Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 23, 1890
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A.—Description of Species of the Tertiary Flora of New Zealand.

Note.—The correct localities and authorities for the collection of the specimens have been inserted within square brackets.— J. Hector.

Cryptogamæ
Filices
.

Lomariopsis dunstanensis, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., figs. 1, 2, 2a.

L. fronde coriacea pinnata, pinnis linearibus elongatis, circa 14mm. latis, margine subtilissime crenulatis; nervations Tæniopteridis, nervo primario firmo, recto; nervis secundariis angulo subrecto egredientibus, tenuibus, approximatis paullo arcuatis, parallelis simplicibus vel furcatis, craspedodromis, 1mm. inter se remotis.

Locality: Dunstan (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1864; Hector.]

I have before me two pinnate fragments, from which I infer a linear elongated shape of the pinnæ, and which indicate a leathery texture. The edge is very delicately notched; the secondary nerves, which are delicate yet boldly defined, run into the notches; these nerves show the arrangement of Tæniopteris, and are either simply divided at their origin, or a short distance above it, in a fork-like manner. The primary nerve is proportionately stout, and contains a fine middle rib (see fig. 2a). I observe on the upper part of the frond in various places a number of closely-situated black spots, which seem to have covered it, and which appear to be the remains of fructification.

The characteristics mentioned indicate the genus Lomariopsis, in which a number of similar fan-shaped forms appear. L. triquetra (Acrostichum t., Wall., see Ettingsh., Ferns, pl. v., fig. 1, 6) corresponds in the most remarkable manner with the species described, and consequently only an insignificant difference could be discovered. In the existing species the secondary nerves are distant from each other 1.5mm. to 2mm., while in the fossil before me the distance between each of them is only 1mm.; however, in all other characteristic qualities exists the most perfect agreement. In Lomariopsis as well as in Acrostichum is a thick accumulation of sporules on the under side and sometimes on both sides of the frond. As the spots above referred to are charred, it is impossible to recognise their structure, but in consequence of their distribution it is most probable that they are the remains of the sporule covering.

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The home of the Lomariopsis triquetra is Nepal. Lomariopsis bilinica, Ett., of the fossil flora of Bilin, in Bohemia, is nearly related to the above-described fossil fern; the former may be distinguished from the latter not only by the irregularly-notched edge of the frond, but also by the more acute angles of the secondary nerves at their origin.

Aspidium otagoicum, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., fig. 3.

A. foliis bipinnatis, pinnis lanceolatis, elongatis, pinnatisectis, pinnulis oblongis, apice obtusis, angulo acuto insertis, incisodentatis vel lobatis; nervatione Pecopteridis eupolystichi, nervo primario basi prominente, nervis secundariis paucis, apicem versus abbreviatis, sub angulis acutissimis egredientibus.

Locality: Shag Point, Otago (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1864; Hector.]

This fragment may be completed to form a lanceolateelongate frond, which betrays the greatest similarity with several species of Aspidium. A. stramineum, Kaulf., which occurs in Australia and Mauritius, seems to be the most nearly related species (compare Ettingsh., Ferns, pl. ex., fig. 3; pl. cxii., fig. 7). Among the fossil ferns A. serrulatum, Heer, from the brown-coal flora of Bornstädt, seems to approach nearest to this fern in consequence of the shape of the frond, and of the junction at acute angles of the smaller fronds. The relation between this fern and A. oerstedi, Heer, from the flora of the Atane strata, is more distant, notwithstanding both species show the same type of nerve-system. More exact comparisons can be made when better-preserved remains are submitted.

Aspidium tertiario-zeelandicum, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., figs. 4, 4a.

A. pinnis lanceolato-linearibus, pinnatipartitis vel lobatis, laciniis vel lobis ovalibus vel oblongis, integerrimis obtusiusculis; nervatione Goniopteridis; nervo primario prominente recto, nervis secundariis sub angulis 70°-80° orientibus, prominentibus, marginem versus plus minusve arcuato-convergentibus; nervis tertiariis angulis 40°-50° exeuntibus, simplicibus, inferioribus rectis, superioribus paullo arcuatis, intimis anastomosantibus.

Localities: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Survey of N.Z.: Report to the Director “On the Shag Point Coalfields,” by Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S.; Geol. Rep., 1872, p. 148.] Dunstan (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1864.]

Notwithstanding that only a few small fragments of fronds of this species are submitted, it has been possible to

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determine it exactly, and to ascertain its most nearly related living species, as not only the nervation but also the fructification is distinctly preserved. The fronds indicate a gradual narrowing towards the top, but on the whole a linear form. The division of the foliage is deep towards the base, but less incised towards the top, as the sections of the frond are ovate, sometimes elongated, and the edge is without indentations or notches, becoming smaller and stumpy towards the top. The nervation, which is well preserved in the fragment from Dunstan, fig. 4 (enlarged, fig. 4a), shows a strongly-defined primary nerve, which runs straight and gradually decreases, and from which sharply-defined secondary nerves start at somewhat acute angles. The tertiary nerves, which start at far more acute angles, are simple: the lower are straight, the upper somewhat converging and turning to the edge; the lowermost have anastomosis. The sori are situate in the middle of the course of the tertiary nerves.

Consequently this fossil would belong to the genus Lastré according to A. Braun, in which the sori are said to exist midway in the course of the tertiary nerves. This A. Braun seems to have concluded from few specimens, which he more closely examined, of the genus Aspidium, which has many species; but he is scarcely correct as regards all species, for in A. oppositum, Kaulf., and A. truncatum, Gaud., the sori exist nearer to the beginning of the tertiary nerves; in A. molle, Sw., and A. concinnum, Mett., they are nearer the edge; while in A. alsophilaceum, Kze., both conditions exist. In all these species the sori exist also inserted in the middle of the tertiary nerves. It does not occur in Aspidium that the sori do not exist between the tertiary nerves instead of on them or on their branches. In consequence of this, Heer's drawing cannot be correct which he gives of the situation of the sori in his A. meyeri (“Tertiary Flora of Switzerland,” i., pl. 11, fig. 2b).

The characteristics described do not agree so well with any species of fern as Aspidium novæ-zeelandiæ (Goniopteris n.z., Presl., see Ettings., Ferns, pl. cx., figs. 12, 13), which is indigenous to New Zealand, and for which our fossil may pass as the parent plant. The latter seems to be distinguished from the former by the more stumpy and more rounded sections of the frond. Moreover, the sori in A. novæ-zeelandiæ are seldom in the middle, but usually near the origin of the tertiary nerves. Sufficient material has not been submitted to make a searching comparison of this fossil with other fossil ferns already known. A second fragment comes from the strata at Shag Point, in which I observe deeper notches in the frond, the segments of which are more distant from each other; moreover, the angle at the origin of the secondary nerves is

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more obtuse. These attributes cannot be taken as a difference of species, because the position and angle of the segments in various parts of the frond show little difference, while in the living species named the lower parts of the frond, with which the fossil corresponds, show similar alterations.

Phanerogamæ.
Gymnosperm4Ae.
Cycadeæ
.

Zamites, sp.

Plate XXIV., fig. 10.

Among the numerous fossil remains from Shag Point I found only one fragment which I believe I may regard as a remainder of a Cycadea. It probably represents a frond which is bent upwards, and is traversed by fine parallel-running nerves. The fragment is longitudinal, and the edge is without notches. To judge from the coal-substance, the texture must have been a very compact one, such as exists in the leaves of the Cycadea. The fragment mentioned shows, as regards length and delicate stripes, some agreement with the leaves of remains of Cycadeæ described by von Heer as Zamites tertiarius.

Coniferæ.
Cupressineæ.

I defined a fragment of a small branch from Shag Point as belonging to Callitris in consequence of its characteristics, and it seems to denote the existence of this family among the fossil flora of New Zealand. The fragment is, however, too imperfectly preserved to enable me to define a species from it. I am content to mention this circumstance, and leave it to future researches to follow it up.

Taxodium distichum eocenicum, mihi.

Plate XXIV., figs. 11, 11a.

T. ramulis caducis tenuibus; foliis distantibus alternis distichis, lineari-lanceolatis abbreviatis planis, uninerviis, basi angustata sessilibus.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

The small branch of a Conifer shown in fig. 11 agrees so much with the drooping branches of Taxodium distichum that I have no hesitation in placing it in this species, which is so widely scattered throughout the Tertiary period; but I believe that this small branch belongs to a peculiar variety, which is

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distinguished from T. distichum miocenicum, Heer, by somewhat shorter leaves, which are less narrow at the base, and which adhere firmly. As the leaves, from which the small thorn at end is wanting (see enlarged fig. 11a), do not run down the shaft, it is easy to distinguish this small branch from the similar slim branches of Podocarpus hochstetteri.

Abietineæ.

Sequoia novæ-zeelandiæ, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., figs. 5–7, 7a.

S. ramulis gracilibus, foliis squamæformibus, coriaceis, imbricatis, ramulorum juniorum ovatis acutis vel lanceolatis, basi decurrentibus, seniorum ovato-rhombeis obtusiusculis, arcte adpressis; strobilis parvis globosis, squamis peltatis, dorsi rugosi medio mucronulatis.

Locality: Shag Point; Landslip Hill (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector.]

The branch and cone (fig. 5), both derived from Shag Point belong doubtless to Sequoia. The cone is very similar to S. couttsiæ, Heer, only a little smaller. It is a pity that the defective state of preservation of the charred cone made it impossible to ascertain exactly the number of scales; but, in consequence of the form and size of a few scales which may still be recognised, it may be assumed that they were not larger than in S. couttsiæ.

The scales agree well with those of the species named, because of their somewhat polygonal shape, the back of the shield being covered by small wrinkles. There is a short thorny point in the middle from which some wrinkles radiate towards the edge.

In both fruit-fossils appear only the slender younger twigs, the leaves of which run down the base, being scale-shaped, either oviform or lanceolate, pointed, imbricate, and are provided with a distinct stem (see fig. 7a). Fig. 6 shows one of several fragments of twigs which occur together on one specimen, and which, to all appearance, belong to the same species, notwithstanding that the remains belong to a different locality (Landslip Hill). Fig. 7 agrees perfectly with a younger smaller twig from Shag Point; the fragment previously mentioned shows a piece of a stouter older twig, the leaves of which lie closer, are broader, and less pointed.

In consequence of the foregoing the species described may be regarded as either a species nearly related and vicarious to S. couttsiæ, Heer, or to S. affinis, Lesq., from both of which it may be distinguished by insignificant differences in the leaves and cones. Further researches might solve the question if in this instance an identity of the species is admissible.

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Pinus, sp.(?).

Plate XXIV., figs. 8, 9.

Among the strata from Shag Point (Canterbury and Otago Museums) appear needle-shaped fragments which possibly belong to the genus Pinus. These fragments are as wide as those of Pinus laricio, and are traversed by a midrib, which, however, is distinctly seen in one fragments only (fig. 8a). These fragments occur sometimes in pairs, which lie closely together and in the same direction; from this I may conclude that they belong to a needle-pair. In accordance with this is the appearance of a scale belonging to a cone (fig. 9) which seems to belong to the division Pinaster. As the state of preservation of these remains is defective, I do not venture to conclude with certainty, from the fragments before me, that Pinus exists among the fossil flora of New Zealand, and I prefer to leave this important decision to future researches based on better finds.

Araucaria haastii, sp. nov.

Plate XXV., figs. 1, 2; Plate XXIX., figs. 10–12.

A. foliis coriaceis, imbricatis, patentibus, ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, supra concaviusculis, subtus convexiusculis, tenuissime longitudinaliter striatis, medio carinatis.

Localities: Shag Point (Canterbury and Otago Museums); Malvern Hills, I. (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector. Geol. Surv. N.Z., 1872; v. Haast, l.c. Geol. Surv. Canterbury; v. Haast.]

Both fragments of branches (figs. 1 and 2) are closely studded with projecting leaves, which are either oviform or lancet-shaped, and which become gradually smaller towards the top; the impression on the stone shows a stiff leathery texture. I can further recognise distinctly that the surface was concave and the underpart convex. A thorny point seems to be wanting at the top. As regards nervation, I observe a midrib projecting like a keel, and longitudinal stripes, which are delicate, close, and parallel to each other.

The same characteristics might be taken from other fragments of branches. Single loose leaves do not appear, which indicates that they firmly adhered to the branches.

The comparison of these fossils with the branches of Araucaria chilensis, Mirb. (A. imbricata, Pavon), indicates a surprising agreement. The only difference is that the leaves of the living species named are provided with a strong thorny point, while such points cannot be perceived on the fossil specimens before me.

This species is named after Sir Julius von Haast, to

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do honour to his great merits in the geology of New Zealand.

A petrified wood has been found in the Tertiary strata at Malvern Hills which agrees best with that of Araucaria, with which species I classify it.

The transverse section (fig.10) shows tracheæ, thick-walled and with rounded angles, which have been subjected to considerable pressure, and which have consequently an elliptic curve; in only very few places do they retain their form, as shown in the section referred to. The decay of the wood, which must have been far advanced, is also perceptible in the longitudinal section. A part of the structure in the best state of preservation is shown in Pl. XXIX. very much enlarged (x350). The pitted cell-fibres are frequent, and consist of one to three rows of cells which lie one above the other. In fig. 11 (representing longitudinal section between the radii) the structure of the walls of the tracheæ is most remarkable, and agrees with those of Araucaria. The dots are in from two to four rows, close together, and correspondingly flattened as a polyhedron. The tangential section (fig. 12) shows cells in the wood, which wind and run out; there are also short core-streaks which are each built up (or consist of) from four to eight dotted cells. The tangential walls have no dots.

Araucaria danai, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., fig. 18.

A. ramulis elongatis; foliis coriaceis, lineari-lanceolatis vel-linearibus, rigidis, apice acuminatis, falcatis, imbricatis, paten-tibus.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum; Otago-Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector: and N.Z. Rep., 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

Fig. 18 represents a fragment of a small elongated branch of a shape ofAraucaria; the branch is studded with leaves which are close together, stiff, narrow, somewhat lanceolate, bent upwards and projecting; the leaves are flat, and in the fossil many are only visible in the longitudinal fraction: this would lead a casual observer to the belief that only very small awl-shaped leaves have existed.

Among the living species, Araucaria brasiliensis, A. Rich., seems to be more nearly related to the fossil species than A. excelsa, R. Brown, because of the formation of the leaves, notwithstanding that A. excelsa shows a similar sickle-shaped leaf.

I name this species after James Dana, in consequence of his merits as regards the geology of New Zealand.

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Dammara oweni, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., figs. 22–24; Plate XXV., fig. 3; Plate XXIX., figs. 13–15.

D. foliis coriaceis ovalibus vel oblongis, obtusiusculis, breviter petiolatis, basi angustatis, enerviis, strobilis magnis, ovalibus, squamis parvis, tenuiter transverse carinatis, obovato cuneatis, apicem versus incrassatis, apicem versus incrassatis, apice obtusis.

Localities: Shag Point; Malvern Hills, I. (Canterbury Museum and Otago Museum). Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector. Geol. Surv. N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c. Geol. Surv. Canterbury; v. Haast.]

Of this species I have before me leaves, an impression of a cone, and a scale of a cone. The former are of a leathery texture. The leaf from Shag Point (fig. 24) is oblong, and narrows towards both ends: it has a short stem, and the point is somewhat blunt. The leaf (fig. 22) from the same locality has a broad, somewhat oval form. These fossil leaves show fine streaks along the leaf, but are without a mid-nerve. Between these lie some transition forms, but they belong certainly to one species, which I assign to the genus Dammara.

This species is distinguished from D. mantelli of the Chalk flora from Pakawau by the fact that the leaves have stems, and that the leaves are less narrow towards the point.

A Dammara cone-scale (fig. 23) was found at Shag Point with these leaves; I received the former from the Otago University Museum. The scale shows an inner surface; it is wedge-shaped, broad, and rounded at the upper part; the upper rim is a little thicker; the length is 15mm., width 20mm.

