Art. XII.—On new Species of Araneidea.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd October, 1888.]
Genus Linyphia, Latr.
Linyphia purpura-punctata, sp. nov.
Male.—Ceph. th., long, 1·2; broad, 1. Abd., long, 1·8; broad, 1·2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 6·8, 5, 4, 2·7 mm.
Cephalothorax yellow - brown, olive - brown dorsal band bifurcates from base of caput, connecting posterior central and lateral eyes; rugulose; oval, slightly compressed forwards; pars cephalica moderately convex, roundly truncated; thoracic fovea somewhat oval, caput and radial striæ moderately defined; profile-contour rises at an angle of about 35° from thoracic junction, somewhat horizontal across pars cephalica, dips forwards from posterior row of eyes; clypeus vertical, height nearly equals diameter of a fore-lateral eye.
Eyes on black spots; posterior row moderately recurved, central pair separated from each other by a space equal to rather more than their diameter, rather less than that interval from side-eyes next to them, two-thirds their space from anterior-centrals; fore-row recurved, median pair, smallest of eight, their diameter from each other, less than their radius from side-eyes; interval between lateral eyes rather exceeds interspace between posterior-centrals; seated obliquely on low eminences.
Legs yellowish, faint annulations on tibiæ and metatarsi; fairly stout; black hairs, long spines, on femoral, genual, tibial, and metatarsal joints, except metatarsi of 1–2.
Palpi, humeral, cubital, and radial joints pale straw-colour,
former article one-third longer than two latter together; cubital joint somewhat linear, radial rather shorter than cubital, viewed from above somewhat cup-shaped; digital joint large, globose; springing from near articulation of joint is a brownish, irregular, triangular, semi-detached process, at extremity nearly as broad as long, fore-angles prolonged into two apophyses, outer black-brown, stout, pointed; inner longest, membranous, lake-brown, concave within; side-face of bulb spiral, glossy, outer circle broad, pale; inner circle red-mahogany; beneath the dark-brown, membranous, free apex is a black, pointed process; lamina bulbi broad-ovate, placed rather beneath bulbus, hairs rather sparse.
Falces brownish-yellow; conical, project moderately at base in front, directed rather forwards, exceed humeral joint of palpus in length.
Maxillæ yellowish-brown; fore-part broad, rounded, inclined towards labium, which is dark chocolate-brown; oval one-third broader than long, strongly everted.
Sternum cordate; yellow-brown, dark margin.
Abdomen oviform; ground-colour umber-brown, series of pinkish, purple-tinted flecks on either side of dorsal band, which is less defined than females, dark-brown near spinners; ventral surface brownish.
Female.—Geph. th., long, 1; broad, 1. Abd., long, 2·1; broad, 1·8. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 6·5, 5, 4, 3 mm.
Cephalothorax yellowish-brown, dorsal band and marginal zone olive-brown, former commences at thoracic fovea, bifurcating above junction of caput, to posterior eyes; glabrous; oval, moderately compressed forwards; pars cephalica convex, rounded, lateral index about equal to space between a hind-lateral eye and the hind-central furthest from it; fovea somewhat oval, caput groove and radial striæ moderately defined; profile-line rises slightly across ocular area, somewhat level to limit of caput, slopes moderately to base; clypeus vertical, height rather exceeds diameter of a fore-lateral eye.
Eyes on black eminences, laterals most prominent; posterior row moderately recurved, of about equal size, nearly equidistant, central eyes separated by an interval equal to their diameter and a quarter, about one-third less than their space from fore-centrals; anterior row recurved, median pair about one-third size of laterals, scarcely their breadth apart, about that interval from side-eyes; interspace between laterals rather exceeds that between posterior median pair.
Legs shade lighter than cephalothorax, rather faint annulations on tibiæ and metatarsi; moderately slender; black hairs, long, slender spines.
Palpi pale yellow-brown; slender, about length of cephalothorax; armature, hairs, and bristles.
Falces and cephalothorax concolorous; conical, directed rather forwards, project somewhat in front at base; fangs small, reddish-brown.
Maxillæ, fore-half broad, convex, rounded, moderately inclined towards labium, yellow-brown. Lip one-third broader than long, recurved; chocolate-brown, margin pale.
Sternum yellowish-brown; cordate.
Abdomen oviform; umber-brown, flecked with large and small pinkish, purple-tinted, somewhat metallic spots; dorsal band brown, sinuate margins, posterior two-thirds narrower and darker; lateral margins dark-brown, few purple streaks and flecks; ventral surface displays a brown purple-margined, shield-shaped mark; abdomen sparsely clothed with short blackish hairs. Corpus vulvæ chestnut-brown; moderately prominent; represents a transverse area divided by a glossy, brown, rather narrow, x-shaped septum, whose base is prolonged, horizontally, on the tumid margins of foveæ.
Several specimens, Wairongomai Gorge, A. T. U.
Linyphia nitidulum, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1·6; broad, 1. Abd., long, 2; broad, 1·8. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 5·9, 4·9, 4·2, 2·2 mm.
