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Volume 28, 1895
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Art. LVIII.—Phænogams : A Description of a few more Newly-discovered Indigenous Plants; being a Further Contribution towards the making known the Botany of New Zealand.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 21st October, 1895.]

Class I. Dicotyledons.
Order I. Ranunculaceæ
Genus 3.* Ranunculus, Linn.

1. R. rufus, sp. nov.

Plant perennial, large, stout, everywhere hairy; hairs long, shaggy, flattish, acute, dull-red. Leaves broadly orbicular, 3 ½in. long, 5in. wide, reddish-green, chartaceous; margins crenate, teeth broad rounded, base truncate and cordate, hairs strigosely situated; strongly primary-veined from petiole to margins, with secondary veins forming large areolæ of irregular shapes and sizes, usually 5–6 sided, with free branched veinlets within them (compound anastomosing); hairs forming a thickened elevated margin to leaves; petioles stout,

[Footnote] * The numbers of the orders and genera given here are those of them in the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.”

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4in. long. Flowering-stem 15in. high (perhaps more, specimens not having basal extremity), erect, very stout, ½in. diameter, naked; 9in. to first cauline leaf, thence 2–3 stout bibracteate stems, sub 4in. long; bracts 1 ¾in. long, narrow, sessile, and clasping; each stem bearing 3–5 flowers, on pedicels 2in. long, also bibracteate; bracts long, narrow, alternate, sometimes opposite; the lower and main cauline leaf large, orbicular (deeply trifid in one specimen), 2 ½in. diameter; petiole short, broad, and stout; hairs retrorse. Flowers large, spreading, forming sub-corymbs, 12–14 and more on one scape. Sepals 4, elliptic, ½in. long, thin, margins very membranous, longitudinally hairy along middle on outside, and very hairy and ciliate at tips. Corolla, petals 4, broadly cuneate, ¾in. long, ½in. wide at top, tips flat-rounded, bright-yellow, shining, veined; base of petals narrow, thickened; nectary small, close to base, foveolate, with a semicircular ridge below; the 3 primary veins from base largely dichotomous, and running subparallel to tip. Stamens very numerous, ¼in. long, flat, 1-nerved; anthers 1 line long. narrow, elliptic, with membranous margins. Carpels many, closely packed, forming ovoid heads (immature), ½in. long, hairy, with long hairy tails, their upper portion having a flattish submembranous margin, tips acute, glabrous.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side: Mr. H. Hill, 1894; Mr. E. W. Andrews, 1895.

Obs. This fine plant has close affinity with three other known species from the same alpine locality—viz., R. insignis, Hook.; R. ruahinicus, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xviii., p. 256); and R. sychnopetala, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xviii., p. 324, and vol. xxvi., p. 313)—but differing from them all in several characters, and particularly in its peculiar and striking shaggy carpels.

Order VII. Portulaceæ.
Genus 1. Claytonia, Linn.

1. C. calycina, sp. nov.

A small perennial low creeping herb, subsucculent, glabrous, rooting at nodes. Stems stout (for plant), branchlet short, about ½in. apart on main stem. Leaves linear, ¾in. long, ½ line wide, tips obtuse, thickish, in fascicles of 4–5, stipulate. Flowers terminal on branchlets, 2–3 together; pedicels of various lengths, ¾in.-1in. long. Calyx 2 large persistent broad sepals, half as long as corolla, concave, much imbricate in bud and in flower, tips rounded. Corolla white, 4 lines diameter, lobes obovate, obtuse, incurved, veined. Stamens whiter spreading; anthers oblong, red; style half as long as stamens; stigmas 2, erect, linear, acuminate, pointed, minutely pubescent.

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Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range: Mr. A. Olsen; 1895.

Obs. This species is near the only other known southern one (C. australasica), but differs in its scape being 2–3 flowered, in its very much larger calyx (a striking character), different-shaped anthers, and bifid instead of trifid stigma. Of C. australasica Hooker says, in first describing it (” Icones Plantarum,” tab. 293), “petalis calycem quadruplo superantibus” — which his plate, with dissections, clearly show; and Bentham, “sepals small orbicular, petals several times longer; style 3-cleft,” &c. (“Fl. Australiensis,” vol. i., p. 177).

Order XXVI. Droseracæ.
Genus 1. Drosera, Linn.

1. D. ruahinensis, sp. nov.

Plant perennial, tufted, erect, sub 2in. high, glabrous; rootstock long and straight, woody, much fibrously branched; the whole plant very dark coloured (blackish) when dry. Leaves with petioles 1 ¾in. long, of two forms, ovate-acuminate, and broadly orbicular-spathulate, lamina of the latter very glandular on upper surface; glands long, flat, flexuous, and straight, dark-red, broadest at base, tips subobovoid; petioles sub 1 ¼in. long, broad, membranous, veined, half - clasping. Scape ¼in.-½in. longer than leaves, filiform, naked. Flower solitary, small, 3 lines long; calyx lobes broadly-ellipticoblong, tips slightly jagged. Corolla a little longer than calyx; petals membranous, suborbicular, entire, whitish tinged with rose-colour, veined. Stamens flat, broad, shorter than calyx, included; anthers cordate, yellow. Styles 3, short, stout; stigmas capitate, large, papillose; ovary sub-ellipsoid-globular.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range: Mr. H. Hill, 1895; Mr. A. Olsen, 1895.

Obs. A species having affinity with D. arcturi, Hook., and D. polyneura, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 460), but differing from both in several grave characters.

2. D. stylosa, sp. nov.

Plant slender, weak, suberect; stem 10in.-12in. high, dark-green, almost black (so also stem-leaves and -sepals), striate, slightly branched, 1–2 small branches near top, each bearing 2–3 leaves and a single terminal flower. Leaves rosulate, 9–10, broadly orbicular, 2 lines wide, glandular on upper surface and at margins (glands in centre of lamina very short and small), glabrous below, pale yellow-brown; petioles flat, stout, ½in. long. Stem-leaves broadly lunate and peltate, 2 lines wide, much glandular on upper surface; glands flattish, long (irregular lengths), strong, spreading, those of the two

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angles very long, stout, and branched (three leaves together erect at base), scattered alternately throughout stem, 6–8 lines apart, the lower solitary, afterwards 2 together, then 3–4 subfascicled; petioles filiform, 7–8 lines long. Raceme at top 1 ½in.–2in. longs with a few (5–7) distant flowers, having a single small linear toothed acuminate adpressed bract between them; pedicels finely filiform, 2–3 lines long. Sepals broadly oblong, 2 lines long, membranaceous, veined, glabrous, roughish, minutely tuberculate; tips much jagged. Corolla very membranous, twice length of sepals; petals broadly cuneate, pink, veined; styles 3, stout, spreading, much branched at top; branches flattish, with numerous minute terminal and marginal globular dots. Anthers very small, suborbicular, white; stamens dark-coloured. Ovary ellipticglobose, dark-green. Seeds linear, acuminate, somewhat falcate, brownish.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side : Mr. H. Hill; 1895.

