Art. V.—A Description of some newly-discovered Phænogamic Plants; being a further Contribution towards the making known the Botany of New Zealand.
[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 12th November, 1888.]
Genus 1.* Carmichælia, Br.
1. C. corymbosa, sp. nov.
Shrub erect, 6ft.–8ft. high, much branched, dark-green. Branches terete, long, and slender, sub-erect, spreading and drooping; branchlets sub-semi-terete and flattened, long and flaccid, narrow, 1 line wide (some less), striate on both sides, margins slightly recurved, tips obtuse and sub-acute, generally ending with a scale. Leaves alternate, lateral from notches in edges of branches, with small scarious bracts at the base of the petiole, very few and scattered on lower branchlets (little more plentiful on young plants), membranous, green above, sub-glaucous below, trifoliolate or imparipinnate, ½in. long, cuneate and cuneate-obcordate, emarginate, the sinus deep with a minute mucro, the terminal leaflet two to three times larger than the lateral pair, which are distant, opposite, and shortly petiolulate, all three jointed; joints pale; veins largely anastomosing, margins entire yet slightly and closely sub-crenulato-denticulate; petioles flat, very slender and narrow, almost filiform, ½in.–¾in. long, striate, edges slightly recurved, ciliate at top under limb, with a few scattered weak hairs on petiole and on limb beneath; sometimes there is only the single terminal leaflet, which is then much larger and of the same shape, and sometimes (but more rarely) only the small lateral pair. Flowers scattered, lateral and infra-axillary under younger branches and branchlets, collected in short sub-corymbose heads 8–10 together, 3–4-fascicled, with 3–4 small scarious bracts forming a ring at their base, sometimes
[Footnote] * The numbers attached to the orders and genera in this paper are those of them in the “Handbook, Flora of New Zealand.”
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(but rarely) in short sub-racemes. Peduncle and pedicels slightly pubescent; pedicels stout, 1/10in. long, bibracteolate at base of calyx, a bracteole at the middle and another at the base (both peduncle and pedicels lengthen in maturing fruit), bracteoles small, triangular, reddish-brown, and scarious, margins laciniate. Calyx glabrous, cup - shaped, acutely toothed, edges slightly ciliate. Corolla pale lilac with darker veins, many-nerved; nerves forked at tips; standard oblate-orbicular, 2½ lines across, with a central darker blotch, largely emarginate, unguiculate; wings broadly oblong, 2 lines long, obtuse, auricled; keel broadly oblong-reniform, 2 lines long, tip rounded very obtuse. Anthers sub-rotund; style papillose at top; stigma capitate. Pods single, or 2, 3, 4, or 7 together, elliptic, dimidiate, 3–4 lines long including short beak, glabrous, pale-green when young, grey at maturity, blackish in age, veined; beak stout, subulate, straight, acute, 1/20in. long (longer and stouter in age); replum very stout and irregularly rugulose close within and around its border, which sometimes extends to its beak; pod internally thinly lined with greyish wool. Seed usually 1, large, 1/10in. long, reniform, turgid, shining, dark-yellow mottled with purple streaks; sometimes 2 small seeds, irregular in shape and somewhat obtusely triangular, as if the one reniform seed had been divided transversely into two.
Hab. On the banks of streamlets, woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1887–88, flowering in January: W.C.
Obs. This, as a species, seems very distinct from all the other known ones; probably its nearest ally is C. flagelliformis, Col.
Genus 1. Drosera, Linn.
1. D. minutula, sp. nov.
A very small stemless species, of close gregarious habit. Roots long (2in.–3in.), straight, vertical, wiry, black, very hairy, 2–3 to a plant. Leaves reddish-brown, rosulate, crowded (8–20) in 2–3 rows, spreading flat on the ground, the whole plant ⅓in.–½in. (rarely ¾in.) in diameter; leaf with petiole about 3 lines long, the lamina 1 line long, orbicular and sub-orbicular-spathulate, veined, the whole upper surface glandular; margins largely ciliate-fringed, the ciliae longer than leaf, flat, veined, subulate, wavy, with dark (almost black) knobbed tips, clavate and sub-orbicular and apparently solid, extending round lamina at its base; the glands on centre of leaf sessile, blackish: petioles dark blackish-green, 2 lines long, flat, wide, glabrous, largely winged at bases; wings reddish-brown, membranous, margins entire, acute, and finely
lacerate at tips, with a single acute central lobe adnate on the upper side. Flowers solitary, sometimes two together at top of scape, peduncled. Scape erect, ⅓in. high, 1–3 on a plant, one central, others lateral among leaves, with a small subulate bracteole near the top, and at the base of the peduncle of the second flower when 2-flowered. Calyx campanulate, 1 line long, finely papillose and blackish (also scape), lobes 5, cut half-way to base, veined, oblong, very obtuse or sub-truncate', each lobe 5-toothed at tip, sinus broad. Corolla (imperfect) apparently smaller than calyx, and whitish.
Hab. On sides near the top of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo, hidden among low herbage and mosses; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.
Obs. I. This peculiar little novelty has some affinity with the small New Zealand species D. pygmæa, DC. (also found in Australia and Tasmania), but differs from it largely in several characters—as, in its 5-lobed calyx with the lobes obtuse and toothed, its 2-flowered scape, its want of the conspicuously large tuft of silvery stipules at the base of the scape (so very striking a character in that species) and in its still smaller size. It is also allied to D. uniflora, Willd., another small rosulate species of Fuegia and the Falklands; from which it also differs in the shape of its calyx-lobes, and in being 2-flowered, and in some other characters.
II. Unfortunately, perfect flowering specimens I have not seen. Indeed, these specimens that I have were only preserved after a great deal of pains and patient labour, for they came to me in little, mouldy, dry, and hard turfs (1in.–2in. long), as cut up out of the black boggy soil in which they grew, and not a single leaf of Drosera was, distinguishable, and scarcely anything else, those turfs having been also roughly packed, wet, on the spot, and so dried and squeezed in carrying and long-keeping; hence the delicate and small corollas of the Drosera (and other plants) were all more or less imperfect. It was only after soaking the turfs in water, and patiently washing and going over them with a stout needle and a camel-hair pencil, that I managed to clean and obtain my specimens. From those turfs, however, I secured more than a dozen plants of the Drosera, but not all bearing flowering scapes. Those little lumps also contained several other minute plants, one of them proving to be a Muhlenbeckia, sp. nov.,* and the following, which I have also determined: viz., Claytonia, sp., Stackhousia (?) minima, Haloragis, sp. (probably H. minima, Col. †), Hypoxis, Carex, sp., some barren mosses, a few very minute Hepaticæ, Cladonia, (?) sp. nov., with small black
[Footnote] * See p. 98, infra.
[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 259.
clustered apothecia: all very thickly and almost inextricably growing together, firmly bound down by the very small and twiggy hypogæous Muhlenbeckia; and all more or less cut into small bits and broken, with their tender parts decayed.
Genus 1. Hydrocotyle, Linn.
1. H. amæna, sp. nov.
Plant small, creeping, bright - green, glabrous. Stems hypogæous, 1in.–3in. long, stoutish, flexuous, much branched, rooting at nodes; branches short. Leaves small, scattered singly and in pairs, sometimes three together, orbicular, sub-peltate, 2–4 lines diameter, sinus narrow, 5-ribbed, 5- (rarely 7-) lobed; lobes shallow, tri-crenate, sub-acute, anterior ones imbricate at edges, shining alike on both sides; petioles ¾in.–1¼in. long, stoutish, with a few weak diverging and retrorse flattish hairs at top under leaf. Stipules small, pellucid, bladdery, margins entire. Peduncles same length as petioles, flexuous, opposite to leaves. Umbels usually 6- (sometimes 5-, very rarely 9-) flowered. Involucral leaves 6, oblong, 1-nerved, adpressed; tips obtuse, coloured. Flowers sessile, pale-pink (as, also, styles, the minute calycine teeth, and the central meeting of ribs of leaf); petals deltoid-ovate, sub-acute, spreading. Stamens much exserted, longer than petals; anthers orbicular, didymous, bright-yellow. Styles rather long, curved, diverging. Fruit flattened, glabrous, smooth, ribs indistinct, back obtuse.
Hab. Hidden among low thick herbage, grassy plains, Tahoraiti, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1887: W. C.
Obs. This little species has affinity with H. intermixta, Col. (“Trans. N.Z. Inst,” vol. xvii., p. 240), but differs from it in several particulars (vide descr.).
