denticulations about apex; anterior margin much arched; posterior nearly straight, a little excised. Cells sub-orbicular-oblong, distinct, guttulate, obscure. Stipules patent, recurved, sub-quadrate, broadest at base and closely approaching bases of leaf but not joined, top truncate, sub 4-fid, each coarse tooth (or small lobe) again serrate, sides denticulate. Cells narrow oblong and clear at margins, smaller and more compact (yet distinct) at centre and base.

Hab. Woods near Lake Waikare, County of Wairoa; 1888: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. Only three specimens received, mixed with other Hepaticæ.

2. M. vulcanicum, sp. nov.

Plant stout, dichotomously branched, (?) 2in.–3in. long, 1½ lines wide, dark-coloured, flagelliferous; flagellæ wiry, rigid, branched. Leaves brown, thickish, rather opaque, falcate, close-set, narrow oblong, broadest at base, with their slightly-produced anterior margins near base a little over-lapping; tips truncate with many acute teeth, the three principal ones large and sub-spiny; the lateral margins slightly denticulate below apex; anterior margin a little arched; the posterior one slightly incurved, and excised at an obtuse angle near base. Cells distinct, guttulate in longitudinal lines, alike throughout. Stipules distant, sub-quadrate, much recurved, their tips and sides largely and irregularly toothed inclining to spiny.

Hab. Among small tufts of other Hepaticæ and mosses, on the ground, Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. A species near to M. olivaceum, Col. (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., p. 290).

3. M. smaragdinum, sp. nov.

Stems rather stout, cellular, 1in. long, sub-flabellately branched; branches forked, pinnate, very leafy throughout, much flagellate; flagellæ flexuous, stout, scaly. Leaves dark grass-green, shining, numerous, imbricate, oblong, dimidiate; tip 2-lobed, the upper lobe larger, sinus wide; margins entire but slightly uneven, the anterior one arched excised at apex, the posterior nearly straight. Cells large, very regular, sub-orbicular with minute interstitial orbicular cellules at their angles, oblong and a little larger at extreme base. Stipule free, distant, appressed, sub-quadrate, 3-fid, lobes stout, obtuse; cells as in leaves. Male inflorescence near base of stem, pedicelled, 4–5 nearly together; perigonial leaves very

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cellular, forming a narrow cup, sharply laciniate, white with pinkish bases, enclosing 8–10 sub-cylindrical sacs.

Hab. Among other Hepaticæ and overrunning them, on decaying logs; woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A species very near M. colensoanum, Mitt., but differing in colour, and in form of leaves, stipules, and cells: also, near to M. amænum, Col. (“Trans. N.Z. Inst,” vol. xix., p. 288), but differing in colour and position of leaves, and largely in form of stipules and of cells. A very pleasing little species.

Genus 16. Isotachis, Mitten.

1. I. elegans, sp. nov.

Plant small, erect, ¾in.–1in. high, stem short irregular simple and 1-branched with innovations; leafy throughout; the leaves larger close and imbricate at top, smaller and more distant below; green when young, reddish mature. Leaves sub-oblate-orbicular (in outline), the top almost bifid, and two large shallow lateral sinuses, margins irregularly and distantly lacinio-denticulate; teeth coarse and variable. Stipules sub-quadrate, bilobed, the sinus reaching nearly to the middle and very broad (larger than lobes), extending quite across, the two corners prominently horned and directed outwards; base sub-cordate and sub - amplexicaul; margins irregularly and slightly distantly denticulate. Cells large, clear, and sub-elliptic, their walls double.

Hab. On the ground among other small Hepaticæ and Schizæa australis, sides of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. A pretty species, nearly allied to a Tasmanian one—I. gunnii, Hook. f.

2. I. montana, sp. nov.

Plant small, tufted, reddish-brown, erect, ¾in.–1in. high, very slender, simple, sometimes forked at base; stem flexuous, with 2–3 innovations, tips nodding, hairy about bases. Leaves alternate, distant (close and imbricated at innovations), orbicular-quadrate (outline), 3-fid; lobes short, triangular, acute, concave, recurved; sinuses broad, margins sub-sinuate, sometimes a few minute blunt teeth at basal portion. Cells small, compact, orbicular, with minute cellules between them, larger and parallelogrammatic at centre and base. Stipule free, between leaves, small, sub-orbicular, bifid, margins more irregular, with a few minute teeth.

