Art. XVII.—The Grasshoppers and Loccusts of New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st September, 1897.]
No part of the insect fauna of New Zealand has been more neglected than the grasshoppers. Up to 1881 only four species had been described, and two of these are, I believe, identical. In 1884 H. de Saussure added another to the list, and there it has remained up to the present time.
Thirty years ago, when I came to New Zealand, the Acrididœ were in myriads all over the open country, but now they require looking for in almost all the cultivated districts where introduced birds are common, while in the neighbourhood of the large towns they are practically extinct; and, if any record is to be made of them before they vanish, it is quite time that some one should take it in hand. For our grasshoppers do not take to the introduced plants, and they avoid cultivated fields, but keep almost entirely to the native vegetation, on land that has not been disturbed by the plough. During the last seven years I have obtained as many specimens as I could from all parts of New Zealand. My own opportunities for collecting are now very few, and I have had to trust largely to others; especially I have to thank Mr. G. V. Hudson for sending me several very interesting insects from the Districts of Nelson, Marlborough, and Wellington, and Mr. Herbert Clarke for presenting his collection of Orthoptera to the Museum.
In the present paper twelve species are added to the list, thus bringing the total number up to sixteen; and I have also included the single species which has been described from the Kermadec Islands, for these now form part of New Zealand.
It is a remarkable fact that there are no grasshoppers in the Chatham Islands. Mr. Fougère informs me that about twelve years ago he saw one of a smoky-brown colour and
able to fly: probably it was a specimen of Pachytylus migratoroides.
I do not feel certain that I have correctly determined Brunner's genera Phaulacridium and Trigoniza, for not only has he neither described nor indicated any species belonging to them, but he has never even given full generic descriptions. However, I think it better to use these names provisionally than to make new ones.
Tarsi four-jointed; antennæ long and setaceous; ovipositor of the female generally elongated.
Family Locustid æ.
Tarsi depressed; anterior tibiæ with auditory pits.
|Fastigium narrow, low, divided by a transverse groove||Cœdicia.|
|Fastigium broad, rounded, ascending||Xiphidium.|
|Fastigium forming a spine between the antennæ||Agrœcia.|
First and second joints of the tarsi rounded on the sides.
Genus Cædicia, Stål. (1874.)
Fastigium of the vertex more or less separated from the frontal costa. Pronotum flat above. Fore coxæ spined; knee-lobes of the femora bidentate; anterior tibiæ with both auditory pits open. Subgenital plate of the male large, bilobed, the cerci long and incurved. Ovipositor of the female short, compressed, curved upwards.
Distribution.—Australia, Amboina, Tongatabu, and West Africa.
Cædicia olivacea, Brunner, Mon. der Phaneropteriden, p. 193 (1878). Xiphidium maoricum, Hudson, Man. Entomology of N.Z., p. 114, pl. xvii., fig. 1 (1892), not of Walker.
Green when alive, generally turning brown when dry. Disc of the pronotum with parallel sides, its side lobes rounded, deepest in the middle. Anterior radial vein of the elytra branched a little before the middle. Lobes of the meso-and meta-sterna triangular. Hind femora armed below with six small spines on the inner margin and seven or eight on the outer. Fore tibiæ sulcate above, armed below with five spines on the outer (anterior) margin and three on the inner (poserior) margin, in addition to the apical spines; unarmed above. Middle tibiæ armed below with eight or nine spines on the outer (anterior) and six on the inner (posterior) margin; above with one spine behind the middle. Subgenital plate in the female rounded, emarginate.
Length of the body, 19–20 mm.; of the pronotum, 5–6 mm.; of the elytra, ♂ 33 mm., ♀ 26 mm.; of the hind femora, 18–19 mm.; of the ovipositor, 3 mm. Greatest breadth of the elytron, 7·5 mm.
Localities.—Auckland and Nelson. Found also in New South Wales and Queensland.
In our insects the elytra are narrow, as in C. porrecta, while the lobes of the pronotum and the ovipositor resemble those of C. olivacea; nevertheless, I think it has been introduced into New Zealand, for, although it is a very conspicuous species, none of the earlier collectors sent specimens to the British Museum. Probably it was introduced into Nelson in the early days of the gold-diggings, and taken from there to Auckland.
Fastigium free, prominent; fore tibiæ not grooved on the sides; first and second joints of the tarsi grooved on the sides.
Genus Xiphidium, Serville. (1839.)
Head rather large, the fastigium forming a rounded elevation between the antennæ. Pronotum short. Fore and middle tibiæ very finely spinulose, the hind tibiæ with two rows of fine spines above; auditory pits rimate. Elytra narrow, rounded at the tip, sometimes rudimentary. Subanal plate in the male large and forked, in the female convex and pointed. Ovipositor long, nearly straight.
Distribution.—Widely spread in both hemispheres.
Decticus semivittatus, Walker, Cat. Dermap. Salt, in Brit. Mus., ii., p. 263 (1869). Xiphidium maoricum, Walker, l.c., p. 276 (1869); not Hudson, Man. Ent. of N.Z. Xiphidium antipodum, Scudder, Pro. Bost. Soc. of Nat. Hist., xvii., p. 460 (1875). (?) Xiphidium vittatum, Redtenbacher (part), Verh. zool.-bot. Gesell., Wien., 1891, p. 513. Xiphidium geniculare, Redtenbacher, l.c., p. 527.
Green when alive, brown when dry; a broad reddishbrown median stripe, bordered with pale-yellow, on the vertex. This stripe is sometimes continued on to the pronotum, but more often it divides into two, which pass along each side of the pronotum, and are generally continued as interrupted bands on the sides of the abdomen. Fastigium broad, the lateral margins distinctly diverging. Pronotum with a faint medio-dorsal impressed line. Prosternum with two spines. Elytra and wings generally developed in the male, rudimentary in the female, the elytra with a darkbrown costal stripe. Hind femur fuscous at the apex; the
knee-lobes, on both sides, bidentate; armed below on the outer margin with four or five minute and distant spines. Fore and middle tibiæ with five spines below, on each side, in addition to the apical spines. Subgenital lamina of the male truncated, that of the female emarginate. Ovipositor slender, as long as the abdomen.