Cephalothorax brownish-yellow, median band and marginal zone dark-olive; former broad, bifurcates forwards from base of caput; areolate; oval, moderately compressed forwards, pars cephalica somewhat depressed, roundly truncated; lateral index equal to space from a hind-lateral eye to the hind-central furthest from it; thoracic indentation not clearly defined, caput and radial striæ well marked; contour of profile rises slightly across pars cephalica to hind row of eyes, dips somewhat abruptly backwards; depth of clypeus equals diameter of a fore-lateral eye, directed sensibly inwards.
Eyes on black spots, anterior and posterior rows recurved, latter moderately; hind row about equidistant, central pair scarcely their breadth apart, more than twice their diameter from fore-centrals, which are about their breadth from each other and side-eyes next to them; lateral eyes sensibly larger than posterior-centrals, more than one-third larger than fore-median pair; seated obliquely, their diameter and a half from one another, on tubercular eminences, fore-pair strong.
Legs and cephalothorax concolorous, femora faintly clouded, tibiæ and metatarsi annulated with an olive tint; slender; armature, few black hairs and bristle-like spines.
Palpi colour of legs, moderately strong.
Falces light amber-colour; somewhat conical, directed visibly inwards.
Maxillæ brownish-yellow; basal half longitudinally indented; fore-end rounded, tumid; inclined outwards; strong fringe of hairs. Labium chocolate-brown; oval, more than twice as broad as long, everted; about one-fourth as long as maxillæ.
Sternum brownish-yellow, margins clouded; coarse black hairs; cordate; slight eminences opposite coxæ.
Abdomen ovoid, fore-end pointed, projects over base of cephalothorax, lateral margins longitudinally corrugated; dorsal field creamy-brown, flecks of a paler hue; median mark broad, yellow margins, irregularly acutely crenate, extends from base to spinners, fore-half numerous pale flecks, few brown, somewhat angular marks on margin; posterior half maroon-colour; sides brownish, longitudinally streaked with dark olive-brown, margins yellow. Ventral surface brownish-yellow; displays a somewhat ovate, olive-coloured mark, two yellow spots. Corpus vulvæ amber-colour, speckled, glossy, somewhat oval, moderately prominent, transverse eminence, centrally produced into a longitudinal costa, at base of latter is a shallow, cuneate depression, with lake-coloured margins; fore-part concave within and prolonged above into a short, rather broad septum, which loops up a long, narrow, transverse membrane, projecting outwards above the rima genitalis; septum and membrane have glossy-brown, beaded margins.
This rather handsome specimen was captured amongst the light bush on the summit of Te Aroha. A. T. U.
Linyphia rufo-lineata, sp. nov.
Male.—Ceph. th., long, 2·8; broad, 2. Abd., long, 3·2; broad, 2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 21, 13·1, 9, 7 mm.
Cephalothorax light yellow-brown; on posterior slope of pars cephalica is an olive-brown, lanceolate mark, which bifurcates forwards to posterior-lateral eyes; lateral margin of caput displays a longitudinal streak of similar hue; almost glabrous; rugulose; oval; moderately compressed forwards; caput moderately convex, lateral index nearly equals breadth at posterior row of eyes; median indentation on pars thoracica longitudinal, deep; caput and radial striæ well-defined; profile - contour represents a moderate double arch; clypeus vertical, height equal to more than diameter of a fore-central eye.
Eyes large, of almost equal size; posterior row procurved, centrals visibly the largest of eight, placed on black oval spots, three-fourths their diameter apart, separated by an interval equal to one-third their breadth from side-eyes next to them; anterior row recurved, median pair seated on a moderate black eminence, three-fourths their diameter from each other,
their breadth and a quarter from hind-centrals; separated by a space equal to one-fourth their diameter from side-eyes; laterals seated obliquely, close together, on separate, black, tubercular eminences.
Legs and cephalothorax concolorous; red-chestnut annuli on all joints; light hairs; long, slender spines on femoral, genual, tibial, and metatarsal joints.
Palpi colour of legs; long; humeral joint rather exceeds cubital and radial in length; cubital joint about one-fourth shorter than radial, fore-third angular, furnished with a long bristle; fore-third of radial joint sharply constricted, margin tumid, brownish; projects two long, moderately - strong bristles; clava large; projecting from beneath the lip-like margin of the radial joint is a large yellow-brown, hairy process, terminal half compressed, somewhat quadrilateral, margin blackish; above latter process a long, stout, tapering, amber-coloured apophysis, furnished with short hairs, projects forwards from beneath a black-brown, acute-crenate, membranous fringe; projecting upwards and outwards from between the two latter organs is a short, stout, curved, pale amber-coloured process, concave beneath; bulbus genitalis somewhat spiral, apex membranous, broad, linear, rounded, concave, reddish-brown; projecting outwards at a right angle from base of contracted apex is a broad, acutely-pointed, reddish, membranous process; projecting from within concavity at bulbus are two stout, glossy-black apophyses; base of outer one broad, depressed in centre, fore-part compressed and rounded; lamina bulbi beneath bulb, apex pointed; moderately hairy.
Falces light mahogany-brown; transversely rugose; vertical; fore-third remarkably concave on outer side; equal in length to humeral joint of palpus.
Maxillæ broadest and slightly rounded at extremity; moderately inclined towards each other; brownish-yellow, base suffused with brown. Labium somewhat oval, short, everted; base chocolate-brown, margin yellowish.
Sternum brownish; somewhat cordate; eminences opposite coxæ.
