Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 26, 1893
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Art. VIII.—Further Contributions to the Knowledge of the Molluscan Fauna of New Zealand, with Descriptions of Eight new Species.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st November, 1893.]

Plates XIV.-XXI.

1. Large Form of Potamopyrgus cumingiana, Fischer.

Very large specimens of this shell were kindly presented to me by Professor F. W. Hutton. They were collected in Lake Te Anau, and are 8mm. high by 4mm. diameter. The whorls, of which there are eight, are very strongly and broadly angled round the upper part, and the last three show traces of the rubbed-off spines, of which there were about sixteen on the body-whorl.

This species is very limited in its distribution on the South Island. I have much smaller specimens from Pelorus River and Collingwood only.

2. Latia and its Varieties.

Four species of this genus peculiar to New Zealand have been described—viz., L. neritoides, Gray (1849); L. lateralis, Gould (1852); L. petitiana, Fischer (1856); and L. gassiesiana, Fischer (1856). Mr. Charles Hedley kindly presented me with etchings of these shells, and I am therefore now in a better position to judge whether they are all good species or only varieties of L. neritoides, Gray, the first described of the lot. Gould himself says that his L. lateralis might probably be the same as L. neritoides, and Professor Hutton (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. vii., 1883) holds that these two form only one species. To judge, however, from the figures, I am of opinion that L. lateralis and L. gassiesiana must be considered as varieties of L. neritoides, and very likely also L. petitiana, though the figure does not show a very marked difference from L. neritoides.

3. Ancylus dohrnianus, Clessin (1882).

The description and figures of this shell, which is said to come from New Zealand, were published in Conch. Cab. (2), Bd. I., Abth. vi., p. 54; pl. viii., fig. 8 (two). It resembles somewhat A. irvinæ, Petterd, from Tasmania, but the apex is quite different. Neither Professor Hutton nor myself have any knowledge of such an Ancylus ever having been found in

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this colony, and it may therefore help to swell the already long list of shells erroneously ascribed to New Zealand.

4. Gundlachia, sp. Plate XIV., figs. 1–5

About two years ago I found in the River Avon, below the outflow of the Horseshoe Lake, a minute ancyliform shell, which I could not separate from Ancylus woodsii, Johnston (figs. 1, 2), from Tasmania. I then found only empty shells, but further collecting furnished a good number of them alive. On examining the shells I found, to my great surprise, that in several of them the base was more or less closed by a septum, as it is found in the Tasmanian Gundlachia (fig. 3). On consulting Johnston's papers on the Tasmanian fresh-water shells I found the statement that his Ancylus woodsii has “the animal and teeth almost similar to Gundlachia petterdi” (!), and that in the young state the shell of Gundlachia resembles the common Ancylus. I compared the dentition of our shell with that of a Gundlachia from Ohio, and there was almost no difference; therefore the shell from the River Avon must be considered as a Gundlachia. Figs. 4. and 5 show the form of jaw and teeth. The shell, on attaining its full development; will, no doubt, resemble the Tasmanian G. petterdi, but I have not yet succeeded in finding it. According to my own observation, and information received from Tasmania, Gundlachia seems to attain but seldom its full development, but grows and dies mostly in its ancyliform shell, without even attempting to form a septum. This is shown by the fact that here, as well as in Tasmania, Ancylus woodsii is abundant, and Gundlachia is rare in the same locality.

Professor Hutton told me that this Gundlachia in the River Avon might possibly have been introduced from Tasmania on aquatic plants used for packing trout-ova. This may be, but I rather doubt it, for the following reason: I have not found yet the shell in question from the outflow of Horseshoe Lake upwards to the fish-hatching establishment, a distance of several miles, but only in that outflow and downwards from its disemboguement in the River Avon. Very likely it is living in that lake, and was brought down to the river when the canal was cleared from weeds. The lake is not easy of access, and I have not had an opportunity of “exploring it. The question whether it is an introduced form or not can only be settled with certainty when it is found in a locality where the above-mentioned mode of introduction is out of question.

The fact of Gundlachia occurring in New Zealand would not be astonishing at all, for we have, besides some genera of fresh-water shells, of the land-shells the sections Flammulina, Gerontia, Phacussa, Allodiscus, Thalassohelix, Phrixgnathus,

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&c., in common with Tasmania, as shown by the writer quite recently.

5. Limnæa tenisoni, Clessin, sp. em. (tennissoni), 1886.

Was described and figured by its author in Conch. Cab. (2), i., Abth. 17, p. 371, pl. lii., fig. 11. Clessin's reason for placing this shell in the genus Physa I do not understand, for description and figure clearly show that it is a Limnæa; and I do not think that Clessin is unable to separate the two genera. Clessin's species seems to differ not very much from Limnæa alfredi, described and figured by the writer (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 229, pl. xv., figs. 17, 17a), and I propose to make L. alfredi a variety of L. tenisoni, the latter having priority of publication.

Mr. Clessin and other European authors would greatly oblige the writer by sending him a copy, or at least a note, whenever they publish descriptions of new species of terrestrial and fresh-water shells from New Zealand; and they may expect reciprocity.