Length of the body, ♂ 14–17 mm., ♀ 15–19 mm.; of the pronotum, ♂ 3–3·5 mm., ♀ 3·5–4 mm.; of the elytra, ♂ 21 mm.; of the hind femur, ♂ 17 mm., ♀ 14–17 mm.; of the ovipositor, 11–12 mm.
Localities.—Auckland, Lower Waikato, and Taranaki districts. Perhaps identical with X. bilineatum, Erichson (1842), from Tasmania.
The elytra of the male reach far beyond the end of the abdomen, and the wings are still longer. I have seen no female with well-developed wings, but Walker describes one under the name of X. maoricum. The first joint of the hind tarsi have no lateral appendages, and Walker was therefore wrong in putting this species into Decticus. Redtenbacher gives Aru Island and New Zealand as the localities for his X. vittatum, and Moluccas and New Zealand as the localities for his X. geniculare, which, except in colour and length of elytra, seems to be identical with vittatum. I think that there is only one species in New Zealand, and suspect that there are some errors in his localities.
Genus Agræcia, Serville. (1839.)
Head large, face oblique; fastigium forming a spine between the antennæ. Disc of the pronotum flat, feebly keeled laterally. Prosternum with two spines. Elytra linear, rather longer than the wings; first radial vein forked beyond the middle, its two branches also forked; second radial with one fork. All the femora and tibiæ with many small spines; the posterior tibiæ keeled above and with strong spines. Auditory pits oval. Ovipositor shorter than the abdomen, compressed, strongly curved upwards.
Distribution.—Widely spread in both hemispheres.
Agræcia solida, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. in Brit. Mus., part ii., p. 295 (1869).
Male: Testaceous, stout, nearly cylindrical. Head and prothorax thinly punctured. Head hardly broader than the prothorax; an acute spine between the eyes; front scabrous, piceous; face and labrum black; face pale, testaceous towards the tip. Eyes very prominent. Palpi pale, testaceous; fourth joint of the maxillary palpi much shorter than the third; fifth subclavate, truncate, much longer than the third. Antennæ about twice the length of the body. Prothorax
with two slight curved transverse furrows; hind border slightly elongated, much rounded. Prosternum, mesosternum, and metasternum with a black curved band on each. Prosternum with two spines. Apical appendages of the abdomen consisting of two short obtuse teeth above, of two slender obtuse slightly-curved spines beneath, and with two intermediate thick obtuse slightly-curved spines. Legs stout; fore coxæ with one spine; femora and tibiæ with small black-tipped spines; fore femora with five spines on the outer side and with six on the inner side; middle femora with six spines on the outer side and with two on the inner side; hind femora with a single row of ten spines; fore tibiæ with six spines on each side; middle tibiæ with ten spines on the outer side and with fewer on the inner side; hind tibiæ with four rows of spines, two with twelve or thirteen spines each and two with six or seven. Wings not extending beyond the abdomen. Fore-wings irregularly and very thickly reticulated, unspotted; costa much rounded, except towards the tip. Hind-wings pellucid; veins pale testaceous. Female: Ovipositor piceous, curved, much shorter than the abdomen. Length of the body, 57–63 mm.; of the wings, 88–105 mm. (Walker).
Sunday Island, Kermadec.
I have seen no specimen of this species.
Tarsi three-jointed, those of the hind legs like the others. Antennæ shorter than the length of the body. Auditory organs (tympana) situated on the sides of the first abdominal segment. Female without an elongated ovipositor.
Prosternum armed with a strong blunt spine. Pronotum generally punctate or rugose, the three transverse sulci usually continuous over the dorsum, the lateral lobes longer than deep, the posterior lateral angles obtuse.
The Maori name for these insects is “mawitiwiti.”
|a. Pronotum rounded above||Pezotettix.|
|b. Pronotum flattened above.|
|a1. External margin of hind tibia with nine or ten spines.|
|a2. Hind femora without an apical tooth||Sigaus.|
|b2. Hind femora with a small apical tooth above||Phaulacridium.|
|b1. External margins of hind tibia with eight spines.|
|c2. Vertex deflexed, fastigium passing into the frontal costa||Paprides.|
|d2. Vertex not deflexed, fastigium distinct from the frontal costa||Trigoniza.|
Genus Sigaus, genus novum.
Head with the fastigium very slightly deflexed, the margins raised and confluent at the apex; face oblique; frontal costa rather narrow, slightly grooved, with parallel sides, indistinct on the lower part of the face; cheek carinæ slightly developed, straight. Antennæ longer than the head and pronotum, flattened, slightly clavate; composed of 24 joints, of which the second is much shorter than the first, the fourth joint the shortest; from the 11th to the 17th they are rather longer than broad, the rest are broader than long. Antennal fossæ very deep. Pronotum flat above, expanding posteriorly, the two anterior transverse sulci obliterated on the back; the posterior sulcus slightly sinuated, bending backward from the median carina, and then forward to the lateral carinæ. Prosternal spine rounded, blunt at the point. Lobes of the metasternum in the female nearly as wide apart as those of the mesosternum, the space between the last broader than long, its sides rather diverging and rounded. Elytra and wings rudimentary, widely separated. Posterior femora passing slightly the end of the abdomen, unarmed at the apex; knee-lobes rather pointed, but not acute. Posterior tibiæ above with nine spines in each row, in addition to the two apical pairs; the apical spines rather short, those of each pair equal. Second joint of the hind tarsi short. Subgenital plate in the female not keeled, obscurely toothed at the end. Male unknown.