The cone-impression (Pl. XXV., fig. 3) from Malvern Hills preserved in the Canterbury Museum, at Christchurch, I ven-ture to place with Dammara. The whole length, at least 15cm., of the impression is preserved, with the exception of a very small piece at the top which is wanting; however, the width, which has been possibly 10cm., is incomplete. The fine cone was oval and was covered with proportionately small scales, across each of which runs, near the middle, a small ridge; the scales are somewhat rounded near the upper part; the Dammara scale described agrees well with these scales, but belongs to a larger cone; the ridge mentioned is not visible, as it only appears on the outer surface. As regards the size and form of the leaves, and the size of the cone-scales of the species described, these agree best with Dammara australis, Lamb; in consequence of this I have avoided separating their fossil remains. The fossil species is distinguished from the living one by the leaves, which do not adhere, and by the larger cone.

I received from the Canterbury Museum a specimen o

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petrified wood of Dammara, which was collected in Amuri, the section of which (Pl. XXIX., fig. 13) is shown 350 times enlarged. The tracheæ are correspondingly thicker than in the section of Araucaria previously described; the walls of the tracheæ are thickened a good deal. The core-streaks are numerous and very fine. Fig. 14 represents the section lying between the radii of a circle, also enlarged 350 times. The spots are especially remarkable; they are flattened, stand in from one to three rows, and are in the form of a polyhedron. The tangent section (fig. 15), equally enlarged, shows the oval bis-elliptical crosscuts of the cells of the core-streaks, which cells are joined together by from 5 to 15.

I believe I ought to ascribe to the above species the wood just described, which I name after Sir Richard Owen, in consequence of his merits as regards the palæontology of New Zealand.

Dammara uninervis, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., figs. 20, 21.

D. foliis coriaceis ovalibus, obtusis, basi subsessilibus et nervo mediano apicem versus evanescente instructis; squamis strobili magnis, latis, rotundato-cuneatis, apicem versus in-crassatis, apice obtusissimo.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum; Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector: and N.Z. Rep., 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

The leaf (fig. 20) shows all the characteristics of the previous species, with the only difference that at the somewhat pointed base a median nerve appears, which, however, disappears a short distance from the point. I believe I am correct in ascribing this leaf to Dammara, but it belongs to a distinct species. My supposition of a second species of Dammara in the Shag Point strata was also strengthened by the existence of a cone-scale (fig. 21), which may be distinguished from the previous species by the following characteristics: The scale is considerably larger—viz., 37mm. wide and 42mm. long—and more rounded and wedge-shaped. This scale agrees best with the broad cone-scale of Dammara ovata, Moore, in which also large cones appear.

Taxineæ.

Podocarpus parkeri, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., figs. 12–14, 12a.

P. foliis sparsis approximatis patentibus, coriaceis, rectis, linearibus acuminatis, basi subsessilibus angustatis, margine planis; nervo mediano excurrente; fructibus parvis ovalibus, acutis.

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Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otage, 1862; Hector.]

Corresponds with Podocarpium ungeri of the Chalk flora of New Zealand, which is described in the next section, and with which it may be connected as regards genus.

The difference consists only in the leaves, which are in Podocarpium ungeri straight (not bent in sickle-shape), and at the basis often narrowed down to a short stem, and which stand closer together and stiffer (see enlargement, fig. 12A). The impression of a fruit (fig. 13) was found with the fragments depicted, which (the fruit) is very similar to that of Podocarpium ungeri, but is more ovate, and at one end somewhat pointed. I have no doubt that this berry-like fruit belongs to Podocarpus.

With the species described I compare Podocarpus totara, Don., a species which is now living in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. In the European Tertiary flora I venture to accept as analogous P. taxites, Ung., as a nearly related species which appears in the strata of Leoben.

Podocarpus hochstetteri, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., figs. 15–17, 15a, 16a.

P. ramulis gracilibus, foliis tenuibus basi decurrentibus, ramulorum juniorum distichis approximatis, linearibus planis, apice acuminato mucronulatis; fructibus parvis globosis.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum; Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector: and N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

Corresponds with Podocarpus tenuifolia, DC., now living in New Caledonia. The branch-stem is thin, and on it the deposit of the leaves runs down (as shown in figs. 15a and 16a). The approaching leaves of the young branches are two-lined, very narrow and linear, 1mm. wide, 7mm.-14mm. long, straight, seldom bent in sickle-shape, flat, narrowing towards the point, which is provided with a small thorn. No older branches have as yet been discovered, which is were probably, as those of P. tenuifolia, covered with shorter leaves, which either protruded less or were lying closer.

At Shag Point a fruit (fig. 17) has been found, which is distinguished from the preceding species by being spherical and smaller: this fruit lies near fragments of the species described, agrees well with Podocarpus, and probably belongs to it. I dedicate this species to the memory of Ferdinand Von Hochstetter.

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Dacrydium præcupressinum, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., fig. 19.

D. ramis ramulisque gracilibus elongatis, foliis approximatis, subdecussatim oppositis, erecto-patentibus vel subimbricatis, subulatis falcatis, basi decurrentibus, apice mucronatis.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. N.Z., Rep. 1872; V. Haast, l.c.]

A fragment of a branch with several slender twigs, which project from it at acute angles. From the whole specimen it may be recognised that the appearance of the plant was very similar to Dacrydium cupressinum, Soland., a splendid tree of the present flora of New Zealand.

As shown in Part B of this work, the Dacrydium type is already represented in the Chalk flora of New Zealand. The Chalk plant which I assigned to the recent and nearest allied genus Dacrydinium deviates, in consequence of its elongated to ovate leaves, from the Tertiary species, which has awl-shaped leaves. The latter is distinguished from the recent species mentioned only by the leaves, which project upwards, and are somewhat bent and sickle-shaped.

Between the Chalk and Tertiary forms of the New Zealand flora is inserted in a remarkable manner Dacrydium cupresinoides, Ett., of the Tertiary flora of Australia, which has linear lanceolate leaves which are consequently smaller than those of the Chalk plant, but which are not awl-shaped like those of the Tertiary Dacrydium of New Zealand, and which may consequently be considered to be the forerunner of the living D. cupressinum.

Monocotyledones.
Najadeæ.

Caulinites otagoicus, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., figs. 1–3.

C. caulibus simplicibus (?) tenuiter striatis crassis, articulis brevioribus longioribusve, rugis transversis necnon punctis verrucæformibus notatis; foliis late linearibus, nervis longitudinalibus tenuissimis parallelis, æqualibus.

Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector.]

The parts of plants here described may be most suitably enrolled with the collective genus of Caulinites, which comprises fresh-water growths with cylindrical stems, which are striped lengthways, and sometimes articulated. The stems are studded with scars (marks) of leaves and roots. The leaves of these plants, where such were found, are always

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elongated, lanceolate or broad-linear, with parallel nerves; the mid-nerve does not project. Fig. 3 is a fragment of the lowest rhizome-stem, on which appear frequently the cross-wrinkles and scars: this stem left behind a thick coal substance. Fig. 2 represents an upper portion of the stem, which has knots placed some distance from each other; the wrinkles and scars above referred to are however wanting in the part represented by fig. 2. The flat impression, the very thin coal-deposit on it, and the delicate longitudinal striæ, often intersected by cross-stripes, indicate a soft herbaceous nature. Fig. 1 represents a fragment of the long, broad-linear leaf of this species of Caulinites. Judging from the nature of the impression, the leaf must have been soft and succulent.

These remains are not materially distinguished by their properties from the species of Caulinites of the European Tertiary flora; indeed, they approach very closely to one species of the same—viz., C. radobojanus. Suitable material is, however, wanting in order to establish the exact relationship of both species.

Palmæ.

Seaforthia zeelandica, sp. nov.

Plate XXIV., fig. 25.

S. foliis maximis, pinnis erecto-patentibus, validis, latis, rhachis crassissimæ parte marginali inferiore adnatis, basi subattenuatis; nervis primariis 5–7, inæqualibus, interstitiales plures includentibus.

Locality: Kawarau Basin, Dunstan (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1864; Hector.]

A fragment of a very large leaf of a pinnate palm; the whole width of the spindle is not before me, but it must have been at least 4cm.—5cm. The spindle is ribbed longitudinally; on its under surface, next to the edge, are the strong pinnæ joined at acute angles. The pinnæ are at least 4cm. wide; they become narrower towards the base, where they stand out somewhat convex. The nervation of the pinnæ shows several principal nerves, which stand out unequally, and between these are several delicate longitudinal nerves. I have before me a second fragment of a leaf of this species, which shows, however, no spindle but only a pinna on which the nervation is better preserved than on the first-mentioned fragment, from which the above description was made. A comparison of the fossil described with living palms pointed to Seaforthia robusta, R. Brown, a splendid Australian palm, the leaves of which show a similar junction of very strong pinnæ to a strong spindle, and also a similar nervation. The leaf of this

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palm attains a length of 3cm.—4cm.; the spindle measures 4cm. at the base. The leaves of the fossil species have probably exceeded considerably the length just mentioned.

It is remarkable that the genus Seaforthia belongs also to the European Tertiary flora in consequence of a closely-related species. The spindle and pinnæ of this species, which is still undescribed, are however smaller, and there are not so many principal nerves. The specimen was found in the strata of Eibiswald, in Steiermark.

Dicotyledones.
Apetalæ
.
Casuarineæ.

Casuarina deleta, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., figs. 4, 5, 5a.

C. ramis nodoso-articulatis, aphyllis; articulis cylindricis tenuiter striatis, vaginatis, vaqinis adpressis, dentibus lanceo-lato-linearibus; ramulis tenuibus.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast; l.c.]

The fossil depicted in fig. 4 shows knotty articulated branches, which are leafless and finely striated. At the knots vaginal remains are recognizable; the small narrow lanceolate incisions of the vagina are pressed against the stem. Besides the remains of these branches I noticed much thinner ones, which were also articulated and studded with vaginæ, and which may be considered to have been small branches of the same plant. Fig. 5 represents one of these small branches of its actual size. Fig. 5a is only moderately enlarged. There is no doubt that we have before us the fossils of a Casuarina. This fossil is distinguished from the Casuarina-like plant which I have described in Part B as Casuarinites cretaceus by the longitudinal stripes of the articulated branches; the stripes are finer and not ribbed and projecting, and the incisions of the vaginæ are smaller.

Myricæ.

Myrica subintegrifolia, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., fig. 13.

M. foliis subcoriaceis, oblongo-spathulatis, ex apice rotundato brevissime et mutice acuminatis, basin versus breviter angustatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario validiusculo, secundariis tenuibus sub angulis acutis egredientibus; tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

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This reminds me of Myrica integrifolia, Ung., of the Central European Tertiary flora, from which it is distinguished by the small thorny point and the thinner texture of the leaf.

From the rather strong primary nerve spring delicate secondary nerves, which run somewhat curved, and which have been preserved in few places. No trace of tertiary nerves exists; however, these may have been very delicate, as in the related M. integrifolia.

Myrica proxima, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., fig. 14.

M. foliis coriaceis, lanceolato-oblongis, apice breviter, basi longe (?) angustatis, margine denticulatis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario valido, secundariis sub angulis vix acutis orientibus, prominentibus, simplicibus vel furcatis, longioribus cum brevioribus alternantibus; nervis tertiariis e latere externo secundariorum sub angulis valde acutis egredientibus; reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Malvern Hills, I. (Canterbury Musem). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Cant.; v. Haast.]

This species as well as the previous one represents also a species in the European Tertiary flora—viz., Myrica lignitum, Ung. I have before me only a fragment of a leaf (fig. 14). The characteristics which it presents do not only indicate the genus Myrica, but they designate M. lignitum, and consequently I consider the identity of the species as most probable; however, I do not venture to accept this unreservedly, as only a single imperfect fragment is before me. I therefore leave the final decision to future researches.

I may here mention, in order to meet possible doubts as regards the acceptance of the genus Myrica among the Tertiary flora of New Zealand, that I have found three species of Myrica among the Tertiary fossils of Australia, which are closely related to the European Tertiary species, of which latter M. koninki approaches M. proxima very closely.

Myrica præquercifolia, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., figs. 6, 12, 6a.

M. fructibus sphæricis, granulosis, foliis subcoriaceis, oblongis, basi breviter cuneiformibus, margine subopposite sinuatis pinnatilobisve, subsessilibus; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario debili, recto, infra apicem evanescente; nervis secundariis tenuibus, angulis variis acutis egredientibus, simplicibus rectis; nervis tertiariis tenuissimis; reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum; Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector: and Geol, Surv. of N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

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Small firmly-fixed leaves, 20mm.-35mm. long by 8mm.-13mm. wide, narrowing at the base, where they are wedgeshaped; sinuate at the edges or pinnate-lobate. The leaves are very similar to those of Myrica quercifolia, L., especially to the variety laciniata, in which the lobes of the leaves are unequally wide and long, sometimes projecting at an acute angle, sometimes almost horizontal, and consequently the simple secondary nerves, which supply them, start at different acute angles.

The primary nerve is somewhat delicate, and disappears below the top of the leaf, as in the living species named. There are only traces of the tertiary nerves, which are very delicate; the reticulation, however, is not preserved. The acceptance of this fossil leaf as a fern-fragment is completely precluded.

A fruit (fig. 12) was found at Shag Point, which agrees well with that of M. quercifolia, and which I place together with the leaves described as belonging to the same species. The fruit is globular, measures 6mm. in diameter, and shows a grained surface.

The species described may consequently be considered in every respect as a forerunner of M. quercifolia, L., which is indigenous at the Cape of Good Hope, from which it is only distinguished by the leaves, which are on the whole comparatively narrower, but at the base less narrow, and also by the fruit, which is larger.

Betulaceæ.

Alnus novæ-zeelandiæ, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., figs. 15–17.

A. foliis membranaceis, petiolatis, latiusculis, obovatis vel ellipticis basi obtusis, margine integerrimis vel parce denticulatis; nervatione mixta, camptodroma, hinc inde craspedodroma, nervo primario prominente recto; nervis secundariis angulis 40°-50° egredientibus, subrectis vel paullo curvatis, simplicibus vel apice furcatis; nervis tertiariis distinctis, latere externo secundariorum angulis acutis exeuntibus, simplicibus vel ramosis, inter se conjunctis, reticulo inconspicuo.

Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum); Redcliffe Gully (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector: and Geol. Surv. Cant.; v. Haast.]

Alder-leaves which I could almost bring to an agreement with Alnus kefersteinii, Gœpp., as the agreement in all characteristics is so great, with the exception of the nature of the edge and the manner in which the secondary nerves end. The leaf is thin and herbaceous; the stem attains a length of 18mm.; the edge is either unbroken or now and then dentate

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with the notches distant from each other. Some of the secondary nerves run along the edge toward the notches; others end before they reach the edge, in a short upward curve. In the larger leaves the lower secondary nerves are provided with outer nerves, as in most alder-leaves; in the same manner the tertiary nerves start at the outside of the secondary nerves at acute angles, and run out either singly or in branches in order to connect among each other. Reticulation is not visible; it is probable it was only faintly developed, as in most of the Alnus species.

Cupuliferæ

Quercus parkeri, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., fig. 23

Q. foliis submembranaceis, petiolatis, oblongo-cllipticis, in superiore parte crenato-lobatis, lobis rotundato-obtusis integerrimis, in inferiore profunde sinuato-lobatis, lobis undulatis vel sublobatis obtusis: nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario prominente recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 50°-60° orientibus; rectis, simplicibus vel inferioribus extus ramulis instructis; nervis tertiariis latere externo sub angulis acutis egredientibus, in superiore parte fere transversis, inter se conjunctis, reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector.]