2. H. sibthorpioides, sp. nov.
Plant procumbent, creeping, straggling, slender; main stems 1ft.–2ft. (or more) long, much branched; branches 6in.–9in. long, red, hairy, rooting at nodes, each node emitting three thick hairy roots. Leaves pale-green, numerous, distant, sub 1in. apart, usually 1 at a node, rarely 2 (and when 3, near tips of branches, then with two umbels of flowers), small, 4 lines diameter (sometimes 3 or 2½, rarely 5), thickish, glabrous, but with long weak coarse succulent hairs thinly scattered on veins upper surface, the lower surface generally free from hairs and very glossy; sub-orbicular-cordate; sinus broad, 7-veined, 6-lobed; lobes cut one-third through, their tips broad, 5–6 lacinio-serrate sub-acute, margins brown; hairs
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cellular, patent, white, acuminate, acute, their bases thickened, semi-bulbous. Petioles ½in.–¾in. long, thickly hairy; hairs patent, reflexed. Stipules in pairs, large, obtusely deltoid, finely cut-laciniate, filmy, pellucid, shining, silvery. Flowers opposite to leaf in small globular heads, on short peduncles 1–2 lines long. Umbels 10–20-flowered; flowers small, sessile (but usually 2–3 (at top?) on very short pedicels), crowded, each with a minute oblong-obovate greenish-white 2-nerved bracteole at its base, the nerves very distinct and dark-coloured; petals valvate, broadly ovate sub-acute, pale dashed with red streaks on the outside, minutely pink-dotted within (brown and recurved in age); teeth of epigynous disc dark-red; anthers yellow, oblate-orbicular; styles large, thickish, erect, knobbed, divergent, longer than anthers, persistent. Fruit small, 1/18in. diameter, slightly oblate-orbicular, broadest at base, flattish, glabrous; at first pale-green without ribs and the dorsal edge very obtuse, but when quite ripe and dry brown, with a fine raised narrow ridge on each mericarp and on dorsal edge; mericarps closely conjoined without any apparent hollow between.
Hab. Shaded woods near Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1887: W. C.
Obs. This species has near affinity with H. hirta, Br., and H. tasmanica, Hook. f.; also H. colorata, Col. (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 260), but is distinct from them all in several important characters. It has been specifically named sibthorpioides from its general likeness to Sibthorpia europæa, Linn., = Cornish moneywort. It is the plant on which Orobanche hydrocotylei, Col., is a parasite. (See paper on that curious plant.)*
Genus 1. Coprosma, Forst.
1. G. pendula, sp. nov.
Shrub slender, erect, 6ft.–10ft. high, much branched above, trunk bare below; bark thin, smooth, bright reddish-brown, somewhat papery and peeling on trunk; branches very long, implexed and pendulous; branchlets slender, divaricate at right angles, tips of the youngest puberulous. Leaves small, few, opposite, distant 1in.–2in. apart, usually a pair at tips of short lateral branchlets and of branches, orbicular, sometimes broadly elliptic and very obtuse, 3–5 (rarely 6–8) lines long, entire, narrowly margined; margins red, slightly recurved, ciliolate—in age as if slightly muricated (sub lente); tips broadly rounded; base sub-truncate, abruptly tapering, sub-membra-
[Footnote] *See above, Art. III., p. 41.
nous-coriaceous, green above, very pale (almost dead-white) below, glabrous, but slightly and finely pubescent at margins; veins obscure and much reticulate on upper surface (compoundly anastomosing, having copious areolæ between them with free veinlets (somewhat like, those of some ferns—ex. Polypodium billardieri), seen clearly when held up between the eye and light; petioles pubescent and ciliate, 1⅓–3 lines long, flattish at junction with lamina, sub-trinerved. Stipules short, broadly-ovate, sub-acute, pubescent, the lower connate. Flowers rather large, opposite, supra-axillary, single, and 2–4-fascicled on short, stout, rigid peduncles; pedicels, calyx, and corolla sub-hyaline-membranaceous, very pubescent, pale-greenish with dark-purple stripes and dashes; calyx rather large, half the length of corolla, cup-shaped, 4-lobed, two long and two short lobes, each pair opposite and adpressed, the long pair linear obtuse, the short pair broadly ovate and sub-acute; corolla 1½–2½ lines long, 4-fid cut nearly to base; lobes linear (or linear-oblong), obtuse, recurved: male (flower larger than female)—pedicel short, stout, curved; the corolla coarsely and sub-strigosely pubescent, oblong and pendulous before expanding, lobes much revolute in flowering; stamens large, exserted, pendulous; filaments 3 lines long, finely pubescent, white, their bases flattened; anthers 2 lines long, linear-oblong, stout, greenish-white; tips acute, bases sagittate: fem.—styles 2, stout, 4 lines long, obtuse, white, densely pubescent: herm.—as m. and fem. (supra) conjoined in one flower, the styles a little longer and narrower, sometimes 5–7 lobes to the corolla: and the three kinds of flowers on one branchlet. Drupe small, globular, 2 lines diameter, white, glabrous, shining, semi-pellucid, flesh juicy and sweet; nuts 2, flattish-hemispherical, convex on one side flat on the other, 1 line diameter, white.
Hab. Dry woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; flowering October, fruiting April, 1887 and 1888: W. C.
Obs. I. This is a highly curious species, presenting a very peculiar aspect, both when in foliage only as well as when in flower; differing greatly from all the other species of this genus known to me. Its very long, lithe, pendulous, and strictly divaricate branches—their few small, orbicular, and distant leaves, with their two contrast colours—and its large and exposed flowers—give it a unique appearance; to which may also be added the novelty of its pure-white fruit—rare in this genus.
II. It does not appear to be very common here (where so many other of its congeners abound), and it was some days before I succeeded in finding a single female plant—though I subsequently detected 3–4 others. Another shrub was hermaphrodite, or, more strictly speaking, polygamous—the first,
I think, I have ever known of this genus, so pre-eminently diæcious.
2. C. multiflora, sp. nov.
Tree erect, 15ft.–18ft. high, much branched throughout and very leafy; bark grey, soft, wrinkled; branches and branchlets very numerous, opposite, not divaricate, sub-erect, spreading; ultimate branchlets thickly pubescent; hairs brown. Leaves small, plentiful, opposite in single pairs, and 2–3 pairs together at tips of branches and short lateral branchlets, the single and the outer pairs always the largest, very membranaceous and soft, sub-orbicular with apices retuse and cuspidate, and broadly-elliptic much acuminate with tips acute, 3–4 (sometimes 5) lines long, their bases gradually tapering into the petioles, glabrous, green on both sides, a little paler on the lower surface with scattered long whitish sub-strigillose weak hairs (young leaves very hairy below), margined and finely crenulate; veins light-red, reticulate, conspicuous on both surfaces; petioles 2–3 lines long, broad and trinerved at junction with limb, very slender at base, densely hairy on undersurface; hairs adpressed, sub-strigose; stipules ovate-acuminate, very hairy, their tips glabrous, shining. Flowers: fem. very numerous, axillary, mostly sub-fascicled in threes, sometimes single, and 2 together; calyx very small, tube shortly 4-cleft, slightly puberulous (having a double appearance from their close connate stipules, that are larger, with longer acute lobes). Corolla small, 1 line long, green, glabrous, campanulate, 4-lobed, cut scarcely half-down; lobes ovate, acute, recurved. Styles 2, slender, 3 lines long, acute, pink, spreading. Drupe small, globose, 1½–2 lines diameter, slightly depressed at apex, dark-purple, glossy; nuts 2, very small, hemispherical, about 1 line wide; one thick, flat on one side and very gibbous, the other much thinner, scale-like. Male flowers not seen.
Hab. Low woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; flowering November, fruiting April, 1887–88: W. C.
Obs. I. This species will naturally rank among the larger ones of this genus. Its striking character when in flower is the prodigious number of its ♀ blossoms, covering the whole surface of the tree from top to bottom, which—from their being coloured and visible from a distance—has a most striking effect. When I first saw it—looking down on it from an open glade in the hill-forest's side—I could not conceive what plant it might possibly be, its whole outside being suffused with a delicate pink hue. It is the only known species of this large and increasing genus bearing such a character. I was much disappointed, however, subsequently, on seeking its fruit (on two occasions—when immature in February, and when ripe),
for I only detected a few, scattered singly here and there on a large leafy branch, many large branches being without any.
II. I sought diligently throughout several days for the male plant, but was unsuccessful. Is it likely that the great paucity of its fruit, very unusual in the genus, was owing to the scarcity of male specimens?