Distribution.—New Zealand only, so far as is at present known.
Sigaus piliferus. Plate XIV, figs. 1a–1d.
Ochraceous, the hind legs yellowish; a narrow dark band from the eye along the pronotum, just under the lateral carina; inner surfaces of the hind femora marked with black. Vertex rugose, with a distinct median carina. Pronotum rugose, the posterior margin truncated and sinuated, the median carina very slight. Elytra reaching the middle of the second abdominal segment. Hind tibiæ very hairy.
Length of body, 33 mm.; of pronotum, 8 mm.; of hind femur, 20 mm.
A single female specimen, sent me by Captain Broun.
Genus Phaulacridium, Brunner. (1891.)
Praxilla, Stål. (1878); not of Reichenbach (1853), nor of Malgrem (1865).
Head with the fastigium flattish, slightly deflexed, the margins raised and confluent at the apex; face slightly oblique in the female, more so in the male; the cheek carinæ distinct; frontal costa grooved, continued almost to the
clypeal suture. Antennæ slender, not much flattened, 22-jointed, the third joint longer than the second, the fourth the shortest; from the sixth to the end they are longer than broad. Pronotum nearly smooth, expanding posteriorly, median and lateral carinæ distinct but not strong, all three transverse grooves continuous over the back, the anterior margin straight, the posterior margin rounded. Prosternal tubercle transverse, rapidly tapering to a blunt point, rather short. Lobes of the metasternum closer together than those of the mesosternum (especially in the male), the space between the latter broader than long, and with its sides nearly parallel. Elytra and wings usually rudimentary (in the New Zealand species), but the inner edges of the elytra always touch near their apices; wings (when present) with the areole quadrate, or longer than broad. Hind femora passing the end of the abdomen, their apices armed above with a small tooth; the knee-lobes blunt. Posterior tibiæ with two pairs of apical spurs, of which the inner pair is longer than the outer pair, their external margin with nine or ten (rarely eight) spines in addition to those of the apex. Second joint of the posterior tarsi short. Subgenital plate of the male swollen, rather broader than the abdomen; the supra-anal plate triangular and acute. Subgenital plate of the female keeled, its posterior margin with three teeth, the keel not reaching the median tooth; supra-anal plate triangular, the apex forming a right angle.
Distribution.—Australia, New Zealand, and Lord Howe's Island. Of 218 specimens captured in South Canterbury last April only two had the elytra and wings developed, but I do not know whether this proportion always holds good; it may vary with hot and cold seasons.
|A broad pale band on each side of the pronotum||P. marginale.|
|No broad pale band on each side of the pronotum||P. luteum.|
Phaulacridium marginale. Plate XIV., figs. 2a—2d.
Caloptenus marginalis, Walker, Cat. Dermap. Salt. in Brit. Mus., part iv., p. 710 (1870); Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of N.Z., p. 92, Wellington, 1881.
Varying from fuscous to yellowish - brown or greenish, paler below. A broad pale-yellow band passes along each of the lateral keels of the pronotum backwards on to the elytra and forwards on to the head as far as the eyes, by which they are interrupted, but appear again on each side of the vertex and unite at its apex; occasionally they may be traced on the upper part of the eyes. On the pronotum these yellow streaks are bordered on both sides with velvety black (except in var. ॆ). Abdomen usually with a broad dark-brown band on each side. Hind femora rather longer than the abdomen in
the female, considerably longer in the male; generally with two angular transverse black spots above, one near the base the other before the middle, sometimes with a yellow longitudinal band along the upper outer keel. Hind tibiæ usually bright-red, sometimes fulvous or olivaceous. Pronotum with the prescutum about as long as broad, the post-scutellum about equal to the three anterior parts, its length generally equal to its greatest breadth. Elytra almost always rudimentary, reaching to the fifth abdominal segment; the wings not reaching the third segment.
Length of body, ♂ 12–13 mm., ♀ 14–16 mm.; of pronotum, ♂ 3 mm., ♀ 4 mm.; of hind femur, ♂ 8 mm., ♀ 10 mm.; elytron, when fully developed, 16 mm.
Var. ॆT. The inner black bands on the pronotum absent.
Localities.—Throughout New Zealand; abundant in places.
The females are about twice as numerous as the males. I have a single winged female from Otago. The discoidal area of the elytron is pale-brown with a few short darker transverse streaks; the marginal and axillary areas are transparent. The humeral vein divides into two equally strong branches, of which the upper is simple and the lower is once forked.
Phaulacridium luteum. Plate XIV., fig. 3.
Caloptenus marginalis, Hudson, Man. Entomol. of N.Z., p. 116, pl. xvii., fig. 4, not of Walker.
Reddish or yellowish brown, occasionally olivaceous green, obscurely marbled with fuscous; usually without any longitudinal bands on the pronotum. Hind femora rather longer than the abdomen in the female, considerably longer in the male, sometimes with two black angular spots above, as in the last species. Hind tibiæ usually bright-red, sometimes olivaceous. Pronotum with the prescutum generally broader than long in the female; length of the post-scutellum less than its greatest breadth. Elytra and wings usually rudimentary, reaching to the fourth abdominal segment.
Length of body, ♂ 13–15 mm., ♀ 15–17 mm.; of pronotum, ♂ 3 mm., ♀ 4 mm.; of hind femur, ♂ 8–10 mm., ♀ 10–11 mm.; elytron, when fully developed, 10 mm.
Var. ॆT. Pronotum with a black velvety band on each side of the anterior lobe, just below the lateral keels; lateral keels occasionally pale.
Localities. — Throughout New Zealand; abundant in places.