An oak-leaf which belongs to a species of the section Lepidobalanus, Endl., and to the group Robur. The texture of the leaf is thin, almost skin-like, the shape is oblong-elliptic; the leaf has a stem 1cm. long, which springs from a stumpy base. At the upper part of the leaf the edge is provided with small lobes, which may be almost termed notches. From the middle of the lamina the edge is sinuate and has pairs of lobes, which are at this part of the leaf wavy at the edge (or notched and provided with lobes). The lobes at this part of the leaf are the largest, and are all bluntly rounded off. The nervation shows together the type of the lobate oak-leaves of the group named, the comparison of which led me to three species, the characteristics of which seem to be united in the fossil. The species referred to are Quercus macranthera, Fisch. et Mey., Q. mongolica, Fisch., and Q. pubescens, Willd. Our fossil species has, in common with the first-named, the larger number of lobes which stand more outwards; with the second species the greater number of lobes which are rounded, and also the arrangement of the smaller lobes at the upper and the larger lobes at the lower part of the leaf; our fossil and the third-named species have in common the shape of the larger lobes and the length of the stem of the leaf. Quercus parkeri is distinguished from the living species named as follows: From

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Q. macranthera by the more unequal lobes and the longer stem; from Q. monogolica by the lobes which stand more outwards and by the longer stem; from Q. pubescens by the larger number of lobes, especially of the small ones at the top of the leaf.

I have named this species after Professor T. J. Parker, of Dunedin.

Quercus deleta, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., fig. 25.

Q. foliis membranaceis, breviter petiolatis e basi acuta late lanceolatis, margine undulato remote denticulatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario valido, apicem versus sensim attenuato, subflexuoso, nervis secundariis sub angulis 60°-70° orientibus arcuatis, simplicibus vel apice ramosis; nervis tertiariis tenuissimis, angulis acutis exeuntibus; reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

An imperfectly-preserved fossil leaf, of which the edge, the outline, and the nervation may be so far completed that its designation as an oak-leaf seems by no means uncertain. The texture is thin, the base somewhat narrowed, with a short stem; the shape is elongated; the width reaches 4cm.; the edge is irregular and wavy, and also fringed with small sharp notches, on which the secondary nerves run, which are curved. The secondary nerves start at somewhat acute angles from a stout primary nerve, which is bent irregularly. The tertiary nerves, which are very delicate and mostly imperfectly at preserved, start from the outer side of the secondary nerves acute angles and are connected among each other. There are indications of very delicate reticulation with narrow meshes.

I compare the leaf described with the fallen leaves of some species of American oaks. Especially it seems to correspond with those of Quercus corrugata, Hook.

I could not find any among the known fossil oak-leaves which show a noticeable agreement with the leaf here described.

Quercus celastrifolia, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., fig. 24.

Q. foliis submembranaceis petiolatis, obovato - oblongis, margine serrato - dentatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario firmo; nervis secundariis sub angulis 30°-40° orientibus, læviter arcuatis, subsimplicibus; nervis tertiariis tenuibus, angulis acutis egredientibus, reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, i.e.]

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The leaf has a thinner, more herbaceous texture; it has a short stem, it is elongated inverted-ovate, being wide towards the base and somewhat narrower towards the point. The imperfectly-preserved edge shows in places unequal notches, which, however, are wanting at the base. The secondary nerves start from the strongly-defined nerve at remarkably acute angles; the secondary nerves converge towards the edge and diverge towards the base; they are simple and end in the teeth. The tertiary nerves are very delicate, and start at the outer side of the secondary nerves at right angles. The reticulation is not preserved.

This leaf is similar to, and agrees as regards genus with, the inverted egg-shaped leaves of Quercus aquatica, Walt., which are sometimes provided with a few notches.

A minute examination of the relationship of this species with other forms of oaks of former ages must be left to future researches upon suitable material, but I believe, in consequence of the characteristics of the leaf before me, that on the one side I may designate it as analogous with the oak species of the European Tertiary flora, Q. tephrodes, Ung.; and on the other side with the American Tertiary flora, viz., Q. ellisiana, Lesq.

Quercus lonchitoides, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., figs. 20–22.

Q. foliis submembranaceis, petiolatis, lanceolatis vel oblongis, utrinque angustatis, basi æqualibus vel subinæqualibus, apice acuminatis, margine argute et grosse serratis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario prominente recto; nervis secundariis distinctis, sub angulis 35°-45° orientibus, numerosis simplicibus rectis vel subarcuatis, inter se parallelis; nervis tertiariis vix conspicuis.

Localities: Shag Point (Otago Museum). Murderer's Creek (Trelissick); Malvern Hills, I.; Redcliffe Gully (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector: and Geol. Surv. Cant.; v. Haast.]

These leaf-fossils indicate a thinner texture, which may scarcely be termed leathery. They have a stem the length of which could not be fixed, as it is imperfectly before me. The leaves have either an elongated or an equally-sided lanceolate form, or are sometimes unequal at the base. The shape becomes narrower towards both ends, but more so towards the point. The edge is closely and coarsely notched. The nervation shows a rather strong defined primary nerve, which is straight and diminishing towards the point. There are also numerous almost well-defined secondary nerves, which are either straight or somewhat curved and simple. They start

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at acute angles, are parallel with each other, and terminate in the teeth at the edge. In consequence of the unfavourable nature of the stone the tertiary nerves are scarcely recognizable. I was enabled to discover in specimens figs. 21 and 22 a few tertiary nerves, which start from the outer sides of the secondary nerves almost at right angles.

There is no doubt that these leaves belong to Quercus. They show on the one hand the greatest similarity with those of Q. drymejoides, Ett., of the Tertiary flora from Dalton, near Gunning, in New South Wales (vide my Contributions to the Tertiary Flora of Australia, Memoir i., vol. xlvii., p. 117; pl. ii., fig. 2); and on the other hand they are similar to the leaves of Q. lonchitis, Ung., of the European Tertiary flora; between both of which they occupy an intermediate position as regards size, shape, and notches. There is no difference in the nervation.

We may conclude from the few fossil leaves here shown that not only the size but also the condition of the edge of the leaf is subject to a few alterations. Fig. 20, from Murderer's Creek, comes nearest to the above-named Q. drymejoides in consequence of the more projecting teeth of the leaf.

Dryophyllum dubium, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., figs. 19, 19a; Plate XXVII., fig. 6.

D. foliis coriaceis, anguste lanceolatis, basi rotundata petio-latis, apicem versus sensim attenuatis, irregulariter spinosodentatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario prominente recto, apicem versus attenuato, secundariis distinctis, sub angulis 55°-65° orientibus, numerosis approximatis flexuosis, leviter curvatis, apice furcatis, ramo antico marginem adscendente, postico craspedodromo; nervis tertiariis e latere externo sub angulis acutis egredientibus, tenuissimis ramosis, in rete irregulariter polygono coeuntibus.

Locality: Landslip Hill (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector.]

The remains depicted were found in the same stratum beside each other. They appear to belong to one species, although the basal piece (fig. 19) seems doubtful. The nervation (fig. 19a) and the shape of the leaf indicate Dryophyllum. D. lineare, Sap., of the fossil flora of Sézanne, seems nearest to our species, of which the secondary nerves are, however, more bent and ascend more towards the edge. The species before us is distinguished from D. nelsonicum, m., which appears in the Chalk flora of Pakawau, and which has been described in Part II., by the horn-like serrated edges, by the winding fork-like secondary nerves, and the very delicate tertiary nerves.

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Fagus ulmifolia, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., figs. 4, 4a, 5.

F. foliis membranaceis, breviter petiolatis, oblongis vel lanceolatis, basi rotundatis vel obtusiusculis, apice angustatis acutis acuminatisve, margine irregulariter vel duplicato-dentatis, nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario prominente recto; nervis secundariis numerosis approximatis, sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus, distinctis, rectis vel paullo arcuatis, simplicibus, rarius furcatis; nervis tertiariis tenuissimis rectangularibus, ramosis, inter se conjunctis; reticulo obsoleto.

Localities: Shag Point; Wangapeka (?) (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. N.Z., 1862–1867; Hector.]

A series of fossil leaves from Shag Point made it possible for me to obtain elucidation not only as regards the genus to which they belong, but also as regards the circle of forms of the species. The leaves are of delicate texture. They have a short stem; they are oblong or lanceolate. At the first glance the leaves might be taken for those of Ulmus in consequence of the irregular edge, which is partly biserrate, and also because of the crowded parallel secondary nerves, which are slightly curved in a bow-like form. The base of the leaves is, however, not oblique as in Ulmus, but symmetrically rounded off, the point sometimes more, sometimes less, drawn forward. The serrations are very small; they stand a little outwards, and are directed forwards; the biserrate edge, where it can be traced, is not distinctly defined, and becomes gradually irregular. The primary nerve is not pronounced, but is most prominent at the base, where it springs out of a petiole, which is 4mm. long. The secondary nerves, which start at acute angles, are rather delicate, seldom straight, mostly somewhat converging and bent towards the edge; they are either undivided or now and then bifurcate; they end usually in the points of the serrations, or sometimes in the sinuations. The latter has never been observed in Ulmus, but it is normal in some species of Fagus. A leaf, which is at the base almost heart-shaped, has on the lowest tertiary nerves a development of outer nerves which are not pronounced. The reticulation is not preserved. The tertiary nerves, which are very delicate and close together, start from both sides of the secondary nerves at right angles; the tertiary nerves are only partly preserved in a few fossils. I have a leaf before me from Wangapeka, which I cannot classify here with certainty, as the state of its preservation leaves much to be desired.

The comparison of these leaf-fossils with corresponding forms of living species demonstrates that here the genus Fagus only can be accepted. Two species, F. procera, Poepp. et

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Endl., and F. alpina, Poepp. et Endl., both indigenous to Chili, have been proved to be the most nearly related to the fossils described. In the first the secondary nerves run to the points of the serrations, in F. alpina to the sinuations. As both occur in the fossil species, this combination of characteristics indicates clearly a common origin which the living species have in the fossil species. The leaves of these descended species are usually much smaller than those of the original species; sometimes, however, the leaf of F. procera attains perfectly the dimensions of the leaf of F. ulmifolia, as shown by a specimen of a leaf from the herbarium in Kew Gardens. The leaf of F. alpina attains a length of 33mm., and a breadth of 13mm. (see Ettingsh.: Leaf - skeletons of the Apetalæ, Memoir, vol. xv., pl. viii., fig. 6).

Fagus ninnisiana, Ung.

Plate XXVII., fig. 1.

Unger: Remains of Fossil Plants from New Zealand, Voyage de “Novara,” vol. i., div. 2, p. 6, pl. iii., figs. 1–9.

Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Otago Geol. Surv., 1862; Hector.]

The fossil leaf (fig. 1) from Shag Point shows a remarkable approach on the one hand to the European Tertiary species Fagus deucalionis, and on the other hand to the North American F. ferruginea. The secondary nerves are straight, approaching each other, close together, and rather pronounced. The tertiary nerves are not preserved. The serrations agree with those of F. ninnisiana, and the shape agrees perfectly with the leaf-fragment No. 6, mentioned by Unger in the passage indicated.

Fagus lendenfeldi, sp. nov.

Plate XXVI., fig. 18; Plate XXVII., figs. 2, 3.

F. foliis coriaceis, petiolatis, ovato-oblongis vel lanceolatis, basi obtusissimis vel truncatis, apicem versus angustatis, margine irregulariter dentatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario firmo, prominente recto; nervis secundariis numcrosis, sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus, prominentibus, rectis vel divergentiarcuatis, simplicibus, basilaribus extrorsum ramosis; nervis tertiariis e latere externo secundariorum sub angulis acutis exeuntibus; reticulo obsoleto; nuculis ovali-trigonis, striatis.

Locality: Malvern Hills, I. (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Cant.; v. Haast.]

In the locality named a few impressions of beech-leaves were found in a sandy ferruginous rock, which, upon nearer examination, were found to be distinguished by several characteristics from those already known. To judge from the impressions

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left in the rock, the texture of the leaves must have been rather firm, and even leathery. The petiole, as shown in fig. 3, attains at least a length of 1cm. I must, however, remark here that I could not come to the conclusion that I had prepared the whole of it in its entirety. The base of the leaf, where the same is before me in its perfect state, is rather terminated abruptly than obtusely rounded off; the serrations are unequal or biserrate where it is possible to recognise them notwithstanding the coarse nature of the rock, which is unfavourable to the preservation of delicate parts. The numerous secondary nerves are at their origin often diverging and bent; the lowermost are provided with pronounced outer nerves. The tertiary nerves start outwards at acute angles.

A fruit-fossil (fig. 2) was found at Malvern Hills, I., together with the leaves described, which, in consequence of its characteristics, may be considered to be a small beech-nut, and which may probably belong to the same species.

In consequence of the leathery texture of the leaf, this series may be placed in the division Nothofagus, while as regards form and nervation of the leaf it corresponds to the species of the division Eufagus. The species now under discussion is distinguished from the foregoing not only by the firmer texture but also by the obtuse or abruptly terminated base of the leaf, and also by the pronounced outer nerves of the lowermost secondary nerves. It seems to agree with the Australian Tertiary Fagus wilkinsoni, Ett.

I dedicate this species to Dr. R. von Lendenfeld, who is deserving as regards the exploration of New Zealand.

Ulmaceæ.

Ulmus hectori, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., fig. 8.

U. foliis membranaceis, lanceolatis acuminatis, grosse crenato-dentatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario debili; nervis secundariis sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus, tenuibus, simplicibus, paullo curvatis; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector.]

This recalls the narrow leaves of Ulmus braunii, Heer (compare “Tertiary Flora of Switzerland,” ii., pl. 79, fig. 17); but from the latter it is distinguished by the coarse and simple serrations. The narrow shape of the leaves of Planera ungeri approaches also the fossil very closely, and consequently it seems doubtful if it ought to be placed with Ulmus. As regards this, more perfectly preserved specimens must necessarily give elucidation. As regards the choice of genus, the

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observation may suffice that in Planera it is unusual for the secondary nerves to start at acute angles, while this often occurs in Ulmus.

Planera australis, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., fig. 9.

P. foliis breviter petiolatis, membranaceis, ovátis vel ovatooblongis, basi rotundata subinæquali, apice acuminatis, margine grosse dentatis, dentibus obtusiusculis antrorsnm versis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario prominente recto, apicem versus valde attenuato; nervis secundariis sub angulis 55°-65°, inferioribus sub obtusioribus orientibus, tenuibus, sub-curvatis; nervis tertiariis angulo subrecto egredientibus. tenuissimis, plerumque obsoletis.

Localities: Shag Point (Otago Museum); Malvern Hills, I.; Murderer's Creek (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector: and Canterbury; v. Haast.]

Shows an extraordinary similarity with Planera ungeri, m., which is spread throughout the European Tertiary flora and the North American Tertiary strata. I found it impossible to discover a difference in so far as the characteristics of these leaves could be compared, so that if the Planera remains from New Zealand occurred in European Tertiary strata we should immediately ascribe them to P. ungeri. As, however, in these remains the tertiary nerves are defectively preserved and the reticulation is altogether wanting, no exact comparison could be made, the decision as regards the identity of the species must be left to future researches, and for the present the New Zealand Planera species must be brought under the above designation.

Moreæ.

Ficus sublanceolata, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., fig. 7.

F. foliis coreaceis oblongis, integerrimis, nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario valido recto, nervis secundariis sub angulis 65°-85° orientibus, firmis prominentibus, valde arcuatis, marginem versus inter se conjunctis; nervis tertiariis prominentibus, fere rectangularibus, flexuosis, ramosis, inter se conjunctis, reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector.]

Corresponds on the one hand with Ficus lanceolata, Heer, on the other with F. burkei, m., but is distinguished from both by the stronger, closer secondary nerves, which start at obtuse angles; it is moreover distinguished from the lastnamed species by the tertiary nerves, which start at nearly a

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right angle: these latter are strong, bent hither and thither, they have branches and form a loose prominent net of meshes, in which possibly a very delicate net may have existed, which, however, has been lost. The margin of the fossil leaf is partly destroyed, but it is possible to conclude that it had no serrations. The remains of the charred substance on the stronger nerves indicate a firm leathery substance.

Monimiaceæ.

Hedycarya præcedens, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., fig. 19.

H. foliis coriaceis, lanceolato-oblongis, utrinque angustatis, margine dentatis; nervatione brochidodroma, nervo primario firmo, recto, versus apicem attenuato; nervis secundariis sub angulis 50°-60° orientibus, distinctis, arcuato-flexuosis, ramosis, Laqueos marginales 1–2 seriatos formantibus; nervis tertiariis angulo subrecto exeuntibus tenuibus, vix conspicuis.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.e.]