6. On some Species of Bullinus, Adanson, em. (Bulinus).

Bullinus novæ-seelandiæ, Clessin, sp. 1886, is another addition of Clessin's to our fauna, though the specific name is preoccupied by Sowerby. According to his description and figure (Conch. Cab. (2) i., Abth. 17, p. 372, pl. liv., fig. 7), it is, in my opinion, identical with B. variabilis, Gray. Most species of our Bullinus are so variable that the creation of new species is a very easy matter; but it is highly deplorable if this is done, as it seems to have been the case in several instances, based on a few specimens, and from one locality only, as there is no possibility to estimate the range of variability of the species.

By comparing many specimens, and from different localities, I came to the conclusion that B. tabulatus, Gould, sp. 1848, and B. moesta, H. Adams, sp. 1861, are one and the same species. The distinction of species by the keeling of the whorls is quite untenable, and every gradation of it may be observed.

Two species of Bullinus were brought to light by Mr. Charles Hedley—viz., B. coromandelicus, Dunker, sp. 1862, and B. hochstetteri, Dunker, sp. 1862, which were omitted from former lists of our mollusca. I have but little doubt that both must be considered as identical with B. tabulatus, Gould.

7. Athoracophorus, Gould, 1852. Plate XIV., figs. 6–9, and Plate XV., figs. 10, 11.

In the “Enumeration of the Janellidæ,” published by Mr. Charles Hedley in the last volume, of oar Transactions, the

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generic name of Janella, Gray, 1850, was used, and arguments given for doing so. As Janella, Grateloup, is identical with Niso, Risso, the name can stand, but I think, with Pilsbry, that it is far better to reject any name which has been previously proposed in a generic sense, whether the first usage is valid or not. Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, in a letter to. Mr. Charles Hedley, kindly communicated to me, gives the following weighty reasons: “We never know when a name supposed to be a synonym is going to be revived for a section, sub-genus or genus, on account of characters formerly overlooked; and when the name happens to be in a little-known group, unfamiliar to us—Diptera for example—who is to tell whether a generic name is really a synonym or not?” I, therefore, use now the name proposed by Gould.

A. papillatus, Hutton. As this species has only been figured by Simroth (A. verrucosus, Von Mart., Nova Acta, Bd. 54, pl. iv., fig. 11), and I had an opportunity of getting good specimens near Christchurch, I now give correct drawings of the animal, jaw and teeth of the radula (Plates XIV. and XV., figs. 6–11), I compared carefully Simroth's description of the animal and anatomy of A. verrucosus, Von Martens, 1889, with typical specimens of A. papillatus, Hutton, and the details of its anatomy published by Professor Hutton, and am convinced that both are one and the same species.

The var. nigricans and fasciata, Von Martens, I never observed in adult specimens of A. papillatus. Young specimens of this species I found always mixed of the typical form and var. fasciatus, whilst in adult specimens the colourmarkings of the latter had fully disappeared, but they showed somewhat different colours. Some were of a yellowish-brown, but others were dark olive, the latter very likely corresponding with the var.fasciatus in the young. The variety nigricans is rare.

It seems to me that too much importance has been attributed to the colour and colour-markings of Athoracophorus, and this by scientists who have never seen the living animals, but only specimens more or less badly preserved in alcohol, which deteriorates the colour and form of the animals considerably. I have collected hundreds of Athoracophorus on both Islands of this colony, and can testify to the great variability of colour and colour-markings in the species.

A. marmoreus, Hutton, is no doubt the same as A. marmoratus, Von Martens, described by Dr. Simroth. The description and figure of the animal given by Simroth corresponds very well with Hutton's species, and in the main features of the genital organs, according to the publications of both scientists, they also seem to me to agree. I had no specimen of A. marmoratus at my disposal, as was the case with

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A. papillatus, to compare its anatomy with all the details given by Dr. Simroth.

According to Simroth's able investigations (Nova Acta, Bd. 54, Die Nacktschnecken Neu Seelands, p. 71, &c.), and his utterances when speaking on the systematic position of the Athoracophoridæ, it will be necessary to class A. papillatus and A. marmoreus in different sub-genera. He says distinctly that the most striking differences between the two species in form and cross-section of the animals and genital organs would almost justify the creation of two genera

The sub-genus Pseudaneitea has been proposed by T. D. A. Cockerell (P. Z.S., 1891, p. 217) for slugs of New Zealand and the Auckland Islands, resembling Athoracophorus, but showing a decided tendency towards the formation of a “mantle area” like that of Aneitea. The type and only species is A. papillatus, Hutton, sp. 1879 (= verrucosus, Von Martens, 1889). As sub-genus for A. marmoreus, Hutton, sp. 1879 (=marmoratus, Von Martens, 1889), must of course be taken Konophora, the former generic name proposed by Professor Hutton in 1879 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi., p. 332)

Neojanella dubia, Cockerell (l.c.), is nothing else but A. bitentaculatus, Quoy and Gaimard. I could show Mr. Cockerell alcohol specimens of this slug which are lacking the “mantle area” and dorsal groove, yet they were distinctly visible when the animals were alive; and also specimens of A. bitentaculatus, with the back pale-yellowish, marbled all over with black or dark-bluish grey. The specimen described by Cockerell is a very large one (length 53mm.), and I know of no other locality than the south side of Cook Strait where A. bitentaculatus attains such a large size.