Hab. Among other Hepaticæ and small mosses, on the ground, slopes of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

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3. I. mitteniana, sp. nov.

Plant pale whitish-brown with a slight tinge of green; sub-erect, 2in.–2½in. high, loosely branched; branches long, simple, and sparingly pinnate, 2 lines wide. Leaves opposite, close, sub-imbricate above, broadly triangular or semi-rhomboidal (smaller at bases), slightly decurrent; tips acute, recurved, irregularly ciliate. Perichætial erect, oblong, ciliate, tips rounded. Stipules large, distant, sub-oblong-quadrate or broadly reniform, sub-margined, patent, convex much recurved, amplexicaul, largely ciliate (sub-cilio-fimbriate); ciliæ broad at base, flexuous, cellular; sinuses large, round. Cells small, sub-orbicular, with minute interstitial cellules, much larger oval and oblong at centre and base. Perianth tubular, 2¼ lines long, trigonous, edges undulate with double teeth, mouth lacinio-ciliate. Fruit-stalk 1¼in.–1½in. long; capsule rather small; valves oblong-lanceolate, margins slightly uneven, tips obtuse.

Hab. Among other Hepaticæ, wet forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885: W. C.

Genus 18. Sendtnera, Endlicher.

1. S. quadrifida, sp. nov.

Plant sub-erect, 2in.–3in. high, with 2–3 main stems from base, each bi- sometimes tri-pinnate, light-green; branches alternate, distant, simple and forked, deflexed, the few lower ones with their tips drawn out and sub-flagellate; the tops of the upper ones and of the main stems sub-glomerate, from their numerous compacted leaves, recurved and nodding; tips reddish. Leaves erect, sub-appressed, imbricate on branches, ½ line long, narrow oblong, sides straight and largely laciniociliate, quadrifid, or bifid with each of the two main lobes deeply divided; lobes acuminate, wavy, spreading, their margins slightly uneven; sinuses sub-acute, large and deep, extending two-fifths of leaf. Stipules similar to leaves, but smaller. Cells distinct, guttulate in longitudinal and parallel lines, small, sub-orbicular and elliptic, larger and more oblong at base. Fruit not seen.

Hab. Among mosses and low herbage on the ground, high hills at Lake Waikare, County of Wairoa; 1888: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. This is a peculiar-looking little plant, especially in its dry state, being then sub-rigid, and somewhat resembling the branches of the smaller states of Lycopodium densum, Labill., its leaves and stipules presenting a quadrifarious appearance. It is, however, allied to S. scolopendra, Nees, and to S. flagellifera, Nees, but differing from both in habit and in colour, and in several characters.

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Genus 19. Polyotus, Gottsche.

1. P. prehensilis, sp. nov.

Plant several inches long, much spreading, sometimes pendulous, emerald - green, branches alternate, very long; irregular, narrow and graceful, 3-pinnate; branchlets numerous, ¼in.–½in. long. Leaves on main stem semi-pellucid, deltoid-cordate, amplexicaul, their edges uneven, sub-margined with a regular compact row of small cells, dimidiate, oblique, sharply apiculate; the anterior margin much arched, with 1–2 subulate teeth near base, the base much produced and largely laciniate; laciniæ spreading, ciliate; ciliæ almost forming a little tuft, very long and spreading, flexuous, cellular, their cell-joints double; auricles free, clavate, erect, sometimes two together, with 1–2 small subulate stipellæ: leaves on branches much smaller, oval and broadly ovate, apiculate, and less ciliate. Stipules on main stem large, oblong-quadrate, auricled, deeply quadrifid, their sinuses wide and rounded at bases, conniving at tips, largely lacinio-ciliate all round, flexuous; ciliæ at bases long, divergent; auricles 3–5, stout; stipules on branches 4-fid, lobes long, subulate, simple, less ciliate at bases. Cells large, oblong, clear, with small hour-glass cellules laterally placed. Involucre underneath, axillary, and terminal on short lateral branchlets, oblong, erect, rough with long fimbriæ; mouth much laciniate; laciniæ acuminate, acute; involucral leaves erect, the outer broadly lanceolate, margins cilio-denticulate, apex acuminate, acute; the inner linear, their lateral margins thickened, entire, and distantly denticulate, the apex very acuminate acute, sometimes dilated and sub-truncate, and then cilio-denticulate.