This agrees well with the living species Hedycarya australasica, DC., on the one hand, and on the other with H. europæa, Ett. (“Tertiary Flora of Bilin,” ii., vol. xxviii., p. 191, pl. 30, figs. 3, 4), which has so far been found only in the polished slate of Kutschlin, near Bilin. The fossil leaf before me may be perfected to an elongated or almost lanceolate leaf, which has probably attained a length of 15cm. and a width of 5cm. The lamina narrowed towards both ends; the edge shows rather large serrations, which stand closely together, and the points of which are turned outwards. The primary nerve is strongly pronounced, but it is less strong than in H. europæa. The secondary nerves start at a distance of 10mm.-16mm. from each other, while there are fewer in the species named. The meshes at the edge and the tertiary nerves are only indistinctly perceptible, in consequence of the unfavourable nature of the rock.

Laurineæ.

Cinnamomum intermedium, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., figs. 20–22.

C. foliis petiolatis, coriaceis, oblongis, basi acutis vel angus tato-productis, margine integerrimis; nervatione acrodroma, nervo primario valido, recto; nervis secundariis prominentibus, infimis suprabasilaribus curvatis, elongatis, a margine remotis, reliquis sub angulis 45°-60° orientibus, nervis tertiariis transversis, inter se remotis.

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Localities: Shag Point; Redcliffe Gully (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv., Otago, 1862; Hector: and Cant.; v. Haast.]

Inserted between Cinnamomum polymorphum, A. Braun, sp., and C. polymorphoides, McCoy, with both of which it has in common the shape, the texture of the leaf, and also the characteristics of the nervation. The species under description is distinguished from the first-named by the more numerous secondary nerves, which start principally at more acute angles, and which come closer to those running to the points; it is distinguished from the last-named species by the suprabasilar nerves, which are more distant from the edge, and which run to the points, and also by the more acute angles at which the other secondary nerves start. It must be reserved for future finds to lead to a decision as to whether these species are connected by transitions, and consequently united, or whether they must considered as separate.

Laurophyllum tenuinerve, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., fig. 11.

L. foliis coriaceis, petiolatis, lanceolato-oblongis, basi acutis, nervatione camptodroma; nervo primario prominente, apicem versus valde attenuato; nervis secundariis tenuibus, paucis, inter se remotis, sub angulis 50°-60° orientibus; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.e.]

An oblong fossil leaf, with a petiole; the apex of the leaf is destroyed, but if perfected it presents an almost lanceolate form. The petiole is 13mm. long; the edge is not serrate; the texture is leathery to a remarkable degree. The primary nerve is prominent as far as the middle of the lamina, and from it proceed the secondary nerves, which are undivided, and in the middle 10cm. distant from each other; they disappear towards the edge in a faint curve. In consequence of the unfavourable nature of the rock, the tertiary nerves and reticulation are not perceptible; to judge from a few indications of the latter, it was composed of very delicate and narrow meshes of equal shape. This fossil has altogether the same appearance as those from the brown-coal flora of Loeben, which I decided as belonging to Laurus phæboides; the secondary nerves of this species are equally delicate, and run in curves; the reticulation is very delicate, and composed of narrow meshes, as in many living Laurineæ. However, the species described may remain for the present under the designation Laurophyllum, until it is possible to gain from better material safer points for a more exact designation of the genus.

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Daphnophyllum australe, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., fig. 10.

D. foliis coriaceis petiolatis, ovalibus, basi obtusiusculis, margine integerrimis, nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario crasso, recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus, paucis, paullo arcuatis, simplicibus; nervis tertiariis inconspicuis.

Locality: Weka Pass (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Cant.; v. Haast.]

The petiole, which is more than 2mm. thick and 14mm. long, appears to be joined to the lamina somewhat obliquely; I have observed this often in Daphnophyllum leaves. From a very strong primary nerve start on each side a few secondary nerves slightly curved upwards, which are distant from each other 13mm.-17mm. The more delicate nerves have not been preserved, but traces of these indicate an extremely fine reticulation. The fossil betrays some similarity to Daphnophyllum ellipticum, Heer, from the Chalk flora of Moletein, in Moravia, from which it is, however, distinguished by the smaller number of the secondary nerves and the greater distances between them.

Santalaceæ.

Santalum subacheronticum, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., fig. 12.

S. foliis petiolatis coriaceis ovato-oblongis, utrinque obtusiusculis, margine integerrimis, nervatione hyphodroma, nervo primario vix prominente, apicem versus evanescente; nervis secundariis vix conspicuis.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

The somewhat bent petiole is 6mm. long, and joined to an obtuse, somewhat narrowed base of the leaf; it runs into a scarcely defined primary nerve, which in its further course soon disappears. Traces of the secondary nerves are visible only in the lower part of the lamina. The fossil leaf shows, as regards size, texture, and shape, the greatest similarity to those of Santalum acheronticum, Ett., of the European Tertiary flora, from which it is only distinguished by the much more delicate nerves. As regards this, future researches upon better material will furnish information.

Proteaceæ.

Dryandra comptoniæfolia, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., figs. 14–18, 18a; Plate XXVIII., figs. 9–12.

D. foliis coriaceis breviter petiolatis, lanceolato-linearibus, basi apiceque longe angustatis, subopposite pinnatilobis, lobis

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medio æqualibus, antrorsum et deorsum decrescentibus confluentibusque, ovatis vel rhombeis, integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario distincto, recto; nervis secundariis in quovis lobo 1–3, angulo recto vel subrecto egredientibus, simplicibus; rete vix conspicuo.

Locality: Murderer's Creek, Trelissick (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Cant.; v. Haast.]

Notwithstanding the unfavourable nature of the rock, the leaf-impressions have an appearance as if the leaves which have formed them have not been coarse, but rather fine and leathery. The lamina is more linear than lanceolate, and narrows towards both ends somewhat equally; at the base it ends in a short petiole. The lobes vary in their position, size and shape; they are most frequently opposite or nearly opposite each other, they are seldom alternate; they are largest in the middle of the lamina; their size diminishes gradually towards both ends, where they run often together, so that the ends appear only serrate. The shape of the lobes fluctuates between the oviform and the rhomboidal; their points are sometimes short and narrowed, and sometimes obtuse. The secondary nerves start from the proportionately little-prominent primary nerve at angles from 75° to 90°, one to three of which run to each lobe (see the enlargement, fig. 18a), in which only one becomes prominent, and represents the middle nerve of the lobe; the remaining nerves are fine and almost obliterated. Of the reticulation hardly anything is visible, but this may probably be ascribed to the sandy rock, provided it was of a very delicate nature. On one lobe I was enabled to discover meshes, which are similar to those of the species Dryandra.

The fossil leaves described have a great similarity on the one hand to those of Dryandra benthami, Ett., of the Tertiary flora of Australia, and on the other hand to those of D. acutiloba, Ett., of the Tertiary flora of Bilin. The fossils described are distinguished from both of the species named by the more delicate texture and the nervation; they cannot be mistaken for the species of Gleichenia if the nervation is taken into consideration, the not unimportant similarity notwithstanding.

Gamopetalæ.
Apooynaceæ.

Apocynophyllum elegans, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., fig. 1.

A. foliis coriaceis petiolatis, lanceolatis, basi attenuatis, margine integerrimis, nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario valido, prominente; nervis secundariis sub angulis 75°-85° orientibus subtilibus, numerosis, approximatis, subparallelis,

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flexuosis; nervis tertiariis irregulariter sub angulis variis insertis, abbreviatis, dictyodromis, rete macrosynammatum formantibus.

Locality: Landslip Hill (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Otago Geol. Surv., 1862; Hector.]

A fine-looking well-preserved fossil leaf. There is no doubt as to its designation as belonging to the Apocynaceæ. A fragment of the petiole about 13mm. long has been preserved, but as the rock is broken it is impossible to give the exact length of the stem; the texture was leathery. The nervation shows a prominent straight primary nerve which diminishes considerably towards the point. The secondary nerves are fine and numerous, they are close together, winding, and start nearly at right angles from the primary nerve; the secondary nerves are connected with each other near the edge by anastomosing loops. The tertiary nerves are short, and start irregularly at different angles; they are also branched and resolve in a net, consisting of rather loose irregularly cornered meshes. Apocynophyllum helveticum, Heer, from the Tertiary flora of Switzerland; A. alstonioides, Heer, and sumatrense, Heer, of the Tertiary flora of Sumatra; and also A. mackinlayi, m., of the Australian Tertiary flora, may be considered as analogous species, which are only distinguished from the species described by the better-developed formation of the reticulation.

Apocynophyllum affine, sp. nov.

Plate XXVII., fig. 13.

A. foliis petiolatis, lanceolatis, basi attenuatis, margine integerrimis, nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario debili, recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 70°-80° orientibus, tenuibus, numerosis, parallelis, leviter arcuatis; nervis tertiariis tenuissimis, angulo recto exeuntibus.

Locality: Landslip Hill (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Surv. Otago, 1862; Hector.]

Notwithstanding that the fossil leaf shown on fig. 13 is imperfectly preserved, it is possible to complete it with tolerable certainty as a petiolate lanceolate leaf, which becomes narrower towards the base, the texture of which seems to have been delicate. The primary nerve is fine and straight; the secondary nerves are also fine, parallel with each other, and somewhat curved. They start at somewhat acute angles. Only in two places in the fossil is it possible to discover that the tertiary nerves start at right angles. The fossil shows the best agreement with Apocynophyllum tabernæmontana, Ung. (Syll. Plant. Foss. iii., pl. iv., fig. 9, of the fossil flora of Radoboj), which I conclude to be the most nearly related to

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the species described. As the tertiary nerves of the fossil leaf mentioned by Unger, and depicted at the place mentioned, are not preserved, a more searching comparison and establishment of the distinguishing characteristics must be left to a future occasion; meantime the difference of these species may be accepted as probable.

Ebenaceæ.

Diospyros novæ-zeelandiæ, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., figs. 4, 4a.

D. foliis subcoriaceis, lanceolato-oblongis, utrinque angustatis, integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario valido, recto excurrente: nervis secundariis sub 55°-65° orientibus, tenuibus flexuosis ramosisque; nervis tertiariis e latere externo secundariorum sub angulis acutis exeuntibus.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

To judge from the impression of the edge of the fossil on the rock, the texture is rather more leathery than herbaceous. The lanceolate leaf narrows more towards the base than towards the point; the edge is not serrate. The nervation shows a straight, strong, prominent primary nerve, from which proceed fine winding secondary nerves at somewhat acute angles; in the middle of the leaf the distance of the secondary nerves from each other is 1cm. The tertiary nerves are delicate, and joined at oblique angles; they are only visible in a few places on the fossil (vide enlargement of the nervation, fig. 4a).

The fossil leaf shows, as regards form and nervation, the greatest agreement with those of Diospyrus lotoides, Ung. (Syll. Foss. Plant. iii., pl. x., figs. 1–12), from which it is, however, distinguished by a somewhat firmer texture and more delicate secondary nerves. With reference to the fineness of the latter, the fossil described agrees better with the leaf of D. sagoriana, Ett., with which it also agrees in shape and texture; but the latter has a different arrangement of the secondary nerves.

Dialypetalæ.
Araliaceæ.

Aralia tasmani, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., figs. 13, 13a, 14.

A. foliis coriaceis longe petiolatis, palmatim 3–5 lobatis lobis lobatis vel irregulariter grosse dentatis, basi coarctatis, margine integerrimo vel irrcgulariter dentatis; nervatione actinodroma, nervis primariis 3–5, firmis prominentibus, medio validiore; nervis secundariis sub angulis 30°-40° orientibus, prominentibus, rectis, plerumque craspedodromis; nervis tertiariis

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sub angulis acutis exeuntibus, simplicibus vel ramosis, inter se conjunctis; reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

There is no doubt that the fossil leaves shown in figs. 13–14 belong to Aralia. Of the petiole shown in fig. 14, a fragment 29mm. long has been preserved, but as it is broken off at the lower end it is certain that it was longer. The substance of the leaf must have been more leathery than herbaceous, to judge from the impression and from the charred remains. The larger lobes are narrowed at the base as in many species of Aralia, whereby peculiar rounded incisions are formed in the lamina. The edge of the lobes is partly provided with small lobes, or partly irregularly bluntly serrate. The nervation shows three or five principal nerves, of which the centre one is a little more prominent. The lowermost side-nerves unite in fig. 13 just above the base, and consequently there exist here, at the base only, three principal nerves: this does not seldom occur in species of Aralia. The secondary nerves start at somewhat acute angles; at the middle nerve stronger ones alternate with finer ones on both sides; from the side base-nerves the stronger secondary start principally at the outer side; these and their branches run principally into the points of the lobes and larger serrations: where this, however, is not the case they form loops. The tertiary nerves are rather pronounced, and traverse the surface of the leaf, as in leaves of Aralia, and, as in these, they show also the same distance from each other. The reticulation is not preserved, but traces of it indicate loose meshea as in the leaves of Aralia dissecta, Lesq., and similar related species (vide enlargement of nervation, fig. 13a).

The fossil deviates, in consequence of the more numerous lobes and nerves which run to the edge, from the somewhat similar lobate Ficus leaves-for instance, those of F. carica.

Of the species of Aralia known at present, I can name only A. dissecta, Lesq., of the North American Tertiary flora, to which the species described comes remarkably near. A. dissecta is distinguished from our species by the smaller number of principal nerves, and the lesser development of the lobes.

Loranthaceæ.

Loranthus otagoicus, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., fig. 2.

L. foliis coriaceis breviter petiolatis, ovatis, basi rotundatis, apice obtusis, integerrimis; nervatione acrodroma, nervo primario basi prominente, apicem versus subevanescente; nervis secundariis basalibus sub angulis 40°-50° cum primario divergentibus, reliquis inconspicuis.

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Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

A small ovate leaf with a short stem, which is rounded of at the base and obtuse at the top. It is traversed by three nerves, of which the middle one is more pronounced at the base, but further on it, as well as the side-nerves, becomes indistinct or disappears. No other nerves are visible besides those mentioned. The texture may be designated as firm or leathery. It appears to me that this leaf in its characteristics is most similar to those of the species Loranthus—namely, L. tetrandus, R. et P. (vide Ettingsh., Leaf-skeletons of the Loranthaceæ, Memoir, vol. xxxii., pl. v., figs. 9–12). In the species named, besides the three to five ground-standing nerves, only a few delicate secondary and tertiary nerves are visible, which may easily disappear in a rock which is unfavourable to their preservation.

Acerineæ.

Acer subtrilobatum, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., figs. 7, 7a.

A. foliis longe petiolatis, palmato-trilobis, lobis inæqualibus, lobo medio lateralibus longiore et latiore, sinubus angulum acutum formantibus, margine inæqualiter dentatis; nervatione actinodroma, nervo medio longiore prominente, nervis basilaribus lateralibus cum priore angulis 20°-30° includentibus, extus ramosis; nervis secundariis sub angulis 20°-30° orientibus, plus minusve adscendentibus, craspedodromis; nervis tertiariis tenuissimis sub angulis acutis exeuntibus, inter se conjunctis.

Locality: Shag Point, with Fagus ulmifolia (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

As regards the formation of the leaf, this is very similar to Acer trilobatum, A. Braun, so that it is very difficult to discover any difference. The species named has a rather large circle of forms; the variations extend to nearly all the characteristics of the leaf. To the fossil leaf depicted in fig. 7 the variety productum comes nearest as regards the form. As regards the nervation (shown enlarged in fig. 7a), our fossil approaches nearest to the leaf shown in Heer's “Tertiary Flora of Switzerland” (vol. iii., pl. 115, fig. 4), as the latter shows secondary nerves which start at unusually acute angles, which may also be observed in the fossil leaf from New Zealand, but the secondary nerves at the outside of the side basal, nerves start at more acute angles than the corresponding nerves in the Swiss fossil named. Up to the present no smaller diverging-angles than 30° have been observed in Acer productum, so far as the secondary nerves are concerned. As the New Zealand

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inaple leaf corresponds to the variety named, a difference might be based upon this characteristic. Finally, the serrations are more delicate, and the upper secondary nerves somewhat more bent upwards, than in Acer trilobatum. More ample material for research must settle if the differences named are valid.