Obs. A species very near to D. auriculata, Backhouse, but differing in its branched stem (in number and position of stem-leaves), in bracteolate raceme, in broad laciniate sepals, and in its very peculiar styles, these last being a most interesting and curious object under the microscope.

Order XXXVIII. Rubiaceæ.
Genus 1. Coprosma, Forst.

1. C. margarita, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

A small low shrub; bark dark-coloured, purplish; branches very slender, erect, and drooping when in fruit (specimens 6in.-8in. long); branchlets numerous, rather close, opposite, short, filiform, somewhat angular, thickly clothed with short greyish hairs, strigosely pubescent. Leaves few, more numerous at tips of branchlets, linear, 9 lines long, 1/16in. wide, glabrous, green, acute and subacute, slightly falcate, recurved, tips callous, tapering at base; petioles very short, purple. Stipules small, deltoid - acuminate, acute, pilose, ciliolate. Flowers: male not seen; female solitary, terminal on very short branchlets and often opposite, sometimes having a pair of linear leaf-like bracteoles at base, purple-margined, their tips minutely ciliolate, as also are the teeth of the calyx, which are very small; peduncles slender, wiry, 1 line long. Corolla small, infundibuliform, ⅛in. long, pale-yellow irregularly spotted with purple, 4-lobed; lobes subovate and sub-acute, spreading, margins purple; styles twice as long as tube, stout, very pubescent, obtuse, spreading. Fruits numerous, globular, 1/10in. diameter, white, shining, semitransparent, crowned with the minute calycine lobes. Seeds 2, suborbicular, plano-convex, 1/12in. diameter, whitish.

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Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side: Mr. A. Olsen; 1895.

Obs. A very distinct species of this rather difficult genus, and very handsome when in fruit; its little solitary, globose, white, shining fruits resembling pearls strung on its light feathery foliage (whence its specific name). At this season its appearance is most striking, further increased by the graceful drooping of its slender loaded branches. I regret not having seen its male flowers; indeed, my female specimens—in fruit and in early flower—are the result of two visits made during two seasons, autumn and spring, to the mountains.

Genus 2. Nertera, Banks and Solander.

1. N. montana, sp. nov.

A small low creeping succulent glabrous herb, rooting at nodes, 1in.-3in. high, branches numerous and very short. Leaves suborbicular, broader than long, apiculate, 1–2 lines diameter, concave, tapering, a few rather long weak white cilié at margins; these are flat, semitransparent, and jointed; petioles 1 line long. Flowers small, terminal on short branchlets, sessile, pale-greenish. Corolla, tube shorter than limb; lobes deltoid, subacute, spreading, subhyaline, pubescent within. Stamens spreading longer than styles; anthers exserted, suborbicular and cordate, yellow; styles 2, spreading, recurved. Ovary broadly ovoid, glabrous.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side : Mr. A. Olsen; January, 1895.

2. N. papillosa, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

A minute low creeping herb, 3in.-4in. long, rooting at nodes, much branched; branches very short; subsucculent, glabrous, finely papillose; stems purple-splashed. Leaves very small, scarcely 1 ½ lines long, suborbicular-deltoid, tip subacute, pale-green with purple margins, stippled below; petioles as long as leaves. Flowers terminal, very small, sessile; corolla 1 line in diameter, greenish-yellow, 4-parted; lobes deltoid, acute, finely pubescent within; stamens 4, longer than lobes; anthers orbicular, yellow; stigmas 2, recurved, shorter than anthers; ovary oblong. Fruit globular, glabrous, shining, sessile, 1/10in. diameter, red. Seeds 2, oblong-ovoid, 1/20in. long, plano-convex, greyish-white.

Hab. Low wet spots on the sides of the mountain Tongariro, in the Taupo district : Mr. H. Hill; 1893.

Obs. This is an interesting little plant—a perfect gem—in its lustrous, lowly, humble beauty. I have succeeded in growing it, and therefore have been able to watch its minute development, and to note all its grave characters in its fresh

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state, in confirmation of dried specimens brought away by Mr. Hill.

Order XXXIX. Compositæ.
Genus I. Olearia, Mœnch.

1. O. consimilis, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

A bushy shrub, 5ft.–6ft. high, with long slender branches; bark dark-brown, striate. Branches numerous, erect, straight and drooping, opposite, angled, ribbed; bark reddish-brown, bright, shining on the younger branchlets, with more or less of orange-coloured dry waxy exudation, which is also scattered on leaves (beneath), and peduncles. Leaves numerous, regularly distant on branchlets, 6–9 lines apart, fascicled, 5–7 together on the lower and 3 on the upper part of branchlets, opposite, but on flowering branchlets the terminal portion above the flowers has only single leaves opposite, erect, spreading linear or sub-linear-spathulate, 2 lines long, 1/20in. wide, thickish, tip broadly rounded, base slightly tapering, sessile, margins entire subrevolute, dark-green and slightly scaberulous above with midrib deeply sunk, the same slightly prominent and orange-coloured below, with close whitish shining hairs. Heads many, solitary, axillary, regularly opposite (in pairs) on lateral branchlets, 2–3 lines apart, subcampanulate, 4 lines long, 1 ½ lines diameter; peduncles 1 line long. Involucral scales many, imbricate in 4 rows, yellow, shining, with a green central staipe in their apical portion, the outer broadly ovate and short, the middle narrow ovate acuminate, the innermost longest 2 ½ lines long, very narrow linear-lanceolate, with thin undulating shining margins, coarsely ciliate-jagged. Florets few (11), as long as pappus, slender, red-brown (dry); style-arms very long recurved brown roughish lanceolate, tips acuminate, acute. Pappus nearly equal, white, shining, slightly scabrid, tips acute. Achene linearr flattish, striate, glabrous, shining.

Hab. Norsewood, County of Waipawa—margins of woods and streamlets: Mr. A. Olsen; 1895. (Flowering in autumn.)

Obs. A species very near to O. fasciculata, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxv., p. 330), but differing from that species in fewer rows of involucral scales, of a different colour, and free from waxy exudations, &c.

2. O. quinquefida, sp. nov.

A shrub “7ft.-8ft. high,” of upright growth; branches long, slender; bark darkish-brown, striate, with minute whitish membranaceous scurf; branchlets very slender and straight, erect, bark red-brown, glabrous, shining, with slightly scattered red scaly exudation, angled, a prominent ridge decurrent from base of pair of leaves above to the next pair below. Leaves

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numerous, decussate, sub-linear-spathulate, 2–2½ lines long, scarcely ½ line broad, erect, opposite and sub-fascicled 3–4–5 together, the bases of the outer pair semiclasping and meeting around the stem, margins entire, revolute, green glabrous and slightly scurfy above, densely hairy below; hairs whitish-grey, coarse and dull; petioles short, stout, those of the outermost pair of leaves thickened at bases. Flowers numerous, heads narrow, campanulate, 2 lines long, solitary, sometimes 2 (rarely 3) together, opposite, 4–6 lines apart on branch, regular and extending nearly throughout long branches, and on very short lateral branchlets, axillary, sessile, surrounded by leaves. Involucral scales in 7–8 rows, broadly ovate-obtuse, closely imbricate, bright-yellowy, glabrous, their centres pale with closely appressed hairs, and a line at apex, the outermost very small increasing in size upwards, the innermost 2–2 ½ lines long, thin, brownish and shining within and largely reverted at maturity, their margins rumpled and slightly jagged. Florets very few, slender, as long as pappus; disk, lamina deeply cut into 4–5 linear lobes, their margins thickened and dark-coloured, tips acute hairy; style longer than corolla, arms filiform very long, rough, jagged, tips obtuse but not truncate; ray, lamina very narrow, revolute, 3-nerved, tip 3-toothed; style-arms shorter than lamina. Pappus numerous; patent, spreading, slightly scaberulous, tips acute, whitish with a pale reddish - brown hue. Achehes small, glabrous, pale, subangular, slightly striate, thickened at top.