8. Bulimus antipodarum, Gray, 1843,

Is said to have been found at Kaitaia by Dieffenbach, and recent collectors (Gillies and T. W. Kirk) are reported as having found this shell at different places in the northern part of the Province of Auckland. Opinions are divided as to the validity of the species; some consider it as the young of Placostylus bovinus, others take it as a good species. I therefore thought it well worth to investigate the question, and wish now to say a few words on the subject. Looking at the figure of B. antipodarum given by Smith (Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” ii., Moll., pl. i., fig. 5), and reading Gray's description (Dieffenbach's New Zealand, ii., p. 247), one must come to the conclusion that this shell cannot belong to the genus Placostylus, the aperture being quite different, but it agrees in every respect with Cochlostyla. This opinion was evidently held also by the author of the species, for he says that it is allied to Bulimus fulgetrum, Broderip, from the Philippine

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Islands, which is a true Cochlostyla. Reading Gillies's remarks on B. antipodarum (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. i., p. 60) one gets the impression that he mistook young specimens of P. bovinus for Gray's species, and in this he was followed by others. Professor Hutton kindly allowed me to examine specimens in the Canterbury Museum, labelled P. antipodarum, and they proved to be young specimens of P. bovinus, but were in no way related to B. antipodarum. I am now of opinion that the shell found by Dieffenbach, and described by Gray as B. antipodarum, has very likely never been found again in New Zealand, and is in reality Cochlostyla fulgetrum, Broderip, introduced accidentally from the Philippine Islands. This suggestion is supported by the fact that Cochlostyla daphnis, Broderip, from those islands, has been found at Picton (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiv., p. 280).

9. Amphidoxa and Flammulina.

Albers founded the section Amphidoxa to receive two species—A. marmorella, Pf., and A. helicophantoides, Pf., from Juan Fernandez and Chili. Professor Hutton, in his Revision of the Land-shells of New Zealand, the foundation-stone of our present knowledge of these molluscs, classed nine of our shells under Amphidoxa, Albers, and gave descriptions and figures of the dentition of eight of them. The diagnosis given by Albers, and the figures of the species from Juan Fernandez, seem to fully justify Professor Hutton's view in adopting Amphidoxa for our shells, more especially for A. crebriflammis, Pf., A. zebra, Le Guillou, and A. costulata, Hutton. Professor Hutton, and the writer, never had an opportunity of comparing New Zealand specimens with Amphidoxa specimens from Juan Fernandez, and the dentition of the latter is still unknown.

Last year Mr. H. A. Pilsbry published “Observations on the Helices of New Zealand” (Nautilus, vi., Sept., 1892, No. 5, p. 54, &c.), which, coming from such an able conchologist, were greatly appreciated by scientists in Australasia. With regard to Amphidoxa, he says (l.c., p. 56), “The true Amphidoxa has not been found elsewhere than upon the island Juan Fernandez and the neighbouring South American coast. I have compared specimens with the New Zealand shells, and find that there is not the slightest ground for supposing them congeneric.” After such a verdict from a competent authority, Mr. Hedley and the writer, in the “Reference List of the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of New Zealand” (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vii., (2), p. 643), adopted the name Flammulina, proposed by Von Martens (Critical List of New Zealand Moll., 1873, p. 12), for the New Zealand species formerly included in Amphidoxa,—F. zebra, Le Guillou, being the type.

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A short time ago I examined the dentition of thirty-two land-shells from Tasmania, and found them mostly to belong to the sections Flammulina, Gerontia, Phacussa, Allodiscus, Thalassohelix, and Phrixgnathus, hitherto known from New Zealand only. Afterwards I had an opportunity of examining the dentition of a land-shell from South Africa, a typical form of the section Pella, Albers, which, to my great surprise, showed the very same peculiarities in jaw and radula as are characteristic of our genus Flammulina. All this leads me to think that Flammulina and allied forms belong to the antarctic fauna, which at a very remote period may have lived on the supposed antarctic continent, and of which remnants are now found in New Zealand, Tasmania, South Africa, and—why not South America also?

I hope that some day the dentition of the Amphidoxa species from Juan Fernandez will be made known, and I should not be astonished to see them (and perhaps Stephanoda also) nearly related to those forms I now include in the genus Flammulina.

10. Thalassohelix igniflua, Reeve, and Th. obnubila, Reeve.

Professor Hutton was the first to recognise the absolute identity of the two species (Trans. N. Z. Inst., vol. xvi., p. 203), In the “Reference List” (l.c., p. 636), by Mr. Hedley and myself, however, my friend made Th. obnubila a variety of Th. igniflua. This difference of opinion caused me to look once more at the specimens in my collection, and to compare them carefully with the diagnoses of the two species. It was easy to pick out a few specimens corresponding with each of the species mentioned, extreme forms; but, besides these, there were many intermediate forms, and I again came to the same conclusion as Professor Hutton, that they are all one and the same species, and that there is not even a possibility of making out a constant variety. Th. igniflua, the large, brighter, and smoother form, is found in open country, amongst shrubs, tussocks, &c.; whilst the smaller, dark-coloured, and strongly striated and plaited Th. obnubila occurs in the dark native bush. The differences in the shell seem to be due to the influence of the habitat only. The dentition is the same in both.

An example of similar variability is Thalassohelix fordei, Brazier, of Tasmania, of which no less than about twelve species have been made.

11. Endodonta, Albers. Plate XV., figs. 12–14.

The first New Zealand species of this genus made known to science is E. cryptobidens, Sut. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol.