Sapindaceæ.

Sapindus subfalcifolius, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., fig. 3; Plate XXIX., fig. 2.

E. foliis membranaceis, petiolulatis, anguste lanceolatis acuminatis subfalcatis, basi angustatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario prominente; nervis secundariis tenuibus sub angulis 60°-70° orientibus, arcuatis adscendentibus, inter se conjunctis; nervis tertiariis obsletis.

Locality: Redcliffe Gully (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Cant.; v. Haast.]

The similarity of the fossil leaves shown in figs. 2 and 3 with the leaflets of Sapindus falcifolius, A. Braun, is so very remarkable that, if these fossils had been unearthed out of European Tertiary strata, no one would hesitate to ascribe them to the species named. However, I do not venture upon the badly-preserved remains before me to pronounce their identity with S. falcifolius.

Celastrineæ.

Elæpdendron rigidum, sp. nov.

Plate XXIX., fig. 1.

E. foliis rigide coriaceis, breviter petiolatis, oblongo-ellipticis, basi attenuatis, apice rotundato-obtusis, margine minute crenulatis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario valido, recto, excurrente; nervis secundariis sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus; tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Landslip Hill (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Otago Geol. Surv., 1862; Hector.]

An oblong elliptical leaf with a petiole, which has left such an impression as leads one to conclude that it must have had a remarkably stiff leathery consistency. The petiole is short, somewhat bent to one side; the lamina is somewhat narrowed at the base, but at the top bluntly rounded off; the edge is provided with small notches, which are close together. In consequence of the unfavourable nature of the stone, nothing is visible of the nervation except the strong straight primary nerve, which is very pronounced nearly as far as the top of the leaf. From this primary nerve start at the middle distance of 1cm. and at acute angles a few secondary nerves.

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The form, the texture, the characteristics of the edge, and the nervation of the leaf as far as the latter is preserved, indicate Elæodendron, in which, indeed, occur similar thick leathery finely-notched leaves, as, for instance, in E. curti-pendulum, Endl., from Norfolk Island, and E. helveticum, Heer, from the Tertiary flora of Switzerland.

Ampelideæ.

Cissopllyum malvernicum, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., fig. 8.

C. foliis coriaceis ovato-rotundatis, inæquilateris, irregu-lariter lobatis, lobis obtusis; nervatione subactinodroma, nervo primario medio prominente, subflexuoso, nervis basilaribus lateralibus inæquilongis, longiore extus nervis secundariis instructis, breviore simplici; nervis secundariis sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus,prominentibus, 17mm.-20mm. inter se distant tibus, rectis, simplicibus, craspedodromis; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality; Malvern Hills, I. (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. Geol. Surv. Cant.; v. Haast.]

The fossil leaf, fig. 8, occurs in a sandy ferruginous stone which is unfavourable to the preservation of remains of plants Notwithstanding this circumstance, one is able to observe so many characteristics that at least the approach to a correct definition is possible. It is quite certain that the texture must be accepted as having been firm and leathery. The impression which the fossil has left on the stone denotes this, as it is developed remarkably unequally. If the contour is completed, we have a broad oval shape. On the narrower side one perceives a few broad, short, rounded-off lobes. The broader side is mutilated, and consequently the edge of it is only visible at the base. However, to judge from the perfect part of this side, we cannot infer a much greater development of the lobes. The nervation is incomplete, running in rays with three basal nerves, the middle one of which is rather pronounced, and winds to the starting-point of the secondary nerves. One of the side basal nerves is longer and more pronounced; it starts just above the base, and sends off at the outer side a few secondary nerves. The shorter one on the other side is not as pronounced as the middle secondary nerves; it is somewhat diverging, bent outwards, and undivided. The secondary nerves, which are not numerous, start with a somewhat diverging curve; they continue straight, and run to the ends of the lobes. Tertiary nerves and reticulation are not preserved. I rank this fossil leaf with the genera Cissites and Ampelophyllum.

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Myrtaceæ.

Eucalyptus dubia, sp. nov.

Plate XXIX., figs. 5, 5a.

E. foliis coriaceis, lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, subfalcatis integerrimis;nervatione brochidodroma, nervo primario prominente; nervis secundariis tenuibus, angulis subacutis exeuntibus, nervo marginali inter se conjunctis; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality;, Shag Point (Canterbury Museum).

[Ex Coll.-Geol. Surv. N.Z., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

The fragment (fig. 5) from Shag Point belongs undoubtedly to Eucalyptus. It is possible to complete it so as to form a linear lanceolate leaf, which is curved almost like a sickle. The top is partly preserved, and does not become much narrower. As regards the nervation, the primary nerve is strongly pronounced, and bent in accordance with the shape of the leaf. A few of the delicate secondary nerves are preserved, which start from the primary nerve at scarcely acute angles. The characteristic seam- or edge-nerve which connects the secondary nerves with each other, is also preserved. The last-named nerves can, however, be only observed under the lens with a favourable light (see enlargement, fig. 5a).

The species described is most nearly related to Eucalyptus mitchelli, Ett., of the Australian Tertiary flora, from which it is distinguished by the fact that the top of the leaf narrows only a little; but, as, in Eucalyptus, leaves occur in the same species, and even on the same tree and on the same branch, which are pointed and little narrowed at the top, this distinguishing mark carries no weight, and I should have no hesitation in uniting the New Zealand Eucalyputus species of former ages with the Australian species named if more points had been offered for comparison of the nervation, especially of the reticulation, which only in the latter is eminently well preserved; consequently I must leave the decision, if there is a difference in the nervation, to further researches.

PapilionaceÆ.

Dalbergia australis, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., fig. 5.

D. foliolis membranaceis, breviter petiolatis, oblongo-ellipticis, basi acutis, apice rotundato emarginatis; nervatione camptodroma, nerva primario debili; nervis secundariis numerosis tenuissimis, sub angulis acutis orientibus.

Locality: Shag Point (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll.-N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.]

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A delicate, oblong, elliptic leaflet, which has a short petiole, and which reminds one in its characteristics most of Dalbergia bella, Heer, of the Tertiary flora of Switzerland. Our fossil is distinguished from the species named only by the much shorter petiole, the less narrow base, and the more oblong form.

CÆsalipinieÆ.

Cassia pseudophaseolites, sp. nov.

Plate XXIX., fig. 6.

C. foliolis submembranaceis, petiolulatis, ovato-oblongis, basi obliquis, paullo angustatis, apice subacuminatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario distincto, basi prominente; nervis secundariis sub angulis acutis variis exeuntibus, tenuibus; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Localities: Shag Point; Murderer's Creek: (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1872; v. Haast, l.c.

Corresponds so much with Cassia phaseolites, Ung., that one might be betrayed into accepting the occurrence of this species in the Tertiary flora of New Zealand. The only differences which seem to exist between this part of a leaflet and the species named are the following: The texture of the New Zealand species may be accepted to have been somewhat firmer, and the diverging-angles are more acute. However, these differences are too insignificant and too little confirmed to uphold the division of these fossils if no difference should appear in the characteristics of the tertiary nerves and of the reticulation. The proof of this must be a task for future researches. The fossil leaves here shown lie on one stone beside each other, and might be parts of leaflets of the same leaf.

Cassia pseudomemnonia, sp. nov.

Plate XXVIII., fig. 6.

C. foliolis membranaceis, pctiolulatis, lanceolatis, basi acutis, apice acuminatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nerva primario tenui, basi prominente; nervis secundariis tenuissimis approximatis, arcuatis, adscendentibus; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Otago Geol. Surv., 1862; Hector.]

Small narrow parts of leaflets of distinctly delicate texture, provided with a faint primary nerve, and with very ascending secondary nerves, which approach each other. They may be compared very well with part-leaflets of Cassia memnonia, of which latter well-preserved remains from Parschlug are before me; but our fossil is distinguished from these by the direction and the larger number of the secondary nerves.

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Plantæ Incertæ Sedis.

Carpolithes otagoicus, sp. nov.

Plate XXIX., figs. 7–9.

C. fructibus oblongis subcompressis, utrinque obtusis, supra basin incurvatam paullo constrictis, extus longitudinaliter rugoso-striatis, rima longitudinali, dehiscentibus, monospermis, superficie interna, valvularum minutissime reticulato-foveatis.

Locality: Shag Point (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. Otago. Geol. Surv., 1862; Hector.]

Small fruits which have so extraordinary a similarity to the enigmatical fossil fruits which are designated Carpolithes websteri, Heer (Folliculites minutulus, Bronn, and F. kalten-nordheimensis, Zenker), that at the first glance I thought I had before me the kind of fruit named. These fruits are oblong (obtuse), blunt at both ends; at one end, which may be considered as the base, bent to one side; somewhat narrowed neck - fashion; becoming a little thicker at the end, The surface is wrinkled and longitudinally ribbed. The stripes have small point-like warts, which are only visible under a high power (fig. 8a). These outer characteristics of the fruit as compared with those of Carpolithes websteri show only very insignificant deviations, which become apparent under repeated minute observation. The fossil fruits of the species named show at the middle a length of 7mm, and a width of 3mm.; the New Zealand species are in the middle 5mm. long and 2–5mm. wide. In Carpolithes websteri appears at the, belly-side [lit.] a rather sharp edge, along which the fruit springs up. This edge is connected with the thicker part of the basal end, so that if observed in section the continuation of the edge seems continued beyond the fruit. In the New Zealand Carpolith the edge mentioned stands out less, and consequently the enlargement at the basal end is smaller. The inner surface of the fruit-rind (or husk) shows a fine network of pittings (vide enlargement, fig. 8b), and in this characteristic our Carpolith seems to deviate specifically from C. websteri. In the sandy clay of Shag Point the fossil fruits described have been found accumulated in great numbers: only the husks were found (filled with matrix), which had burst open and were empty; no trace was visible of the seed, nor of the delicate skin which covered the hollow of the fruit. Figs. 9a and 9b represent two halves of the fruit, which fit to each other, and which are moderately enlarged.

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B.—Description of the Species of the Chalk Flora of New Zealand.
Cryptogamæ.
Filices.

Blechnum priscum, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., figs, 1, 1a.

B. fronde subcoriacea pinnata, pinnis rhachidem sub angulo acuto insertis, confertis, alternantibus, lineari-lanceolatis, integerrimis; nervatione Neuropteridis; nervo primario prominente versus apicem sensim attenuato, recto; nervis secundariis angulis acutis egredientibus, approximatis, inferioribus dichotomis, reliquis furcatis, ramis elongatis, marginem versus arcuato-divergentibus.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum).

The remainder of a fern shown in fig. 1 is pinnatifid, linear, lanceolate, and approximate; the edges are not broken or notched; the pinnæ are joined to a comparatively thin-petiole at acute angles; the base is towards top and bottom drawn forward. The secondary nerves start at acute angles, and run with their fork-like branches diverging towards the edge (see the enlargement of the nervation, fig. 1a). The position, the mode of joining, and the nervation of the pinnæ. as well as the whole habit of the fossil, speak for the genus Blechnum. The most nearly related living species is B. occidentale, Linn., indigenous to tropic America (see Ettingsh., Ferns, pl. lxxv., figs. 4 and 13). By analogy the fossil may be considered as a fragment of the whole frond, which is only simply pinnate. Of fossil ferns, B. atavium, Sap., from the fossil flora of Sézanne, is the most nearly related; it is only distinguished by somewhat wider pinnæ, and secondary nerves which are less close together.

Aspidium cretaceo-zeelandicum, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., figs. 2,3.

A. pinnis lanceolato-linearibus, lobatis, lobis abbreviato-ovatis acutis, integerrimis; nervatione Goniopteridis (?); nervo primario prominente, recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 65°-75° orientibus, distinctis, rectis vel marginem versus arcuatis; nervis tertiariis tenuissimis, vix conspicuis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum).

The pinnate fragments of a fern shown in figs. 2 and 3 agree best with Aspidium; the comparison of these with the small fructifying fragment, figs. 4, 4a, Pl. XXIV., from the Tertiary

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strata of Dunstan, and also with, a sterile fragment from the strata of Shag Point, permit a supposition of a close relationship of these species—yea, probably, a relation as regards genus. The Chalk species is distinguished from the Tertiary species by the lesser notches of the pinnæ and the oviform pointed lobes of same; the diverging-angles of the secondary nerves seem also to be more acute in the latter. I consider Aspidium fæcundum, Heer, from the fossil flora of the Atane strata, as analogous to the Chalk species; the former is distinguished by the deeper and the bluntly-rounded-off lobes of the pinnæ.

Dicksonia pterioides, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., fig. 4–6.

D. fronde bi- vel tri-pinnata, pinnis alternis, rarius subop-positis, sessilibus, ovatis vel lanceolatis, superioribus denticu-latis obtusis, inferioribus dentatis vel lobatis, dentibus vel lobis rotundato-obtusis; nervatione Pecopteridis sphenopteridis, nervo primario tenui, sub angulis variis acutis e rhachi oriente, sub apice evanescente; nervis secundariis sub angulis acutis exeuntibus; nervis tertiariis furcatis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum).

The remains of ferns before me betray a frond which is more composite than the fern previously described. Fig. 4 is probably the point of a pinna of the second order. The small pinnæ here often run together in lobes; but in figs. 5 and 6 the pinnæ are more developed, they adhere to elongated, lanceolate pinnæ of the second order; they are ovi-lanceolate, serrated, or lobate, and close together. The nervation, fig. 6a, is very delicate, and only visible if a favourable light can be brought to bear upon the object. The primary nerve is very fine, and from it start secondary nerves at acute angles, which are arranged anadromously. The tertiary nerves, which are not numerous, are divided fork-like. By no means is it possible to give here the related analogies with such certainty as those of the ferns previously described, but it seems as if these must be looked for in the divisions of the Davalliaceæ and Cyatheaccæ. The following show analogous formation of the frond: Alsophila pruinata, Kaulf., an American fern; Microlepia pinnata, Presl, indigenous in the East Indies and Oceana; Balantium brownianum, Presl, of the Australian flora; but most of all Dicksonia smithii, Hook., which occurs in the Island of Luzon.

Among fossil ferns, Dicksonia conferta, Heer, of the flora from the Atane strata, approaches nearest to the species de-scribed, but it is distinguished from it by the unbroken edge of the small pinnæ.

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Gleichenia (Mertensia) obscura, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., figs. 7,7a.

G. pinnis elongatis pinnatifidis, pinnulis lineari-lanceolatis integerrimis; nervatione Alethopteridis, nervo primario prominente, recto; nervis secundariis numerosis, furcatis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

A fragment of a pinnate frond imperfectly preserved, which must have been laid aside as indeterminable had it not been that it was possible to discover a few characteristics, which just enabled me to determine the genus. The fragment shows a stout spindle of the pinna, from which we may conclude that it belonged to the lower part of a long pinna, which up to the spindle is pinnatifid; the small pinnæ are remarkably narrow, almost linear, with an unbroken edge, traversed by a pronounced primary nerve, from which the very fine secondary nerves start, which are close together, and are branched in a fork-like manner (see the enlargement of the nervation, fig. 7a). The characteristics mentioned agree very remarkably with the frond of Gleichenia (Mertensia) flabellata, Desv., a fern which is indigenous to Australia.

Among the fossil Filices, approaches most closely to our species Gleichenia (Mertensia) rigida, Heer, from the Kome strata.

Phanerogamæ.
Gymnospermæ.
Coniferæ.
AbietineÆ.

Dammara mantelli, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., fig. 20.

D. foliis suboppositis, coriaceis, patentibus, approximatis ovato-lanceolatis, basi angustata sessilibus, apice acuminatis, enerviis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

The fragment of a branch (fig. 20) bears ovi-lanceolate, leaves, which stand almost opposite each other, have an unbroken edge, and become gradually narrower towards the top, and which stand out from the branch-spindle almost at right angles. The leaves betray a leathery texture, but there is no nervation whatever beyond many fine parallel stripes. The similarity of this fossil to Dammara australis, Lamb.—which, at the present time is spread over eastern Australia and New Zealand—is so great that I almost venture to ascribe it to the living species.