Abdomen oviform, indentation above pedicel; yellowish-olive, numerous yellowish flecks; folium ovate, base dark-olive; a pale ⊥-shaped mark extends backwards from cleft; nearly in centre of abdomen are two closely-connected, somewhat oval, creamy-white transverse marks; margins red, less pronounced on posterior side, with an outer border of dark olive-brown; prolonged margins terminate with white spots; between oval marks and basal ⊥-shaped mark are two whitish sinuating lines; on posterior half of dorsal line is a not-well-defined, yellow-flecked, tapering streak, bifurcating forwards
to oval marks; between latter marks and spinners are a series of three transverse, oblique, more or less pronounced, dark bars, fore-pair terminate with a white spot. Ventral surface yellowish; shield brown.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2·8; broad, 2. Abd., long, 4; broad, 3·2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3=14, 10, 8, 6 mm.
Cephalothorax brownish-yellow; dorsal mark olive-brown; somewhat fan-shaped on base of pars cephalica, compressed across pars thoracica; rugulose; almost glabrous; oval, moderately compressed forwards, lateral index exceeds breadth of eye-area; normal grooves fairly marked, fovea deep, somewhat circular; profile-line represents a moderate double arch; clypeus in height rather exceeds diameter and a half of a fore-central eye.
Posterior row of eyes procurved, sensibly exceed fore-row in size; centrals on black, oval spots, separated by an interval scarcely equal to their diameter, half that space from laterals next to them, their breadth and a half from fore-centrals; anterior row recurved; median pair seated on slight prominences, interspace rather exceeds their breadth, separated by scarcely their diameter from side-eyes; laterals seated obliquely, one-fourth their breadth apart, on dark, tubercular eminences.
Legs brownish-yellow, more or less defined brown annulations; slender; yellowish hairs, spine armature similar to males; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, slightly curved, 14 close teeth, increasing a little in length; inferior claw long, 2 teeth.
Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; length 4mm. Palpal claw moderately curved, long, 7 teeth.
Falces yellowish, glossy; vertical, conical, tumid and projecting forwards at base.
Maxillæ rather longer than broad, apex wide, slightly rounded; yellowish. Labium less than one-half length of maxillæ, somewhat oval, broader than long, everted; olive-brown.
Sternum cordate; eminences opposite coxæ; yellow-brown, margin brownish.
Abdomen oviform, projects moderately over base of cephalothorax; light stone-colour; folium sinuate, olive-brown, stone-coloured flecks; on fore-third are a series of undulating angular marks—apices directed forwards, of a light stone-colour, except the largest and posterior one, which has a creamy-white hue, anterior margin reddish-pink; from the latter mark a narrow subulate light stone-coloured mark extends half-way to spinners; on dorsal line, intersecting the pattern, is an olive-brown streak, which takes a hastate form on the creamy angular bar; a series of brownish oblique broad
streaks, interrupted by median pattern, extend length of folium; lateral margin yellowish-olive, white next to folium, flecks yellowish; on ventral surface is a semi-oval olive-brown mark, margined with light flecks; spinners short; light mahogany-brown. Vulva amber-colour, one - third broader than long, transversely rugose, projects over rima genitalis; displays two circular, moderately deep, brownish foveæ, divided by a slightly-elevated septum, whose breadth perceptibly exceeds their diameter, and nearly equals width of outer margin; facing septum is a somewhat concave depression, equalling it in breadth; margins of corpus vulvæ terminate, on either side of concavity, in slight, somewhat conical, brown eminences.
Several examples, summit of Te Aroha, A. T. U.
Linyphia nemoralis, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 1·5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 7·4, 4, 3, 2·5 mm.
Cephalothorax dark olive-brown, suffused with black-brown; rugose; ovate lateral marginal compression at pars cephalica very slight; caput convex, viewed from front broad ovate; indentation below eyes; thoracic fovea longitudinal, normal grooves slight; profile-contour nearly semicircular, crown of arch at limit of caput; clypeus convex, projects moderately forwards, height equals about two-thirds depth of ocular area.
Eyes of tolerable and nearly equal size; posterior row procurved, median-pair three-fourths their diameter from each other, separated by scarcely twice that interval from side-eyes; anterior row recurved; centrals dark, smallest of eight, seated on a prominence, their radius apart, further from laterals of same row than they are from posterior median pair; form a trapezoid with hind-centrals, longer than broad; lateral eyes have the pearl-grey lustre of posterior-centrals, placed obliquely on dark, moderately prominent eminences, contiguous.
Legs brownish-yellow, rather faint-brown annulations, most pronounced on 3–4; in some examples, except base of femora, 1–2 have a reddish tinge, with little or no trace of annuli; slender; fine hairs, few bristle-like spines on genual and tibial joints.
Palpi straw-colour, except digital joint which has a brownish hue; latter article rather longer than humeral, more than twice length of pars radialis; no claw; black hairs.
Falces brownish-yellow, basal half suffused with reddish-brown; stout, length exceeds digital joint of palpus by one-fourth, project forwards at base, directed outwards, superior margin somewhat concave at extremity; outer row of teeth strong, two central longest; fangs long.
Maxillæ yellowish, basal half suffused with chocolate-brown;
linear-oval, curve over labium, which is somewhat oval, rather broader than long, everted, more than half length of maxillæ; chocolate-brown, apex pale.