I have not seen any specimens of the var. ॆT from north of Lake Taupo. The females are about twice as numerous as the males. I have a typical winged female from South Canterbury, and three winged females belonging to var. ॆT, two of which are from Wellington and one from South Canterbury.
In all the whole of the elytron is dark-brown. In the type the humeral vein splits into three equally strong branches, of which the anterior is simple, the intermediate singly forked, and the posterior is simple on the left side and doubly forked on the right side. In var. ॆT the specimens from Wellington also have the humeral vein divided into three equally strong branches, of which the anterior is simple, the intermediate is doubly forked, and the posterior is singly forked on the left side and simple or once forked on the right side. In the specimen from South Canterbury the humeral vein divides into only two equally strong branches, of which the anterior is simple and the posterior (= intermediate) is once forked. The venation, therefore, is variable.
It is only after some hesitation that I have determined to make this form into a distinct species. My reason for doing so is that the connecting-links between the two forms are comparatively few in number. Of 190 individuals now before me, sixty belong to the typical marginale, and thirteen to marginale, var. ॆT. No less than eighty-six belong to the typical luteum, and twenty-eight to luteum, var. ॆT, leaving only three individuals which might be considered as intermediate, and all these three approach more nearly to luteum, var. ॆT, than to marginale, var. ॆT. It seemed to me, there-fore, that to make the form luteum into a variety of marginale would either obscure the relations between them by omitting to indicate the intermediate forms or else. I should have to make the intermediate forms into sub-varieties, which would have been a cumbrous and inconvenient device.
Genus Pezotettix, Burmeister. (1840.)
Head with the fastigium deflexed, its margins slightly raised, and passing into those of the frontal costa, which is more or less grooved. Face slightly oblique in both sexes. Antennæ thick and rather flattened, 23-jointed, the joints at the distal end indistinct, the fourth, shortest, the third as short or shorter than the second; from the fourth to the seventh broader than long. Pronotum rather short and scarcely expanding posteriorly, rounded on the dorsum, the lateral keels absent and the median one but slightly developed; all three transverse; sulci continuous over the dorsum; front margin truncated, the posterior margin slightly produced and emarginate. Prosternal tubercle large, transverse at the base, rounded at the tip. Metasternal lobes nearly as far apart as those of the mesosternum in the female, but nearer together in the male; space between the mesosternal lobes slightly transverse, and with its sides nearly parallel. Elytra rudimentary, widely separated on the back; wings absent. Hind, femora barely passing the tip of the abdomen, their apices armed above with a small tooth; the knee-lobes short and
rounded. Posterior tibiæ with two pairs of apical spines, of which the inner pair are considerably longer than the outer pair; their external margins with seven or eight spines in addition to the apical pair. Second joint of the hind tarsi short. Subgenital plate of the male not swollen, narrower than the abdomen; that of the female not keeled.
Distribution.—Widely distributed in both hemispheres.
The foregoing generic characters are drawn up from New Zealand specimens, for I am by no means sure that they really belong to Pezotettix. On the other hand, in the absence of northern specimens for comparison, I do not feel justified in making a new genus for their reception, as they closely resemble Pezotettix, both in form and in habits.
|Large; sternal shield not broader than long.|
|Subgenital plate in the female not toothed at the end||P. nivalis.|
|Subgenital plate in the female toothed at the end||P. collina.|
|Small; sternal shield broader than long.|
|Subgenital plate in the female concave at the end||P. petricola.|
|Subgenital plate in the female rounded at the end||P. terrestris.|
Fuscous brown; the hind tibiæ and lower surfaces of the hind femora bright-red, apical halves of the spines on the hind tibiæ black. Head nearly smooth, no median keel on vertex; cheek carinæ distinct, undulating, reaching the clypeal suture. Pronotum slightly rugulose, the median keel indistinct. Sternal shield as long as broad. Elytra just reaching the third abdominal segment. Segments of the abdomen smooth, or nearly so. Hind tibiæ with seven spines on the outer margin in addition to the apical pair. Supra-anal plate in the male not notched on the sides, that of the female triangular with the apex rounded. Subgenital plate of the female not toothed at the end. The male is much more hairy than the female.
Length of the body, ♂ 18–19 mm., ♀ 27–28 mm.; of the pronotum, ♂ 5 mm., ♀ 6 mm.; of the hind femur, ♂ 10 mm., ♀ 15–16 mm.
Localities.—Mount Cook, at high altitudes (G. E. Mannering); Mueller Glacier (H. Suter).
Pezottetix collina. Plate XIV., figs. 4a–4c.
Colours as in the last species. Head slightly roughened, the median keel of the vertex slightly indicated; cheek carinæ notum very rudulating, reaching to the clypeal suture. Pronotum very rugulose, the median keel indistinct. Sternal shield as long as broad. Elytra reaching rather beyond the end of the second segment. First three abdominal segments roughened on the back. Hind tibiæ with eight spines on the outer margin in addition to the apical pair. Supra-anal plate
of the male with a slight notch on each side, that of the female lanceolate. Subgenital plate of the female with three strong teeth on the posterior margin.
Length of the body, ♂ 23–24 mm., ♀ 30–31 mm.; of the pronotum, ♂ 5.5 mm., ♀ 7 mm.; of the hind femur, ♂ 15 mm., ♀ 18 mm.
Locality.—Mount Arthur, near Nelson, at elevations above 4,500ft. (G. V. Hudson).
The male is not so hairy as in P. nivalis.
Dark fuscous, slightly speckled with yellowish-brown; hind femora reddish below, hind tibiæ and spines dark fuscous. Head rugulose, without median keel on the vertex, the cheek carinæ indistinct. Pronotum rugulose, the median keel very slightly developed, not reaching the anterior border, posterior margin emarginate, the postero-lateral margins slightly concave, the two anterior transverse; sulci obscure. Sternal shield much broader than long. Abdomen rugulose. Elytra reaching the second abdominal segment. Hind femora barely reaching the end of the abdomen; the superior carina but slightly developed. Subgenital plate of the female concave at the tip.