I name this species after Walter Mantell, in recognition of his deserving geological works about New Zealand.

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Taxineæ.
Taxo-torreya.

According to the small branch, described below, of a fossil Taxinea from the strata of Wangapeka, which are ranked among the Chalk formations, we must accept a family genus which unites the characteristics of Cephalotaxus and Torreya. The position of the leaves, and the nature of the petiole, are the same as in Cephalotaxus; on the other hand, the nervation is the same as in Torreya. All other characteristics of the formation of the leaf are the same as in both genera.

Taxo-torreya trinervia, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., figs, 16, 16a.

T. foliis suboppositis, approximatis, distichis, rigide cori-aceis, parvis, lanceolato-linearibus, in petiolum brevissimum subincrassatum contortis, apice subobtuso mucronulatis; nervo mediano prominente latiusculo, excurrente, nervis duabus late-ralibus sulcum longitudinalem includentibus.

Locality: Wangapeka, Nelson (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. N. Geol. Surv., Rep. 1867; Hector.]

The small fragment of a branch (fig. 16) is distinguished from the below-described branch of Podocarpium by the three nerves which traverse the leaves; the latter stand closely together, and are arranged in two lines almost opposite each, other; they indicate a strong leathery texture; they are dis-guished by a short, somewhat stout stem. All these characteristics remind one of Cephalotaxus, especially of C. drupacea, Sieb. et Zucc. (Japan), since this species agrees also with the fossil as regards size and shape of the leaves. In the latter the leaves are 10mm.-15mm. long and 2mm.-3mm. wide, but the nervation of the leaves shows the characteristics of Torreya (see the enlargement, fig. 16a). In this genus appears on the underside of the leaves a pronounced and broad mid-nerve, which runs out towards the top and on each side of it exists a narrower nerve along the leaf, which limits the narrow furrow that runs along the mid-nerve. The broad mid-rib, as well as the longitudinal furrows and side-nerves, are distinctly perceptible in the fossil. Of the now living species of Torreya T. grandis, Fort., from China, agrees best with our fossil as regards size and shape of the leaves.

Podocarpium ungeri, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., figs. 13–15.

P. ramis patentibus, foliis dense approximatis patentibus, rigide coriaceis, subfalcatis, linearibus acutis vel acuminiatis, basi sessilibus angustatis, margine planis; nervo mediano excurrente, fructibus ellipsoideis, utrinque obtusis.

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Locality: Pakawau (Canterbury Museum; Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

On the piece of rock from Pakawau (shown in fig. 13) lie fragments of twigs pell-mell in different directions; these twigs have belonged most probably to the same tree, and must have been, projecting. The leaves on the branch-fragment (fig. 14) are the largest and most distinct; one recognises their firm leathery texture and the mid-nerve which runs to the top of the leaf. In the specimen named, as well as in the other specimens of branches before me; the leaves appear in close juxtaposition, projecting, but seldom straight; they are mostly somewhat sickle-shaped, curved, linear, pointed, 2mm.-3.5mm. wide and 15mm.- 25mm. long; they are at the base short and narrowing, and flat at the edge.

Beside the fragments of branches shown in fig. 13, I saw remains of fruits, which, are small ellipsoidal charred impressions, which originate from berry-like fruits, which latter belong without doubt to the same plant as the branches; their similarity in shape and size to the fruits of Podocarpus is at once apparent. Fig. 1.5 shows such a fruit.

In accordance with the facts enumerated, it would not be a fault altogether to classify these remains with the genus Podocarpus. From this, however, I am prevented by the circumstance that Unger has described a fossil wood from New Zealand which, as regards its construction, is midway between Podocarpus and Dacrydium, and which has probably belonged to a special defunct genus, which Unger named Podocarpium, (“Voyage of the Austrian Frigate ‘Novara,’” vol. i., part ii., page 13; pl. v., fig. 1a-c). I believe I must ascribe to this genus all those species of the New Zealand Chalk flora which, resemble Podocarpus or Dacrydium.

Podocarpium cupressinum, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., fig. 11.

P. ramis gracilibus elongatis, foliis parvis basi decurrentibus, ramulorum juniorum distichis, patulis linearibus acuminatis; seniorum brevioribus adpressis lanceolatis; nervo mediano distincto.

Localities: Pakawau, Wangapeka, Nelson; Grey River, Westland (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

The specimen from Pakawau (fig. 11) shows a small mature branch, which, is studded with lanceolate leaves, which are appressed. At the top of the mature branch are the sprouts of younger branches, also provided with leaves, which are erect, linear, pointed, and arranged in two rows. I associate with this branch another mature branch from Grey River, not shown here, which is covered with similar leaves, which are

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pressed against the branch. Although top and base are wanting, it has the considerable length of 25mm., and a diameter of only 3mm.; consequently the tree was provided with long slender branches.

Not a little analogous to this species is Podocarpus præ-cupressina, Ett., of the Australian Tertiary Flora, which is distinguished by more slender branches and less closely-set, pointed leaves.

Podocarpium tenuifolium, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., figs. 8–10, 10a

P. ramulis gracilibus, foliis tenuibus basi decurrentibus, ramulorum juniorum distichis dense approximatis, linearisubfalcatis, planis, apice, acuminato mucronulatis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

Figs. 8–10 are enlarged. Fig. 10a shows the younger branches studded with leaves in two rows. This species may be considered as the ancestor of Podocarpus prætenuifolia, m., which latter is described in Part A, and which occurs in the Tertiary flora of New Zealand. The species under observation is distinguished from the latter by a stiffer spindle, and leaves which are more closely situated, which are curved and somewhat sickle-shaped.

Podocarpium prædacrydioides, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., fig. 12.

P. ramulis abbreviatis, foliis parvis basi decurrentibus, compresso-subtetragonis, ramulorum juniorum distichis, approximatis, linearibus subfalcatis, seniorum minimis imbricatis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

I have before me only a fragment of a twig, which is broken off just where the younger branches join the older. These twigs are remarkably short; they are studded with small, linear, somewhat sickle-shaped leaves, which are arranged in two rows. The enlargement shows a mid-rib, which projects almost like a keel, also an elevated margin: from which we may infer a thick-edged leaf. The base is decreasing; most of the leaves betray a faint sickle-like curve; their width is scarcely 1mm., their length 2.5mm.-4mm.; but, as none of the points of the leaves are preserved, it is impossible to determine if they were provided with a small thorn. At the lower end of the branch are perceptible the much smaller leaves, which are arranged like tiles side by side in rows, and with which the older branch must have been covered.

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In all the characteristics described this species agrees so exactly with Podocarpus dacrydioides, Rich., which is at present spread over northern. New Zealand, that we must here admit the possibility of the identity of the genus; but this decision must be reserved to future researches upon more complete material. The name of the species, Prædacrydioides, was allotted not only to indicate the relationship as regards genus of the plant of former ages with the now living plant, but also to distinguish it from Podocarpium dacrydioides, Ung., which fossil wood from the Tertiary formation of New Zealand has been previously mentioned.

Dacrydinium cupressinum, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., figs. 17, 18, 18a.

D. ramis ramulisque gracilibus elongatis; foliis approximatis, subdecussatim oppositis, squarroso-patentibus vel subimbricatis, compresso-carinatis, ovatis vel oblongis falcatis, basi decur-rentibus, apice mucronulatis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

I have before me a fragment of a branch and a few broken pieces of a smaller branch, which may probably have belonged to the same branch. All these parts show a slender spindle, and from them we may conclude upon elongated branches and twigs. The leaves, which are best preserved on the fragment of a twig (fig. 18), stand close together and almost opposite each other. In the enlarged part of another twig (fig. 18a) it is distinctly perceptible that a crossed position of the pairs of leaves exists. The leaves are more or less erect: this is especially the case in the small twig with longish leaves (fig. 18). In fig. 17 the leaves are somewhat shorter, oviform, pointed, and arranged almost like tiles. In the enlargement referred to it is perceptible that the leaves were of firmer substance, and had longitudinal edges; the leaves decrease towards the base, are shaped like an awl, and bent somewhat like a sickle, and are provided with a very short thorn at the top.

In the characteristics enumerated the fossil species agrees best with Dacrydium cupressinum, Sol., a tree forming extensive forests in the South Island and Stewart Island. The only difference between these two seems to be that the leaves in the living species are awl-shaped and almost straight, while those of the fossil species are broader, distinctly sickle-shaped, and bent upwards. The great similarity of the twigs of the fossil and of the living plant permits the possibility of both belonging to the same genus; at least, we may conjecture that the former stands a degree nearer to the genus Dacrydium than

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the middle genus Podocarpium. In the temporary assumption that the Chalk species must be separated from the recent species, I name the former Dacrydinium, while I designate a Tertiary plant of New Zealand, which corresponds with the living Dacrydium cupressinum, as D. præcupressinum.

Gen.Ginkgocladus

Ramuli secundarii phyllodinei; phyllodia longe petiolata, flabellato-pinnatim nervosa, nervi omnes tenuissimi.

As regards the pinnate-nerved lobate phyllodia, this genus shows the habit of Phyllocladus: as regards the very delicate traversing nerves and the long petiole of the phyllodium, it reminds one very much of Ginkgo.

Ginkgocladus novæ-zeelandiæ, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., fig. 19.

G. phyllodiis subcoriaceis, ovato-rhombeis, lobatis, in petiolum longum decurrentibus, lobis truncatis dentatis; nervo primario vix prominente, nervis secundariis et tertiariis angulis acutissimis insertis, simplicibus, craspedodromis.

Locality: Wangapeka, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1867, Hector.]

The fossil leaf shown in fig. 19 might under superficial inspection be mistaken for a frond of Asplenium or Adiantum; however, under closer observation and comparison we must come to the conclusion that this fossil could only belong to the Taxineæ, which carry phyllodia, and midway between Phyllocladus and Ginkgo.

The existence of a carbonized substance on the impression indicates plainly a leathery texture; but the charred deposit is so thin that we may infer a delicate and yet leathery nature such as belongs to the phyllodia-leaves of Ginkgo. As regards the more pronounced rhomboidal shape, which runs down the stem, the fossil is similar to the phyllodia of Phyllocladus rhomboidalis, but there is a lobate formation perceptible, which is similar to Ph. trichomanoides; the truncate lobes are at the front edge minutely, obtusely, and unequally serrate. The comparatively long petiole is most remarkable, as thereby the fossil approaches to the petiolate phyllodia of Ph. rhomboidalis, but it comes even closer to the long petiolate leaves of Ginkgo.

We recognise in the nervation of the fossil described a kind of combination of the nervation of Ginkgo biloba and of Ph. trichomanoides. From the petiole, which is winged from the descending lamina, starts a primary nerve, which is faint at the base, and scarcely pronounced in its further course; from this primary nerve start already in the wings of the

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petiole secondary nerves at acute angles. This circumstance occurs neither in Adiantum nor in Asplenium, but it may be observed in Ginkgo. The other secondary nerves, which start in the further course of the primary nerve at very acute angles, are also as fine as the basal ones, and are divided among the lobes, the middle of which they traverse to the end, without, however, being bifurcate. As regards their delicacy these nerves have most similarity with those of Ginkgo, as regards their simplicity with those of Phyllocladus. These nerves are most similar to the secondary nerves of Ph. trichomanoides as regards their relation to the lobes. The tertiary nerves start from both sides of the secondary nerves at very acute angles; they are very delicate, almost straight, close to each other, and they run undivided into the small serrations of the edge. As regards the characteristics just described of the tertiary nerves, the fossil agrees best with Phyllocladus trichomanoides.

Monocotyledones.
Gramineæ.

Poacites nelsonicus, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., figs. 22, 22a.

P. foliis elongatis anguste linearibus, 4mm. latis; nervis longitudinalibus primariis 6, tenuibus, æqualibus, cum nervis interstitialibus solitariis tenuissimis alternantibus.

Locality: Wangapeka, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1867; Hector.]

The fossil shown in fig. 22 is a fragment of a long, very narrow blade of grass, which shows a few equally delicate primary nerves, between which run out a few very fine nerves. (see enlargement, fig. 22a). The primary nerves approach each other more closely towards the edge; the substance of the blade is rather firm, almost leathery. A more exact definition of this fragment must be left to future researches.

Bambusites australis, sp. nov.

Plate XXX., fig. 21; Plate XXXI., figs. 1–3, 3a.

B. rhizomate solido lignoso crasso, ramoso (?), culmis validis, 4.5cm. fere crassis, nodosis, tenuiter, striatis, nodis prominentibus hinc inde obliquis; foliis late linearibus, nervis primariis et interstitialibus pluribus.

Localities: Grey River, Westland; Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum).

The remains shown under above figures I take to be the residue of a grass from the division of the Bambuseæ. Fig. 21, from Pakawau, is a fragment of the strong ligneous

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rhizome. Fig. 2, from the same locality, represents a piece of a young stalk, which shows traces of fine longitudinal stripes and knots. Fig. 1, from Grey River, is a well-preserved fragment of a stronger stalk with fine longitudinal stripes and a somewhat oblique knot. Fig. 3, from the same deposit, shows a small fragment of a blade, which, according to its width and the several principal nerves, which are surrounded by several fine intermediate nerves (see enlargement, fig. 3a), agrees with the above remains of a Bambusea.

Musaceæ.

Haastia speciosa, sp. nov.

Plate XXXI., fig. 5.

H. foliis amplis, nervo primario 6cm.-8.5cm. crasso, striato, nervis secundariis tenuissimis oblique insertis simplicibus, densissime confertis, apicem versus arcuatim convergentibus; nervis interstitialibus vix distinctis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

Of this Musacea, I have before me several large pieces, which can only be parts of an uncommonly large leaf. In order to save space it was possible to depict only one piece, which contains a characteristic part of the leaf. Fig. 5 is taken from about the middle of this gigantic leaf. We see the huge primary nerve, which is more than 8cm. wide, the surface of which is traversed by both fine and coarse longitudinal stripes, which latter stand out partly, somewhat like a keel. From this primary nerve start delicate secondary nerves at very acute angles, which are close together and run outwards in diverging curves. The nerves between these seem not to have been preserved. From the thickness of the mid-nerve we may conclude that the leaf was about 4m. long, as the length of a living Musa-leaf is 1.5m., and the mid-nerve of it is 2cm. wide. A second part of the upper portion of the leaf, not shown here, has the primary nerve only 4cm. wide, and more delicately striped; the longitudinal keels do not exist in this piece; the origin and course of the secondary nerves are the same as in the previous specimen. Another fragment corresponds with a portion near the top of the leaf; the primary nerve at the lower end of it is only 2mm. wide-the lamina is torn in several places; the secondary nerves start at much more acute angles.

The fossil leaf deviates from all known Musophyllum forms in consequence of its considerable size: as these have been found in the Tertiary strata only, we must take it for granted that they belong to a special genus, which I dedicate to the discoverer, Dr. Julius von Haast.

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Palmæ.

Flabellaria sublongirhachis, sp. nov.

Plate XXXXI., fig. 4, 4a.

F foliis flabellifidis, laciniis rhachidi compressæ longisimæ striatæ insidentibus, numerosis, congestis, linearibus basi constrictis conduplicatis; nervis longitudinalibus parallelis, mediano valido, prominente, interstitialibus pluribus.

Locality: Grey River, Westland (Canterbury Museum).

The fossil, fig. 4, represents a fragment of a fan-palm leaf, which is provided with a long spindle. The specimen reminds one immediately of Flabellaria longirhachis, Ung., from the Chalk flora of Muthmannsdorf, in Nether-Austria (See Unger, Iconogr. Plant. Foss., Memoir, bd. iv., p. 19; pl. viii., fig. 1; pl. ix., fig. 1), from which it is distinguished by a flatter, more compressed spindle. The pinnate segments are joined to the spindle at an angle of 25°-30°. This circumstance and their less close position to each other correspond exactly to the lowest part of the large fossil leaf described by Unger on pl. viii., the spindle of which, as well as the spindle of our fossil, shows a width of 15mm.