3. C. coffæoides, sp. nov.
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A small tree, slender, erect, 12ft.–15ft. high, perfectly glabrous throughout, bark smooth light-grey; much branched; branchlets erect, scarcely cylindrical, stout, drooping in fruit. Leaves decussate, distant sub-2in. apart on main branches, coriaceo-membranous (membranous and flaccid when young), oblong inclining to obovate-lanceolate, tips sub-acute, slightly mucronate, recurved, tapering to petiole; margins entire, but slightly and closely serrulate (sub lente), generally of two sizes—(1) large, on main branches, 3½in.–4½in. long, 2in. broad, petioles ½in., stoutish; (2) smaller, on axillary branchlets; darkish-green above, a little glossy, paler and dull below; primary veins diagonal, prominent below; venules obsoletely reticulate. Stipules large, deltoid-acuminate, ¼in. long; tips thickened, hard, acute, black. Flowers: male, peduncles axillary, the middle one ¾in. long; flowers sessile in glomerate heads, 20 and upwards, with several small leaflets interspersed, and narrow oblong bracts at base, their margins minutely ciliolate; calyx a small shallow circular cup, its margin nearly even; corolla pale-green, narrow campanulate, 3 lines long, 4- (sometimes 3-) lobed; lobes one-third length of corolla, ovate, tips sub-acute, recurved; stamens 4 (but only 3 in 3-lobed corolla), slender, exserted, pendulous, flexuous, thickened at top, 3–4 lines long, minutely pilose; anthers narrow oblong, sub-acute, 2 lines long, deeply grooved, largely sagittate: fem., clustered, decussately arranged on short axillary branchlets or peduncles, 1in. long, forming dense, crowded, sub-glomerate heads—20–40 (or more) together; peduncles compressed, with short opposite branchlets or sub-peduncles, each bearing 5–9 sessile flowers, and usually with 1 minute leaf at its base, the main peduncle often continued and produced at top into a leafy branchlet; calyx 0; corolla very small, yellowish-white, 1/10in. long, somewhat tubular, broadest at top, 4- (sometimes 3-) lobed; lobes very short, obtuse, slightly recurved, their margins dark pink-red, stigmas 2 (rarely 3), short, sub 3-lines long, erect, white, stoutish, obtuse. Drupe glossy, 3–3½ lines long, broadly ovoid, sub-compressed, sides furrowed, tip obtuse, sub-truncate; when quite ripe oblong-ovoid, turgid, juicy, vermilion. Seeds narrow ovoid-acuminate, 3 lines long, slightly curved, somewhat rugulose, dull dirty-white.
Hab. Edges of woods and margins of streamlets south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa, 1888: W. C.
Obs. Flowering in October and fruiting in May. Specimens of the male plant have been seen carrying female flowers at top of branchlet. As a species this will naturally rank with C. lucida, Forst., C. grandifolia, Hook. f., and C. autumnalis, Col. (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xix., p. 263), but is very distinct from them all.
Genus 4. Asperula, Linn.
1. A. aristifera, sp. nov.
A small, slender, weak, ascending perennial herb; main stems 2in.–3in. long, hypogæous, sub-rigid, wiry, reddish, branched; branches 1in.–2in. high, erect, simple and slightly branched, glabrous. Leaves thickish, glabrous, light-green (as also calyx-tube and branches), 4 in a whorl, 1/12in. long, sessile, linear-ovate; margins sparsely ciliate; ciliæ usually 4, distant, confined to middle of leaf, stout, white, patent; tips acuminate, bi-, tri-, (sometimes quadri-) aristate, divergent. Flowers terminal in pairs and single in upper axils, peduncled; peduncles longer than leaves, sub-succulent and pellucid, regularly and closely reticulately veined. Calyx-tube glabrous, laterally compressed. Corolla sub-campanulate-rotate, white (sometimes cream-coloured), 1½ lines diameter, 4- (sometimes 5-, rarely 6-) partite, cut nearly to base; lobes linear-ovate, apiculate, sub-papillose, 1-nerved, spreading, recurved; stamens rather long (sometimes 5); anthers bright-yellow. Styles united below, tips free, rather long, spreading; stigmas globose.
Hab. Open grassy plains, Tahoraiti, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1887, flowering in November: W. C.
Obs. A highly curious little species, apparently near to A. perpusilla, Hook. f., but differing largely in several particulars. Having seen some hundreds of living plants, I find their characters (supra) constant. Its little white star-like flowers make it to be conspicuous among the low grass and other small herbage. It seems (to me) to be nearly as much allied to Galium as to Asperula; and under Galium I should prefer to place it but for its close natural ally, Asperula perpusilla.
Genus 3. Celmisia, Cass.
1. C. setacea, sp. nov.
A small slender species, slightly cottony; apparently growing singly. Leaves few (6–8), 2in.–3in. long, ½ line wide, sub-setaceous, greenish-grey, flaccid, drooping, margins revolute, tips acute; their bases dilated and sub-sheathing,
glabrous and reddish on the outside, very loosely cottony within, mid-rib on under surface glabrous (and also the whole upper surface in age). Scape single, very slender, 7in.–8in. long bracts setaceous, 3–4 lines long, very acute, rather distant (6–7 on scape), and closely appressed. Head small, loose, spreading, ½in.–¾in. diameter. Involucral scales few, somewhat disposed in 3 rows (of same length as disc-florets and pappus), 5 lines long, the outer ones the shortest, linear-acuminate with 1 dark central vein, slightly cottony on the outside, tips very acute, margins finely serrulate and ciliate with weak shaggy hairs. Ray-florets 14, distant, sub-lanceolate, 5½ lines long, 4-veined, extending far beyond stigmata; tips obtuse, 1-notched; tube 2 lines long, about one-third length of floret. Disc-florets few, 8–10; stigmas long, subulate, curved, very tuberculate; tubercles linear, obtuse. Pappus pale-reddish, short, nearly equal in length, about as long as tube of ray-florets, scabrid; tips acute and bifid. Achene linear, 1½ lines long, angled somewhat 4-sided, glabrous.
Hab. On open ground, high slopes of Mount Tongariro, County of East Taupo; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.
Obs. This slender species is more nearly allied to C. longifolia, Cass. (a common New Zealand, Australian, and Tasmanian plant), but differs from that species in many particulars—as, in its single habit of growth, its shorter filiform leaves, more slender scapes with shorter setaceous cauline bracts, much smaller head and fewer ray-florets, shorter and glabrous achenes with pappus-bristles nearly equal. Bentham says of C. longifolia: “Ray-florets above 30; achenes fully 3 lines long, more or less silky-pubescent. Pappus-bristles very unequal, the shortest half as long as the longest.” (“Fl. Australiensis,” vol. iii., p. 489.) I quote from Bentham (who also notices our New Zealand plant from Hooker f.) as being the latest work, with a fuller specific description.
Genus 17. Senecio, Linn.
1. S. pumiceus, sp. nov.
Plant a sub-erect glabrous perennial herb, 2ft.–3ft. high; stems striate, stout below, ½in. diameter, much branched above, slender and sub-flexuous; flowering stems 8in.–10in. long; striæ broad, flattish, yellow-brown. Leaves light-green, purple on under surface, sessile, half-clasping: the lower ones on main stems close, oblong, 4¼in. long, 1½in.–2in. broad, sub-membranaceo-coriaceous, somewhat wrinkled, veins anastomosing, prominent below also the mid-rib; margins grossly serrate and slightly revolute; tip acute; base cordate: the upper leaves on flowering stems linear-oblong (sometimes lanceolate), 2in.–3in. long, ½in.–1in. wide, sparingly toothed
(teeth very small) and entire, sometimes but rarely sharply serrate, their bases produced much beyond the stem on the opposite side, membranaceous, decreasing in size upwards, distant; veins largely anastomosing. Flower-heads not large, 3–4 lines diameter, disposed in spreading loose corymbose panicles; peduncles 2in.–4in. long, much and dichotomously branched above; pedicels ½in.–1in. long, very slender, with scattered small bracteoles throughout. Involucre small, campanulate, 1½ lines long (4 lines diameter when spread out flat), glabrous, glistening, slightly rugulose and scabrid at base; lobes 13, oblong-ovate, about 1 line wide, suddenly sub-acuminate, their centres thick, 2–3 dark-green stripes, 1–2-nerved, nerves yellow; margins membranous, pellucid, very broad, much imbricated, finely and regularly lacerate; tips pilose (semi-tufted), hairs white; several (5–8) small subulate spreading bracteoles with pilose tips close to base. Flowers bright orange-yellow, glabrous, all florets much dilated at bases of tubes. Receptacle white, flattish, alveolate, the alveoles large, sub-quadrilateral, with high-toothed borders, and punctulate in centre, edges of punctures raised. Ray-florets 10, ligulate, 3½ lines long, much recurved; ligule oval, largely veined; veins about 8, the main ones forked at apex; tip retuse, with two small notches, extending far beyond stigmata; the tube short, one-third length of floret, its style glabrous, recurved, tips not dilated, and when spread out not so wide as ligule. Disc-florets very numerous, 40 and upwards, tubular, 2½ lines long (about two-thirds length of ligulate florets), narrow campanulate or sub-infundibuliform at mouth; anthers included; lobes veined; tips erect, sub-acute. Pappus erect, 2 lines long, fine, white, scabrid; tips acute. Achene linear, 1/10in. long, sub-4-sided, deeply sulcated on two opposite sides, pale-brown, glabrous, but minutely hairy in lines on the angles; hairs short, white, distant.