Sternum dark chocolate-brown; covered with small papillæ; cordate, nearly as broad as long.
Abdomen oviform, profile-line represents a semicircle, rising abruptly from base of cephalothorax; stone-colour; folium terminates a little above spinners, its dark-brown, coarse, irregular, somewhat acute-crenate margins enclose a stone-coloured leaf-like space, which has in some examples two angular brown bars on posterior half, apices directed forwards; fore-part of pale area and margins of folium widen out on base; ventral surface brown, margin dark. Corpus vulvæ moderately tumid, inferior (anterior) margin prolonged into a short, broad scape, fore-end circular, concave on upper side; superior margin curves inwards, forming a short septum, beneath the scapus vulvæ, which intersects two ovate foveæ; beneath the superior tumid margin is a narrow, transverse, lip-like projection.
Male.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 1. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 8, 5, 3·5, 3 mm.
Cephalothorax mahogany-brown; rugose; oval, lateral marginal constrictions at caput slight, contour of profile resembles female's; height of clypeus rather less than one-half depth of facial space.
Eyes, posterior row procurved, central pair their radius apart, rather more than their diameter from laterals; anterior row recurved, median pair placed on a dark, moderate prominence, separated by an interval equal to one-third of an eye's diameter, scarcely their breadth and a half from posterior-centrals, visibly more than their diameter from side-eyes of same row; laterals seated obliquely on moderate tubercular eminences, nearly contiguous.
Legs reddish-brown, except basal half of femora and coxæ, which have a dull straw-colour; 3–4 brown annuli at articulations of tibiæ and fore-end of metatarsi; armature, sparse, fine hairs; one long bristle-like spine on genual, two on tibial joints.
Palpi pale straw-colour; humeral joint about one-fourth longer than cubital and radial together; cubital joint rather narrow at base, slightly exceeds penultimate article in length; latter joint cyathiform, furnished with black bristles; pars digitalis reddish-brown; large, globose; laminæ moderately hairy, directed towards each other, circular, convex, project in front, a dark, stout, curved process, directed forwards and downwards; laminæ indented beneath processes, display above, on outer side, a remarkable lunulate indentation; bulbus genitalis complex, viewed laterally, circular, somewhat
what (plane) spiral, rugose; margin black-brown, bulbus yellowish, circular margins reddish-brown; near centre of the somewhat depressed lobe are two yellowish, short, tooth-like processes, directed downwards; beneath them the dark, membranous margin is produced into a long, fine, black apophysis, curving forwards and upwards, central third ciliate.
Falces reddish-brown, basal half suffused with olive-brown, somewhat conical, directed visibly forwards, terminal half outwards.
Maxillæ brownish-yellow, base suffused with olive-brown; linear-oval curve over labium; latter oval, chocolate-brown.
Sternum dark chocolate-brown; cordate.
Abdomen oviform; stone-colour; folium nearly length of dorsal line; black-brown, coarse, acute - crenate margins enclose a stone-coloured leaf-like space. Ventral surface brownish.
Three specimens taken on the summit of Te Aroha, A. T. U.
Genus Theridium, Walck.
Theridium brunnea-folium, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2; broad, 1·2. Abd., long, 3; broad, 2·5. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 10·5, 8, 6·5, 5 mm.
Cephalothorax pale-brown, whitish radial streaks; caput, broad median band, and lateral margins suffused with brown; areolate; glabrous; oval, moderately compressed forwards, pars cephalica rather depressed, lateral index about equal to space at hind-central eyes; fovea large, deep, somewhat circular; radial striæ and caput-grooves moderately defined; contour of profile arched, dips slightly at median indentation; clypeus projects forwards, height visibly exceeds depth of ocular area.
Posterior row of eyes procurved; median pair—which are sensibly the largest of eight—separated by rather more than their diameter; interval between them and laterals exceeds latter space by one-third; anterior row recurved; central eyes slightly further from one another than they are from posterior median pair, with which they nearly form a square, anterior side widest; centrals rather less than their breadth from side-eyes; laterals placed obliquely on dark tubercular eminences, nearly contiguous.
Legs brownish-yellow, reddish-brown annulations on tibial and metatarsal joints; armature sparse, dark hairs, slender bristles.
Palpi yellowish, radial and digital joints reddish; length of cephalothorax.
Falces glossy, amber-colour; somewhat linear, directed slightly forwards, equal to pars digitalis of palpus in length.
Maxillæ yellowish; long, somewhat acutely pointed, inclined over labium, which has an olive tinge; somewhat semicircular, nearly as long as broad, about one-half length of maxillæ.
Sternum yellowish, dark margins; cordate; areolate; slight eminences opposite coxæ.
Abdomen oviform, peduncle rather exposed; folium covers dorsal surface, runcinate, well-defined; light chocolates-brown, pale flecks, margins picked out with dark-brown; median band creamy-white; narrow, throws off few short transverse bars, fore-third lanceolate; lateral margins and ventral surface creamy-brown, numerous pale flecks; few brownish, transverse, somewhat ill-defined bars beneath; spinners short, brown. Vulva dark-brown; projects over rima genitalis, somewhat oval concavity above, fore-margin of latter tumid, notched.
Single specimen, summit of Te Aroha, A. T. U.