Besides the fossil depicted, a few shreds of the tips of the pinnæ of this palm-leaf were found in the same locality. These species show distinctly the immense pronounced midnerve, and also the fine interstitial nerves which are joined in between the side length-nerves (see the enlargement, fig. 4a).

Dicotyledones.

Apetalæ.
Casuarineæ.

Casuarinites cretaceus, sp. nov.

Plate XXXI., figs. 6, 6a, 7.

C. ramis nodoso-articulatis, aphyllis, articulis cylindricis costato-striatis; ramulis gracilibus, tenuibus, congestis; vaginis solummodo in ramulis tenuioribus conspicuis, erecto-patentibus, dentatis, dentibus lanceolatis.

Localities: Grey River, Westland; Pakawau, Reefton, Nelson (Canterbury Museum).

In the deposit at Grey River were found fragments of small branches, which have knotty joints and rib-like stripes; their diameter is from 3mm. to 7mm. At Pakawau the twigs found are very thin (see fig. 6), of a diameter of only 1mm., in which it was possible to recognise the fine longitudinal stripes and the joints; but in consequence of the defective preservation the sheaths were scarcely perceptible; however, I was able to discover traces of these only on a

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single twig, and in a place where they were, like a fascicle, together lying, the twigs having been macerated. Fig 6 shows an enlargement of such a thin twig, with the lanceolate serræ of the sheath on one of the joints. I take these fossils to be remains of a Casuarina-like plant, the more accurate comparison of which with species of this genus could only be undertaken with better-preserved material.

Cupuliferæ.

Quercus pachyphylla, sp. nov.

Plate XXXI., figs. 8, 8a.

Q. foliis rigide coriaceis, breviter petiolatis, obovato-ellipticis, basi angustatis, apice rotundato-obtusis, margine integerrimis; nervatione brochidodroma, nervo primario valido, recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 55°-65° orientibus, tenuibus, ramosis; nervis tertiariis abbreviatis; rete microsynammato.

Locality: Brunner Mine, Grey River (Otago Museum).

Corresponds on the one hand to Q. daphnes, Ung., of the European Tertiary flora, and on the other hand to the oaks of the Australian Tertiary flora, which have whole-edged leather-like leaves, such as Q. wilkinsoni, Q. greyi, and Q. austini, which have been described in my contributions to that flora. Of the species of oaks now living, Q. virens, Ait., shows the greatest similarity in the construction of the leaf. In fig. 8a an enlargement of the reticulation of the fossil leaf just described is shown. Among the oaks of the Chalk flora, Q. myrtillus, Heer, from the Patoot strata, comes nearest to the species described.

Quercus nelsonica, sp, nov.

Plate XXXI., fig. 10.

Q. foliis petiolatis, coriaceis, oblongo-ellipticis, utrinque paullo angustatis, margine dentatis, nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario valido, crasso; nervis secundariis numerosis approximatis, sub angulis 65°-70° orientibus, leviter arcuatis; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Wangapeka, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1867; Hector.]

A fossil leaf which, in accordance with its characteristics, as far as these may be recognised, can be best compared with the leaves of a few East Indian species of oaks—namely, Q. lobbii and Q. oxyoden, Miq.—but in these the serræ are standing more forward. Among the fossil oaks, Q. cyri, Ung., from the flora of Sotzka, approaches our species in a remarkable manner, with the only difference that the leaf of the latter is broader and narrows less towards the top. The following may be considered as vicarious species: Q. beyrichii, m., from the

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Chalk of Niederschöna; Q. ellsworthiana, Lesq., of the North American Chalk formation; and Q. denticulata, Heer, from the Patoot strata.

Quercus calliprinoides, sp. nov.

Plate XXXI., fig.9.

Q. foliis coriaceis, ellipticis, apice obtusis, basin versus paullo angustatis, margine undulato-dentatis, nervatione craspedo-droma, nervo primario valido, secundariis subarcuatis, fere obsoletis.

Localities: Grey River; Wangapeka, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1867; Hector.]

A small leathery leaf, which as regards habit reminds me on the one hand of Q. rinkiana, Hear, from the Atane strata, and on the other hand of Q. calliprinos, Webb, of the present time. This fossil was found together with the remains of a leaf of a second species of oak described in the foregoing. The state of preservation leaves much to be desired, and future discoveries must give more exact disclosures as regards its nature. A second fossil leaf, not shown in the illustration, was found at the Grey River.

Dryophyllum nelsonicum, sp. nov.

Plate XXXI., figs. 11, 11a.

D. foliis coriaceis, lanceolatis, apicem versus angustatis, obtuse-dentatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario firmo, recto; nervis secundariis prominentibus, sub angulis 50°-60° orientibus, numerosis approximatis, parallelis, leviter curvatis, simplicibus; nervis tertiariis e latere externo secundariorum sub angulis acutis exeuntibus, prominentibus, flexuosis simplicibus vel furcatis, fere transversim conjunctis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum).

A fossil leaf which bears the type of Dryophyllum. The texture must be designated as firm and leathery; the edge is bluntly serrated; the secondary nerves which feed same are sharply defined and undivided, they are close to each other, little curved, not winding; the tertiary nerves are pronounced and run almost across (see enlargement, fig. 11a.).

Of the species described already, Dryophyllum holmesii, Lesq., from the flora of the Dakota group, comes nearest to the species above described.

Fagus nelsonica, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., figs. 9, 9a.

F. foliis membranaceis, ovatis, basi acutis, apice acuminatis, margine inæqualiter vel duplicato dentatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario basi vel vix ad dimidium laminæ prominente,

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recto vel paullo flexuoso; nervis secundariis in uno latere 7, sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus, rectis simplicibus; nervis tertiariis tenuissimis, angulis subrectis egredientibus, approximatis, flexuosis ramosis, inter se conjunctis, reticulum tenerrimum vix conspicuum includentibus.

Locality: Wangapeka, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1867; Hector.]

The beech-leaf shown in fig. 9, which was found among the plant-fossils at the locality indicated, makes the impression of a delicate, not at all leathery leaf; it is oviform, pointed, either unevenly serrate or almost biserrate; it is traversed by a fine primary nerve, which is scarcely pronounced to the middle of the lamina; from the primary nerve start on each side a few straight secondary nerves, which run at acute angles to the marginal serræ. The tertiary nerves are very fine; they start almost at right angles, are remarkably close together and connected with each other; they are winding, bifurcate or branching. The tertiary nerves, as well as the very delicate network which lies between them, are shown enlarged in fig. 9a. They were only perceptible on the lower part of the fossil leaf.

The species to which the beech-leaf described belonged is a true representative of the European Tertiary Fagus ferroniæ, Ung., and consequently of the division Eufagus, DC., under close comparison of the reticulation and of the tertiary nerves of Fagus ferroniæ (for which I could command ample material) with the relative characteristics of the beech-leaf described. I find, however, that in the Tertiary beech the reticulation is more developed, and composed of comparatively larger meshes. I find also that the tertiary nerves are neither so fine nor so close together. In Fagus prisca, m., of the Chalk flora of Niederschöna, we have a similar quercoid reticulation formed by very close meshes as in F. nelsoniana, but in the former species the secondary and tertiary nerves are almost the same as in Fagus ferroniæ, and the texture is leathery.

We may consider Fagus polyclada, Lesq., of the Dakota group, as a vicarious species of the North American Chalk flora, the leaf of which agrees in shape and texture with the leaf described, but it deviates as regards the nature of the edge.

Fagus producta, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., fig. 1.

F. foliis coriaceis, e basi ovata lanceolato-acuminatis, margine denticulatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario valido, recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus,

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pluribus, arcuatis, inferioribus extrorsum ramosis; nervis tertiariis tenuibus, angulis subrectis exeuntibus, inter se conjunctis; reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

A leaf which, as regards shape, reminds one of the larger leaves of Fagus muelleri, which are long and become narrow towards the top; the leaf agrees also with these as regards the leathery texture; but as this leaf is considerably larger than those of F. muelleri, and as the nervation deviates in several respects, I believe that it belongs to a distinct species. The edge is provided with comparatively small serrations, which are bent forward; the base is scarcely narrowed and somewhat blunt. Notwithstanding the fossil seems very much torn, it is possible to discern sufficiently the course of the nerves. From the straight primary nerve, which is very strongly pronounced to the middle of the lamina, start curved secondary nerves, which ascend to the edge; the lower of these seem somewhat closer, and provided with pronounced outer nerves. The tertiary nerves are preserved only in a few places; they are very delicate, run straight and almost at right angles; they cross and connect with the secondary nerves. There is no trace of the reticulation preserved. A comparison of this interesting fossil with other similar forms must be left to future researches, as soon as more ample material will permit of such; but I believe I must mention here that F. producta must be placed in the division Nothofagus. Of the now living species of this division, F. dombeyi, Mirb., betrays the nearest relation.

UlmaceÆ.
Gen. Ulmophylon.

Among these I count fossil plants of the Chalk flora which according to their characteristics belong well to the Ulmaceæ, but which cannot be enrolled with any living genus. The two species here described have leathery leaves, one of which shows the closest relation to Ulmus, the other to Planera. Both genera are found in the Tertiary flora of New Zealand.

Ulmophylon latifolium, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., figs. 6–8.

U. foliis subcoriaceis, petiolatis, late ovatis, basi inæquali vel obliqua obtusis, apice acuminatis, margine inæqualiter vel duplicato-dentatis; nervatione craspedodroma, nervo primario valido, recto, excurrente; nervis secundariis prominentibus, sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus, basin versus approximatis et nervos externos emittentibus, superioribus simplicibus; nervis tertiariis

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e latere externo secundariorum sub angulis acutis exeuntibus simplicibus vel ramosis, inter se conjunctis; reticulo obsoleto.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

Corresponds somewhat to Ulmus prisca, Ung., of the fossil species, but it deviates somewhat from this, as it is biserrate, has a firmer texture, and the outer nerves of the lower secondary nerves are pronounced. Among the living species of Ulmus the analogue of the species described might be found in the division Microtela, which has firmer, almost leathery leaves; however, for a more searching comparison more complete and better-preserved specimens than the fossils before me are necessary. I class the small leaf (fig. 7), which shows so plainly the characteristics of an Ulmus-leaf, with the same species because it lies on the same stone together with the large leaf (fig. 6), and with a few remains of leaves which, as regards size, lie between the two leaves shown.

This fossil plant is certainly a forerunner of the Ulmus species. It seems that in the European Chalk formation the genus Ulmophylon is not wanting: later researches will probably prove this.

Ulmophylon planeræfolium, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., figs. 2–5, 4a.

U. foliis breviter petiolatis, coriaceis, ovatis vel ovato-oblongis, basi rotundata æquali vel inæquali, apice acuminatis, margine crenatis vel irregulariter obtuse dentatis; nervatione craspedodroma; nervo primario prominente recto, excurrente; nervis secundariis sub angulis 50°-60° orientibus, prominentibus, arcuatis simplicibus rarius ramosis; nervis tertiariis e latere externo secundariorum angulis peracutis egredientibus, approximatis, subflexuosis, fere transversim inter se conjunctis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

At the first glance these leaves have great similarity with those of Planera, from which they are however distinguished by a leathery texture, and by the close, more pronounced tertiary nerves, which run almost across the leaf (see enlargement, fig. 4a. These essential differences made it seem advisable to accept a distinct genus for the Chalk flora, from which the genera Planera and Ulmus during the Tertiary period proceeded.

It is probable that in the fossil plant before us we have the forerunner of Planera, as this seems to be indicated by the shape of the serræ and several characteristics of the nervation.

Planera antiqua, Heer, of the Patoot Strata, may be considered as analogous to the species described.

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MoreÆ.

Ficus similis, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., figs. 10, 10a.

F. foliis petiolatis rotundato-ovalibus vel ellipticis, basi subacutis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma; nervo primario prominente, recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 65°-80° orientibus, numerosis, paullo arcuatis parallelis; nervis tertiariis e latere externo secundariorum sub angulis acutis exeuntibus, ramosis inter se conjunctis, reticulum tenerrimum includentibus.

Locality: Wangapeka, Nelson (Otago Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1867; Hector.]

Corresponds in all its characteristics with Ficus jynx, Ung., with the exception of the shorter petiole. The finest reticulation seems to be more developed in the New Zealand species, as shown in the enlargement (fig. 10a). On the whole the nervation is in this also very similar to that of Ficus jynx. (Compare “Tertiary Flora of Switzerland,” vol. ii., pl. 85, fig. 8.) The following are analogous species in the Chalk flora: F. geinitzii, Ett., from Niederschöna; F. atavina, Heer, from the Atane strata of Greenland; but especially F. magnoliæfolia, Lesq., from the Dakota group. The latter species approaches Ficus jynx in a like manner as the species described, from which it is distinguished by the more ascending secondary nerves.

LaurinÆ

Cinnamomum haastii, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., fig. 11.

C. foliis coriaceis, ovalibus, basi obtusis, margine integerrimis; nervatione acrodroma, nervo primario prominente; nervis secundariis paucis, infimis suprabasilaribus curvatis, elongatis; nervis tertiariis transversis, inter se remotis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

Approaches to Cinnamomum scheuchzeri, Heer, from which it is distinguished only by the very much curved secondary nerves, which start at less acute angles. From these characteristics, the obtuse base of the leaf and the lesser number of the secondary nerves, the species of the New Zealand Chalk flora may be distinguished on the one hand from C. intermedium, m., of the New Zealand Tertiary flora, and on the other hand from the analogous Cinnamomum heerii, Lesq., of the North American Chalk flora.

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ProteaceÆ

Knightiophyllum primævum, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., fig. 12.

K. foliis coriaceis obovato oblongis, margine argute dentatis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario valido; nervis secundariis tenuibus, sub angulis 70°-80° orientibus, marginem versus flexuosis, fere evanescentibus; nervis tertiariis brevissimis rectangularibus, dictyodromis, vix conspicuis.

Locality: Grey River (?) (Otago Museum).

The fossil leaf before me appears on a dark slate, which is very similar to the slate from Grey River, which came to hand without designation of the locality. A considerably-charred substance on the impression indicates a rigid leathery texture. The shape of the leaf may be completed to an inverted oblongoviform. The edge is preserved only in one place, where it shows close, rather uneven serræ, the points of which are rather blunt. From a pronounced primary nerve start at little-acute angles secondary nerves, which ascend in a curve towards the edge, and which are distant from each other about 10mm. These nerves become so fine in their further course that they are only visible under the microscope in a favourable light; at last these draw a short distance along the edge in a remarkable winding manner, without however forming visible loops. The tertiary nerves are in consequence of their fineness only preserved in a few places in the unfavourable stone, and consequently it is only perceptible that they dissolve in a confused reticulation of close meshes. The characteristics named indicate the genus Knightia (compare Ettingsh., “Leaves of the Apetalæ,” Memoir, vol. xv., pl. 42 and 43), which, in our epoch, is only indigenous to New Zealand and New Caledonia. The fossil species seems to be distinguished from the most similar New Zealand K. excelsa, R. Brown, only by the inverted oviform-oblong leaves, and the secondary nerves, which ascend along the edge.

Our fossil is distinguished from the second species of this genus, the New Caledonian K. strobilina, R. Brown, only by the serrations of the edge of the leaf; but, as the shape of the leaf agrees more with the second species, we must assume that Knightiophyllum primævum according to its characteristics stands between both living species, and must consequently be considered as the parent plant of these.

A similar fossil leaf has appeared also in the Eocene flora at Dalton, near Gunning, in New South Wales, which I attributed to Knightia, and which I compared with K. excelsa, R. Brown (“Contributions to the Tertiary Flora of Australia,” I. Memoir, vol. xlvii., p. 128; pl. iv., fig. 7).

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Dryandroides pakawauica, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., fig. 13.