Length, ♀ 16 mm.; of pronotum, 3 mm.; of hind femur, 9 mm. Male unknown.
Locality.—Marlborough, among stones in the river-beds (G. V. Hudson).
Reddish-brown, paler below; hind femora lighter on the proximal half, outside greenish, below bright-red; upper surfaces of the hind tibiæ and the bases of the spines on them pale. Head smooth, without any median keel on the vertex; lateral carinse indistinct. Pronotum nearly smooth, the median keel very slightly developed, not reaching the anterior border, posterior margin emarginate, postero-lateral margins slightly concave, the two anterior transverse sulci obscure. Sternal shield much broader than long. Abdomen smooth. Elytra reaching the second abdominal segment. Hind femora barely reaching the tip of the abdomen, the superior carina slightly developed. Subgenital plate of the female rounded at the tip.
Length of the body, ♀ 17 mm.; of the pronotum, 3 mm.; of the hind femur, 9 mm. Male unknown.
Locality.—Wellington (G. V. Hudson).
Genus Paprides, genus novum.
Head with the fastigium deflexed or subhorizontal, slightly margined; frontal costa continuing almost to the clypeal suture, slightly expanding downwards, distinctly grooved;
cheek carinæ well marked, slightly sinuated at the antennæ Antennæ rather thick and slightly flattened, 23- or 24-jointed third joint as long as or longer than the second, the fourth the shortest; from the ninth to the sixteenth longer than broad the rest broader than long. Pronotum slightly expanding posteriorly, the posterior margin emarginate, flat on the dorsum, the median and lateral keels distinct, the three transverse sulci continuous over the dorsum; scutum and scutellum about equal in length. Prosternal spine transverse at the base; lobes of the metasternum in the female considerably closer than those of the mesosternum; the space between the last broader than long, and with parallel sides. Elytra rudimentary, widely separated; wings rudimentary or absent. Hind femora in the female barely passing the tip of the abdomen, their apices armed above with a small tooth; the knee-lobes rounded and blunt. Hind tibiæ terete, with two pairs of apical spines, of which the inner pair are rather longer than the outer pair, their external margins armed with eight spines, regularly placed, in addition to the apical pair. Second joint of the hind tarsi short. Subgenital plate of the female variable, usually with two or three sharp teeth. Supra-anal plate rounded at the apex.
Distribution.—New Zealand only, so far as at present known.
|Prosternal tubercle truncate at the end||P. nitidus.|
|Prosternal tubercle rounded at the end||P. australis.|
Paprides nitidus. Plate XIV., figs. 5a–5d.
Bright-green when alive, brownish when dry, the hind tibiss bright-red. On each side a pale-yellow band, bordered externally with fuscous, runs from the eye along the lateral carinae of the pronotum, and are continued along the inner side of the elytra; The abdomen with a broad fuscous band on each side and a more obscure one along the keel of the dorsum. Hind femora obliquely banded with fuscous and with fuscous spots. Head with the vertex rugulose and without any median keel, the fastigium much deflexed, the genæ-smooth. Pronotum sometimes with one or both of the anterior sulci obliterated; the posterior sulcus straight. Prosternal tubercle truncated at the end. Elytra reaching to thecentre of the second abdominal segment; wings rudimentary Subgenital plate of the female variable.
Length of the body, ♀ 22–23 mm.; of pronotum, 5 mm.; of hind femur, 13–14 mm. Male unknown.
Localities.—North Canterbury, on the hills; Mount Cook district (H. Suter); Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, in the Collingwood district (G. V. Hudson).
After death this species loses all trace of its green colour.
The colours, after being in alcohol, are ochraceous, with a more or less interrupted dark band on each side. The fastigium is less deflexed than in the last species, and there is a slight median keel on the vertex. The three transverse sulci of the prouotum are continuous over the dorsum, and the posterior one is distinctly sinuated. The prosternal tubercle is tapering and rounded at the tip. The elytra reach to the middle of the second abdominal segment; the wings are absent. The subgenital plate of the female is 3-toothed at the apex.
Length of the body, ♀ 23 mm.; of pronotum, 5 mm.; of hind femur, 15 mm. Male unknown.
Locality.—Glenorchy, at the head of Lake Wakatipu (C. Chilton).
Genus Trigoniza, Brunner de Wattenwyl. (1891.)
Head with the fastigium triangular, not deflexed, the margins raised and confluent at the apex; face oblique in the female, very oblique in the male; cheek carinæ distinct, extending to the clypeal suture, slightly undulated; frontal' costa constricted above the antennæ, below which it expands and is grooved; lateral ocelli overhung by the vertex. Antennæ short, much flattened, 20-jointed, the third joint about as long as the second, the fourth the shortest, all but the last broader than long. Pronotum flattened dorsally, expanding posteriorly, median and lateral keels distinct, the three transverse sulci usually obsolete on the dorsum, sometimes absent; the posterior margin slightly produced and undulated. Prosternal tubercle large, transverse, slightly rounded at the apex; lobes of the metasternum closer together than those of the mesosternum (especially in the male), the space between the latter broader than long and with its sides nearly parallel. Elytra rudimentary, widely separated; the wings rudimentary or absent. Hind femora unarmed. Hind tibiæ terete, with two pairs of apical spines, of which the inner pair is longer than the outer pair; their exterior margins with eight, or occasionally nine, spines placed regularly. Second joint of the hind tarsi short. The anterior abdominal terga with three keels. Subgenital plate of the male rather swollen, slightly broader than the abdomen; that of the female not keeled, the apex with an acute tooth. Supra-anal plate of the male short, acute, the sides slightly concave; that of the female triangular, blunt at the apex.