Theridium niger-punctillum, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2; broad, 1·5. Abd., long, 3; broad, 2·7. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 11, 8·2, 6·8, 4·8 mm.
Cephalothorax pale reddish-brown, caput and median band lightly clouded with olive; areolate; oval, laterally constricted forwards; pars cephalica moderately convex, lateral index equal to space from a hind-lateral eye to hind-central next to it; thoracic fovea circular, deep; normal grooves rather faint; profile-contour rises a little from occiput, represents a low arch across pars thoracica; clypeus directed perceptibly forwards, height equal to depth of eye-area.
Eyes tolerably small, do not differ much in size; posterior row procurved, median pair largest of eight, sensibly less than their diameter from each other, rather more than that space from side-eyes; anterior row recurved, centrals further from one another than they are from hind pair, with which they nearly form a square; lateral eyes have the pearl-grey lustre of posterior-centrals, placed obliquely on dark, moderately prominent, tubercular eminences, contiguous.
Legs yellowish, red-brown annulations at articulation of joints; femora of one pair speckled; long, slender; hairs and bristles sparse.
Palpi yellowish, hairs sparse, bristle on cubital joint; length, 2mm.
Falces yellowish, reddish about apex; linear, vertical.
Maxillæ pale, dull, brownish-yellow; stout, spathulate, inclined towards labium, which is semicircular, less than half length of maxillæ; slightly everted; orange-brown.
Sternum colour of legs; areolate; cordate.
Abdomen oviform, very convex above, pointed at spinners, moderately so at base; pale, olive-tinted stone-colour, thickly
spotted with creamy-white flecks, oblique streaks of normal hue, remarkable irregular black mark between second and last oblique streaks; hairs short, light, sparse. Vulva glossy, reddish-black; represents two somewhat circular connected projections; on upper surface are two foveæ, intersected by a longitudinal groove; reddish-brown fan-shaped marks radiate from each concavity.
Single specimen captured at the base of Te Aroha, A. T. U.
Theridium porphyreticum, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2; broad, 1·5. Abd., long, 3; broad, 2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 9, 6, 5·4, 4 mm.
Cephalothorax pale, brownish straw-colour; areolate; oval, slightly compressed forwards; pars cephalica moderately convex; lateral index equal to space from a fore-lateral eye to the hind-central next to it; thoracic fovea somewhat oval, normal grooves deep; contour of profile represents a moderate arch; clypeus nearly vertical, height scarcely equals depth of eye-area.
Posterior row of eyes sensibly procurved, median pair ovate, pearl-grey, black margins, separated by an interval perceptibly exceeding their breadth, their diameter and a half from laterals next to them; anterior row recurved, centrals brownish, placed on moderate black eminences, nearly form a square with posterior pair; lateral eyes have the brownish hue of fore-centrals, seated obliquely on black tubercular eminences, contiguous.
Legs and cephalothorax concolorous; moderately slender; armature very sparse.
Palpi colour and armature of legs.
Falces brownish straw-colour; vertical, somewhat linear and aplanate, double row of small teeth.
Maxillæ long, ronndly truncated on superior side, single row of short bristles on margins, inclined towards labium, which is about as long as broad, rounded; organs pale-brown.
Sternum yellowish, cordate.
Abdomen oviform, basal end rather the widest and most pointed; dorsal field—except base, which is light-brown—clouded with black-brown, has a pinkish tint graduating into a pale yellow-brown, thickly flecked with a lighter hue, about marginal zone and ventral surface; posterior three-fourths of dorsal field clouded with reddish-purple, deepening in shades towards spinners; on median line are two creamy-white marks; basal lanceolate, forms a disconnected petiole to the doubly serrate leaf-shaped posterior mark, which extends to spinners; across the constriction, below the central im-
pressed spots, is a dash of red. The abdomen in the vicinity of the vulva had shrunk somewhat when the specimen was described. Branchial opercula long, linear; pale-lemon colour. Corpus vulvæ moderately prominent; above the rima genitalis is a large circular orifice.
Single example, Wairongomai Gorge, A. T. U.
Theridium gracilipes, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1·1; broad, 1. Abd., long, 2; broad, 1·6. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 11·5, 7·5, 7·3, 6 mm.
Cephalothorax light-brown clouded with olive-brown, except fore-part of pars cephalica and lanceolate median streak; areolate; ovate, base broad; caput moderately convex, roundly truncated; eminence of fore-central eyes projects a little forwards; thoracic indentation somewhat triangular, normal grooves fairly defined; contour of profile represents a low arch; clypeus directed forwards, height nearly equals depth of ocular area.
Fore and hind row of eyes recurved, curvature of posterior row nearly equals that of anterior; eyes of hind row of equal size, centrals are separated from one another by an interval equal to their diameter, and from laterals by about their radius; anterior-centrals dark, seated on a moderate blackish prominence, less than their diameter apart, about one-third smaller than hind-median pair, with which they form a trapezoid, whose posterior side is widest; lateral eyes have the pearly lustre of posterior-centrals, placed obliquely on strong, dark-lake rings, nearly contiguous.
Legs yellow-brown; short, stiff hairs, apparently no bristles; long, slender.
Palpi resemble legs in colour; dark hairs, fine bristle on cubital and radial joints; slender.