Hab. Hilly country near Lake Tutira, County of Wairoa, Hawke's Bay : Mr. Guthrie-Smith; 1895.

Obs. A species much resembling and having close affinity with the preceding one, O. consimilis, but differing in involucral scales; in the many-lobed lamina of its disk-florets, with their peculiar-coloured margins; in its very long style-arms; and in its spreading, reverted, shining, brown involucres after flowering, that give it a curious appearance.

3. O. aggregata, sp. nov.

A thickly-branched shrub, 5ft.-6ft. high; branchlets 1ft. or more long, very slender, simple, rarely forked, subangular; bark dark-red-brown, glabrous, much coarsely striate. Leaves few, distant, opposite, fascicled 6–8 together, forming very small lateral branchlets, oblong-lanceolate, 3–5 lines long, 1 ½ lines wide, not thick, petiolate, margins entire and slightly recurved; tips subacute, dark-green and glabrous above, densely pubescent below; hairs appressed, white shining with a reddish tint, flat, lanceolate, acute, centrally fixed; midrib showing full-length beneath, its hairs also being darker; petiole 1 line long, hairy; hairs reddish, glossy, and so the

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young leaves. Flowers numerous, opposite, fascicled : (1) On main branches regularly distant, ¾in. apart, and terminal on very short lateral branchlets (or spurs), 4–6 together among leaves; (2) on branchlets much closer, 4–5-fascicled, covering branchlets. Heads small, campanulate, ¼in. long; peduncle 1 line long, hairy, bibracteate. Involucral scales oblong, very hairy especially on margins and tips, few in 3 rows, the outer smallest, middle broadest with a dark central line, inner longest and narrowest and more membranous. Florets few; of ray 6, lamina 4-nerved, tip truncate, 3-toothed; style very short, as long as tube, arms short, obtuse; of disk 5, tips of their lobes ciliolate. Pappus few, erect, white, much shorter than florets, densely scabrid, tips subacute. Achene small linear angular thickened upwards, dull-brown, glabrous.

Hab. In the Weber district, County of Patangata, between Dannevirke and the East Coast : Mr. H. Hill; November, 1895.

Obs. A truly handsome shrub, from the great regularity of its numerous and neat symmetrical heads of flowers in small knots or bunches on its slender branches. This species belongs naturally to the same sub-section as the two former ones, but is very distinct.

4. O. parvifolia, sp. nov.

A small bushy shrub of diffuse growth, 6ft.-8ft. high, with erect twiggy branches; branchlets slender, glabrous, angular, dark-red, striate. Leaves and flowers produced together in small knots or bunches, 5–7 lines apart, opposite; leaves few, 3–4–6 together fascicled, very small, 1 ½-2 ½ lines long, sub-obovate tapering to base, tip obtuse and rounded, glabrous and dark-green above (sometimes hairy, hairs substrigose adpressed), densely pubescent below, hairs white (reddish in young leaves), shining, short, appressed; midrib lower half prominent underneath; petiole 1–1 ½ lines long. Heads 3–5. together (sometimes solitary), narrow campanulate, sub 2 ½ lines long, patent, spreading, axillary among leaves; peduncles slender, 2 lines long, hairy. Involucral scales hairy, in three rows; the outer 2–3–5 thickish, ovate, short, bract-like, dark-coloured (may be termed bracts, but they adjoin the other scales proper, and close round the head with them); the inner thin, green, shining, sub-linear-lanceolate, concave; tips acute and thickly woolly-ciliolate. Florets few, of disk and of ray equal in number, usually 4 of each, sometimes 5; ray, lamina small narrow pale-brown, tube slightly hairy, style two-thirds length of lamina, arms spreading, acuminate subacute; disk florets longest, much exserted, dark-brown, tube hairy, tips of lobes pubescent, anthers largely exserted

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their tips very acuminate pungent, pale; stigmas large, rough, bristly, dark-red, tips acute. Pappus few, white, erect, scaberulous, shorter than disk-florets. Achene small linear terete, thickest at top, glabrous.

Hab. In low damp grounds, and on margins of watercourses, South Norsewood, County of Waipawa : Mr. A. Olsen; 1894–95. (Also, in former years, but barren : W. C.)

Obs. A species near to O. virgata, Hook.

Genus 17. Senecio, Linn.

1. S. rufiglandulosis, sp. nov.

Annual. Herb stout, erect, simple, glabrous, 2ft.-3ft. high; stem thick, ½in. diameter, subangular, hard below but not woody. Leaves few, distant lin.–2in. apart on stem, ovate acuminate acute, irregularly and coarsely duplicato-dentate, lamina 4in. long, 2 ¼in. wide, tapering to base and there largely dilated ½in. or more, cordate auricled but free from stem not clasping, soft, very thin, margins thickened and recurved (very plain in young leaves), light-green above, much paler below, glandular-pubescent; pubescence above suberect and curled, scattered, small, their tips darkish-red, smaller and shorter below; veins few, distant, 6-jugate, mid-rib stout, prominent underneath throughout lower half of leaf; petiole 2in. long, succulent, stout, channelled, white, 3 lines wide, winged; wings denticulate. Flowers in a large loose many-branched diffuse corymbose panicle, 8in.-10in. diameter; main flowering-branches 10in.-12in. long, axillary, erect, slender, striate, terete, yellow-green, without leaves, but having a long narrow leaf-like bracteole at base of peduncle, each branch containing 5 heads, with a long linear toothed bract at base of lowest branchlet; pedicels slender, 6–9 lines long, with a subulate bract at base and another on pedicel. Heads campanulate, 3 lines long. Involucral scales many in a single row, oblong-acuminate, green, glandular, slightly viscid, margins broad white membranous greatly imbricate, tips hairy acute tipped with black, 4–5 narrow subulate bracteoles also tipped with black at base, spreading, clasping head. Flowers expanded ¾in. wide, light-yellow; florets of ray 12, lamina narrow-oblong-lanceolate spreading and subrevolute, tip rounded 3-toothed, the central tooth obtuse and lower than the two outside ones; style arms small, slightly exserted from tube—of disk numerous (sub 40), 5-toothed; styles exserted short, linear truncate, much recurved. Pappus white, erect, a little longer than involucre, shorter than disk-florets, scabrid, acute. Achene linear semiterete, densely pubescent, striate, slightly thickened upwards, base obtuse, alveolar. Receptacle rugged.