Hab. “Face of pumice rocky boulders near the sea, Whangawehi” (cliffs, north side of Table Cape, East Coast); January, 1888: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. I. This plant is certainly allied to S. banksii, Hook. f.,* also to S. velleioides, A. Cunn. (an Australian species); but, after much examination and study, I believe it to be specifically distinct from both. Having received plenty of good specimens from its discoverer, Mr. Hamilton, and being very desirous of clearly ascertaining the true position of this fine plant, I have very closely and exhaustively examined it, as will, I presume, be allowed from the description given
[Footnote] * “S. odoratus, Hornemann,” of “Handbook N.Z. Flora;” but subsequently corrected by Hooker himself, in his “Additions, Corrections, &c., at p. 734, l.c., and the name of S. banksii restored.
above. It differs from S. banksii (vera) in several characters: that plant has “linear-oblong leaves, slender blunt involucral scales, very short ligulæ” (ray-florets), and “long achenia.” (“Flora N.Z.,” vol. i., p. 147.) It also differs from the allied Australian species, S. velleioides, in the much shorter bracts and shorter disc-florets (and probably very much broader ray-florets) of this plant. Bentham, in his description of S. velleioides, says, “Involucral bracts 3–4 lines long, with a very few small outer ones; disc-florets scarcely exceeding involucre.” (“Flora Austral.,” vol. iii., p. 668.)
II. Hooker, under S. banksii (l.c.), has also given, with a doubt, two New Zealand varieties of that species: one of them, “var. β velleia,“may prove to be identical with this plant. Unfortunately, Hooker says but very little about its differential characters, but that little is more in agreement with this plant. I quote his remarks: “Var. β (?) velleia; robustior, foliis rigide coriaceis subtus glaucis venis prominulis, capitulis latioribus, acheniis brevioribus.” And, again: “The vars. β and γ may belong to different species, but my specimens of them are very indifferent. Var. β is a very thickly leathery-leaved plant, with stout stem and branches of the corymb, which bears very numerous broader heads, that have much, shorter achenia.”
I may further observe that Hooker also gives the hab. and discoverers of S. banksii and its two varieties thus: “Hab. North Island, East Coast; Banks and Solander, Colenso.” And the facts pertaining to the same, taken in connection with the discovery of this plant by Mr. Hamilton on the north side of Table Cape, seem to point to something more than a casual coincidence: for Banks and Solander were only on shore on the east coast at Poverty Bay and Tolaga Bay, a few miles north of Table Cape; and my specimens were also detected by me in nearly that same locality—viz., between Tolaga and Poverty Bays—in travelling along the east coast early in December, 1841. I have never visited Table Cape.
[Since writing the above I have referred to some brief notes of that journey, written by me at the time to Sir W. J. Hooker (to accompany my specimens), and shortly after published by him in the “London Journal of Botany,” vol. iii., p. 16: from them I make the following extract:—
“Dec. 9th, 1841.—I was fortunate enough to obtain here on the clayey cliffs three species of Compositæ quite new to me. One (No. 25) grew commonly about the bases and faces of the low clayey and sandy cliffs, and often attained the height of 4ft.–5ft. Another (No. 46) was found in similar situations, and of the same height as the preceding: the peculiar glaucous leaves of this last, so much resembling those found on the flowering
stems of many varieties of Brassica oleracea, greatly attracted my notice.”
This locality was on the immediate sea-coast between Pakarae and Poverty Bay, and near to Whangawehi, Table Cape; and I have scarcely any doubt of the said specimen (No. 46) being identical with the plant here described. The season, too, accounts for my specimens (and still more so for those of Banks and Solander, who were a 'month earlier on the coast) being imperfect—i.e., not fully developed.]
Genus 2. Pernettya, Gaud.
1. P. macrostigma, sp. nov.
A small prostrate shrubby plant. Stems woody, much branched; branchlets short, 1in.–2in. long, irregular, glabrous, with a few scattered long weak flexuous hairs, the very young branchlets and leaves finely pilose. Leaves scattered, linear-lanceolate, 3 lines long, ½ line wide, green, glabrous, patent; tips obtuse, coloured; margins distantly and regularly serrulate, usually 3–4 teeth; teeth white, sub-pellucid, each with a dark hair-like point; petioles short. Flowers small, single, axillary, peduncled; peduncle short, curved, glabrous, with 3–4 broadly ovate bracts at base. Calyx-lobes cut nearly to base, ovate, sub-acute, purple and green, finely pilose within; margins ciliate. Corolla 1/10in. long, globose-campanulate, white, veined; lobes short, blunt, tips much recurved. Stamens ovate-acuminate, 1-veined, muricated throughout; tips plain, obtuse, slightly recurved. Style longer than corolla, erect, stoutish, glabrous; stigma large, jagged, spreading; ovary prominently 5-lobed, pilose. Fruit globular, 2 lines diameter, pink.
Hab. Open grounds on dry hills in the interior, Glenross Station, County of Hawke's Bay; December, 1887: Mr. D. P. Balfour.
Obs. A species near to P. tasmanica, Hook. f., which it also resembles in general appearance. Unfortunately I have had but two small specimens, containing only a few flowers, to examine. One very peculiar character it possesses is that of the calyx, pilose within.
Genus 8. Dracophyllum, Lab.
1. D. recurvatum, sp. nov.
An erect and tall shrub, or small slender tree, “25ft.–30ft. high,” branched at top; trunk below bare, 3in.–4in. diameter; bark smooth, greyish. Branches sub-erect and compound; branchlets bare, cylindrical, 4 lines diameter; bark smooth, pale red-brown, pretty regularly annulate with rings of fallen
leaves, the rings 1–2 lines apart. Leaves terminal in bunches at tips of branchlets, sub 20, close, imbricate, amplexicaul, linear acuminate, 16in. long, ¾in. wide at base, sub-coriaceous, smooth, glossy, finely striate, light-green, their upper half exceedingly narrow, tips subulate acuminate, flexuous; their bases orange-coloured, thin, dilated; margins entire (to the eye), but under a powerful lens minutely and distantly bluntly denticulate. Flowers terminal, numerous, crowded, paniculate in a narrow thyrsoid-panicle, 5in. long, 1¼in. wide, linear-lanceolate, erect, red, sometimes 2 panicles together; peduncle very stout, 2in. long, ringed, puberulous; panicle and pedicels pubescent; sub-panicles 1¼in. long, mostly 4-branched; branches 6–8 lines long, each bearing 9–14 flowers; pedicels short, 1 line long. Sepals sub-oblate-orbicular, veined longitudinally; tips broad, angular; much and finely laciniate; laciniæ acute. Corolla sub-campanulate, 2 lines diameter; tube short, lobes longer than tube, oblong-ovate, wavy, recurved, appressed, 1-nerved; tips obtuse and slightly denticulate. Stamens long, exserted, largely decurved. Anthers large, oblong-ovate, cordate; tips very obtuse, versatile and pendulous appressed around corolla. Style stout, exserted; stigma sub-clavate, capitate, puberulous. Hypogenous scales broadly oblong; tips sub-truncate, denticulate. Capsule (mature and old) very small, orbicular, about 1 line diameter, depressed, reddish.
Hab. On high grounds, “from 2,000ft. to 3,000ft. alt.,” hills around Lake Waikare, County of Wairoa; 1888: Mr: H. Hill. Also, seen there earlier by Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. This is a very fine species of Dracophyllum, the largest known of our New Zealand species. I had casually heard of it some time ago, but only from settlers, who called it “neinei,” the Maori name of the large northern species D. latifolium; and therefore, as well as from their very imperfect account of the plant, I had supposed it to be identical with that species: but it is widely different in almost every principal character; its largely-recurved corolla-lobes and anthers, being peculiar and abnormal, give it a singular appearance. It seems, however, to be of various stature: Mr. Hill (who kindly brought me the specimens I have described, gathered by himself) saw it growing singly and sparingly in open and lower grounds, where it was only “from 6ft. to 10ft, high,” and the diameter of its bare trunk “about 3in.,” its branches assuming a sub-pyramidal form, the largest and lowest being “about 6ft. from the ground.” Mr. Hamilton, however, had seen the plant at a much higher altitude on the same range, forming “extensive thickets or groves,” and “from 25ft. to 30ft. high,” with their bare trunks below “4in. diameter.”
Genus 1. Myrsine, Linn.