Distribution.—New Zealand only, so far as is at present known.
|Dorsum of the pronotum not constricted.|
|Green, without any yellow on the sides of the thorax||T. campestris.|
|Brownish-green, usually with a yellow patch on each side of the thorax||T. directa.|
|Dorsum of the pronotum constricted behind the prescutum.|
|Fuscous brown.||T. rugosa.|
Trigoniza campestris. Plate XIV., figs. 6a–6c.
Bright-green; the lateral keels of the pronotum, the greater part of the dorsal surface of the abdomen, the elytra, and the inferior keel of the hind femora yellow; lower surface of the hind femora and distal ends of the hind tibiæ red. Vertex with a distinct median keel, the fastigium slightly deflexed. Pronotum rugulose, the lateral keels at first nearly parallel, diverging on the post-scutellum. Elytra reaching a little beyond the second abdominal segment; wings absent. Hind femora passing the end of the abdomen.
Length of the body, ♀ 20–33 mm.; of pronotum, 4–5mm.; of hind femur, 13–15 mm. I have seen no fully-developed male.
Locality.–North Canterbury; on the plains.
Occasionally the whole dorsal surface from the vertex to the end of the abdomen is brown, and so makes an approach to the next species.
Trigoniza directa. Plate XIV., figs, 7a, 7b.
Bright-green or reddish-green on the sides and upper surfaces of the hind femora; dorsum, elytra, and lower half of the hind femora reddish-brown; generally a large yellow patch on each side of the pronotum; under-surface of the hind femora and distal ends of the hind tibiæ bright-red. Fastigium not deflexed, otherwise the form and sculpture as in T. campestris.
Length of body, ♂ 14–15 mm.; ♀ 21–25 mm.; of the pronotum, ♂ 3 mm., ♀ 5 mm.; of the hind femur, ♂ 9 mm., ♀ 13 mm.
Localities.—South Canterbury and Otago; on the low lands.
I have only two specimens from South Canterbury; all the others are from near Fortrose, in South Otago. Sometimes the whole insect is brown when dry.
Trigoniza rugosa. Plate XIV., fig. 8.
Fuscous brown, variegated with lighter and darker, the lower surfaces of the hind femora bright-red. Head, pronotum, and the two first abdominal segments rugose. Median keel on the vertex indistinct or absent. Lateral keels of the pronotum slightly converging on the prescutum, rapidly expanding posteriorly, the posterior lateral margins slightly
crenulated. Prosternal tubercle almost truncated. Elytra reaching a little beyond the second abdominal segment; wings rudimentary. Hind femora in the female not passing the tip of the abdomen. Supra-anal plate of the female very short.
Length of the body, ♀ 25 mm.; of the pronotum, 5 mm.; of the hind femur, 13 mm. Male unknown.
Locality.—North Canterbury; on the lower hills.
Family œdipodid æ.
Prosternum unarmed. Pronotum more or less cristate down the middle, some or all of the transverse sulci obliterated on the dorsum; the scutum nearly smooth; the lateral lobes deeper than long, and with their anterior and posterior margins nearly parallel.
Genus Pachytylus, Fieber. (1853.)
Head without lateral furrows. Pronotum slightly cristate, the crest notched by the posterior sulcus. Elytra shining, sprinkled with grey, the stigmata placed before the middle. Wings hyaline with black veins and densely reticulated with fuscous.
Distribution.—Widely spread over the old hemisphere.
|Pronotum slightly constricted, forming an obtuse angle at the median crest||P. cinerascens.|
|Pronotum strongly constricted, forming an acute angle at the median crest||P. migratoroides.|
Gryllus cinerascens, Fabricius, Ent. Syst., ii., 59 (1775). Pachytylus cinerascens, Fischer, Orthop. Europ., p. 395, pl. 18, fig. 13 (1853); Saussure, “Prodromus œdipodiorum,” p. 120 (1884). œdipoda cinerascens, Hutton, Cat. Orthop. N.Z., p. 93 (1881); Hudson, Man. N.Z. Entomology, p. 115, pl. 17, fig. 3 (1892).
Colours varied, green and brown. Behind each eye a black longitudinal mark, which is continued on the pronotum; on the head it has an orange central stripe. Hind tibiæ reddish. Elytra transparent, some of the transverse veins brown, others pale, forming brown and pale spots; the base yellowish-green, usually unspotted. Pronotum but slightly compressed, the crest nearly straight along its upper margin.
Length of the body, ♂ 33–39 mm., ♀ 34–44 mm.; of elytra, ♂ 34–37 mm., ♀ 42–48 mm.; of hind femur, ♂ 21–23 mm., ♀ 23–27 mm.
Localities.—This species ranges over the warmer parts of Europe and Asia, as well as Africa and Australia, and pene-
trates into Polynesia. In New Zealand it is abundant in the Auckland and Nelson Districts. Formerly it was also found in the north-eastern portion of the South Island as far south as Banks Peninsula, but I have seen no specimens from there for several years.
It varies much in colour and in size, as well as in the shape of the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum. Specimens from New Zealand and Polynesia are rather smaller than those from Europe, and differ slightly in other respects.
œdipoda migratoroides, Reich., in Lefebvre et Galinier Voyage en Abyssinia, iii., p. 430, pl. 18, fig. 12. Pachytylus migratoroides, Saussure, “Prodomus œdipodiorum,” p. 120 (1884).
The pronotum much constricted and rugulose over the entire surface; the central crest slightly arched.
Localities.—This species is found in Abyssinia, India, Philippine Islands, and Australia. In New Zealand it is only known from Auckland, where it appears to be rare.