Falces yellowish; vertical, somewhat conical, fore-third directed outwards.
Maxillæ yellowish-brown; spathulate, inclined towards labium, which is semicircular, margins very tumid; yellowish-brown, base dark.
Sternum yellow-brown, margins olive-brown; cordate, numerous small mammiform eminences.
Abdomen, profile oviform, posterior end obtuse, viewed from above pointed somewhat sharply at either extremity; integument olive-brown, posterior end dark, on dorsal field and lateral margins are about 15 irregularly-shaped light stone-coloured patches; ventral surface olive-brown; hairs short, sparse. Corpus vulvæ moderately prominent, dark amber-colour; within a rather large circular area, defined by a narrow membrane, are three moderately prominent lobes enclosing a cordate space, apex directed towards spinners,
rather exceeding the upper and largest lobe in size; lateral lobes mussel-shaped, superior reniform.
Single specimen, colour affected by spirit. Te Aroha, A. T. U.
Genus Epeira, Walck.
Epeira dumicola, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2·5; broad, 2·2; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5·2; broad, 4·2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 8·7, 8·1, 7·5, 4·5 mm.
Cephalothorax dull raw-sienna; few pale hairs on pars thoracica; clathrate; length equals that of the genual and tibial joints of a leg of 4th pair; sides well-rounded, lateral constrictions at caput tolerably sharp; pars cephalica convex, ocular eminence rather low, lateral index equals space between posterior-lateral eyes; thoracic indentation and radial striæ not well-defined, caput-grooves more pronounced; profile-contour rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 30°, slopes forwards across three-fourths of caput; clypeus nearly equals diameter of a fore-central eye in depth.
Posterior row of eyes sensibly procurved, median pair separated by an interval which perceptibly exceeds their diameter; their space and a quarter from side-eyes; anterior row moderately recurved, centrals visibly smaller than posterior pair, have their lake-brown tinge and rings, interspace equal to about twice their diameter, rather less than that interval from hind-median eyes; about twice their space from side-eyes; laterals nearly equal hind-centrals in size, seated obliquely, visibly more than their radius from each other, on separate lake-brown tubercular eminences.
Legs moderately slender; reddish-chestnut colour; faint annuli; hairs light, sparse; spines slight, yellowish, moderately numerous; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 10 teeth; inferior claw, 2 short close teeth.
Palpi and legs concolorous; slender, equal to cephalothorax in length; armature slight spines and hairs; palpal claw, curvature moderate, 8 teeth directed forwards.
Falces yellowish, apices and fangs dark; conical, vertical, project at base in front; length equal to breadth of anterior row of eyes.
Maxillæ strong, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium: latter oval, about as broad as maxillæ, three-fourths their length; organs, base red-chestnut, apices yellowish.
Sternum colour of coxæ; shield-shape; clathrate.
Abdomen projects over base of cephalothorax; broadest between moderately pronounced tubercles, base obtusely pointed, tapers towards spinners; aplanate; hairs fine,
sparse; ground-colour creamy-brown; a moderately angular brown mark intersects anterior pair of impressed spots, which are in line with tubercles at its apex, which is directed forwards, is an oval yellowish spot, with orange-red margins; between central pair of impressed spots, which are also well defined, is a brown Y-shaped mark; few faint angular bars towards spinners. Vulva yellowish; convex, transversely rugulose; scapus large, somewhat conical, about as broad at base as long, lateral margins of basal half membranous, red-chestnut colour, prolonged margins curve inwards, forming somewhat triangular concavities beneath scapus vulvæ.
Single example, captured on summit of Te Aroha, A. T. U.
Epeira mulleola, sp. nov.
Male.—Ceph. th., long, 4·5; broad, 3·8. Abd., long, 4·5; broad, 3. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 15·5, 13·5, 12·4, 8·5 mm.
Cephalothorax, sides olive-brown, graduating to a reddish-brown on median line; moderately clothed with white hairs; sides well-rounded, laterally compressed forwards; pars cephalica somewhat depressed, shallow central indentation; lateral index slightly exceeds one-half facial index; ocular eminence prominent; pars thoracica moderately convex, indentation large, somewhat circular.
Posterior-central eyes separated from each other by a space equal to their diameter and a half; their breadth from fore-centrals; anterior median eyes perceptibly the largest, interval between them equals their diameter and a half; laterals seated on moderately strong, black, tubercular eminences, their radius apart; fore-pair visibly the largest.
Legs light-brown, tinted—especially 1–2—with light olive-green, fore-part of femora clouded with dark olive-brown; tibial, metatarsal, and tarsal joints annulated with olive-brown, less defined on tibiæ of 1–2; genual joints rather more than half length of tibial; latter articles equal metatarsal in length; tibia of a leg of 1st pair equal to cephalothorax in length; curved process on coxæ of 1; hairs yellowish, short, tolerably sparse; spines yellowish, base dark; several long spines on femora of 1–2; 3–4, superior and inferior row of about 4 or 5 spines, mostly exceeding former in length and strength; spines on genual joints; fairly numerous and strong on tibiæ, especially of 1–2; 10 to 15 spines on metatarsal joints; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 11 open comb teeth; inferior claw sharply bent, 2 close teeth.