1. M. pendula; sp. nov.
A small slender tree, erect, 10ft. high, trunk below for 4ft.–5ft. bare; branches many, long, pendulous; young branchlets finely and thickly pubescent, straight or slightly curved; bark reddish-brown. Leaves numerous, alternate, close and scattered, single and in pairs, orbicular and oblate-orbicular, retuse (sometimes sub-emarginate and sometimes rounded), usually 3–4 (rarely 5–6) lines diameter, not tapering to petiole, patent, green above pale below, sub-membranaceous, dotted with a few scattered dark-orange globular raised dots, and with several smaller and linear-oblong ones; veined, veins spreading, sub-flabelliform; veinlets finely reticulated; margin slightly uneven, thickened, closely lined with dark-orange raised globular dots (making the edge to appear as if it were coloured red); ciliated, ciliæ flattish, short, ragged, irregular, weak; petiole very short, pubescent, with small thickish dark-coloured stipellæ at base. Flowers axillary, scattered, single, sometimes in pairs (rarely 3 together), very minute, 1 line diameter; peduncle very short. Calyx pale-greenish, glabrous, 4-lobed, not cut to base; lobes broadly ovate, obtuse, ciliolate. Corolla, petals 4, brown, oblong, obtuse, recurved from middle and appressed, 1-nerved, much reticulated, with a few (4) minute scattered glandular dark-orange dots; margins ciliate and fimbriate; fimbriæ crisp, crinkled. Anthers 4, dark-brown, deltoid-ovate, sub-cordate, appressed, tips minutely crested, crinkled; filaments very short beneath ovary half the length of the anther. Stigma sessile, large, depressed, irregular, spreading. Ovary ovoid-orbicular. Fruit large, globular, 2½ lines diameter, purple, glabrous; apex depressed, hollowish.
Hab. Woods near River Mangateraa, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C. Flowering in October and fruiting in May.
Obs. A species very near to M. divaricata, A. Cunn.; but differing from it in its larger size and habit, in form position &c. of its leaves, in its fimbriated petals and its peculiar crested anthers, and in its larger depressed and purple fruit. When closely examined and compared with the very full and. able description and drawing with numerous dissections of M. (Suttonia) divaricata given by Hooker f. in his “Flora Antarctica,” vol. i., p. 51, tab. 54, this species will be found to differ considerably in many particulars. In drying the specimens their leaves fall off in large numbers; they also become sub-rugulose and shrivelled on the lower surface.
Genus 1. Convolvulus, Linn.
1. C. (Calystegia) truncatella, sp. nov.
Perennial, very large, diffuse, spreading, largely branched, twining and climbing over bushes and shrubs (almost smothering them), and up trees 8ft.–10ft. or more. Leaves membranaceous, distant, undulate, sub-orbicular-cordate, 1¼.—1½in diameter, dark-green, 5- (7–9-) nerved; nerves (and veins) reddish, sub-translucent; basal lobes large, wide, rounded; sinus very broad and deep and truncate at base (2 lines wide at top of petiole); tips obtuse and retuse, with a small abrupt mucro; margins sub-sinuate, much slightly angularly-toothed; largely veined, veins anastomosing; petioles 1in.–2in. long, semi-terete, channelled above, spotted light-purple and green, minutely pilose. Flowers scattered, solitary, axillary; peduncles 4in.–5in. long, 4-angled, spotted like petioles, glabrous; bracts large, generally 3, sometimes alternate, orbicular-cordate, tip retuse, mucronulate, largely veined, veins anastomosing, margin red, sinuate and sub-angulate; the outer pair 4–5 lines diameter, longer than calyx and distant from it, the inner one close to calyx. Calyx-lobes 4–5, broadly elliptic, mucronate, closely longitudinally veined. Corolla pure-white, broadly campanulate, spreading, 1¼in. long, 1¾in. diameter, much veined longitudinally; lobes broad and angular, tips obtuse, margins slightly and irregularly sub-denticulate. Stamens slender, very sparingly muriculate at base. Anthers large, oblong-ovate, tip very obtuse, base auriculate. Style exserted much longer than anthers. Stigmas large, broadly oblong-clavate or sub-reniform, dimidiate, gibbous, pedicelled, diverging. Capsule large, glabrous, glossy, dark olive-green, sub-quadrately-rotund, 5 lines long, 4–5 lines diameter, turgid with 4 longitudinal depressions, tip sub-acute with a stout straight beak 1 line long. Seeds 4, large, dark orange-red, smooth, ⅙in. long, sub-reniform-ovoid, 3-sided, flattened and sub-rugulose on two sides, very turgid on the third; testa very hard.
Hab. Banks of streamlets and edges of woods, Seventy-mile Bush, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1887–88: W. C.
Obs. I. This plant is nearly allied to C. tuguriorum, Forst., but differs from that species in several characters, the more striking being its much larger size and spreading climbing habit, its differently-shaped leaves with their remarkable truncated bases and broad basal lobes, its double row of large calycine bracts, round-topped sepals, obtuse anthers, large globular capsule, and big red seeds. The leaves on its young
and ultimate branchlets are much smaller and closer; perhaps in age they increase in size and distance. I have a specimen bearing 2 flowers on 1 peduncle.
II. This species flowers profusely in February, when it presents a very pleasing appearance from the pure-white of its large, exposed, and numerous flowers. It has potent and active enemies among some of the smaller-winged insects, which eat away the thick stigmas, and lay their egg at a very early date within the immature ovarium, piercing it with a minute hole for that purpose, which, however, does not affect the growth of the capsule or its seeds. In due time a small larva issues from the egg, that devours the seeds. This caterpillar invariably attacks the seeds in the one soft part at their base (hilum), the testa being very hard, and is sometimes to be found snugly ensconced within the seed; the seeds when “cleaned out” still retaining their position, size, and colour. I have never found more than one hole in a capsule, and only one larva inside. Such is the havoc occasioned by this minute insect, that it is a very difficult matter to find a whole capsule containing perfect seeds. I have gathered scores (perhaps hundreds) of good-looking capsules, both ripe and unripe—such, too, as were fine and healthy-looking on the plants—but only, in nineteen cases out of twenty, to find them useless—without a sound seed; tenanted if new, or the insect perfected and fled. It must be a very tiny creature, as it emerges by the original small hole without destroying the capsule.
III. A judicious remark of Forster's on this genus may be mentioned here: “The species of Convolvuli are very copious in the South Sea isles, and so closely connected with each other that it becomes very difficult to determine them.” (“Observations,” p. 181.)
Genus 6. Limosella, Linn.
1. L. ciliata, sp. nov.
Plant small, tufted, creeping by surculi, glabrous, rather pale-green, perennial. Leaves erect, spreading and drooping, sub-terete, succulent, minutely dotted, connate in young plants, 8–10 lines long, linear filiform; tips obtuse, rarely very slightly dilated; half-clasping at bases. Flowers single, axillary at bases of leaves, several on a plant; peduncle short, stout, thickened in a ring at top below junction with calyx. Calyx sub-campanulate, 5-partite, segments sub-acute, each marked with a dark-red longitudinal line at base on calyx-tube. Corolla white (sometimes tinged with blue streaks on the outside), campanulate-rotate, 5- (sometimes 4- and 6-)
lobed, 1½ lines diameter, nearly twice as large as calyx; lobes large, oblong, obtuse, hairy within and ciliate on the lower half of margins. Stamens exserted; anthers orbicular, bluish. Style long; stigma large, orbicular, much papillose. Capsule sub-globose.
Hab. On mud-flats, margins of streams, Hawke's Bay, forming large patches; 1846–52: W. C. 1888: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. A species pretty near to L. aquatica, Linn. (and its varieties), but differing in several particulars: as, in its smaller size; its linear filiform semi-terete leaves, which are truly connate in young plants; its larger flowers, the corolla being twice as large as the calyx, with obtuse hairy and ciliate lobes, long style, and large globular stigma.
Genus 7. Veronica, Linn.
1. V. parkinsoniana, sp. nov.
A tall slender erect shrub, 9ft.–12ft. high, with long slightly-drooping branches, that are bare below and sparingly leafy at tops. Leaves rather distant, lanceolate, 4in.–5in. long, ¾in. broad, glabrous, smooth, sessile, midrib prominent and keeled below towards base; margins entire; tip obtuse. Flowers axillary, racemed; racemes slender, 6in.–7in. long, pubescent—as also pedicels, bracteoles, and calyces; pedicels 2 lines long, slender, curved; bracteole at base long, half the length of pedicel, linear, acuminate, 1-nerved. Calyx small, about 1 line long, lobes not cut to base, narrow ovate-acuminate, 1-nerved, finely ciliate. Corolla white, with palelilac tinge, ¼in. diameter, sometimes 5-lobed, and then the middle lower lobe is the smallest; tube longer than lobes, 2 lines long. Stamens long, much exserted, longer than corolla, broad, compressed, curved, spreading. Style persistent, slender, very long, more than twice the length of capsule, much curved, pubescent. Capsule twice the length of calyx, broadly ovoid, laterally compressed, glabrous but finely puberulous at tip.