I have only one New Zealand specimen, a female with the wings not fully developed, and probably immature, although the ocelli are present. In colour it is much darker than P. cinerascens, being of a yellowish-brown, largely covered with dark-brown; the elytra and wings, which only reach half-way down the abdomen, are uniformly brown. The length of its body is 34 mm., and hind femur 18 mm.
The measurements given by De Saussure are : Length of the body, ♂ 42 mm., ♀ 46 mm.; of the elytra, ♂ 46 mm., ♀ 60 mm.
In my specimen the sides of the frontal costa are nearly parallel, and do not widen out below the ocelli, as in the variety capito, from Madagascar.
Explanation of Plate XIV.
Fig. 1. Sigaus piliferus: 1a, bead, and thorax from above; 1b, distal end of hind femur; 1c, hind tarsus; 1d, sternal shield of female.
Fig. 2. Phaulacridum marginale: 2a, head and thorax from above; 2b, hind tarsus; 2c, sternal shield of female; 2d, elytron.
Fig. 3. Phaulacridium luteum: elytron.
Fig. 4. Pezotettx collina: 4a, head and thorax from above; 4b, sternal shield of female; 4c, hind tarsus.
Fig. 5. Paprides nitidus: 5a, head and thorax from above; 5b, head and thorax from the side; 5c, head from the front; 5d, distal end of hind femur.
Fig. 6. Trigoniza campestris: 6a, head and thorax from above; 6b, sternal shield of female; 6c, hind tarsus.
Fig. 7. Trigoniza directa: 7a, head and thorax from the side; 7d, head from the front.
Fig. 8. Trigoniza rugosa: head and thorax from above.
Art. XVIII.—Note on the Ancient Maori Dog.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 5th May, 1897.]
Although several papers have appeared in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” on the ancient dog of the Maoris,* no one as yet has given measurements of specimens the age of which is undoubted, so that they can be compared with the measurements of other dogs. Messrs. Windle and Humphreys give the comparative measurements, taking the basieranial axis at 100, of a dog's skull from New Zealand, now in the Oxford Museum, which they presume to have belonged to the dog of the Maoris, and they also quote Fitzinger as saying that the similarity of characteristics between the Maori dog and the Great Pariah is so marked as to leave no doubt that the former is a climatic modification of the latter;† but no actual measurements are given. I have therefore thought that it would be useful to place on record the measurements of some bones of dogs in the Canterbury Museum from the old Maori kitchen-middens, the great age of which cannot be doubted, all those from the South Island having been found associated with moa-bones.
The measurements given are in millimetres, and have been made according to the plan of Professor Huxley in his paper “On the Cranial and Dental Characters of the Canidœ.”‡ As mandibles are more common than crania, they naturally show a wider variation in size, and I estimate that the largest mandible in the collection belonged to a skull with a total length of about 190 mm., while the smallest indicates a skull of about 130 mm. in length. In the lower jaw, numbered C, the third molar is suppressed, but in all the others it is, or has been, present. For the sake of comparison I have also given the measurements of the skull of a dingo which is in the Museum:—
[Footnote] * Sir James Hector, in vol. ix., p. 243; the Rev. W. Colenso, in vols. x., p. 135, and xxv., p. 495; Mr. Taylor White, in vols. xxii., p. 327, xxiv., p. 540, and xxvi. p. 585.
[Footnote] † Pro. Zool. Society of London, 1890, p. 22.
[Footnote] ‡ Pro. Zool. Society of London, 1880, p. 243.
|Length of palate||91||85||83||86||78||79||79||70||85|
|Width of palate||65||60||58||59||55||53||57||53||59|
|Length of ramus||143||139||135||129||122||133||132||112||119||121||117||103||130|
|Length pm. and m.||53||52||50||53||55||49||53||51||63|
|Length pm. and m.||71||66||61||64||61||68||66||60||65||61||64||59||71|
|Length pm. 4||16||16||14||15||16||13||15||14||19|
|Length m. 1||10||10||9||10||9||9||10||10||12|
|Length m. 1||20||18||18||17||18||18||18||17||19||18||19||17||20|
|Length m. 2||8||8||7||8||8||8||8||7||8||8||6||9|
A to H are from the sandhills at the mouth of the Shag River, Otago.
I to K are from the Moa-bone Point Cave, on the Sumner Road.
L is from Monk's Cave, on the Sumner Road.
M to P are from the sandhills near the Waimarama River, in Hawke's Bay, and were collected by Mr. F. H. Meinertzhagen.
Q is a dingo from Australia.
Of six skulls which show the postorbital process of the frontal bone four have it convex, as in most wild dogs; but in D and E it is slightly concave, with the outer margin raised, and is similar to that of the dingo and of a domestic dog in the Museum collection. The temporal ridges rarely meet and the sagittal crest is generally small. The skulls are remarkable for the shortness of the basicranial axis and the smallness of the teeth. The total length of the skull is less than three times the width of the palate, consequently it is relatively shorter and broader than the skull of the dingo, or of the Indian Pariah dog; but the premaxilla is not so deep as in the dingo, making the upper profile of the head more concave, so that the muzzle, although short, is pointed. The orbits are larger than in the dingo, notwithstanding that the eye has been described as small.