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xxiii., p. 89). Since then three more species have been recognised, all of which are species described long ago under the generic name of Patula, viz.:—

(a.) E. varicosa, Pfeiffer, sp. 1854 (fig. 12). I sent specimens of E. timandra, Hutton, to Mr. Edgar A. Smith, of the British Museum, to compare them with Pfeiffer's type of H. varicosa. Mr. Smith most obligingly informed me that they were not identical, but that Pfeiffer's Helix varicosa was undoubtedly also an Endodonta, having one tooth (overlooked by Pfeiffer and Reeve) situated on the body-whorl. It is a slender lamella, and might easily be overlooked.

(b.) E. timandra, Hutton, sp. 1883 (fig. 13), is very much like the foregoing, but is smaller, more openly umbilicated, has more riblets, and the armature of the mouth is different, there being three lamellæ, one on the body-whorl, one at the base of the columella margin, and one on the outer lip.

(c.) E. jessica, Hutton, sp. 1883 (fig. 14). On examining this shell, which is very nearly allied to the foregoing two species, I found it to have six teeth in the aperture, of which two are situated on the body-whorl, one at the base of the inner lip, and three on the outer lip.

According to my present knowledge, E. timandra is confined to the North Island, the other three to the South Island.

12. Charopa coma, Gray, var. globosa, Suter, 1892.

This variety is the same as var. beta, Pfeiffer, 1853; but, as varieties are to be named in the same way as species, and there exists already a Charopa beta, Pf. (= barbatula, Reeve), Pfeiffer's name can hardly stand. This variety is not identical with Ch. lucetta, Hutt. (= stokesi, Smith), as supposed by several conchologists.

13. Charopa caput - spinulæ, Reeve, sp. 1852. Plate XVI., figs. 15, 16 (= epsilon, Pfeiffer).

The dentition of this species has never been published before, and, as the radula is a typical form of Charopa, I give here a figure of it and of two jaws, showing the variability of the latter in the same species. The jaw is membraneous, and distinctly striated, not plaited. The radula has the formula. 12—4—1—4—12. It is hardly necessary to describe it, the characters being mainly the same as delineated in former papers by Professor Hutton and myself for Charopa.

14. Tesseraria* novoseelandica, Pfeiffer, sp. 1854. Plate XVI., fig. 17.

The true systematic position of this little pupiform mollusc

[Footnote] * Phenacharopa, Pilsbry, 1893 (not Tesseraria, Haeckel, 1879 or 1880); vide Man. Conch. (2), vol. ix., p. 29.

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has long been misapprehended, it generally being considered to be a pupa. It was reserved to Dr. Von Moellendorff, in Manila, to point out its true nature, and I am glad to say that Mr. Pilsbry agrees with the opinion of Dr. Von Moellendorff, and the writer. Having sent a small collection of New Zealand shells to Manila, Dr. Von Moellendorff wrote to me, under date 20th February, 1892: “What do you think of Pupa novoseelandica? Boettger has elevated it to the type of the sub-genus Tesseraria. I take it to be a Patulide, standing nearest to Thera. Is the animal already known?” I never fell in with a view more readily than with this. I had just then published the description and figures of the dentition of this species (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiv., p. 300, pl. xxiii., figs. 53, 54), and pointed out that the radula of this Pupa differs considerably from all the others of the genus I have seen. I wrote to Dr. Von Moellendorff that I fully agreed with him, and, sending him a reprint of my paper, which contains also the dentition of the two species of Thera, was able to show him that his view was also borne out by the dentition. With his next letter he kindly sent me a modified diagnosis of Boettger's Tesseraria, of which I give here a copy:—

“Tesseraria, Boettger, sec. Charopæ.

“T. pupæformis, fere exacte cylindrata, apice obtuso, subrotundato, costulata, rufo-fusca, maculis stramineis præcipue ad suturam tesselata.

“Radula et maxilla persimilis illis Theræ stipulatæ et barbatulæ, Reeve.

“Type: Endodonta (Charopa) novoseelandica, Pfeiffer, 1854.”

Animal (fig. 17).—When living in the Forty-mile Bush I made a sketch and short description of the animal, which I think may be of interest now.

The animal is nearly white, the eye-bearers greyish-black, clavate, long (about 3mm.), the tentacles white, short (about ½mm.), rounded in front. Mantle central; neck with two blackish stripes running backwards from the eyebearers; tail sharp above, slightly tapering, no caudal pore. There is a distinct pedal line, to which run down the whole length of the foot shallow diagonal grooves. Sole white, with a slightly darker median disc, smooth all over. Length of body 9mm., breadth of sole 1 ¼mm.

15. Laoma leimonias, Gray, 1850. Plates XVI., fig. 18, and XVII., fig. 19.

No figure of the dentition of this mollusc has ever been published, as it seems rather difficult to get a shell with the animal. As it is the type of Laoma, Gray, it is most import

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ant that we should get acquainted with its dentition, and I therefore give here the figures of the jaw and part of radula.

The jaw is composed of twenty-five separate strongly papillate plaits. The radula has the formula 25—1—25; the central tooth is minute, unicuspid, the laterals and marginals bicuspid. For details in the dentition of this and the following three species of Phrixgnathus I refer to former publications by Professor Hutton and myself.