Hab. Edges of thickets, country south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.
Obs. A fine species, near to V. salicifolia, Forst., but differing largely in capsule, calyx, &c.
Genus 9. Ourisia.
1. O. calycina, sp. nov.
Plant erect, stout, glabrous. Leaves broadly ovate, (?) 4in.–5in. long, dark-green, largely crenate. Petioles nearly as long as lamina. Scape 11in. long (not fully extended), stout, angled, deeply sulcated below, with a line of weak
hairs on each prominent angle (this hairy line is decurrent from the outer angle of base of each cauline bract, 8 lines in all). Bracts on scape: the two lower pairs diphyllous, opposite, sub-sessile, thickish, much and reticulately veined; the lowest pair narrow oblong, 2in. long, 7 lines wide, sides straight, deeply crenate, acute, without flowers; the next pair smaller, with 3 flowers: the upper bracts in whorls (6 in number), all quadriphyllous, sessile, oblong-lanceolate, 1in. long (the uppermost ¾in.), 3-nerved; tip obtuse knobbed; margins serrate, purple, their lower half thickly ciliate; ciliæ flat, wavy; each whorl bearing four flowers; all the whorls nearly equidistant, about 1½in. apart. Pedicels—the lower 3in., the upper 1½in. long, angled, stout and rigid below at bases, slender filiform and drooping at tips, each with a single line of weak hairs. Calyx glabrous, 5 lines long, very rugose and wrinkled at base, 5-partite, lobes oblong, sparsely ciliate at their bases, 3-nerved below, only the central nerve percurrent, much reticulated between the outer veins and margins, the inner interstices clear; margins 2-denticulate, teeth obtuse and, with the tip, knobbed and coloured. Corolla pure-white, 1in. diameter, largely and dichotomously veined, the two upper lobes much shorter, broader, and rounder at tips; tube short, sub 1½ lines long, half the length of tube, stout, broad; throat densely lined with lemon-coloured, jointed, and sub-acute hairs. Anthers large, sub-orbicular-reniform. Fruit sub-orbicular, turgid, sub 2 lines long, scarcely half as long as calyx-lobes which enclose it, with a beak and very long persistent flexuous style.
Hab. Highlands on River Waimakariri, near Bealey, South Island; 1888.
Obs. I have only seen one specimen of this plant, but in a good flowering state and fresh; gathered there by a visitor and sent to Napier; its lower stem was wanting, and basal leaves imperfect.
Genus 2. Muhlenbeckia, Meisn.
1. M. hypogæa, sp. nov.
A small prostrate twiggy shrub, extending a few inches (?) each way; much branched; main stems and branches being underneath the soil, and rooting at nodes, 4in.–5in. long, flexuous and very slender, ½ line diameter, with only the tips of the smaller ultimate branchlets appearing above, and then also prostrate and closely appressed; bark dark red-brown, epidermis thin sub-bladdery; branchlets numerous, very short and intermixed, the younger ones striate and minutely papillose. Leaves few, scattered, orbicular, 1/10in.–1/12in. wide (fre-
quently smaller), thickish, margins entire; mid-rib prominent on under surface, veins obscure, petiolate; petioles stoutish, half length of leaf, channelled above. Bracts (ochreæ) entire, bladdery, pale red-brown, very numerous. Perianth solitary, sessile or sub-sessile, rugulose, a little shorter than fruit, closely adpressed, fleshy (in some specimens), 5-lobed, lobes cut half-way to base, oblong, sub-acute; nut 1½ lines long, rhomboidal, triquetrous, angles obtuse, sides concave, tip acute, black, smooth not shining.
Hab. On the sides and near the summit of Mount Tongariro, county of East Taupo, almost entirely hidden among low small herbs and mosses; 1887: Mr. H. Hill.
Obs. A very minute, peculiar, and distinct species, of which, unfortunately, I have only a few specimens, found by me concealed in little turfy lumps of dark boggy earth, brought from the mountain by Mr. Hill.* The leaves and fruit had mostly fallen off from their branches through damp and close packing, but the bracts remained, and all were perfect, though I only obtained about half a dozen nuts and perianths, and have not seen any floral organs.
2. M. paucifolia, sp. nov.
A low prostrate rambling shrub, extending 5ft.–6ft. Branches stout, bark glabrous, longitudinally wrinkled and channelled, dark red-brown. Leaves few, scattered, light-green, broadly elliptic and sub-rotund, 3–6 lines long, obtuse, sometimes retuse, glabrous, rarely contracted at middle, submembranaceous, veins anastomosing obscure (visible when dried); petioles half as long as leaves, slender, channelled above, finely and closely tuberculate; stipules ovate, acute. Flowers in terminal racemes at tips of short lateral branchlets; racemes simple, short, about 1½in. long, finely pilose, each bearing 5–7 (rarely 9) flowers, alternate and rather distant; bracts (ochreæ) rather large, open, glabrous, pale reddish-brown, obliquely truncate, acuminate with one long stout sub-aristate nerve; margins entire or finely and shortly ciliate (sub lente), each bearing a single flower; pedicels longer than bracts. Perianth (and pedicel) white, lobes cut half-way to base, oblong, obtuse, conniving; stamens longer than lobes; anthers sub-orbicular, didymous, sub-versatile, white. Stigmas small, red, glabrous, acute. Ovary (immature) pink, slightly tuberculate.
Hab. On mounds of indurated pumice, &c., at Whangawehi, north side of Table Cape; December, 1887: Mr. A. Hamilton.
[Footnote] * See “Observation” under “Drosera minutula” (supra), p. '82, for a more particular description of these little turfy specimens.
Obs. This species of Muhlenbeckia presents a peculiar appearance, from its stout almost gnarled branches, few pale-green leaves, and numerous short lateral branchlets tipped with flowers, whose pedicels are also white. It is allied to M. complexa, Meisn., and to M. microphylla, Col., but is widely different from both.
3. M. trilobata, sp. nov.
Plant decumbent, much branched and implexed, rising twining and climbing over low shrubs and herbage. Branches long, striate, densely pubescent; hairs short, patent, red-brown. Fem.: leaves alternate, distant, membranaceous, glabrous, green, 1in.–2in. apart, broadly ovate (in outline), ¾in.–1¼in. long, ¾in.–1in. wide, wavy, sub-panduriform, deeply trilobed, largely cordate; lobes much rounded, apical lobe large, sub-sagittate; tip suddenly acute and sub-apiculate; sinuses broad; margins red, sub-entire, irregular; midrib prominent on the under surface, pubescent on the upper; veined; veins very closely and compoundly reticulate, having copious areolæ between them with free veinlets, but somewhat obsolete when fresh. Petioles ½in.–¾in., sub-terete, channelled above, soft, pubescent; cauline stipules (ochreæ) large, truncate, nerved, pubescent on nerves. Flowers irregularly disposed, usually in axillary racemes 2 together; racemes rather slender, nodding, 2in.–2½in. long (sometimes panicled with 3 basal branches from 1 peduncle, and sometimes in a large loose panicle 5in.–6in. long, distantly and gracefully branched in 8–12 racemes), vaginant; vagina rather large, very membranous, sub-pellucid, cup-shaped, margin laciniate; the flowers sub-fascicled 2–4 from each vagina, largely exserted, close-set but not crowded; pedicels jointed, capillary, 2 lines long. Perianths pale - green (sometimes, but rarely, with bright-red bases), 2 lines diameter, membranous, free from ovary, glabrous; lobes shorter than nut, broadly spathulate, not cut to base; sinuses broad; tips rounded. Stigmas 3, sub - clavate - orbicular, papillose, spreading; anthers very minute, abortive. Nut black, shining, broadly elliptic, 2 lines long, triquetrous, one side broader and flat, free from perianth. Male (also, sometimes, hermaphrodite): leaves much smaller. Racemes axillary and terminal, slender, simple, 1in.–2in. long; floral bracts distant; 4–5 flowers in 1 sheath; perianth membranous, greenish-white, sub-campanulate; tube longer than lobes, free; stamens longer than perianth (and nut), flexuous, spreading; anthers exserted, orbicular, emarginate and cordate, didymous, red. Nut sometimes as in female.
Hab. In woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.
Obs. This is a pleasing, handsome, and striking species,
from the extreme gracefulness of its slender pendulous open racemes, and the regular shape of its peculiarly-formed leaves. Sometimes the leaves of other and allied species assume a contraction in the middle, giving them a kind of sub-panduriform shape, but none are so deeply and so regularly lobed as these. This character pertains alike to both male and female plants, although the leaves of the male plant are very much smaller than those of the female.
4, M. truncata, sp. nov.
