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Volume 27, 1894
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B. Cauline leaves petiolate.


G. saxosa, Forster. In Act. Holm., 1777, p. 183, t. 5. Plate XXVIIc.

Perennial; stems prostrate or ascending, 3in.–5in. long, sometimes inclined to be naked above. Leaves cartilaginous or fleshy, radical rosulate, spathulate, ¾in.–1 ½in. long, narrowed into long petiole; cauline smaller, petiolate, sometimes distant. Flowers terminal, solitary or in 3–5-flowered cymes. Calyx about one-third as long as the corolla, or shorter; segments fleshy, subulate, recurved at the tips; corolla rotate, segments rounded; ovary stipitate. Forster, Prodr., n. 132; A. Rich., Fl. Nov. Zel., 202; Willd., Sp. Pl., i., 1357; A. Cunn., Precurs., n. 398; Grisebach, in DC., Prodr., ix., 99; Raoul, Choix, 44; Hook. f., Fl. N.Z., i., 178, et Handbook N.Z. Fl., 190 (in part). G. saxosa, var. recurvata, T. Kirk, in Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii. (1884), 224. G. hookeri, J. B. Armstrong, in Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiii., 340 (not of Grisebach).

Hab. South Island: On maritime rocks, Dusky Bay; G. Forster, 1773; A. Menzies, 1791. Northern shore of Foveaux Strait, Ruapuke, Dog Island, Green Island, and other places in Foveaux Strait; Rarotonga Island, coast of Stewart Island; T. Kirk. Ascends the Bluff Hill to 800ft.; F. W. Hutton! Only found in situations exposed to the sea-spray.

Most closely related to G. cerina, Hook, f., the sepals of which sometimes exhibit a slight tendency to become recurved. It is singular that this plant should not have been observed from the time it was collected by Menzies in 1791 until it was collected by Professor F. W. Hutton on the Bluff Hill in 1873, and it is still more remarkable that although so easily distinguished it has been confused with G. montana and other species. Mr. N. E. Brown, of the Kew Herbarium, who has kindly compared my specimens with the types in the Liverpool fasciculus of Forster's plants recently presented to Kew, assures me that it exactly corresponds: it is well known that the fasciculi distributed by Forster are of uneven value, and it may well be that in the set originally consulted by Sir Joseph Hooker the present plant was represented by something else. Mr. J. B. Armstrong, in his description of G. hookeri, does not mention the recurved calyx segments, and has further confused the plant with the alpine G. saxosa γ of the Handbook—the G. corymbifera of this paper, a robust erect species which bears no resemblance to Forster's plant.


G. cerina, Hook. f. Fl. Antarctica, i., 55, t. 36.

Perennial; stems few or many, 1in.—15in. long, suberect, decumbent or prostrate, slender or stout, leafy. Leaves

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usually coriaceous or fleshy, shining obovate- or spathulate-oblong or linear-spathulate; cauline smaller, ¼ in.- 1 ½in. long. Flowers on slender pedicels crowded towards the tips of the branches, sometimes forming lax corymbs, rarely trichotomous. Calyx divided nearly to the base, equalling the corolla, rarely longer, oblong or oblong-spathulate, obtuse or rounded at the apex, broad; ovary stipitate. Stems narrowly winged above. G. concinna, Hook. f., Fl. Antarc., i., 53, t. 35. G. campbellii, Hombr., in Voy. au Pôle Sud, Bot. 26. t. 31, c. Dicot.

Hab. Auckland Islands; sea-level to 900ft.

One of the most beautiful plants in the flora, the corollas varying in colour from a pure waxy white to white with a vertical red stripe, purple, reddish-purple, and violet. It is extremely variable in habit and luxuriance, according to the nature of the habitat in which it is growing. Three principal forms may be recognized:—

Forma a, suberecta. Stems decumbent, ascending, slender, 6in.—12in. high or more. Leaves spathulate-oblong, petiolate or rarely sessile by a broad base. Flowers usually in lax corymbs on long or short pedicels. Calyx segments broadly oblong.

Hab. Sheltered places on the hills up to nearly 1,000ft.