16. Phrixgnathus pumilus, Hutton, sp. 1883. Plate XVII., figs. 20, 21.

The jaw of this species was not seen by Professor Hutton when he examined the dentition. It is distinctly papillate, the plaits are narrow towards the ends, very broad in the middle; but this may differ with the individual.

The central and lateral teeth are just as figured by Professor Hutton (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., pl. ix., fig. Q). The marginals, which are figured here, are similar to the laterals, bicuspid, but shorter, quadrate.

17. Phrixgnathus microreticulatus, Suter, sp. 1890. Plate XVII., figs. 22, 23.

This species was described by the writer as Hyalina microret., but on examining the jaw and radula I saw that it belongs to Hutton's Phrixgnathus.

The jaw is formed of about eighteen separate slightlypapillate plaits; the radula has the formula 27—1—27, the rachidian tooth unicuspid, the laterals and marginals bicuspid, the last exceptionally tricuspid.

18. Phrixgnathus allochroidus, var. lateumbilicatus, Suter, sp. 1890. Plate XVIII., figs. 24, 25.

This is another of my supposed Hyalinæ, which on examining the dentition turned out to be a Phrixgnathus; jaw with about twenty-one separate papillate plaits; formula of radula 14—1—14; central tooth tricuspid, with a median cutting-point, laterals and marginals bicuspid.

19. Ariophanta* novaræ, Pfeiffer, sp. 1862. Plate XVIII., figs. 26, 27.

As mentioned in my list of the introduced land and freshwater mollusca of New Zealand (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiv., p. 280), I suspected Mr. Musson's Zonitoides nitida, Müller, from Lake St. John, Auckland, to be not this species, but Pfeiffer's Hyalina novaræ. At my request Mr. Musson kindly sent me a number of shells and animals. I at once saw that

[Footnote] * Ariophanta, Des Moulins, 1829 (Nanina, Gray, 1834; not Risso, 1826).

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it could not be Z. nitida, but the specimens correspond with Pfeiffer's diagnosis of H. novaræ, with the only difference that some of Musson's specimens have ½—1 volutions more, and are therefore larger than the examples collected by Hochstetter. On examining the animal and dentition I saw that it is not a Flammulina, as first supposed, but an Ariophanta, the only species of this genus known to me to occur in New Zealand. It may therefore be of interest to have the dentition described and figured.

Jaw (fig. 26) membranaceous, smooth, upper margin arched, lower margin almost straight, with an indistinct median projection, ends tapering, faintly longitudinally and vertically striated.

Radula (fig. 27) tongue-shaped, formula 42—1—42, of which 10 to 12 are laterals; transverse rows of teeth straight. Central tooth long and narrow, with one long reflection, and a short, stout cutting-point, extending a little over the next row of teeth. Laterals broader, unicuspid, with a broad, blunt cutting-point of the same length as the central. A large number of intermediate teeth follow; they are oblique, with a bicuspid reflection, and one stout, oval cutting-point. Marginals sinuate, bicuspid.

20. Otoconcha dimidiata, Pfeiffer, sp. 1854. Plate XVIII., fig. 28, and Plate XIX., fig. 29.

Some time ago I found a single specimen of this curious mollusc at Port Hills, Lyttelton, the radula of which differs slightly from that described and figured by Professor Hutton (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvi., pl. ix., fig. Y). The specimen was rather a young one.

Jaw (fig. 28). It has hitherto been said that the jaw of Otoconcha is ribbed, and at first sight it would seem to be so. I have, however, quite a different opinion. The outlines of the jaw figured are decidedly those of an oxygnath jaw, which supposition is supported by the distinct longitudinal striation, which is very often seen in the jaw of the Limacidæ. The most irregular denticulation of the cutting-margin points to the fact that this jaw cannot be considered as ribbed, but as channelled by the action of the exceedingly strong cuttingpoints of the radula.

I therefore describe the jaw of Otoconcha as oxygnath, smooth, longitudinally striated, with a strong median projection inferiorly, irregularly channelled, the channels increasing in depth towards the cutting-margin, which is deeply and irregularly denticulated. Ends blunt.

The jaws of old animals represent only a narrow ledge with blunt denticulations on the inferior edge; perfectly worn out by the action of the teeth.

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The radula (fig. 29) wants no explanation. The formula is 26—1—26, with five distinct lateral teeth.

I am still of opinion that O. dimidiata belongs to the genus Vitrinoidea, Semper, but I think it to be safer to retain the generic name proposed by Professor Hutton until I have been able to compare dentition and genital organs of our mollusc with those of a Vitrinoidea from the Philippine Islands. But the animal perfectly agrees with Semper's diagnosis of the genus; and there is one important fact which should be taken into consideration: O. dimidiata, when resting, brings its tail forwards beside the body and head, a position I have never seen taken up by any other mollusc. The figure of Vitrinoidea albajensis given by Semper (Philippinen, vol. iiii., Taf. viii., fig. 2) shows a very similar position of the animal, and it seems that Semper has also been struck by its peculiarity. The figures of the teeth given by Semper are quite insufficient for comparison.

New Species and Varieties.