A slender rambling climbing twining shrub, rising to 8ft.–9ft. among shrubs and trees. Branches very long and slender, flexuous, closely twining, thickly pubescent; hairs very short, red. Fem.: leaves membranous, numerous, scattered, sometimes fascicled in pairs, broadly oblong, ½in.–¾in. long, sides straight, tip obtuse rounded rarely apiculate, base truncate; dull pale-green, glabrous, wavy, opaque; margins entire, red; veined, veins slightly anastomosing. Petiole very slender, almost capillary, 4–5 lines long, puberulous. Cauline bracts long, truncate, margins entire. Flowers disposed in simple short racemes ½in.–1in. long, and 5–12-flowered; raceme vaginant; sheaths small, reddish, funnel-shaped, oblique, with 1 long stout excurrent nerve; margins finely serrate. Pedicel short, scarcely longer than sheath, with a single narrow line of pubescence. Perianth small, shorter than nut, whitish or very pale-green, very membranous, free; lobes oblong, obtuse, appressed and spreading, not cut to base, 1-nerved; veins finely reticulated (sub lente). Nut very small, about 1 line long, sub-rhomboidal or broadly lanceolate, trigonous, sides equal, angles obtuse, ridges irregular, brownish-black, dull not glossy. Style 0. Stigmas 3, large, flabellate-orbicular, spreading, plumose, reddish. Male: leaves smaller and slightly contracted at the middle. Flowers both axillary and terminal in simple short racemes ½in.–1in. long, 8–15 on a raceme, usually a single raceme in a sheath; pedicel very short, scarcely extending to mouth of sheath. Perianth-lobes obovate, cut nearly to base; tips rounded, incurved. Stamens exserted, spreading, straight and slightly flexuous; anthers white, sub-orbicular-elliptic, margined.
Hab. In same locality as the preceding species, M. trilobata; but neither of these species was commonly observed, while the larger species—“M. adpressa, Lab.” (but ?)—abounds, attaining to a very large size, and forming impassable thickets; 1888: W. C.
Obs. This species is a more slender and implexed plant, and rises considerably higher, than M. trilobata: its smaller and fewer flowers, and entire strictly truncated and smaller leaves, arrest the attention at first sight when compared, and
are grave differential characters; besides, the reticulated venation of the leaves of the two species is very dissimilar.
Genus 1. Pimelea, Banks and Sol.
1. P. rugulosa, sp. nov.
Plant shrubby, prostrate, spreading, forming small compact low bushes; main stems rather stout, 1ft.–2ft. long, much branched; branches ascending and erect, 8in.–12in. long, stoutish, straight, sparingly hairy; hairs greyish, short, adpressed in small detached patches between the leaves, but never near their bases; bark pale reddish-brown. Leaves decussate, not close, about 1 line (sometimes 2) apart, patent, decurved, thickish, glabrous, sub-glaucous-green, minutely and regularly marked with light-grey scurf, sub-papillose on under surface, narrow oblong, obtuse, 2–3 lines long, margined; margins (and petioles) bright-red; midrib indistinct; floral leaves slightly larger and broader; petioles short, stout, glabrous, transversely wrinkled below. Flowers sub-terminal, capitate 3–5 together, sessile, closely compacted, with a thick bunch of erect white hairs at their bases. Perianth hairy, 3½ lines long, the lower half of tube rose-coloured turgid and rugulose, the upper portion slender and (with the limb) white; lobes broadly ovate, obtuse, spreading, recurved, longer than the white portion of the tube, their lateral margins slightly incurved. Stamens rather long, exserted; style much longer.
Hab. Open plains, Tahoraiti, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1885–88: W. C.
Obs. A species having pretty close affinity with P. prostrata, Vahl., of which species Hook. f. gives no less than three indigenous varieties; but this plant possesses characters differing from them all.
Genus 6. Isolepis, Br.
1. I. novæ-zealandiæ, sp. nov.
Plant very small, densely tufted, sub-erect, slightly branched at base; roots numerous, short, fine, wiry, red; culms and leaves green above, reddish below. Culms about 1in. long, leafy (3–4) below spikelet, semi-terete, channelled on upper surface, tips sub-acute. Leaves a little longer than culms, filiform, linear, much dilated and clasping at bases; tips very obtuse, drooping; leaf-sheaths (2 or more) loose, truncate, with a short erect obtuse point. Spikelet solitary, sub-sessile, lateral at or below middle of culm, small, ovate, about 1 line long (rarely 1½), few-flowered, elongating after flowering; and
the lower glumes and nuts falling off gives it the appearance of being peduncled. Glumes few, broadly oblong, 1 line long, concave, 1-nerved, nerve percurrent; centre green, thickish; sides straight, entire, very membranous; tips sub-acute, thickened. Stamens 3, long, flexuous. Nut minute, about 1/36in. diameter, orbicular, tipped with a small point, black, finely papillose, slightly turgid, a little produced at base. Style long; stigmas 2, long, spreading, scaberulous.
Hab. Sides of watercourses in low grounds, Hawke's Bay; 1880: W. C. Also Mr. A. Hamilton; 1887.
Obs. This little plant is closely allied to another small New Zealand species, I. basilaris, Hook, f., but differs from it in its still smaller size, solitary spikelet, broader and fewer glumes with their mid-rib not “excurrent,” orbicular black nut, and 3 stamens. This species is also allied to I. acaulis, F. Muell. (Scirpus humillimus, Benth.—“F1. Austral.,” vol. vii., p. 324).
Genus 14. Carex, Linn.
1. C. picta, sp. nov.
Rootstock hypogæous, creeping, very stout, woody, irregular, knotty and branched, coarsely covered with large striate brown imbricating scales. Leaves (and culms) pale-green, very narrow, linear-acuminate, ascending, flexuous, recurved; rather closely fascicled in fours, the outer leaf the broadest, truncate, sheathing 1in. from base, 3in.–6in. long, 1/20in. wide at base, flat, smooth, 2-nerved, striate, upper surface channelled, tips filiform, obtuse, their margins minutely and closely (but not harshly) serrulate. Culms filiform, 3in.–4in. (rarely 5in.–6in.) long, sub-flexuous and ascending, drooping, subtrilateral, striate, edges rounded smooth. Spikelets 1–3 (usually 2, very rarely 3), narrow ovoid and broadly lanceolate, rather slender, 3–4 lines long, shortly peduncled, dark-brown, bi-bracteolate; bracts erect, filiform, the lower ¾in.–1½in. long, the upper much shorter, one-third to one-fourth the length of the lower, coloured brown at base, with their basal margins much dilated; tips minutely serrulate (sub lente) as in leaves. Glumes large, very broad, orbicular-ovate, variegated, nerve at centre stout, bright-green, sides dark purple-brown, margins white and very membranous, pellucid, delicately and closely reticulate, extending beyond apex of nerve, tips rounded and sometimes emarginate; the lowest glume sub-aristate. Male flowers below occupying more than half of spikelet; anthers exserted, linear, very narrow, rather long, bright-yellow; stamens white, flexuous. Female flowers few; style very long twice the length of utricle, papillose-scabrid; stigmas 2, very long, spreading, flexuous and curly, brown. Utricle semi-terete, small, green (brown when quite ripe), broadly
lanceolate, beaked, many-nerved, glossy; margins of the upper half (not apex) largely serrate; tip truncate. Achenium lanceolate.
Hab. Half-concealed among low herbage, open grassy plains at Tahoraiti, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1887: W. C.
Obs. This little species has pretty close affinity with C. colensoi, Hook. f. It is, however, a smaller plant, differing in several characters, particularly in its broader and flatter leaves, its fewer and slenderer spikelets, broader and tri-coloured glumes, with larger membranous margins, narrower and beaked utricles, long scabrid styles and stigmas, and narrow (not “orbicular”) achenium (as shown in dissections of C. colensoi—“Fl. N.Z.,” tab. 63B).
2. C. polyneura, sp. nov.
Plant loosely tufted, branched below, spreading, light-green. Culms erect, 7in.–9in. high, smooth, bluntly triquetrous, leafy. Leaves sub-rigid, linear very acuminate, 8in.–9in. long, ¼in. wide near base, flat, smooth, shining, channelled, much striate (sub 22-nerved), sheathing; sheaths-membranous, sub-truncate, bifid and sub-laciniate, coloured; ligule large, diagonal; keeled, upper portion of keel scabrid; margins slightly recurved and finely serrulate, most so at tips; tips filiform, acute, recurved. Spikelets 5–6, erect, axillary, bracteolate, rather distant, ½in. long, cylindrical, stoutish, obtuse, the lowest peduncled; peduncle slender, rigid, 1in. long; the top one wholly male, narrow, obovate; the others with few or no male flowers at their bases; the lower bracts long and leafy; the upper ones very narrow, short, erect. Glumes broadly ovate, bifid, purple, closely reticulated; margins membranous and finely laciniate; awned, awn as long as and longer than the glume, green, rigid, sharply and closely serrulate. Utricle longer than glume, sub-orbicular or broadly elliptic, 1 line long, turgid, smooth, shining, convex on the outer side, slightly concave on the inner, somewhat beaked, bifid, pale-greenish below, dark purple-brown above. Stigmas 3, short, pinkish, very scabrid. Anthers long, linear, brown; tips acute.