Hab. On horizontal branches of living trees and shrubs, forming large irregular patches, overrunning itself largely, and frequently hanging loosely in the wind; shaded forests near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Genus 20. Radula, Nees.

1. R. xanthochroma, sp. nov.

Plant minute, somewhat tufted, creeping, main stems 2–3 lines long, 1 line wide (including leaves), flexuous, branched, cellular; cells sub-quadrate. Leaves yellow, oblong-obovate, alternate, distant below, sub-imbricate above, larger and broader on main stems, smaller and narrower on branches, margined; lobules sub-oblong-obovate, dimidiate, scarcely half the length of leaf; involucral leaves similar to those of stem, but smaller. Cells orbicular, clear, large for plant. Perianth terminal on short branchlets, campanulate, mouth somewhat lobed; lobes thickened in the middle by a kind of ridge, mucronate.

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Hab. On bark of living trees among other Hepaticæ, often found creeping over Metzgeria: edges of woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. Its very diminutive size and pure-yellow colour distinguish it well from all other species known to me. It is rather scarce, though from its smallness it may have been often overlooked. A similar small New Zealand species (R. strangulata, Hook. and Tayl.) is given in “Syn. Hepat,” p. 730: discovered by Hooker in 1840, but apparently omitted by him in “Fl. Nov. Zealand.;” differing, however, from this species in several characters.

2. R. lycopodioides, sp. nov.

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Plant erect in little tufts, very small, about 2 lines long, 1/30in. wide, simple and 2–3 - branched; branches and main stem all of nearly same length and size, sub-cylindrical. Leaves brownish, alternate, densely imbricate throughout, sub-rotund; tips produced over (or incised at) apex of lobule; lobule broadly oblong, tumid, rather large for leaf, being nearly half its length. Cells orbicular, small, larger at centre and base.

Hab. On branchlets of living trees among other Hepaticæ and mosses; woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A most peculiar-looking little species; differing widely from all others known to me; resembling the tiny narrow spike of a small Lycopodium, or a minute catkin of some amentaceous or coniferous plant.

3. R. albipes, sp. nov.

Plant minute, sub ¼in. long, creeping, thickly overrunning, branched, stems cellular; light-green. Leaves alternate, broadly oval, close, but not imbricate, margined; lobe obovate two-fifths of length of leaf. Perichætial erect, sub-apiculate. Cells orbicular, compact, sub-longitudinally ranged in regular lines. Perianth pedicelled, free, campanulate; mouth slightly denticulate. Fruit-stalk exserted, white; capsule orbicular, black-purple; spores oblong and linear-oblong, obtuse, one end generally broader, sometimes slightly curved.

Hab. On branchlets of Epicarpurus microphyllus, Raoul; and on branchlets of Melicytus microphyllus, Col.; woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

4. R. epiphylla, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, creeping, 2in.–2½in. long, bipinnately branched; branches alternate, long; branchlets short. Leaves of two shapes and sizes: (1) on main stems, close but not imbricate, sub-orbicular, anterior margin and apex rounded, the posterior less so and contracted at base; (2) on smaller

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branches, sub-imbricate and more oval; lobe very small, angular, sub-trapeziform, tip truncate. Cells distinct, guttulate, brownish, somewhat obscure. Perianth terminal on short lateral branchlets, between two branchlets that are divergent from base (giving the appearance of a cross); peduncled, with no proper perichætial leaves, long, oblongcuneiform, sides straight, increasing in width to mouth, tip truncate, slightly uneven; capsule included, narrow obovate, mucronulate.

Hab. Epiphytical on fronds of Hymenophyllum (sps.); damp woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Genus 22. Lejeunia, Libert.

§ 1. Stipules 0.

1. L. ochracea, sp. nov.

Plant small, brownish-yellow, creeping, 1in. long; main stem flexuous, terete, shining, sub-tripinnate, much branched; branches close, very irregular in size, long and short alternately. Leaves orbicular, tapering at bases, imbricate; lobule rather large, ovate, inflated; tips truncate. Cells minute, compact, orbicular, with minute interstitial cellules. Stipules 0.

Hab. On bark of trees, mixed with and overrunning Frullania (sps.), woods, Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885: W. C.

§ 4. Stipules 2-fid.