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Hab. East sides of Ruahine Mountain - range, about 3,000ft.-4,000ft. altitude, on margins of watercourses, and also on dry stony spots: Mr. A. Olsen; 1894–95.

Obs. This fine herb has some affinity with S. glastifolius, Hook. fil.

Order XLII. Ericeæ.
Genus 1. Gaultheria, Linn.

1. G. glandulosa, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Shrub glabrous (specimens 5in. long, terminating in 3–6 branchlets, each 2in. long, and nearly alike); bark pale, muricated with small red and black callous points, the young branchlets having a single long black flat hair-like scale, acuminate and strigose, appressed upwards from each dot. Leaves numerous, alternate, close, imbricate, flat, erect, lanceolate-oblong, 8 lines long, 2 lines broad, subapiculate, closely serrate; teeth apiculate with black callous points; tapering at base; petiolate; reddish-green; closely and regularly reticulated on both sides, minutely rugulose above with a kind of varnished appearance; petioles sub 1 line long, stout, red. Flowers very numerous, terminal in corymbose panicles, very close-set, small, reddish (dried). Calycine lobes broadly ovate, spreading, concave, margins glandular ciliolate; peduncles slightly pilose, much bracteate; pedicels glabrous, 1 line long, with 3 sessile bracts at base, clasping, broadly deltoid-ovate, apiculate, margins glandular-ciliolate or serrate (sub lens). Corolla broadly campanulate, veined; tube 1/10in. long; lobes broadly deltoid, very obtuse, much recurved, margin of tips irregularly and minutely jagged. Stamens short, as long as anthers, warted, broadest at extreme base; anthers small, simply horned, minutely muricatulate, base rounded, dark-red. Style as long as tube, slightly exserted; stigma simple. Hypogenous scales longer than ovary, their tips rounded.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side : Mr. H. Hill, 1894; Mr. E. W. Andrews, 1895.

Obs. A truly handsome and neat species, differing considerably from all known ones, yet having close affinity with G. subcorymbosa, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 476).

Genus 3. Cyathodes, Br.

1. C articulata, sp. nov.

A (small ?) glabrous shrub; branch (specimen) 4in. long, slender, woody, bearing several very short branchlets 1in. long, bark greyish. Leaves suberect, close, decussate, imbricate, linear acuminate a little broader at base, 3 ½ lines long sub ½ line wide tapering into a long callous acute tip, thickish,

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margins recurved entire; pale-dull-green above and somewhat glossy; paler below and 4-nerved, nerves white; petiole short, stout, broad, flattish, articulated to a little circular knob in the branchlet. Flowers terininal on the branchlets, 5–7 together forming small heads, pale-reddish or fawn colour; peduncles short, bearing small suborbicular bracts; calycine lobes or bracteoles larger, broadly ovate obtuse, pinkish, margins thin, minutely ciliolate at tips; corolla tubular sub 3 lines long veined; lobes 5, small ovate acute, glabrous not bearded; tube slightly hairy within; anthers adnate opposite angles of lobes, slightly exserted, linear, emarginate both ends, dark-brown; style erect, nearly as long as tube, slightly hairy below; stigma simple; ovary densely hairy; hairs appressed, pure white. Hypogenous scales, small, orbicular.

Hab. Hills in the interior, west of Napier; 1895.

Obs. I Of this plant I received only a solitary specimen (among those of other plants), apparently casually gathered in passing as of no great consequence; all the little branchlets on it were very similar and perfect.

II. I place it here under Cyathodes (not having seen its fruit) mainly owing to the lobes of the corolla being glabrous and the leaves so very pungent. A curious feature is the knobbed articulations of its branchlets for its leaves.

Genus 5. Pentachondra, Br.

1. P. rubra, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

A low shrub 3in.-4in. high, ascending, erect, much branched; branchlets short, 1in.-2in. long, bracteate; bracts numerous, imbricate, sessile, red-brown, ovate, obtuse, striate, small at base of branchlets increasing in size upwards, 1 line long at top. Leaves close-set, erect, narrow ovate (the uppermost linear-ovate), ¼in. long, 1/15in. broad, obtuse, tips callous, glabrous, concave, margins finely ciliolate, 3–5 nerved below, pale-dull-green; petiolate, petioles ½ line long, red, striate, stout, flattish. Flowers few, solitary, terminal, red; tube cylindrical, 3 lines long, glabrous and shining on outside, slightly hairy within; lobes 5, sub 1 line long, narrow linear-ovate subacute, recurved, spreading, densely bearded, hairs red; bracteoles broadly ovate, obtuse, much ciliate. Anthers linear, subclauate, widest at top, subacute at base; style erect, stigma capitate. Disk-scales, tips truncate. Fruit obovate, ½in. long, red, style persistent. Nuts 8, subreniform, gibbous, red, muricatulate-rugose.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain - range : Mr. E. W. Andrews; 1895.

Obs. This plant, having 8 pyrenes in its fruit, does not agree with its generic name, nor with Bentham's statement respecting the genus—viz., “with 5 distinct pyrenes, or fewer

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by abortion” (Fl. Austral., vol. iv., p. 163). Yet Hooker says of it, “Drupe of 5 or more small 1-seeded nuts” (Handbook N.Z. Fl., p. 178). In other respects it agrees with the genus, and it may, with the next plant hereunder described, serve to unite those two nearly-allied genera.

Genus* Trochocarpa, Br.

1. T. novœ-zealandiœ, sp. nov.

A low bushy shrub, 1 ½in.-2in. high, much branched, glabrous; branches short; stems woody, slender, blackish. Leaves numerous, close, imbricate and spreading, lanceolate, 1 ½ lines long, ½ line wide, tip subacute-obtuse, 3–5-nerved below, rather thickish, margins entire; dark-purplish-green; petioles rather stout, ½ line long, red; margins of young leaves toward apex minutely ciliolate (sub lens). Flowers few, solitary, terminal and axillary on tips of branchlets, sessile. Sepals 5, ovate-acuminate, tips obtuse, margins finely ciliolate; 2 broad bracteoles below calyx, and smaller roundish ones outside. Corolla subcylindrical, 2 lines long, valvate in bud, tip acute, white with pink tips on outside; tube slightly hairy half-way down; lobes 5, equal, acute, much bearded within, and 2-nerved from base. Anthers linear-oblong, brown, adnate, close to angle-bases of lobes; style stout, erect; stigma capitate, papillose. Fruit red, globular, shining, 2 lines diameter, pulpy, style persistent. Seeds 9, yellow, oblong, plano-convex.

Hab. Summits Ruahine Mountain-range, east side: Mr. A. Olsen; January, 1895.

Obs. It is not without some doubt that I place this neat little plant under this endemic Australian genus. It has much of the common appearance (prima facie) of a Pentachondra, but its fruit is strikingly different, also its pyrenes, and its corolla-lobes are not so densely bearded.