Hab. Edges of streamlets, woods, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1887: W. C.
3. C. longiacuminata, sp. nov.
Plant large, dark-green, tufted with short surculi. Culms stout, erect, 2ft. 9in.–3ft. high, leafy, smooth, angles obtuse; bract-leaves long, the lowest longer than culm, 4 lines broad, keeled, margins and keel finely and closely serrulate. Leaves shorter than culm, same width, &c., as bracts, slightly rigid,
drooping at tops, finely acuminate almost setaceous, tips acute, many-nerved (sub 26), margins widely membranous below; the outer leaves much shorter and not so acuminate; the basal leaves very short, blackish, acute. Spikelets 6, erect and large, 1½in. long, stout, cylindrical, peduncled; the 2 lower very distant, the 4 upper close together, the topmost narrow and wholly male; each of the 5 lower ones with a few male flowers at its base. Sheaths long, 2in.–1½in. from nodes, closely adpressed. Stigmas 2 (sometimes 3), erect, stout. Glumes light-brown, glossy, very membranous, semi-pellucid, largely bifid; lobes laciniate aristate, arista long (very long on lower glumes, so as to cover the arista next above), green, sharply and strongly serrate. Utricle 1½ lines long, dark umber-brown, glossy, sub-rhombic-ovoid, turgid and slightly uneven, minutely scabrid (5–6) on upper margins, finely (almost obsoletely) striate; beak bifid, short, broad.
Hab. Low swampy ground, margins of woods, south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1888: W. C.
Genus 2. Microlæna, Br.
1. M. ramosissima, sp. nov.
A large decumbent straggling and sub-ascending perennial grass, rising and creeping over low shrubs and bushes; dark-green; main stems as stout at base as a goose-quill, hard, solid, 7ft.–8ft. long, with several short sheaths at base, much branched; branches long, slender, leafy. Culms 4ft.–5ft. long, knotted; nodes 3in.–5in. apart, with long ovate-acuminate sheath-like bracts 2in.–3in. long, light-brown, nearly amplexicaul at outer base of each node, distantly leafy throughout, stout, cylindrical, solid, 2 lines diameter at base; the lower leaves 8in. long, 1/10in. wide, linear acuminate, striate, many-nerved (5 of them being stout and prominent); margins minutely scaberulous, recurved and red; tip long, filiform; the upper leaves reaching close under panicle, 4in. long, very narrow almost filiform, 1/30in. wide, acute; sheaths 2in. long, extending half-way between nodes, rigid, striate, with a few fine long hairs at the mouth; ligule small, semi-circular, somewhat chaffy, reddish, thickened. Panicle terminal, lax and sub-erect, 4in.–5in. long, narrow, distantly branched with 4–6 simple branches, each containing 3–4 pedicelled spikelets; pedicels long, ½in.–¾in., wiry, flexuous and (with rhachis) minutely scaberulous. Spikelet 8 lines long awns included, pale-green. Glumes, lowest pair small, persistent, whitish, spreading, the outer one very minute one-third the length of the inner which is about 1 line long, ovate, tip retuse and jagged; the 2 following empty glumes awned, unequal, the outer one 6
lines long, lanceolate-acuminate, 5-nerved, keel and margins scabrid, margins hyaline, with a small tuft of hairs at the base; the next 8 lines long including the long awn, narrow ovate-acuminate, 7-nerved, the awn long nearly ¼in., setaceous, straight, scabrid, acute; the uppermost or flowering glume 3-nerved, margins hyaline, the lower two-thirds entire, slightly scaberulous on keel, tip irregular jagged and scabrid; awn short and stout. Pale 3 lines long, linear-lanceolate, 1-nerved, tip obtuse, margins of the lower half entire, of the upper half and tip scabrid ciliate. Scales sub-flabellate or sub-quinquilateral, 7-nerved, tip produced, margins irregular and laciniate. Anthers 4, linear, 2½ lines long, both ends bifid, scarcely exserted. Stigmas long, diverging, ovate-acuminate, bushy, much branched, branches compound. Ovary oblong, sub-truncate. Grain not seen.
Hab. In a thicket on the banks of a small streamlet south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa (and only in that locality); 1887–88: W. C.
Obs. This species is pretty closely allied to M. polynoda, Hook f., but differs from that species in several particulars—as, in its much longer and branched panicle, with long pedicels to the spikelets; in the tuft of hairs at the base of the inner pair of empty glumes, and in both of them being long-awned; in the difference in their nervature, in the tip of the pale being obtuse and ciliate; and in the form and nervature of its scales. It is, also, a larger and more robust plant.
Genus 12. Apera, Adanson.
1. A. purpurascens, sp. nov.
A tall erect and nodding densely-tufted graceful perennial grass, having numerous short stout striate sheaths, with long sub-aristate mucros at base. Stems slender, distantly leafy, knotted, striate, smooth, 2ft. long. Culms 3ft.–3ft. 6in. high, smooth, slender, nodding, purple above pale straw-colour below, 8in.–10in. long downwards from panicle. Leaves membranaceous, narrow, 9in.–10in. long, 1½ lines wide, sub-glaucous and striate above, edges and midrib slightly scaberulous, tips finely acuminate, setaceous; sheaths long, ciliate at top and margins; ligule membranous, truncate, produced in front, very short behind. Panicle large, nodding, pendulous, 2ft.–2ft. 10in. long, very open, loosely whorled, the lower whorls distant, 3in.–4in. apart, each containing 6–8 spreading capillary branches, the two largest 6in.–7in. long and twice whorled, their branchlets sub-rigid, angular, compressed, flexuous, scaberulous. Pedicels 4–5 lines long, wiry, flexuous, scabrid, thickened at tips. Spikelets small, 1/10in. long, purple. Empty glumes longer than the flowering ones, sub - ovate - acuminate, 1 - nerved with slightly scaberulous
keels; tips membranous, jagged; the outer very narrow and finely acuminate, the inner and larger one sub-aristate. Flowering glume ovate, 1-nerved, aristate; awn 3½ lines long, three times, the length of spikelet, scabrid, flexuous and straight. Pale linear-oblong, tip obtuse, jagged. Stamen 1, short; anther narrow oblong, emarginate, cordate. Grain 1 line long, lanceolate, truncate.
Hab. Edges of streamlets in woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa, flowering in February; 1887–88: W. C.
Obs. This is a truly elegant grass; and when it is found growing in large tufts among small ferns, in rather open spots on the borders of the streams, with a rich profusion of numerous gracefully-pendulous panicles, purple and glistening in the sun, it is a most striking object—one sure to rivet the attention of the privileged beholder. It differs in several characters from the other only known indigenous species of this genus, A. arundinacea, Hook, f., and is a far more hand-some plant.
Genus 14. Agrostis, Linn.
1. (?) A. striata, sp. nov.
A small slender erect glabrous annual grass, 5in.–6in. high; stems with 3–4 distant nodes. Leaves few, on stems 1½in. long, 1/30in. wide, striate; margins minutely scaberulous (sub lente); ligule long, narrow, sub-acute, erect, hyaline, jagged at tip. Panicle erect, open, free, 3in. long, rhomboid in outline, distantly whorled, the lowermost having 5 unequal capillary rigid flexuous branchlets, the largest being 1½in. long and whorled about the centre, all minutely scaberulous; each branchlet usually bearing 2 distant spikelets; pedicels much thickened at base of spikelet, that of the lower spikelet short, of the upper long. Spikelets 1/10in. long, membranous, whitish, shining; the two empty glumes nearly alike, much spreading, sub-linear-lanceolate, acuminate, very acute, tips purple, nerveless, but with many longitudinal minutely zigzagged purple striæ forming linear cells, scabrid on back and at margins which are hyaline. Flowering glume small, oblong, sub-truncate, 1/16in. long, striate, 3-nerved, greenish, hairy, awned, a small lateral tuft of hairs on each side near base; tips laciniate, jagged, and very hairy with long spreading hairs; awn short, stout, coarsely scabrid, springing from one of the lateral nerves a little way down the back. Anthers oblong, truncate, emarginate. Grain ½ line long, sub-oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, narrower at apex, turgid, shining, pale ochraceous.
Hab. High lands in the interior near Lake Waikare, County of Wairoa; 1888: Mr. H. Hill.
Obs. This curious little mountain species is widely different
from all of this genus known to me; hence I have provision ally placed it here. I have only had a few half-withered and somewhat imperfect specimens for examination, which seem to have been accidentally collected with other small herbs.