Forma b, cerina. Stems prostrate or trailing. Leaves very thick and fleshy, shining, obovate or spathulate-oblong, narrowed below, or rarely sessile. Flowers smaller, often sunk amidst the terminal leaves. Calyx segments sometimes slightly recurved.

Hab. On maritime rocks and in places exposed to heavy spray.

Forma c, concinna. Usually annual. Stems numerous, 1in.—3in. long, densely crowded. Leaves all linear-oblong, obtuse, ¼in.—½in. long. Flowers solitary, small, in axils of upper leaves. Calyx segments shorter than the corolla.

Hab. On masses of Trichocolea tomentella and other Hepaticæ.

The three forms mentioned pass into each other by the most insensible gradations, although the extremes present a wide difference. Sir Joseph Hooker agrees with me in considering it impossible to separate G. concinna specifically.


G. antarctica, n.s.

Annual; whole plant minutely verrucose. Stem stout, erect, excessively foliaceous, 3in.—10in. high. Radical leaves 1in.—2in. long, rather fleshy, oblong or oblong-spathulate or lanceolate, narrowed into flat petioles, 3–5-nerved; cauline smaller, oblong-spathulate, petioles short and broad, equalling the blade or shorter, membranous when dry. Flowers

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crowded in much-branched slender axillary leafy cymes, each, flower in the axil of and exceeded by a linear bract; pedicels short. Calyx divided nearly to the base, segments linear-oblong, obtuse; corolla small, papery, scarcely exceeding the calyx; ovary stipitate. G. concinna γ, robusta, Hook, f., in Fl. Antarc., i., 53.

Hab. Campbell Island.

Easily recognized by the pale greenish-yellow hue of the entire plant, the minutely verrucose surface of all its parts, and its excessively-branched slender inflorescence, the flowers being almost hidden amongst the crowded leaves and bracts. Sometimes it is reduced to a broad rosette of leaves with densely-crowded flowers.

Referring to this plant, Sir Joseph Hooker writes*: “The var. γ I have never found in flower, and it may prove a distinct species, though the roots are annual and its leaves are of the same nature as the larger specimens of G. concinna.


Var. imbricata.

Stems 1in.–3in. high, simple, erect, rigid, leaves at base coriaceous, with a stout marginal nerve, closely imbricating, ovate or ovate-spathulate, narrowed below. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, which are shorter and broader. Calyx divided nearly to base; segments linear-oblong, subacute; corolla longer than the calyx; ovary stipitate. G. concinna β, elongata, Hook. f., in Fl. Antarc., i., 54.

Hab. Campbell Island: T. Kirk.

The entire absence of minute warts, the coriaceous leaves with strong marginal nerves, and the larger flowers tend to prove that this plant is worthy of specific honours, which I refrain from awarding until specimens in a more advanced stage can be examined.


G. antipoda, n.s.

Perennial; minutely verrucose on stem, leaves, petioles, pedicels, and sepals. Stems numerous, 3in.—10in. high, decumbent at the base, erect. Leaves ¾ in.—1in. long, lingulate or linear-spathulate, obtuse, ascending, rather crowded on the lowest fourth or third of the stem; cauline distant, narrower. Flowers shortly pedicellate, solitary, axillary or on short 3–5-flowered branchlets, closely appressed to the stem for the upper three-fourths of its length, forming a narrow strict tri-chotomous cyme. Calyx divided nearly to the base; segments linear-oblong, subacute, shorter than the corolla-tube; corolla narrow, diaphanous.

Forma pallida. Stems yellow, corolla white.

[Footnote] * “Flora Antarctica,” i., 54.

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Forma rubra. Stems red, corolla white with longitudinal red stripe.

Hab. Antipodes Island: T. Kirk.

The strict fastigiate habit of this plant and the lingulate leaves readily distinguish it from any other New Zealand species. Although the flowers are produced in great abundance they are not easily detected at first sight, partly from their being much obscured by the overtopping bracts, but chiefly from the peculiar coloration, the form with red stems developing white flowers vertically streaked with red, and the form with yellow stems exhibiting delicate white flowers.