2. L. albiflora, sp. nov.

Stems ¼in.–½in. long, creeping and ascending, much branched, often forming a small densely - implexed mass. Leaves pale-green, highly cellular (also stems), pinnate, alternate, distant, sub-sessile, spreading, wavy, slightly obovate, obtuse, margined; tips sometimes dimidiate, the anterior apical margin excised; lobule oblong-obovate, one-fifth of leaf; involucral leaves smaller, entire. Cells orbicular, punctulate. Stipules elliptic, largely bifid, tips obtuse. Peduncles numerous, terminal on short lateral branchlets, long, curved. Perianths erect, whitish, very conspicuous, campanulate, exserted free, smooth, plicate, obscurely angled at top, mucronate, 4-fid shortly cut; lobes oblong, tips obtuse, jagged, sub-mucronulate. Fruit-stalk stoutish, length of perianth; cells large, longitudinal, transversely and equidistantly ringed with 4–5 brown bands. Capsule globular, dark-coloured; lobes sub-acute; elaters adhering; spores rather large, oblong and sub-linear-reniform, thickish, red-brown, opaque.

Hab. On branchlets of Epicarpurus microphyllus and

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Melicope simplex, thickets south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. An interesting and rather curious little species, of pleasing appearance from the large number of its minute and erect flowers peering above its green leaves; its perianths also assume a pale, almost white, colour, making them still more conspicuous with their exserted dark-coloured capsules. It is pretty closely allied to L. rufescens, Lind., and also to a British species—L. minutissima, Dumort.

3. L. epiphylla, sp. nov.

Plant very small, sub ¼in. high, tufted; main stems creeping; branches sub-erect, simple and forked. Leaves close and imbricate, somewhat falcate, oval, dimidiate; tips obtuse, and sub-acute; anterior base produced, margins slightly uneven; lobule broadly ovate, tumid. Perichætial leaves obovate; tips sub-apiculate, obtuse. Cells small, clear, various—orbicular to narrow oblong, walls thick with minute cellules, smaller and more regular at margins. Stipule oval, bifid. Perianth sessile, obovate-oblong, plicate, campanulate when expanded, mouth truncate; tips of lobes rounded, apiculate. Fruit-stalk shortly exserted, curved, transversely ringed; capsule sub-orbicular; valves broadly ovate, split half-way down, pellucid, cellular.

Hab. Epiphytical on Hymenophyllum (sps.), woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Genus 23. Frullania, Raddi.

§ 2. Lobule vertically elongate, &c.

1. F. tongariroense, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, slender, graceful, 1½in.–2in. long, branched, sub-tri-pinnate; branches alternate, distant, 3–4 lines long; branchlets short, 1 line long. Leaves concave, distant, and large on main stems, less so on branches, close on branchlets but not imbricate, sub-oblate-orbicular or broadly elliptic, dimidiate with anterior margin incurved at tip, apiculate; pale-green with a very narrow purple margin (and so scales); lobule large, purplish-brown, erect, a little inclined from stem, elliptic-clavate, broadest at apex, the tip produced beyond margin of leaf. Scale hippocrepiform, with many fine wavy ciliæ proceeding from the centre; sinus large, spreading, extending half through in depth.

Hab. Among other Hepaticæ and mosses on the ground, Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. A species allied to F. minutissima, Col. (“Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., p. 298). The little dark lobule has a curious

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appearance, somewhat resembling a very short-stemmed, small, and plain tobacco-pipe.

2. F. intermixta, sp. nov.

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A minute prostrate species; stems stoutish, about ½in. long and 1/40in. wide, branched; branches 1–2 lines long. Leaves brownish, distant below, sub-imbricate at tips of branchlets, oblate-orbicular, sub-cordate at base, margins slightly uneven; lobule large for plant, dark-coloured, inflated, galeate, upright, tip truncate with a bell-mouth rim produced beyond margin of leaf. Stipules shortly bifid, with two acute teeth on each side. Cells sub-quadrilateral, regular, clear.

Hab. On rotten logs among other and larger Hepaticæ, particularly Gottschea; low wet woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A peculiar little species, having affinity with F. reptans, Mitt., F. fugax, Hook. f. and Tayl., and F. pentapleura, Hook. f. and Tayl., in the shape of its leaves and lobule. Only a few specimens were obtained; probably overlooked from its very minute size and low, creeping, hiding habit. Fruiting specimens not seen.