Palpi, hairs pale-yellow; humeral joint yellow - brown; short, fore-end somewhat dilated, furnished with a long, stout bristle; cubital joint yellowish; broad cordate, base constricted, more than half length of pars humeralis, projects at apex a long, strong, yellowish-brown bristle; radial joint
tinted with olive-brown; one-third length of former article, produced on outer side into a large, pale straw-coloured, oval process, directed outwards and slightly downwards; pars digitalis large, oval; laminæ bulbi yellowish, clouded with olive-brown; ovate, apices curved; directed towards each other; base prolonged on outer side into a reddish curved process, directed outwards; bulbus genitalis complex; crown light reddish-brown, clouded; somewhat oval, convex, horizontally rugose, on summit is a dark-reddish circular bead; bulb displays several curved, obtusely-pointed convolutions, yellowish-brown, blackish-red margins; most remarkable projections—view laterally, fore-lobe somewhat vertical in front, upper margin developed into a bright red-mahogany, semi-detached, broad, cylindrical, horizontal process, curving backwards, about its diameter below upper disc; projecting downwards from margin of disc is a large, bright mahogany-red, flattish, somewhat cordate lobe, apex curved forwards, in contact with apex of cylindrical process; between cordate lobe and a semipellucid black-marked membrane at articulation of bulb is a broad, blackish, longitudinally-wrinkled appendage, fore-end concave, hind limb claw-like, directed backwards; beneath cordate lobe is a large, brownish-lake, curved process, projecting outwards and somewhat forwards, nearly as broad as long, concave above, apex truncated, somewhat U-shaped.
Falces yellow-brown, basal two-thirds yellow, streaked with olive-green; vertical, moderately slender, outer contour concave, inner convex, fore-third directed outwards; fangs lake-colour.
Maxillæ, fore-end dilated, rather broader than lip, obtusely pointed, inclined towards each other. Labium rather broader than long, lateral margins abrupt, slope perceptibly outwards, obtusely pointed, everted; organs, base dark-brown, fore-end pale olive-brown.
Sternum blackish-brown; white hairs; ovate, transversely rugose.
Abdomen oviform, moderately prominent across greatest diameter; posterior end rounded, two well-developed tubercles, one above the other, lower perceptibly the largest; eight impressed spots; anterior pair of four central, well defined, placed at case of transverse ridge; ground-colour light slaty stone-colour; folium trilobate, margins black-brown, resembles females in form and marks; lateral margins tabby-grey; ventral surface brownish-yellow, shield blackish.
Female described in vol. xx. “Trans. N.Z. Inst.”* This species is by no means rare, commences pairing in October: cocoon globose, composed of dark-green silk, of loose texture;
[Footnote] *“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xx., p. 118, and pl. xi., fig. 6.
comprised within are about 360 pinkish eggs, agglutinated together.
Tairoa, T. Brown; Te Karaka, A. T. U.
Genus Thlaosoma, Cambr.
Thlaosoma tuberosa, sp. nov.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2; broad, 2·7. Abd., long, 3·1; broad, 5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 8·2, 8, 6, 5 mm.
Cephalothorx pale stone-colour, olive-tinge, base and lateral margins semi-pellucid, striæ defined by interruped dark-brown streaks; pars cephalica brownish, light olive-brown oblique bars; median streak yellowish-brown, acute; eye-area reddish, cross yellow; hairs papillæform, white and reddish; pars thoracica somewhat reniform, raised into two abrupt ridges, terminating in prominent sub-conical points above thoracic junction; fore-part of pars cephalica somewhat conical, has the normal upturn; height of clypeus nearly equals depth of ocular area.
Four central eyes form a quadrilateral figure broader than long, of about equal size; laterals rather smaller than median eyes, their radius apart.
Legs brownish-yellow, broad, somewhat flecked, brown annuli on femora; two broad annulations on tibiæ; single one at fore-end of metatarsi; 1–2 and 3–4 of about equal strength, two fore-pairs stoutest; femoral joints armed beneath with double row of moderately short and strong tubercular spines, numerous smaller spines between rows; similar rows, composed of smaller spines, beneath tibiæ of 1–2; hairs sparse; outer superior tarsal claw—1st pair, much the longest and strongest, 4 close teeth; inner claw 5; inferior claw sharply bent, 2 short teeth.
Palpi and legs concolorous; palpal claw sharply curved, 3 teeth increasing in length and strength.
Falces clouded with blackish-olive, fangs red; long, somewhat linear, directed inwards.
Maxillæ rather longer than broad, roundly pointed, inclined over labium, which is large, broader than long, somewhat pointed; organs chocolate-brown, apices light.
Sternum olive-brown, clouded with dark-brown; cordate.
Abdomen, base and lateral margins have a pinkish tint; in centre of concave depression above thoracic junction is a linear-oval, red-brown mark; dorsal surface, except posterior third, which represents a creamy-white triangular area, is black-brown; tubercular eminences mostly yellowish-brown; hairs papillæform, numerous, reddish and white; the apices of the two lateral and leading protuberances are nipple-like;
these protuberances are shorter and more sharply constricted than in T. olivacea; on the darker portions are numerous fair-sized rounded humps; spinners stout, dark. Corpus vulvæ pale stone-colour, somewhat triangular, about twice as long as broad, centrally produced above the rima genitalis into a brownish lip, about as broad as long, concave above.