Genus 8. Dracophyllum, Lab.

1. D. pungens, sp. nov.

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A (small ?) shrub (specimens 6in. long); branches straight, erect; very leafy, simple; bark dark-purple with thin silvery scurf epidermis; branchlets 3–4 near top, subopposite and subfascicled, very slender, lin.-2in. long, 1/30in. wide, erect, bearing 4–5 leaves at tips; bark red, glabrous, shining. Leaves erect, subrigid, filiform, 2 ½in.-2 ¾in. long, ½ line wide, thickish, concave above, semi-terete below, margins entire, tips pungent; colour pale - yellowish - green, fugacious in drying; sheaths large, 5 lines long, 2 lines wide, red, margins thin,

[Footnote] * An Australian genus, closely allied to the preceding, but not hitherto detected in New Zealand.

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dilated rather suddenly but not truncate, minutely and sparingly ciliolate at apex extending a short distance on margins of lamina. Flowers terminal on main branch in a short stout raceme 1 ¼in. long, ½in. wide, 7–9 together, alternate, subdistichous, not crowded; bracteoles few, the outer one longer than corolla, inner shorter, broadly ovate-acuminate, their margins very membranous and finely ciliolate, bases enwrapping; pedicels short, stout, wrinkled. Sepals narrow-ovate-acuminate, very acute. Corolla red, campanulate, 4 lines long, mouth 2 ½ lines diameter, lobes large, deltoid acuminate acute, recurved. Anthers oblong-ovate, obtuse. Style 1 line long, capitate. Scales half as long as ovary, broadly cuneate, tips truncate.

Hab. On Ruahine Mountain-range, east side : Mr. H. Hill; 1895.

2. D. varium, sp. nov.

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A shrub; ascending, erect (single specimen 6in. long, 6-branched at top); main stem stoutish, 1 ½ lines diameter (naked below for 2in.), bark greyish, much fissured longitudinally, ringed; branchlets slender, ringed regularly 1/15in. apart, bark red-brown, shining with thin silvery epidermis. Leaves terminal, close, clasping and subimbricate at bases, patent and subrecurved, linear acuminate, 1 ½in. long, 1 line wide at base of lamina, not coriaceous nor stout, slightly concave, nerved, margins faintly scaberulous below finely serrulate above, tips subacute, colour dull darkish-green; sheathing bases reddish, 1 ½ lines long, 1/10in. broad, soon dilated but not truncate, 6-nerved, margins thin entire, very finely and shortly ciliolate on shoulders only. Flowers terminal in short stout spikes sub lin. long, 8–10–12-flowered, very close together, almost hidden in bracteoles which are ovate-acuminate, as long as or longer than corolla, margins much ciliolate, tips acute. Sepals linear, acute, transversely wrinkled, red-brown. Corolla reddish, small, 1 ½ lines long, tubular; lobes erect, subovate-obtuse, their margins undulate. Anthers narrow-oblong, 2-lobed, adnate, nearer the mouth of tube than usual, so as to be partly on lobes at their bases. Style short, stout. Ovary small, grooved, narrowest at base; scales as long as ovary, broadly cuneate, their tops rounded, retuse.

Hab. On Ruahine Mountain-range : Mr. H. Hill; 1895.

3. D. angustifolium, sp. nov.

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Shrub erect, much branched, fastigiate, slender (specimens 8in.-9in. long); bark dark-red, shining on young branches; branches numerous, subfascicled, very slender, almost filiform, 1/30in. diameter, 5in.-7in. long, distantly and regularly scarred; secondary branchlets also long, simple, with many buds of

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branchlets. Leaves numerous, imbricate and sheathing, close at tops of branches but distant along young branchlets, subulate, thickish, 3–9 lines long, 1/40in. wide, tips obtuse with a callous mucro, margins minutely and finely serrulate (sub lens), concave above semiterete below; sheaths gradually dilated, 2 lines long, 5-nerved, their margins very thin, ciliolate on upper portion. Flowers few, 2–3 together, terminal on small stout lateral branchlets. Calyx sub-linear-lanceolate, 1 ½ lines long, margins thin, ciliolate, tip mucronulate. Corolla red, longer than bracteoles, 2 lines long; lobes deltoid subacute erect, margins slightly uneven and incurved. Anthers orbicular. Style short, stout, ovary truncate at apex. Scales broadly cuneate, their tips truncate and slightly retuse.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range : Mr. H. Hill; 1895.

Obs. A species of a most peculiar aspect, from its very slender fastigiate branches, and excessively narrow and short erect leaves.

4. D. brachyphyllum, sp. nov.

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A small low shrub (from specimens 4in.-5in. long, one of them being apparently gathered from base), ascending or suberect, much branched; branchlets fastigiate, short, suberect, lin.-2in. long, slender, much scarred (or, more properly, ringed), regularly 1 line apart; bark red-brown, glabrous, shining. Leaves rather numerous, patent, recurved, linear subulate, thickish, 5–7 lines long, 1/20in. wide, subquadri-fariously disposed, concave, veined, margins finely serrulate, tips obtuse with a minute callous subacute mucro; colour dull-dark-green. Sheathing-bases largely clasping, 3 lines long, 2 lines wide, much veined; margins membranous, finely and minutely ciliolate above, gradually contracting into lamina. Flowers few, close-set, terminal on main branch in a short stout raceme sub 1in. long and bearing 7–9 flowers; bracteoles ¼in. long (as long as tube of corolla), deltoid acuminate, 2 lines broad at base, many veined, enwrapping, margins membranous and finely ciliate; tips thickened acute, callous; the outermost one a little longer than corolla with its tip dilated; pedicels stout, 1 line long, transversely wrinkled. Sepals narrow linear, very concave, margins ciliate. Corolla 3 lines long, cylindrical, red; lobes small, recurved. Anthers small, oblong, situated lower down in tube than usual. Style longer than ovary, stout; ovary small, sides grooved. Scales broadly cuneate, truncate, slightly retuse, higher than ovary and slightly incurving over it.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range : Mr. H. Hill; 1895.

Obs. A species near D. recurvum, but differing in several characters.

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5. D. virgatum, sp. nov.

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Shrub erect (“6ft. high”), bark greyish, much branched; branches virgate, 10in.-14in. long, slender, scarred, ringed 1–1 ½ lines apart; branchlets numerous, 3in.-5in. long, very slender, 1/20in. diameter, erect. Leaves pale-green, filiform, 4 ½in.-5in. long, 1/30in. wide, acute, channelled, margins minutely serrulate. Sheathing-bases ½in. long, 2 lines wide, glabrous, reddish - brown, auricled, auricles acute, margins entire membranous. Flowers (“white sweet-scented”) terminal in single racemes sub 1in. long, 7–8-flowered, on short lateral rather distant branchlets; flowers alternate, with 3 (sometimes 4) long leafy bracts at base of raceme; pedicels short, 1 line long, stout; bracteoles ovate-acuminate, concave, ciliolate, longer than tube, the outermost one largely awned, the inner ones pubescent above on middle of back. Sepals ovate-acuminate, nearly as long as corolla, pungent. Corolla small, dark-red, tube 1 line long, lobes spreading narrow ovate-acuminate; tips thickened, slightly incurved. Style stout, exserted, persistent. Stigma large, obsoletely 5-lobed, papillose, shining.

