Art. LX.—Cryptogams: A Description of Two new Ferns, a New Lycopodium, and a New Moss, lately detected in our New Zealand Forests.
[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 21st October, 1895.]
Class III. Cryptogamia.
Order I. Filices.
Genus 16. Lomaria, Willd
1. L. distans, sp. nov.
Plant small, tufted, glabrous. Rootstock slender wood hard, black, composed of coalesced stipites, thickly clothed
with scales, which are also sparingly scattered on stipe; roots descending, wiry. Fronds erect, submembranaceous, dullgreen (dried), linear-lanceolate; stipe and rhaehis very slender, almost filiform, smooth, deeply channelled, dark - brown. Barren fronds various sizes, 2½ in.-5in. long, 4–5 lines broad, sometimes subhorizontal and spreading, rhachis' flexuous, pinnatifid; lobes numerous cut nearly to rhaehis (andgenerally distinct in middle of frond, almost pinnate (pinnato-pinnatifid), as shown by the small red marginal line of separation between them), not close, sinuses broad; inferior lobes opposite; superior alternate and zigzag, deltoid and oblong, sessile, adnate, margins recurved, sub-crenulate-toothed, their tips pointed with a tooth, coarsely veined; veins forked, usually 3-jugate, not extending to margin, tips clavate and subtrans-lucent; apical lobe short, narrow, acuminate acute. Fertile fronds twice as long as barren, stipe very long usually 5in.-6in., pinnate; pinnæ opposite, distant 2–3 lines apart on rhachis, very small, 2 lines long, sub 1 line wide at base, narrow deltoid-acuminate, falcate reversed, adnate and continuous produced upwards on rhaehis (sursum currens), sub-rugulose, margins irregularly undulate; tips pointed; darkbrown. Involucre large, inflated, pale-brown, margin laciniate and overlapping. Sori numerous, covering whole under-surface of pinna; sporangia on long pedicels. Scales deltoid, obtuse, cordate, half-clasping, fawn-coloured.
Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side Mr. H. Hill; 1894.
Obs. This species will rank near to L. alpina, Sprengel, and to L. parvifolia, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx., p. 224), and their allies, differing widely, however, in several characters, especially in position and peculiar formation and habit of its fertile pinnæ, their superior bases running upwards on rhachis, instead of downwards.
2. L. alternans, sp. nov.
Plant small, tufted; rootstock ascending, coalescent; roots long, branched, densely clothed with red woolly hairs; fronds (sub 20) erect and spreading, lanceolate, glabrous; stipites very hairy at base, scales dark-brown, long and coarse, shining, ¼in. long, 1 line broad at base, subulate, very narrow acuminate; veins longitudinal, close, coarse; veinlets anastomosing. Barren frond pinnatifid, membranous, green, 7in.-10in. long (including stipe 2 ½in.), ¾in. wide (at middle); lobes alternate, regularly zigzag throughout, oblong-deltoid, tips rounded, midribs ascending, margins undulate subcrenulate with minute callous teeth (3-4-5 together) at tips of veins; veins few, free, distant, and forked, extending to margin, tips clavate, the
lower pair not arising from midrib; sinuses short, rather narrow; lobes very small at base, sub 1 line long; apical lobe sub 1in. long, ovate, tip obtuse; rhachis slender, channelled, colour of frond; stipe stout at base, purple-brown. Fertile frond (usually shorter, but some as long as barren) ascending, flexuous, very slender (filiform) sub ½in. wide, pinnate below; lobes very small, distant, and opposite, forming little balls of sori around rhachis, pinnato-pinnatifid above, ¼in. apart, very narrow, sub 1 line wide, adnate, largely decurrent also current upwards. Involucres narrow, entire, continuous to very tip.
Hab. On slopes near the sea, Weber district, East Coast, County of Patangata: Mr. H. Hill; November, 1895.
Obs. This species approaches near to L. aggregata, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx., p. 223), but differs in several constant characters, apparent on close comparison. It is also naturally allied to some other of our small Lomariœ, as L. lanceolata, Spreng., L. membranacea, Col., L. pumila, Raoul, L. oligoneuron, Col., and L. intermedia, Col. (loc. cit.).
Order II. Lycopodiaceæ.
Genus 2. Lycopodium, Linn.
§ III. Leaves imbricated all round the stem; spikes terete, peduncled.
1. L. decurrens, sp. nov., Col. (non Brown).
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
Plant small, 1 ½in. high erect (a single specimen gathered without basal portion), 4-branched, three of its branches being forked, main stem and branches leafy alike, branches sub 1in. long spreading. Leaves quadrifariously disposed, loosely imbricate, erect and subflexuous, subulate, 2 lines long; tips acute, slightly incurved, dull-green, glabrous and shining; peduncles terminal, slender, erect, ½in. long, striate, pale, dry, bracteate; bracts linear, subopposite, 2–3–4 together, distant, pale, rather thin; tips obtuse. Spikes solitary, sub lin. long, narrow linear, 1/10in. wide, brownish. Scales small, peltate, subsquarrosely spreading, ovate-acuminate, 1/10in. long, tips acute, bases rounded and much produced, slightly toothed, thin; the uppermost scales with tips less acuminate, obtuse, dilated, and thin, their lower lateral margins slightly toothed. Capsule narrow reniform, ½ line long, glabrous.
Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side: Mr. E. W. Andrews; 1895.
Obs. A species very near to E. scopulosum, Col. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx., p. 234), and to its allies, as mentioned there.
Order IV. Musci.
Genus 55. Cryphœa, Mohr.
1. C. novœ-zealandiœ, sp. nov.
Plant tufted, erect, and slightly drooping; dark-green. Stems 2 ½in.-3in. long, leafy from base, branched; lower branches few, distant, sub ½in. long, each bearing 6–8 capsules; upper branches numerous, close, and very short, subsecund, each with a capsule at apex. Leaves subrhomboidal, margins entire, nerve very stout extending to margin, apex obtuse; perichætial oblong-ovate, margins entire, very acuminate soon subulate, the subulate portion longer than lamina, tips obtuse; cells narrow linear throughout. Capsule erect, broadly oblong, turgid, slightly sulcate, reddish (so, also, operculum), half concealed by perichætial leaves; operculum slightly conical from a broad base, depressed, with a rather long acute beak; annulus dark-coloured; teeth exserted, white.
Hab. Ruahine Mountain-range, east side: Mr. A. Olsen; 1895.
Obs. A species near to C. tasmanica, Mitt., which it much resembles in size, form, and habit, differing, however, in shape of leaves, with their nerve extending throughout, their very blunt apices, and entire margins, as well as in the form of capsule, of operculum, &c.