1. Lagochilus fasciatum, n. sp. Plate XIX., figs. 30, 31.

Shell small, turbinate, subperforated, rufous, not shining, rather thin, with close membranaceous, white, slightly sinuated radiate plaits, about 11 or 12 per millimetre. They are crossed by numerous distinct spiral striæ. Spire conical, apex rather blunt, smooth. Whorls 6, rounded, the first five slowly and regularly increasing, the last rapidly growing in size. Periphery rounded. There is a distinct horny band below the periphery on the last whorl, as is sometimes seen also in L. pallidum, Hutt. Suture impressed. The notch in the peristome is slight, but quite evident at the point where the upper margin meets the whorl. Aperture almost circular, diagonal; peristome simple, straight, strengthened inside by a callous ring, the callosity extending over the body-whorl between the convergent margins. Umbilicus very narrow, previous, partly covered. Base rounded.

Operculum not seen.

Animal unknown.

Diameter, 2mm.; height, 2 ½mm.

Hab. Near Manaia, Waimate Plains, North Island, where it was collected by Mr. R. Murdoch, of Wanganui.

Note.—This species is near L. hedleyi, mihi, but may be distinguished from it by the more elevated spire, the less rounded whorls, the more numerous and equidistant plaits, the very distinct spiral striation, and the horny band on the last whorl.

It is smaller than L. cytora, the spiral striæ are much closer, and in the latter the radiate plaits are provided with a hair at the point where they cross the spiral striæ.

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Genus Flammulina, Suter.

2. Flammulina (Calymna) pilsbryi, n. sp. Plate XIX., figs. 32–32b.

Shell minute, discoidal, umbilicated, horny with radiate brown streaks, which usually form zigzag lines at the periphery, flowing more or less together. The colour-markings are very variable, sometimes there are only a few broad brown streaks on the upper side. Silky, very thin and semi-transparent; very closely and finely radiately striated, the striæ slightly arcuated and directed backwards, about 20 per millimetre, reticulated in the interstices. Spire flat, embryonic whorl spirally striated. Whorls 4, the last rapidly increasing, slightly rounded, the last not descending in front; suture not deep. Periphery rounded. Aperture slightly oblique, rounded, very little excavated by the body-whorl; peristome acute, straight, columella lip not expanded, margins approximating. Umbilicus conical, almost one-third of the diameter. Base rounded.

Diameter, greatest 2 ¾mm., least 2 ⅓mm.; height, 1mm.

Hab. North Island: Forty-mile Bush (H. S.), Howick (Captain T. Broun), Waimarama (A. Hamilton). South Island: Hooker Valley, Riccarton Bush (H. S.), Capleston (Cavell).

Note.—Named in honour of Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, of Philadelphia, who has done so much to clear up the systematic position of our Helicidæ.

This shell is near F. costulata, Hutt., but is considerably smaller, much broader umbilicated, more depressed, and somewhat narrower striated.

Jaw membranaceous, arcuate, vertically plaited, the cutting - margin slightly denticulated, ends rounded, somewhat tapering.

Radula tongue-shaped, formed of about 100 straight transverse rows of teeth, 7—4—1—4—7.

Central and lateral teeth tricuspid, marginals broader than long, tridentate, the median tooth being the largest.

It is the typical dentition of Flammulina, as several times described and figured by Professor Hutton and myself, and figures are therefore hardly wanted.

3. Pyrrha subincarnata, n. sp. Plate XIX., fig. 33, and Plate XX., figs. 34 and 35.

Shell (figs. 33–33b) globosely depressed, subperforated, shining at the base, from horny to flesh-colour, young specimens horny all over, adult ones either reddish round the apex and the mouth or the flesh-colour may extend over the whole shell; rather thin, transparent; somewhat irregularly, closely,

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radiately striated, about ten riblets per millimetre, the interstices with fine growth-lines, but not reticulated. Spire depressed, conoidal; embryonic whorl slightly radiately striated; periphery angulated. Whorls 5, slowly and regularly increasing, flatly rounded, suture impressed, last whorl not descending in front. Aperture transverse, oblique, ovatelylunar. Peristome straight, thickened with a pinkish callosity, which unites the very slightly converging margins on the body-whorl; columella lip strongly callous at its upper end, slightly reflexed. Umbilicus perfectly closed by the columellar callosity in adult specimens; young forms are narrowly perforated or subperforated. Base rounded.

Diameter, greatest 8 ½mm., least 7 ½mm.; height, 5 ½mm.

Hab. North Island: Toko, near Stratford (R. Murdoch).

Note.—This pretty little shell somewhat resembles the larger Fruticicola incarnata of Europe. It is smaller and more depressed than P. cressida, Hutton, less fragile, differently coloured, not reticulated between the riblets, and has a callousperistome.

Jaw (fig. 34) slightly arcuate, with an indistinct median projection inferiorly, with numerous vertical indistinct folds, ends rounded.

Radula (fig. 35) tongue-shaped, transverse rows of teeth straight, formula 29—1—29, of which 8 may be taken as laterals. Rhachidian tooth longer than broad, tricuspid, median cusp reaching to the end of the base and its broad, short, cutting-point over the next row of teeth; side-cusps with a small cutting-point on each. Laterals similar to the central; the marginal teeth are tridentate, with the base short and broad, median tooth long and stout, the others small; outer marginals minute, tri- and bi-dentate.

4. Phenacohelix pilula, Reeve, var. unicolor, n. v.

Shell the same as in the species, but without any markings, uniformly light-brown. Dentition unknown.

Hab. North Island: Taupiri Mount (A. T. Urquhart).