Hab. On Ruahine Mountain-range, east side : Mr. A. Olsen; 1895.

Obs. A very striking shrub of this genus; its very long and slender branches and leaves allies it with D. squarrosum, from which species, however, it is very distinct.

6. D. heterophyllum, sp. nov.

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An erect (small ?) shrub, my specimen a single branch 3in. long; slender, bark dark-purple, glabrous, ringed 1 line apart; branchlets opposite, 3, subfascicled, besides the main one, and 1in. above two others similar. Leaves rather numerous, of irregular lengths, linear, erect, nearly rigid, dull-pale-green, terminal—on main branch 4 ¼in. long 1/20in. wide, on lowermost branchlets 3in. long, and on two uppermost branchlets 1 ½in. long—and filiform, sub 1/30in. wide, canaliculate above, semiterete and striate below, margins entire or very minutely scabrid (sub lens), tips acute. Sheathing-bases abruptly expanded, 1 ½-2 lines wide, half-clasping, red, the upper portion of margins minutely ciliolate. Flowers in short terminal spikes, ¾in. long, 6-flowered, alternate, sessile; calycine bracts (6) as long as tube of corolla, closely enclosing one another, the inner 4 very small and narrow, 1 line long, subulate, very acute, margins thin and ciliolate; the 7th or outermost bract broadly deltoid, 4 lines long, including the narrow subulate sharp callous tip, which is 2 lines long. Corolla tubular, 3 lines long, glabrous, red, 2 lines diameter at mouth; lobes spreading ovate, subacute, thin, veined. Anthers suborbicular, emarginate, and cordate. Style half as long as corolla. Stigma

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capitate. Hypogenous scales oblong, longer than ovary, their tips rounded.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side : Mr. E. W. Andrews; 1895.

Order L. Boragineæ.
Genus 1. Myosotis, Linn.

1. M. (Exarrhena) venosa, sp. nov.

(A single specimen, evidently taken from a rootstock.) Ascending and erect, simple unbranched, slender, strongly ribbed, 10in. high (including racemes not fully expanded), hairy; hairs long, patent, white, arising from muricated points. Leaves on stem few (6), alternate, distant ½in.-¾in. apart; oblong apiculate, 1 ¼in. long, ½in. wide, strigosely hairy on both sides, ciliate, brown (so calyx), midrib prominent below, the lower 4 subpetiolate, lamina tapering to base; on top of stem a pair much smaller opposite and sessile, enclosing 2 racemes, one 4in. and one 2in. long, largely scorpioid, the shorter one with a leafy bracteole ½in. long just below the lowest pedicel. Flowers 10–15, alternate (not all unrolled), distant 3–4 lines apart on stem; pedicels slender, 2 lines long; calyx broadly campanulate, very rough and hairy, 2 lines long, cut halfway to base; lobes ovate subacute, ciliate, with a strong middle nerve, much veined with an intramarginal vein, veinlets anastomosing. Corolla twice as long as calyx, 5 lines diameter, reddish (dried, probably whitish or cream-coloured fresh); tube 2 lines long, very narrow; lobes large, broadly rounded and slightly retuse, much veined, veins anastomosing; scales of throat-margin rather large, kidney-shaped, slightly retuse. Anthers exserted, linear, tips subacute, bases hastate; style long; stigma small, clavate, bifid. Nuts broadly ovate, obtuse, turgid, pale-brown; testa very thin, semi-transparent, shining, showing seed within.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain - range, east side: Mr. E. W. Andrews; 1895.

Order LIII. Scrophularineæ.
Genus 7. Veronica, Linn.

1. V. hillii, sp. nov.

A small compact bushy shrub, 12in.-18in. high; whole plant glabrous. Leaves numerous, decussate, close-set 2 lines apart on branchlets, patent, subfalcate, oblong-lanceolate, 1 ½in. long, 4 ½ lines wide, not narrowed into petiole, slightly laterally subrevolute not flat, thickish, opaque, dark-green above, pale-green glaucescent below, margins slightly dentate-serrate (5-8 serratures on each side); midrib stout, prominent below, thickened at tip, obtuse; petiole short almost subsessile, stout,

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adpressed to stem. Flowers subterminal and subcorymbose, racemes axillary, slender, a little longer than leaves; peduncles very slender, ½in. long, bracteate, usually 4 pairs of bracts (sometimes binate, and also ternate), pedicels short, stout; bracteoles as long as sepals, thin; the two bracts of lowest pair of pedicels (also subpeduncles) nearly twice as long as bracteoles. Flowers white; sepals narrow sub-ovate-acuminate, 1 ½ lines long, thin; corolla 3 lines diameter, spreading, 4-lobed, lobes nearly alike narrow ovate-acuminate, tips incurved (sometimes rarely 3- and 5-merous), the lower lobe the smallest; tube sub 1 line long, wide, throat naked; style very long, more than twice as long as calyx; capsule broadly ovate-elliptic; seeds few, thin, flattish, rather irregularly shaped, suborbicular, broadly elliptic, and obovate, pale-brown, glabrous.

Hab. At Kuripapango, on the River Ngaruroro, in the hilly interior, County of Hawke's Bay : Mr. H. Hill; 1894.

Obs. I. A very graceful flowering-shrub, its flowers presenting a peculiar neat and striking star-like appearance. It will range naturally near to V. colensoi, Hook., and V. darwiniana, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxv., p. 331). In drying, the leaves lose much of their dark-green colour above, and become glaucescent.

II. Mr. Hill brought away living plants, which have done well in his garden at Napier.

2. V. olsenii, sp. nov.

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A small neat prostrate shrub with short procumbent branches, rooting at nodes; branches slender, thickly pubescent, hairs short, patent; bark dark-red. Leaves rather close, opposite, subsecund, sub-rhombic-orbicular, 4 lines diameter, deeply cut, serrate, 3 teeth on the side (sometimes only 2), tip obtuse and subacute, glabrous, dark-green, thickish; petiole 1 line long, stout, canaliculate, glabrous, edges pink. Flowers in slender erect axillary opposite peduncles 4in.-5in. high, the lower half (or more) naked, finely and closely pubescent (as also pedicels); flowers 15–20, alternate, rather distant, patent; pedicels 4–5 lines long, very slender, with a single sessile bract at the base (in one specimen 3 together subfascicled, with 3 bracts), bracts ovate obtuse 1/10in. long, the lowest pair 2 lines long (rather large for so small a plant), glabrous, margined, margin ciliolate. Sepals large, rhombic-ovate, obtuse, glabrous, thick, the apical portion of margins glandular-ciliolate. Corolla small, sub 3 lines long; tube very short; lobes 4, 3 of them orbicular, 1 (the lower) oblong, tip rounded entire, conniving, white with a pink throat and a few faint pinkish dashes. Stamens inclosed, shorter than lobes; anthers cordate obtuse;

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style long, slender, flexuous, persistent; stigma simple. Capsule didymous, subpyriform, turgid, nearly twice as long as calyx (one specimen tri-celled). Seeds numerous, broadly elliptic-obovate, slightly turgid, dull-yellowish.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side: Mr. A. Olsen; 1894–95.