D. foliis rigide coriaceis, lineari-lanceolatis, longe acuminatis serratis, nervo primario valido; secundariis sub angulis 60°-70° orientibus, ramosis; tertiariis inconspicuis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum.) [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

The fossil leaf before me betrays a stiff leathery texture; it has a narrow lanceolate form, which is considerably elongated towards the top; there is a sharply-serrated edge. On the whole the characteristics are such as are found in those fossil leaves which we have so far ascribed to Dryandroides. The nervation, as far as it is preserved in the fossil described, does not contradict this designation, and consequently we may leave this fossil enrolled in the collective genus named until better material permits of more exact researches.

We may designate Dryandroides latifolia, Ett., from Niederschöna, of the European Chalk formation, as an analogous species.

Dialypetalæ.
Saxifragaceæ

Ceratopetalum rivulare, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., figs. 15, 16.

C. foliis simplicibus, petiolatis coriaceis, lanceolatis acuminatis, basi paullo angustatis, margine argute minute serratis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario prominente, recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 50°-60° orientibus, ante marginem furcatis; nervis tertiariis e latere externo secundariorum angulo acuto egredientibus, tenuissimis.

Locality: Grey River, Westland (Canterbury Museum).

The fossil leaves here shown may belong to the same species, notwithstanding fig. 15 shows a smaller leaf, which is broader and somewhat ovate. The consistency was leathery; the petiole 11mm. long. The lamina is lanceolate, sometimes wider, sometimes narrower; the base is rather more obtuse, and almost broad and ovate, seldom somewhat narrowed; the top is long and narrowed; the edge is sharply serrated. A thickening of the points of the serræ, as it occurs in other species, is here not perceptible. The nervation runs in curves. The primary nerve is strongly pronounced along its whole course; the secondary nerves start at slightly-acute angles at a distance of 4mm.-5mm. from each other. Near the edge they are abruptly curved upwards, and mostly bifurcate. The tertiary nerves are very fine; they start at

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right angles from the outside of the secondary nerves. The reticulation has not been preserved.

The fossils described may best be compared with leaves of Ceratopetalum, and they approach remarkably to C. macdonaldi, Ett., of the Australian Tertiary flora, on the one hand, and to C. bilinicum, of the European Tertiary flora, on the other. It is distinguished from both species principally only by the secondary nerves, which are more distant from each other.

Tiliaceae.

Grewiopsis pakawauica, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., fig. 21.

G. foliis parvis, coriaceis, ovatis, dense et inæqualiter crenulatis, basi subtruncatis, apice acuminatis; nervatione sub-actinodroma, nervo primario prominente excurrente, nervis basilaribus lateralibus 3–5, abbreviatis; nervis secundariis paucis sub angulis 40°-50° orientibus, 8mm.-14mm. inter se distantibus, craspedodromis, inferioribus extus ramosis, superioribus simplicibus vel furcatis; nervis tertiariis tenuissimis, sub angulis acutis emissis.

Locality: Pakawau, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

An ovate finely and unevenly notched leaf of firm consistency, the surface of which is peculiarly finely gibbous, and from this we may conclude that it may have been provided with a rough hairy covering. The nervation may be designated as imperfectly radiate, in consequence of the radius-shaped arranged but unequal basal nerves. The principal mid-nerve is strongly pronounced, and runs out to the apex; two basal nerves start from one side of it, and one from the other: these are short, and provided with a few outer branches. The larger of the lowest secondary nerves send off outer nerves, which are stronger than those of the basal nerves. The remainder of the secondary nerves, which start at acute angles, are either simple or bifurcate, and they run in faint curves to the notches of the edge. The tertiary nerves are very fine, simple, and joined at acute angles. The reticulation is not visible.

The fossil leaf described agrees best in its characteristics with Grewiopsis, and follows G. orbiculata, Sap., a species of the fossil flora of Sézanne which has small leathery leaves of a similar shape and nervation: these are however distinguished from the New Zealand species by the different nature of the edge and a smaller number of secondary nerves. Grewiopsis haidenii, Lesq., from the Dakota group of the North American Chalk flora, may be considered as a vicarious species.

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Sapindaceæ.

Sapindophyllum coriaceum, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., figs. 22, 23.

S. foliolis rigide coriaceis, lanceolatis inæquilateris, falcatis, basi angustatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario valido, nervis secundariis tenuibus, plerumque obsoletis.

Locality: Wangapeka, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1867; Hector.]

The fossil leaves before me (figs. 22, 23) from Wangapeka are without doubt part-leaflets: they betray a specially firm leathery texture; they are lanceolate, and have remarkably uneven sides; they are sickle-shape-curved, narrowed towards the base; the edge is without serrations. It was impossible to ascertain the existence or non-existence of a petiole. Only a little of the nervation is perceptible in consequence of the thick, much-charred substance. The strongly-pronounced primary nerve becomes gradually smaller towards the top, and from it start fine curved secondary nerves.

I believe I do not make a serious mistake if I connect these remains of fossil leaves with the Sapindaceæ, a family the existence of which in the flora of former ages has been proved beyond a doubt. Moreover, this family is represented both in the Tertiary flora and in the flora now living in New Zealand, and the characteristics described of the fossils mentioned seem to agree best therewith. Future researches might throw more light upon this matter. We have an analogous plant in Sapindus prodromus, Heer, from the Atane strata of Greenland, which is distinguished from the species described only by the more delicate leaflets, which are less narrow at the base.

Cupanites novæ-zeelandiæ, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., figs. 18, 20.

C. foliolis coriaceis, oblongis vel lanceolatis, basi obliqua rotundato-obtusis, apicem versus angustatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma; nervo primario valido, recto; nervis secundariis sub angulis 60°-70° orientibus, arcuatis marginem adscendentibus, simplicibus; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Localities: Grey River, Westland (Canterbury Museum); Pakawau, Nelson. [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv.; Hector.]

The oblique base and the only indicated inequality of the sides of these fossil leaves permit of the assumption that they are only part-leaflets of a composite leaf. The texture, as far as may be recognized from the nature of the impression, is

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leathery; the shape varies from broad to narrow lanceolate. Of the nervation, only the stout straight primary nerve, which narrows gradually towards the top, and the curved secondary nerves, which start at slightly-acute angles, are preserved. The secondary nerves are distant from each other 7mm.-12mm.

I take these fossils to be part-leaflets of Sapindaceæ, and I ascribe them to Cupanites, where similar part-leaflets occur—for instance, as in C. miocenicus, C. neptuni, and others.

Celastrineæ.

Celastrophyllum australe, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., fig. 14.

C. foliis coriaceis petiolatis, obovatis, basin versus angustatis, apice rotundato-obtusis, margine serrulatis; nervatione camptodroma; nervo primario distincto, basi prominente, recto; nervis secundariis tenuibus, sub angulis 50°-60° orientibus; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Grey River, Westland (Canterbury Museum).

A leathery, inverted-ovate leaf, which narrows into the petiole. The edge is finely serrate, the nervation is curved, and the fine secondary nerves start at slightly-acute angles. The tertiary nerves are not preserved. I suppose that this leaf belongs to Celastrus, but for the present I enroll it in the collective genus Celastrophyllum until better-preserved remains permit of a more exact designation.

Celastrophyllum crenatum, Heer, from the Patoot strata of the Chalk flora of Greenland, seems to be an analogous species.

Papilionaceæ.

Dalbergiophyllum rivulare, sp. nov.

Plate XXIX., fig. 4.

D. foliolis coriaceis ovatis, inæquilateris, apice acuminatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario basi prominente, apicem versus attenuato, excurrente; nervis secundariis paucis, sub angulis acutis variis egredientibus, curvatis adscendentibus; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Grey River, Westland (Canterbury Museum).

A part-leaflet of leathery texture which, according to shape and nervation, may be best enrolled with the Papilionaceæ, and especially with the Dalbergiæ. The comparison of these with leaflets of the division named leads to the genera Andira, Trioptolemæa, Pterocarpus, Hecastophyllum, and Machærium. A closer limitation of the analogues is only possible when

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more completely preserved remains are submitted. Dalbergia rinkiana, Heer, from the Atane strata of Greenland, seems to be more nearly related to the species described.

Dalbergiophyllum nelsonicum, sp. nov.

Plate XXIX., fig. 3.

C. foliolis coriaceis, oblongis, basi inæqualibus, apice acuminatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodroma, nervo primario valido; nervis secundariis pluribus, approximatis; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Wangapeka, Nelson (Canterbury Museum). [Ex Coll. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1867; Hector.]

A part-leaflet which betrays especially a similarity with those of the Pterocarpus and Machærium species. The texture is rather more firm than that of the species previously described; the shape is narrower; the inequality of the sides is less. The primary nerve is very stout. The secondary nerves, which may only be perceived with difficulty on the charred substance of the fossil, are numerous and close to each other.

Cæsalpinieæ.

Palæocassia phaseolitoides, sp. nov.

Plate XXXII., fig. 17.

C. foliolis coriaceis petiolulatis, oblongis vel ovato-lanceolatis, basi obliquis, apice acuminatis, margine integerrimis; nervatione camptodromis, nervo primario distincto prominente; nervis secundariis sub angulis 50°-60° orientibus, tenuibus; nervis tertiariis obsoletis.

Locality: Grey River, Westland (Canterbury and Otago Museums).

Part-leaflets which, according to their shape and nervation, agree perfectly with those of Cassia pseudo-phaseolites, m., of the Tertiary strata of Shag Point, New Zealand, but they are distinguished from these by a firm leathery texture. It is quite possible to assume the connection of this species as regards genus with the Tertiary species named. It is, however, doubtful if the Chalk parent species may be enrolled with the same genus as the Tertiary descending species until further actual proofs of this are before us.

I consider Palæocassia angustifolia, Ett., from the strata of Niederschöna, as a vicarious species of the European Chalk flora.

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Description of Plates XXIV.-XXXII.

Plate XXIV.

  • Figs. 1, 2. Lomariopsis dunstanensis, Ett., Dunstan.

  • Fig. 3. Aspidium otagoicum, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 4, 4A. Aspidium tertiario-zeelandicum, Ett., Dunstan.

  • Figs. 5–7. Sequoia novæ-zeelandiæ, Ett. (Fig. 5, Shag Point; figs. 6, 7, Landslip Hill.)

  • Figs. 8, 9. Pinus (?), Shag Point.

  • Fig. 11. Taxodium distichum eocenicum, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 12–14. Podocarpus parkeri, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 15–17. Podocarpus hochstetteri, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 18. Araucaria danai, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 19. Dacrydium præcupressinum, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 20, 21. Dammara uninervis, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 22–24. Dammara oweni, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 25. Seaforthia zeelandica, Ett., Dunstan.

Plate XXV.

  • Figs. 1–2. Araucaria haastii, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 3. Dammara oweni, Ett., Malvern Hills.

Plate XXVI.

  • Figs. 1–3. Caulinites otagoicus, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 4, 5. Casuarina deleta, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 6–12. Myrica præquercifolia, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 13. Myrica subintegrifolia, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 14. Myrica proxima, Ett., Malvern Hills.

  • Figs. 15–17. Alnus novæ-zeelandiæ, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 18. Fagus lendenfeldi, Ett., Malvern Hills.

  • Fig. 19. Dryophyllum dubium, Ett., Landslip Hill.

  • Figs. 20–22. Quercus lonchitoides, Ett. (Fig. 20, Murderer's Creek; figs. 21, 22, Shag Point.)

  • Fig. 23. Quercus parkeri, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 24. Quercus celastrifolia, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 25. Quercus deleta, Ett., Shag Point.

Plate XXVII.

  • Fig. 1. Fagus ninnisiana, Ung., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 2, 3. Fagus lendenfeldi, Ett., Malvern Hills.

  • Figs. 4, 5. Fagus ulmifolia, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 6. Dryophyllum dubium, Ett., Landslip Hill.

  • Fig. 7. Ficus sublanceolata, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 8. Ulmus hectori, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 9. Planera australis, Ett., Malvern Hills.

  • Fig. 10. Daphnophyllum australe, Ett., Weka Pass.

  • Fig. 11. Laurophyllum tenuinerve, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 12. Santalum subacheronticum, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 13. Apocynophyllum affine, Ett., Landslip Hill.

  • Figs. 14–18. Dryandra comptoniæfolia, Ett., Murderer's Creek.

  • Fig. 19. Hedycarya præcedens, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 20–22. Cinnamomum intermedium, Ett., Shag Point.

Plate XXVIII.

  • Fig. 1. Apocynophyllum elegans, Ett., Landslip Hill.

  • Fig. 2. Loranthus otagoicus, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 3. Sapindus subfalcifolius, Ett., Redcliffe Gully.

  • Fig. 4. Diospyros novæ-zeelandiæ, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 5. Dalbergia australis, Ett., Shag Point.

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  • Fig. 6. Cassia pseudo-memnonia, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 7. Acer subtrilobatum, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 8. Cissophyllum malvernicum, Ett., Malvern Hills.

  • Figs. 9–12. Dryandra comptoniæfolia, Ett., Murderer's Creek.

  • Figs. 13, 14. Aralia tasmani, Ett., Shag Point.

Plate XXIX.

  • Fig. 1. Elæodendron rigidum, Ett., Landslip Hill.

  • Fig. 2. Sapindus subfalcifolius, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 3. Dalbergiophyllum nelsonicum, Ett., Wangapeka.

  • Fig. 4. Dalbergiophyllum rivulare, Ett., Grey River.

  • Fig. 5. Eucalyptus dubia, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Fig. 6. Cassia pseudo-phaseolites, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 7–9. Carpolithes otagoicus, Ett., Shag Point.

  • Figs. 10–12. Wood-tissue of Araucaria haastii, Ett. (350 diameters.)

  • Fig.s 13–15. Wood-tissue of Dammara oweni, Ett. (350 diameters.)

Plate XXX.

  • Fig. 1. Blechnum priscum, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Figs. 2, 3. Aspidium cretaceo-zeelandicum, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Figs. 4–6. Dicksonia pterioides, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 7. Gleichenia obscura, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Figs. 8–10. Podocarpium tenuifolium, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 11. Podcarpium cupressinum, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 12. Podocarpium prædacrydioides, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Figs. 13–15. Podocarpium ungeri, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 16. Taxo-torreya trinervia, Ett., Wangapeka.

  • Figs. 17, 18. Dacrydinium cupressinum, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 19. Ginkgocladus novæ-zeelandiæ, Ett., Wangapeka.

  • Fig. 20. Dammara mantelli, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 21. Bambusites australis, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 22. Poacites nelsonicus, Ett., Wangapeka.

Plate XXXI.

  • Figs. 1–3. Bambusites australis, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 4. Flabellaria sublongirhachis, Ett., Grey River.

  • Fig. 5. Haastia speciosa, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Figs. 6, 7. Casuarinites cretac [ unclear: ] us, Ett. (Fig. 6, Pakawau; fig. 7, Grey River.)

  • Fig. 8. Quercus pachyphylla, Ett., Grey River.

  • Fig. 9. Quercus calliprinoides, Ett., Wangapeka.

  • Fig. 10. Quercus nelsonica, Ett., Wangapeka.

  • Fig. 11. Dryophyllum nelsonicum, Ett., Pakawau.

Plate XXXII.

  • Fig. 1. Fagus producta, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Figs. 2–5. Ulmophylon planeræfolium, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Figs. 6–8. Ulmophylon latifolium, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 9. Fagus nelsonica, Ett., Wangapeka.

  • Fig. 10. Ficus similis, Ett., Wangapeka.

  • Fig. 11. Cinnamomum haastii, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 12. Knightiophyllum primævum, Ett., Grey River.

  • Fig. 13. Dryandroides pakawauica, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Fig. 14. Celastrophyllum australe, Ett., Grey River.

  • Figs. 15, 16. Ceratopetalum rivulare, Ett., Grey River.

  • Fig. 17. Palæocassia phaseolitoides, Ett., Grey River.

  • Figs. 18–20. Cupanites novæ-zeelandiæ, Ett., Grey River.

  • Fig. 21. Grewiopsis pakawauica, Ett., Pakawau.

  • Figs. 22, 23. Sapindophyllum coriaceum, Ett., Wangapeka.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.

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Fossil Flora of New Zealand.