5. Allodiscus smithi, n. sp. Plate XX., figs. 36–36b.

Shell minute, discoidal, perforated, silky, pale-yellow with zigzag streaks of rufous; thin, diaphanous, closely ribbed, about twenty riblets per millimetre; they are slightly arched and somewhat sinuate at the periphery; interstices beautifully reticulated. Spire flat; embryonic whorl spirally striated; periphery rounded. Whorls 4, the first three slowly, the last more rapidly increasing, rounded; suture impressed; periphery rounded. Aperture oblique, lunar; peristome straight, acute, margins distant, but little converging, columella margin slightly reflexed above. Umbilicus previous, very narrow. Base rounded.

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To judge from the number of whorls, the specimens are not adult.

Diameter, greatest 2 ¼mm., least 2mm.; height, 1 ¼mm.

Hab. South Island: Mount Somers.

I owe my specimens to the kindness of Mr. W. W. Smith, of Ashburton, in whose honour the shell is named. This shell is very distinct from all the other known species of Allodiscus.

Jaw horse-shoe shaped, composed of about twenty-eight vertical narrow plaits, indenting both margins; a slight median projection inferiorly; ends blunt.

Radula tongue-shaped, the transverse straight rows of teeth consisting of 15—1—15, of which four are laterals. Central tooth rectangular, longer than broad, tricuspid, the median cusp with its short cutting-point extending to the posterior end of the base; side-cusps short, sinuated, one minute cutting-point on each. Laterals broader than the rhachidiari, tricuspid, but the inner cusp rudimentary and without cutting-point, median cusp with a short cutting-point overlapping a little the next row of teeth, outer cusp and cutting-point somewhat larger than in the central tooth. Marginals much broader than long, with a tridentate cutting-point and sometimes a minute denticle on the outer side of the base.

6. Allodiscus rusticus, n. sp. Plate XX., figs. 37–37b.

Shell small, subdiscoidal, perforated, not shining, palehorny, thin, semi-transparent, with close radiate ribs, about eight per millimetre, slightly sinuated and somewhat directed backwards; interstices with fine growth-lines, not reticulated. Spire almost flat, embryonic whorl smooth; periphery rounded. Whorls 5, slowly and regularly increasing, flatly rounded; suture impressed, last whorl not descending in front. Aperture oblique, lunar; peristome simple, acute, columella margin slowly ascending, callous, not reflexed. Umbilicus very narrow, open, previous. Base rounded.

Animal unknown.

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Diameter, greatest 41/2mm., least 4mm.; height, 21/2mm.

Hab. North Island: Thames (T. F. Cheeseman).

Note.—This species is very near A. godeti, mihi, but the spire is a little more elevated, the riblets are sinuated, directed backwards and low, whilst almost straight, elevated in A. godeti; in the latter the interstices between the ribs are reticulated, and the embryonic whorl is spirally striated. A. rusticus has much flatter whorls, and the suture less impressed.

7. Charopa anguiculus, Reeve, var. fuscosa, n.v.

The specimens obtained are not adult, but have only 4 whorls. The colour is uniformly fuscous, but in all the other characters they agree with Reeve's and Hutton's (Trans.

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N.Z. Inst., vol. xvi., p. 163) descriptions of C. anguiculus.

The interstices between the riblets are more distinctly reticulated in the variety.

Hab. North Island: Hunua Range (Captain T. Broun).

Genus Laoma, Gray.

8. Laoma ciliata, n. sp. Plate XXI., figs. 38, 38a.

Shell minute, pupiform, perforated, pale-horny without markings, not shining, very thin and fragile, diaphanous, with oblique somewhat distant thin ribs, about six per millimetre, which are produced into a tooth-shaped membrane below the suture; a second row of ciliæ is on the body-whorl round the base, but they are mostly rubbed off; interstices with fine growth-lines. Spire elevated, first cylindrical, then dome-shaped. Embryonic whorl smooth, blunt. Periphery angled and sinuated. Whorls 6, the first three very slowly, the others more rapidly increasing in size; they are slightly convex above, rather concave below, the last carinated near the aperture; suture not deep. Aperture transverse, squarish, the outer lip sinuated, the basal slightly arched, and the colu-mella almost straight and vertical, but little expanded above. Mouth with two. lamellæ; one slender, long lamella on the middle of the outer lip, and a similar one in the angle where the outer and basal lip meet. Umbilicus previous, very narrow, but open. Base almost flat.

Diameter, 1 ¾mm.; height, 2mm.

Hab. North Island: Near Wanganui, where it was discovered by our most enthusiastic conchologist, Mr. R. Murdoch.

Note.—This highly-interesting little shell is totally different from most of the other species of Laoma s. str.; in the peculiarities of the epidermis it is allied to Phrixgnathus regularis, Æschrodomus, and Therasia celinde and tamora

Dentition very much the same as in Laoma leimonias. Formula of teeth 15—1—15.