3. F. platyphylla, sp. nov.

Plant rather large (?)—only a single branch seen; 1½in. long, 1 line wide, bipinnate, dark-brown, flat; branchlets distant, spreading at right angles. Leaves bifarious, much imbricate, orbicular, cordate, clasping, slightly overlapping at base, margins minutely uneven, particularly at base; lobule large, flat, depending, semi-circular-ovate, dimidiate; base free, broad, much arched; tip slender, acute, recurved, slightly produced. Stipule broadly reniform or sub-reniform-cordate, the sinus very small, broad, obtuse, margins slightly uneven, with a small oblong laciniate stipella adpressed at base, and a tuft of small spreading fibres below it. Cells small, orbicular, with very minute interstitial cellules.

Hab. Among mosses, &c., woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. This species strongly resembles Madotheca stangeri, Gottsche (itself a variable plant), especially when living (damp) and merely looking at its dorsal side; hence I suppose it to have been overlooked or passed by.

4. F. diffusa, sp. nov.

Plant large, dark-green, 2in.–3in. (or more) long, much branched, 3-pinnate, rather rigid, implexed. Leaves on the main stem, distant, reniform, clasping: on the branches, sub-imbricate, broadly ovate, dimidiate, sub-falcate, tips very obtuse and rounded, their cells small, obscure, sub-rhomboidal with black bead-like central points: on the young branchlets,

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light-green, oval, margined, their cells sub-orbicular and of various sizes. Lobule (occasional) very small, adpressed to stem, galeate with a short beak, not produced beyond leaf. Stipule small, sub-hippocrepiform, margins entire; sinus slightly oblique, margins uneven, base obtuse; tips coarsely produced, one larger than the other; cells small, obscure. Perianth green, ovate, deeply carinate on one side, densely muricated, shining; tip obtuse, mucronate.

Hob. Forming large spreading overlapping patches on living trees, woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

5. F. cunninghamiana, sp. nov.

Plant large, greenish, prostrate, creeping, much branched especially at tips of main stems, quadripinnate; branches 1½in.–2in. long. Leaves large, close, imbricate, clasping, sub-vertical, patent, orbicular-reniform, margined; margins slightly uneven, light-brown. Cells small, guttulate. Lobule small, narrow-galeate, adpressed to stem, not produced beyond leaf, tip small, obtuse. Stipules sub-reniform-orbicular; sinus small, margined. Perichætial leaves—the inner erect, much laciniate, flexuous, waved; the outer very broad, sub-orbicular, margins crenate-sinuate; their cells large, oblong-quadrilateral below, guttulate and distinct above. Perianth oblong, trigonous, smooth, one side flat, the other largely carinate; the carina wide, blunt, not extending to mouth; tip truncate, apiculate. Capsule exserted, brown; valves broadly ovate, roughish within; tips sub-acute, abounding in elaters; elaters double-spiral, dilated at ends.

Hab. On living Podocarpus totara trees, forming large thick patches; woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

6. F. banksiana, sp. nov.

Plant small, sub-rigid, scarcely 1in. long, bipinnately branched; branches few, with two stipellæ at base of each branch, and one at each leaf. Leaves distant, oval, margins slightly uneven. Lobule close to stem, narrow galeate; tips long, recurved, partly below margin of leaf. Cells small, sub-orbicular, compact, rather obscure. Stipule broadly oblong; tip sub-acuminate; sinus deep, spreading.

Hab. On ultimate branchlets living trees, woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

7. F. solanderiana, sp. nov.

(One branch only.) ¾in. long, tripinnate; branchlets numerous, alternate, with long sub-lanceolate-ovate stipellæ at bases of branchlets; pale-brownish. Leaves broadly oval, almost rotund, sub-margined, larger on branch than on

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branchlets, pale-brownish. Lobule darker-brown, free, sub-rotund, inflated, patent from stem and projecting below leaf, with a minute acute beak at centre of posterior margin. Cells small, clear, of various shapes, sub-quadrilateral and irregularly angular, walls thick and double with minute cellules in them. Stipules sub-reniform-orbicular, bifid; sinus linear, rather narrow, 2–4 coarse teeth in margins.

Hab. Among Hepaticæ (spns.), woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

8. F. curvirostris, sp. nov.

Plant small; stems stoutish, flattish, 1in. long, nearly 1 line wide, branched; branches alternate, rather long, sub-pellucid. Leaves broadly elliptic, reddish tinged; margins slightly uneven; tips obtuse and sub-acute. Cells clear, orbicular, with very minute interstitial cellules. Lobule large, purplish, galeate, arch much produced, turgid, shining; tip long acuminate, recurved, passing beyond both margin of its own and of the next leaf, slightly sub-imbricate. Stipule large, sub-orbicular, bifid, laciniate.