Obs. I. The affinities of this neat little species are with V. bidwillii and V. lyallii, differing, however, from both in several characters.

II. Named after its discoverer, Mr. A. Olsen, of South Norsewood, a zealous collector and lover of plants, as many of them detected by him and described by me in this and in several preceding volumes of the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” bear ample witness. Of this genus, this species, with others, and many other plants from the mountain-ranges, flourish admirably in his well-stocked garden, the proximity to the mountain and its altitude being so suitable.

3. V. marginata, sp. nov.

A small shrub(?) (two specimens received by post); young branchlets 6in. long, simple, leafy alike throughout, bark pale-green, densely pubescent. Leaves decussate, spreading not crowded, 3 lines apart, broadly lanceolate, lin. long, 4 lines wide, tips acute produced, bases abrupt subtruncate, chartaceous, bright-green on both sides, glabrous, not flat, slightly revolute; margins entire, hairy, their extreme lateral edges minutely and thickly pubescent, hairs greyish; midrib sunk and finely pubescent above, very prominent below, excurrent, thickened and subscaberulous at tip; petioles 1 line long, stout, broad, glabrous, their bases half-clasping and semi-connate. Flowers rather numerous, terminal in small close corymbs 1 ½in.-2in. diameter, also axillary and subterminal in short deltoid distichous loose racemes, 1 ½in. long and 1in. wide at base, 5-jugate; pedicels patent, 1 ½ lines long, glabrous (sometimes finely but thickly puberulent), each with a small linear-ovate bract at base minutely ciliolate (also sepals). Sepals 4, large, half as long as capsule, ovate-acute, spreading. Corolla large, sub ½in. diameter, tube, very short or 0, throat wide; lobes 4, suborbicular, entire, the lowermost one only a little smaller, largely veined; colour white slightly dashed with lilac. Stamens included, stout; anthers cordate, obtuse, dark-purple. Style 2 lines long, slender, curved; stigma small, simple. Capsule (immature) slightly inflated, broadly ovoid, 3 lines long. Seeds oblong-obovoid, turgid, glabrous, pale.

Hab. From garden of Mr. A. Wall, Porirua, near Wellington (per Mr. R. C. Harding); 1895.

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Obs. A very distinct, striking, and graceful species, differing largely from all others known to me, but having some affinity with V. elliptica, V. benthami, V. lœvis, and V. buxifolia. Its large flowers without tube (which makes them fugacious), 4-fid calyx with sepals large and sharply acute, elegant-shaped and symmetrically-placed leaves with their curious puberulous margins and produced tips, make the plant an attractive and pleasing object.

Order LXVII. Thymeleæ.
Genus 1. Pimelea, Banks and Solander.

1. P. subsimilis, sp. nov.

A dwarf shrub 10in.-12in. high, erect, stout; branches few, thick, short, scarred, densely clothed with patent white hairs between upper leaves; bark reddish, covered with minute black tubercles between scars. Leaves quadrifariously disposed, very close and imbricate, narrow oblong-ovate, 2–2 ½ lines long, tip obtuse, subsessile, concave, thickish, glabrous, reddish-brown (dried), midrib very stout and prominent below; petiole broad, thick, wrinkled; floral leaves 4, unequal, one being a very little larger and three smaller than those of the stem, but thinner, greenish, with lateral nerves visible. Flowers terminal in small corymbose heads, 4–8 together; receptacle hairy; perianth sub ½in. long, very hairy on the outside, especially at base, with long white hairs extending upwards; lobes pink-coloured, broadly ovate, tips ciliate. Anthers exserted, shorter than lobes, broadly ovoid, obtuse, cordate. Style included, length of tube, simple.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range : Mr. H. Hill; 1895.

Obs. A species having close affinity with P. stylosa, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx., p. 205), but of more robust habit, erect and simple, possessing much smaller leaves and flowers, with much longer white hairs, style included, &c.

2. P. dasyantha, sp. nov.

Shrub low, bushy, suberect, 12in.-15in. high, much branched; bark brown, striate; branches, leaves beneath, and flowers densely strigosely hairy; hairs very long, acute, pure white. Leaves numerous, subdecussate, slightly imbricate, and rather distant, broadly ovate and subacute, 4–5 lines long, glabrous and minutely subpapillose above, with thick white hairy ciliolate margins, subsessile; petioles small, thickish, reddish, glabrous. Flowers in small terminal heads of 5–9; receptacle densely hairy, hidden by long white hairs; floral leaves similar to stem leaves but rather smaller. Perianth small, oblong, 3 lines long, sessile, hairs extending

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nearly I line beyond lobes; tube 2 lines long, veined, within lobes very small, broadly oblong, 1/16in. long reddish, veined. Anthers sub-oblong-ovoid, red, connective very small, apicular. Style rather long, flexuous; stigma capitate, papillose; anthers and style exserted equal lengths. Ovary dark-green, subobovoid, hairy at top.

Hab. On stony dry ridges near the River Waimataa, County of Patangata (the provincial boundary between Hawke's Bay and Wellington) : Mr. H. Sill; November, 1895.

Obs. I. On one of the branchlets, directly under the largest head of flowers and entirely concealed by it, I found two young branchlets a few lines in length, full leafy; showing that, shortly, that terminal head of flowers would become axillary in the fork occasioned by those two branchlets; and, further, in looking over the specimens I found the dead remains of receptacles of flowers in the axils of the old branches, confirming the same. I had, however, noticed that peculiar character before in P. dichotoma, a much larger species (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 485).

II. This species will rank near to P. arenaria, A. Cunn., which, prima facie, it much resembles.

Class II. Monocotyledons.
Order I. Orchideæ
Genus 12. Pterostylis, Br.

1. P. venosa, sp. nov.

Plant small; leaves 2 near the base of the stem, suborbicular-oblong, 1 ¼in. long, 1in. wide, very membranous, largely veined, veins prominent anastomosing, areoles large subquadrilateral; petioles also veined, broad, loose, clasping, with 2 sheathing-scales at base. Scape 2 ½in. high, naked. Galea erect, ¾in. long, hood-shaped, greenish; dorsal sepal ovate-acuminate, obtuse; lower lip small, cuneate, sub ½in. long, ascending, with 2 linear-ovate lobes, tips finely acuminate, extending a little beyond dorsal sepal; petals ¾in. long, sub-linear-spathulate with an obtuse angle produced on outer edge near the middle, tips broadly truncate. Labellum sub ½in. long, purplish, ovate-acuminate, parallel-veined, tip very slender, slightly exserted. Column sub ½in. high, very slender, wings with lower lobes oblong-obtuse, upper lobes, or teeth, short, narrow, acute.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side: Mr. A. Olsen; 1894.