9. Phrixgnathus murdochi, n. sp. Plate XXI., figs. 39—39b.

Shell depressed conoidal, broadly umbilicated, pale-horny, waxen, thin, diaphanous; finely and closely radiately striated, striæe crossed by microscopical spiral lines; spire somewhat dome-shaped, rather acute at the apex; embryonic whorl smooth; periphery carinated. Whorls 6, slowly and regularly increasing, flatly concave, strongly margined, margin projecting, tessellated with white and chestnut, the last not descending in front; suture superficial. Aperture squarish, diagonal; peristome straight, acute, outer lip sinuated, basal lip nearly straight, columella straight, slightly oblique, a little reflexed above. Umbilicus broad, 45 per cent. of the diameter,

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Land Mollusca

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Land Mollusca

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Land Mollusca

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Land Mollusca

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Land Mollusca

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Land Mollusca

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perspective, limited by a carina which forms a sinus at the base of the columella. Base flattened.

Diameter, greatest 5 ½mm., least 5 ¼mm.; height, 2 ½mm.

Hab. North Island: Rawene, near Hokianga.

Mr. R. Murdoch, of Wanganui, has been the discoverer of this most beautiful shell, and I have much pleasure in uniting his name with the species.

Note.—Only one empty shell was found, and the animal-therefore remains unknown for the present. Its nearest ally is Ph. sciadium, Pfeiffer.

10. Phrixgnathus cheesemani, n. sp. Plate XXI., figs. 40–40b.

Shell conoidly semi-globose, subperforated, pale-horny, sometimes variegated with light-brown zigzag bands, which are close together, and tessellating the base; rather shining, thin, diaphanous, with irregular close-set growth lines, which are very indistinctly reticulated above by spiral lines. Spire conoidal, apex rather blunt. Embryonic whorl minutely spirally striated. Periphery angled. Whorls 6, slowly and regularly increasing, slightly rounded; suture not much impressed. Aperture oblique, broadly lunar; peristome simple, straight, acute, outer lip somewhat arched, forming an angle with the basal lip, which forms one broad arch with the columella, the latter being somewhat reflexed. Umbilicus almost completely closed up by the columella reflection. Base spirally striated, flatly rounded.

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Diameter, greatest 4 ½mm., least 4 1/16mm.; height, 3mm.

Hab. North Island: Waitakerei, near Auckland.

Named in honour of Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, curator of the Auckland Museum, to whom I am indebted for the specimens.

Dentition.—That characteristic of Phrixgnathus. Formula of radula 40—1—40. Remarkable for the large number of teeth on a transverse row of the radula.

Explanation of Plates XIV.-XXI.
Plate XIV.

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    Fig. 1, 2. Gundlachia, sp., shell 2/1, River Avon.

  • Fig. 3. " " shell with septum, River Avon.

  • Fig. 4. " " jaw, magnified.

  • Fig. 5. " " jaw, magnified.

  • Fig. 6. Athoracophorus papillatus, animal extended, natural size.

  • Fig. 7. " " in repose, "

  • Fig. 8. " " head from below. (Spirit specimen.)

  • Fig. 9. " " anterior part, showing genital orifice. (Spirit specimen.)

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Plate XV.
  • Fig. 10. Athoracophorus papillatus, jaw.

  • Fig. 11. " teeth of radula. C=central, L=lateral, LS.=side view of lateral.

  • Fig. 12. Endodonta varicosa, Pf., mouth.

  • Fig. 13. " timandra, Hutt., mouth.

  • Fig. 14. " jessica, Hutt., mouth.

Plate XVI.
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    Figs. 15, 15a. Charopa caput-spinulæ, Reeve, 2 jaws, 240/1.

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    Figs. 16, 16a. " teeth of radula, 720/1.

  • Fig. 17. Tesseraria novoseelandica, Pf., animal magnified.

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    Fig. 18. Laoma leimonias, jaw, 240/1.

Plate XVII.
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    Fig. 19. Laoma leimonias, teeth of radula, 720/1.

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    Fig. 20. Phrixgnathus pumilus, Hutt., part of jaw, 240/1.

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    Fig. 21. " " " marginal teeth, 720/1.

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    Fig. 22. " microreticulatus, jaw, 240/1.

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    Fig. 23. " " teeth of radula, 720/1.

Plate XVIII.
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    Fig. 24. Phrixgnathus allochroid., v. lateumbil., jaw, 240/1.

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    Fig. 25. " teeth of radula, 720/1.

  • Fig. 26. Ariophanta novaræ, Pf., jaw, magnified.

  • Fig. 27. " teeth of radula, magnified.

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    Fig. 28. Otoconcha dimidiata, Pf., jaw, 60/1.

Plate XIX.
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    Fig. 29. Otoconcha dimidiata, Pf., teeth of radula, 480/1.

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    Fig. 30. Lagochilus fasciatum, n. sp., shell 8/1.

  • Fig. 31. " part of shell greatly magnified.

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    Fig. 32. a, b. Flammulina pilsbryi, n. sp., shell 8/1.

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    Fig. 33. a, b. Pyrrha subincarnata, n. sp., shell 2/1.

Plate XX.
  • Fig. 34. a, b, Pyrrha subincarnata, n. sp., jaw, magnified.

  • Fig. 35. " teeth of radula, magnified.

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    Fig. 36. a, b. Allodiscus smithi, n. sp., shell 8/1.

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    Fig. 37. a, b. " rusticus, n. sp., shell 10/1.

Plate XXI.
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    Fig. 38. Laoma ciliata, n. sp., shell 10/1.

  • Fig. 38a. " part of shell greatly magnified.

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    Fig. 39. a, b. Phrixgnathus murdochi, n. sp., shell 4/1.

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    Fig. 40. a, b. " cheesemani, n. sp., shell 5/1.