Hab. Woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

9. F. polyclada, sp. nov.

Plant forming close matted patches of a few inches each way. Stems 2in.–3in. long, much branched, with numerous very short patent lateral branchlets. Leaves sub-oblong-orbicular or broadly transverse oblong, one end broader than the other, olive-green (young ones and branchlets bright-green), obscure, margined; margins purple and minutely scored or marked with straight transverse lines; lobule small, galeate, tip acute, not extending beyond margin of leaf. Cells indistinct, exceedingly minute and irregular, punctulate, larger clear and broadly oblong in centre at junction with stem. Stipules narrow hippocrepiform, the sinus deep, broad at margin, with the two angles acute. Perianth terminal on short lateral branchlets, green, oblong, tuberculate, keeled sharply on one side, with two smaller carinulæ at the base, the other side flattish; tip retuse and mucronate. Capsule enclosed, globular, large. Involucral leaves large, bifid, acute.

Hab. On indurated clayey boulders, Whangawehi, north side of Table Cape; 1887: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A species very near to F. echinella, Col., but differing in its peculiar habit of growth with short starry lateral branchlets—its dimidiate margined leaves with widely different cells—its perianth of a different shape, with straight sides, and more coarsely tuberculate—and its bifid involucral leaves.

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10. F. ichthyostoma, sp. nov.

Plant 1½in.–2in. long; branches tripinnate, much implexed. Leaves tranversely set, sub-vertical, orbicular, margins uneven, tips recurved; brown-black, but when young green. Perichætial large, broadly ovate, acute, sub-amplexicaul. Cells various shapes and sizes, oblong, sub-rhomboidal, their edges uneven and curiously sub-crenulate. Stipule small, reniform, with a bunch of rootlets at its base; sinus slightly lateral (resembling a fish's mouth in profile), shallow, spreading, the upper or apical angle larger. Perianth oblong, smooth, sub-4-gonous, largely and bluntly carinate on one side, slightly so and only half-way down on the other; tip mucronate.

Hab. On trees, woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa, forming large spreading patches; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A species peculiarly marked in the microscopical and regular crenulate divisions of its cells—a curious (if not unique) character; also in the oblique sinus of its stipule—whence its trivial name.

11. F. pulvinata, sp. nov.

Stems 1in.–2in. long, much branched and implexed. Leaves orbicular-cordate, margin slightly uneven. Cells oblong with minute interstitial cellules, also (without epidermis) distinct, beaded. Perichætial erect, broadly ovate, acuminate, bifid; lobes acute spreading, sinus deep. Stipule broadly orbicular; margin slightly irregular; sinus rather small; cells guttulate. Perianth flattish, oblong, smooth, slightly keeled on one side, mucronate; mucro stout, obtuse.

Hab. On living trees, woods, Dannevirke, County of Waipawa, forming big patches; 1888: W. C.

Genus 27. Zoopsis, Hook. f. and Tayl.

1. Z. basilaris, sp. nov.

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Plant terrestrial, minute, sub-erect, and decumbent, glabrous, pale-green, densely gregarious. Root long (for plant), straight, capillary, hyaline, white with minute spreading lateral rootlets; stem very short, branches simple, and once branched, spreading, 3–4 lines long, 1/80in. wide, wholly composed of an innumerable number of large transparent orbicular cells, their single narrow walls or divisions (in appearance) intercircling each other, central nerve dark and very stout; the branches linear, 6 cells wide, pretty regularly sub-lobed with alternate gibbous lateral projections, each composed of 2–3 cells with a smaller hemispherical cap, or boss, on the outside one, their tips broader, obtuse. Perianth single, basal, sub-sessile, erect, obovate, 1/10in. long, composed wholly of cells, no nerves; mouth cut into five rather long acuminate and

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acute lobes, tips conniving. A few spreading bifid and trifid cellular scales at its base, with many single narrow linear hyaline spreading fimbriæ below them.