Obs. I have only received two specimens of this little plant, and they are very similar; unfortunately, though whole and perfect, they have been pressed very much in drying, so

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that it has been a difficult matter to ascertain correctly their finer internal construction, on which so much depends, and I have only dissected one of them.

2. P. subsimilis, sp. nov.

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Plant 8in. high. Leaves, radical 0; stem-leaves 5; distant, lanceolate, much acuminate, the 4 uppermost 4in. long ½in. wide, the lowest leaf small and narrow 2in. long, sessile, half-clasping, very membranous; midrib slight; veins distantly reticulated, forming long areoles; near base of the stem 3 short sheathing-bracts. Scape slender, 1-flowered. Galea erect, curved; dorsal sepal 2in. long, very acuminate; petals linear-lanceolate, 11/2in. long, acute; lower lip deltoid, ½in. long, its two lobes long and slender with filiform red tails rmbracing galea; labellum red, 3 ½in. long, lanceolate, veined; veins parallel; midrib stout, minutely papillose, tip truncate; appendage broadly euneate, curved, trifid, tips fimbriate; column erect, wings large 3 ½ lines long; lower lobes much produced, obtuse, rounded; upper lobes or teeth very narrow, erect, shorter than column; the uppermost dorsal margin of wings rounded and free from column; anther-hood large, erect, concave, apicular, reddish; stigma long, wider than column. Ovary 7 lines long, very slender.

Oab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side : Mr. A. Olsen; 1894.

Obs. A species primd fade resembling P. speciosa, col (Trans. N.Z. Inst. vol. xxii., p. 488).

Order VII. Liliacæ
Genus 5. Astelia, Banks and Solander.

1. A. minima, sp. nov.

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Plant very small, tufted; rootstock not woody, coalescent, softish, 3in. (et alt.) long. Leaves (5) linear, 11/2in. 11/2in. long 1 ½ lines broad, tips acuminate, acute, margins recurved, midrib very prominent below, scurfy with long white shining irregular scaly hairs above (also the scape, pedicels, and flowers), but glabrous below and nerved, their bases thickly covered with long silky white acuminate scales, and the young leaves densely margined with reddish shining scales. Male, Scape slender, as long as leaves, forked about the middle, on one arm 3 and on the other 2 flowers, with 1 flower in the axil of the fork; flowers distant, free, on long pedicels; a long linear leaf-like bract at base of fork, and a smaller filiform one at base of lowest pedicel; pedicels 1 ½ lines long. Perianth spreading, 3 lines diameter; segments narrow ovate-acuminate, the 3 inner narrower, each with a little knob near apex within. Anthers elliptic, emarginate,

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green, much shorter than ovary; style short and thick; stigma coarse, truncate, obsoletely 3-angled. Female; Only imperfect and damaged flowers seen.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side : Mr. H. Hill, 1895; Mr. E. W. Andrews, 1895.

Obs. This is another small mountain species, allied to A. linearis, Hook., of the same mountain-range (and also of the Antarctic Islands, Auckland, and Campbell's); to A. alpina, Br., of Tasmania; and to A. pumila, Br., of Fuegia and the Falklands; but differing from them all. Of the specimens received, the female-flowered plants were much damaged and past flowering; sufficient, however, remained to show their great difference from their congeners.

Order XI. Cyperacæ
Genus 14. Carex, Linn.

1. C. inconspicua, sp. nov. (non Steud.).

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Plant very small, 11/2in. 1 ½fin. high, erect, thickly cæspitose. Leaves very narrow, filiform, semiterete, canaliculate, irregular in length, finely serrulate at top, tips obtuse, green, sheathing below, 6–8 together. Culms a little longer than leaves; spikelet solitary, small, 1 - 11/2 lines long, broadly cuneate, spreading, usually 4 together; the two outer scales long, bract-like, the outermost ½ in. long, tip stout, obtuse; the next in. long, tip slender, acute, both finely serrulate. Glume rather large for plant, ovate-acuminate, brown, enwrapping, margins membranous, tip much produced, serrulate. Utricle ovoid acuminate, tip 2-fid, lobes long sharp pointed serrulate. Style long, margins serrulate; stigmas 3 (sometimes 2) dark-brown, long, rough, curved.

Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side: Mr. A. Olsen; 1895.

Obs. Allied to C. acicularis, but a smaller plant, without the linear scale of that species, with differently-shaped spikelet, long style, &c.

Order XII. Gramineæ.
Genus 16. Danthonia, De Candolle.

1. D. nervosa, sp. nov. (Col., non Hooker).

Plant small, tufted; rootstock hard, slightly knobbed, much branched; branches short, patent, spreading and ascending, with many white glabrous sheathing striate bracts at bases of leaves and clothing nodules. Culms erect and drooping, 7in.-9in. (rarely 12in.) long, slender, almost filiform, glabrous, striate, pale-green, nodes blackish, with three short stem-leaves nearly equidistant. Leaves few, one third

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length of culms, 1 line wide at base, sub ½ line wide above, largely striate, tips subacute, whitish, callous, pale-green, subglaucescent, scaberulous dotted between striæ below, closely revolute, finely hairy, largely sheathing, orifice of sheath very hairy within. Raceme small, rather narrow, 1in.-1 ½in. long, minutely scaberulous, bearing 5–7 upright pedunculate spikelets; at base a long leaf-like sheathing bract, tip truncate with erect ciliæ; peduncles 1 line long. scaberulous and slightly hairy, with a long linear scarious bracteole at base. Spikelets not crowded, obovate, suberect, 4 line long, containing 3–5 florets, with a small linear membranous bracteole at base; glumes and awns pale-green dashed with purple; outer empty glume 3 lines long, ovate, 10 nerved; nerves bright-green, prominent, each forming a double line, margin ample membranous, shining, white, tip obtuse its margin scaberulous; second empty glume margins seabrid; tip jagged; white hairs around base. Flowering - glume deeply 2-fid, lateral awns very long, longer than glume and nearly as long as central awn; central awn long, flat dark-brown, shining and twisted below; awns scabrid, erect; two bundles of long hairs on lateral margins of glume, hairs rigid unequal, scaberulous, acute. Palea subobovate, margins sparingly hairy; tip bifid, rigid-ciliolate. Ovary obovate, brown, tip bi-cornuted to base of styles; stigmas slightly branched at top, branches long, flexuous, strangulated.

Hab. Dry hills, altitude 1,000ft -3,000ft., Hawkston, County of Hawke's Bay : Mr. Thomas Hallett; 1894–95.

Obs. I. The affinities of this species are with D. racemosa R. Br. and D. penicillata (Arundo penicillata, Labill., Pl Nov. Holl., i., 26, tab. 34), but differing in several characters. Specimens received were obtained after flowering.

II. Mr. Hallett kindly informs me that this grass makes a close sward, but every plant only grows in its own simple tuft. Cattle and sheep are very fond of it, and crop it closely. It grows well during winter, and is about equal to most other grasses during summer for grazing purposes; and even while being closely grazed it perfects seed, owing to its habit of sending out many of its culms horizontally. A valuable grass on unploughable hills.