Genus Plexippus, C. Koch.
Plexippus herbigradus, sp. nov.
Male.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 2·5. Abd., long, 4; broad, 2·1. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 8, 6·3, 5·6, 5·5 mm.
Cephalothorax, caput brownish, more or less suffused with bright orange-red, mottled with a creamy-brown penetrative tint; two dark spots in line with second row of eyes; thorax reddish-mahogany colour; few pale hairs, sparse yellowish fringe on frontal margin; broad oval, pars thoracica slightly exceeds pars cephalica in length, latter aplanate, limited by a somewhat diamond-shaped indentation; profile-contour rises at an angle of 45°, slopes perceptibly across caput; clypeus vertical, equal in height to radius of a fore-lateral eye.
Anterior row of eyes slightly recurved; laterals separated from central pair by nearly their diameter, latter pair rather less than that interval from each other; interspace between posterior eyes, which are visibly larger than anterior-laterals, perceptibly exceeds space dividing latter pair; eye-area about one-fourth broader than long; angles somewhat prominent, black-brown.
Legs brownish-yellow, genual and tibial joints of 1st pair reddish-mahogany, penultimate and terminal joints darkish-brown; 1st pair stoutest; genua and tibia together equal cephalothorax in length; tibial joint one-third longer than genual; metatarsal and tarsal joints thinner than tibial, one-fourth longer than that article; 2 slightly exceed 3–4 in strength, latter of about equal stoutness; hair light, sparse; about 5 spines on femora of 1–2; 6 or 7 on femora of 3–4; spine on inner side of genual joints of 1; tibiæ and metatarsi of 1–2,—3–3, 2–2; tibiæ of 3–4 have 4 spines; metatarsi 2, with rings of 5; outer claw, one strong tooth near bend of claw; inner, about 10 short close teeth; claws well curved, claw-tuft long.
Palpi, humeral and cubital joints resemble legs in colour; former article equals three terminal joints in length; pars cubitalis somewhat linear, rather stouter than humeral joint; pars radialis darker, slimmer, and about one-half length of
pars cubitalis, projects on outer side a stoutish process, apex fine, curved upwards; lamina bulbi mahogany-colour, moderately hairy; rather longer than two former articles together, apex obliquely truncated, slope directed outwards, somewhat depressed; bulbus genitalis chocolàte-brown, nearly two-thirds length of lamina; viewed beneath, from inner side, somewhat triangular; projecting from apex are two moderately-long, fine, curved apophyses, inner black, outer pellucid; beneath lamina, on outer side, is a yellowish tumid bulb, whose free end extends backwards to radial joint.
Falces purple-chocolate; conical, vertical, transversely rugose; length equal to posterior breadth of ocular area.
Maxillæ red-mahogany colour; fore-end broad, rounded.
Labitim linear-oval; colour of maxillæ.
Sternum reddish-brown; oval.
Abdomen linear-oviform; olive-tinted stone-colour, numerous light flecks on lateral margins and dorsal line; folium brownish, coarsely serrate, encloses a linear-oval, light olive-green mark, with few brown spots; series of three oblique brown streaks on lateral margins; ventral surface brownish; hairs sparse.
Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2. Abd., long, 4; broad, 2. Legs, 1st pair, 5mm.
Cephalothorax yellowish - mahogany, caput mottled with creamy-brown, fore-half clouded with a darkish-brown; few hairs on margin of eye-area; pars cephalica aplanate, sides moderately abrupt, limited by a somewhat diamond-shaped depression, scarcely equals length of pars thoracica; profile-line rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 45°, dips slightly forwards across caput; clypeus vertical, equals radius of a fore-lateral eye in depth; fringe of light hairs.
Angles of eye-area less prominent than males.
Legs brownish-yellow, anterior pair shade darker, especially four terminal joints; genual and tibial joints of 1 more than three-fourths length of cephalothorax; hairs sparse; few spines on femora; single spine on inner side of genua of 1; tibiæ of 1–2, as a rule, 3–4; metatarsi, 2–2; tibiæ of 3–4, about 4 or 5; metatarsi 2, rings of 5 spines.
Palpi and hind-legs concolorous; sparsely furnished with hairs; slender; length, 2·4mm.
Falces reddish-mahogany; broad conical, less pointed and shorter than males, vertical, transversely rugose.
Maxillæ brown; extremity broad, rounded. Labium brown; linear-oval, about half length of maxillæ.
Sternum oval; yellowish.
Abdomen linear-oviform; ground-colour deep stone-colour, numerous pale flecks; folium coarsely serrate, olive-brown, encloses a pale, mottled, lanceolate figure, with serrate mar-
gins, and about five dark spots; on lateral margins are a series of three oblique darkish streaks, converging towards spinners; ventral shield linear-ovate; normal dark hue. Abdomen sparsely clothed with hairs. Vulva red-mahogany; moderately prominent; displays above, two circular foveæ, divided by a longitudinal septum, whose breadth about equals their diameter; on the tumid margin, above the rima genitalis, are two bright reddish-mahogany circular convexities, connected by a broad ligament, whose breadth equals their diameter.
Examples of this species were captured on the summit of Te Aroha; were numerous—especially males—amongst the ferns up the Wairongomai Gorge. Individually they varied both in coloration and distinctness of pattern. A. T. U.