Hab. On the ground among other Hepaticæ and mosses shaded wet woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A species having close affinity with Z. argentea, Hook. f., and also with Z. flagelliforme, Col. (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 250), but differing from the former in habit, in texture, and in colour, in its larger number of lateral cells, and in its not possessing any “cilii-form appendages,” or “bristles,” or “saw-like teeth” to its marginal bosses; and from the latter in its branches being 6 cells in width, in their not being flagelliferous at tips, in its perianth being basal and much less laciniate, &c. This little plant affords a very pleasing and highly instructive, though tedious, microscopical study.

2. Z. muscosa, sp. nov.

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Plant prostrate, creeping, forming large thick patches several inches square; light-green. Stems 1in.–1½in. long, 1/30 in. wide, dichotomous; branches spreading largely; nerve stout, dark, flexuous; margins sinuous, regular; cells very large, sub-quadrilateral, usually about six in the width of a branch. Long flagellæ, or very narrow sub-rigid branchlets, proceed from main stem and axils at right angles.

Hab. On rotten logs, wet woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A species near Z. flagelliforme, Col. (supra), but differing in habit, in its larger size, broader stems and branches with more regular margins, their cells bigger and of a different shape, and the tips of the branches not flagellate.

Genus 30. Symphyogyna, Mont. and Nees.

1. S. platystipa, sp. nov.

Plant small, stipitate, gregarious, roots shortly creeping, 2–3 fronds together on a rhizome; erect, 1in.–1¼in. high. Stipe slender, pale, sub-rigid, flexuous, flat at top not winged, sometimes once branched near base. Frond broadly reniform, ½in.–¾in. broad, 2-branched; branches short, twice forked; lobes linear, wide, very thin, transparent, bright-green, slightly undulate, margins entire, tips deeply emarginate, nerve scarcely reaching to notch. Cells large orbicular-oblong. Calyptra at base of main forks, three on a plant, sub-peduncled on a small bulbous process, large, broadly reniform, wavy, the ends free not encircling nor adhering; margin entire and slightly sub-sinuate. Within calyptra 12–14 small erect linear pellucid sacs (antheridia), transversely marked in small

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squares, their margins minutely constricted at nodes, tips reddish.

Hab. In wet hollows, deep woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. A species having affinity with T. flabellata of Hook., “Musci Exotici,” tab. 13 (but not of La Billardiere, “Plant. Nov. Holl.,” tab. 254, an Australian species, which I believe to be very distinct).

Genus 31. Metzgeria, Raddi.

1. M. flavo-virens, sp. nov.

Plant small, gregarious, forming thick sub-erect sub-flabelliform tufts, 3–5 lines diameter; branches irregular, ½ line wide, translucent; midrib stout, cellular; margins slightly thickened; yellow-green; crisp when dry. Cells large, hexagonal-orbicular, walls narrow double with minute interstitial cellules. Peduncle usually axillary at forks, sometimes two together, ½ line long, stout, bristly. Involucre small, ovate, acuminate, adpressed. Calyptra oblong-obovate, dark-green, bristly; bristles close, patent, white, pellucid, tips obtuse. Capsule small, globular; cells sub-quadrilateral. Antheridia in alternate scales, ovate, acuminate, laciniate, bristly.

Hab. On trunks of living trees, near their bases, forming dense large spreading patches; dry woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Order VIII.—Fungi.
Tribe III. Hydnei.

Genus 13. Hydnum, Linn.

1. H. novæ-zealandiæ, sp. nov.

Large, much and intricately branched from a short thick sub-corky stem; whole mass very compact, surface uneven, roughish, somewhat resembling an advanced cauliflower; branches irregular, flexuous, 2in.–4in. long, pithy, soft yet firm and toughish, whitish below and throughout, with a reddish-brown tinge outside at tips; spines sub-secund, numerous, close but very distinct, of irregular lengths ½in.–¾in. long, smooth, subulate, acute, sometimes tips bi- and tri-fid.

Hab. On Nesodaphne tawa, forests near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.

Obs. Apparently this must form a large plant, as the portion of one brought fresh to me was as big as a small cauliflower, about 4in. across, and evidently severed from a larger part. I may here observe that the species under H. clathroides (?), Pall., (“Handbook Fl. N.Z.,” p. 611), was also de-

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tected by me in these forests just forty years ago; then only once, and never seen by me since. That one, however, was a very different species—as to habit, size of branches and spines, colour, &c. I obtained it in wet weather (when shut up in my tent in these woods by flooded rivers, and no paths), and therefore could not preserve or dry my specimens as I wished.