In the following table I have shown the comparative measurements, taking the basicranial axis as 100; but as I am not quite certain that the mandibles belong to the skulls with which they are associated some doubt attaches to those numbers. These mandibles, however, seem to fit the skulls. Several of the measurements from Messrs. Windle and Humphreys's paper are added for comparison:—
|N.Z. Dog (5 Skulls).||N.Z. Oxford Skull.||Dingo.||Pariah. Messrs. W. & H.||Sheep-dog. Messrs. W. & H.||Skye Terrier. Messrs. W. & H.|
|—||Max.||Min.||Av.||Museum.||Messrs. W. & H.||Pariah. Messrs. W. & H.||Sheep-dog. Messrs. W. & H.||Skye Terrier. Messrs. W. & H.|
|Length of palate||179||160||167||163||149||149||147||141||153|
|Width of palate||123||116||119||111||103||104||100||100||119|
|Length pm. and m.||120||96||107||110||110||108||108||113||108|
|Length pm. and m.||145||120||134||131||124||126||123||117||125|
|Length pm. 4||34||29||31||31||33||31||31||29||36|
|Length m. 1||22||18||20||22||21||20||20||21||23|
|Length m. 1||43||32||37||38||35||34||34||34||39|
|Length m. 2||18||14||16||15||13||13||14||15|
These comparative measurements, although not of much use in bringing out the special characteristics of the Maori dog,*
[Footnote] * Professor Karl Pearson has lately shown that this method of taking ratios may lead to very erroneous conclusions: Pro. Royal Soc., vol. 60, p. 489.
show that the Oxford skull has been rightly named, but they by no means bear out Fitzinger's statement that the ancient Maori dog closely resembled the Pariah, of India.
There are not many leg bones of the Maori dog in the Museum. Of two femora, one, from Shag Point, is 142mm., and the other, from the Maori encampment at the mouth of the Rakaia, is 136.mm. in length. A tibia from the Moabone Point Cave is 114 mm. in length. A humerus from Shag Point has a length of 125 mm.; and another, from the Moa-bone Point Cave, of 119 mm. A radius from Shag Point is 120 mm., and an ulna from the Moa-bone Point Cave is 122 mm. in length.
I have no skeletons of domesticated dogs to compare these measurements with, but I have compared them with the skeletons of a wolf and a fox in the Museum, with the following results, the length of the head being taken as 100 in each case:—
These comparative measurements show that the ancient Maori dog had short legs, the femur being the only bone which shows no reduction in length. The bones are stout, quite as stout in proportion as those of the wolf, and much stouter than those of the fox.
There are also in the Museum three mats made of strips of dog's skin fastened on to flax. They were, I believe, purchased by Sir J. von Haast, and appear to be very old, but I can find no history of them. The mats are about 43 in. in length, but I think that none of the strips of skin go the whole length: the longest I could find was 27 in. Their width is ¼ in. or less. There are two colours only, white and dark-brown. The brown is so dark that it might casually be called black, but it is really brown. Possibly the colour may have faded. Both in colour and in length of hair these mats closely resemble the skin of the stuffed dog from Waikawa, in the Wellington Museum; and in its short legs and pointed nose this specimen must closely resemble the ancient Maori-dog as described by Crozet and others. It would be interesting to have measurements of the skull of this specimen, which could be compared with those here given of the skulls from the Maori kitchen-middens.
Explanation of Plate XV.
Skulls of Ancient Maori Dogs.
The upper and middle figures are crania from the sandhills at the mouth of the Shag River, Otago. They were found associated with moabones.
The lower figure is a cranium from the sandhills north of Waimarama, Hawke's Bay.
The figures are reduced about one-half.
Art. XIX.—On a Collection of Insects from the Chatham Islands, with Descriptions of Three New Species.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st September, 1897.]
So little is known about the insect fauna of the Chatham Islands that a list of a small collection made by Mr. J. J. Fougée on the main island will not be unacceptable. This collection was contained in a bottle of methylated spirits, and, in consequence, many of the specimens were in bad condition, especially the Diptera; but in most cases they were sufficiently well preserved for identification. The bottle contained no Lepidoptera.
Anchomenus submetallicus, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 2 (Colpodes); Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 74.
Colymbetes rufimanus, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 6; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 74.
Staphylinus oculatus, Fabricius, Ent. Syst., ii., p. 521; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 107.
Sternaulax zealandicus, Marseul; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 162.
This insect seems to agree with New Zealand specimens, but as the fore tibiæ are broken off I cannot make a complete comparison. It is, however, much smaller, being only 5 mm. in length.
Leperina wakefieldi, Sharp, Ent. Mon. Mag., Jan., 1877; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 179.
The length varies from 14–9 mm.
Rhytinotus squamulosus, Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 204.
A curious species, easily recognised. The genus must not be confounded with Rhytinota, of Eschsch (1831).
Diagrypnodes wakefieldi, Waterhouse, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1876; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 217.
Ceratognathus helotoides, Thomson, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, ser. 4, vol. 2; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 254.
The length of this species is from 11–9½ mm.
Aphodius granarius, Linnæus.
A European species, which has also been introduced into Canterbury.
Lacon murinus, Linnæus.
Another European species, but one which I have never seen in New Zealand.
Thoramus obscurus, Sharp, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1877; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 281.
Thoramus lævithorax, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 7 (Elater), pl. 1, fig. 10; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 282.
Mecastrus convexus, Sharp, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1877; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 293.
Monocrepidius subrufus, Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 294.
I am not sure about the identification of this species, as the body is not nude, but clothed with scattered pale hairs, and the depression on the thorax is not divided by a line. There are eight impressed lines on each elytron, and the colour varies from dark castaneous to reddish-brown. Length, 8 mm.
Phymatophæa electa, Pascoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1876; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 334.
Cilibe pascoei, Bates, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1873; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 372.
Several specimens. Length, 14–11 mm.; width, 8–5½ mm.
Sessinia strigipennis, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 12 (Dryops); Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 420.
Thelyphassa diaphana, Pascoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1876; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 422.
One example, which is smaller than the type, being only 10 mm. in length.
Otiorhynchus sulcatus, Fabricius.
A European species, which has also been introduced into Canterbury. It is often injurious to vines, strawberries, &c.
Psepholax sulcatus, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 15, pl. 3, fig. 1; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 479.
Psepholax femoratus, Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 481
Aldonus hylobioides, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 16, pl. 3, fig. 9; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 483.
White mentions that in Captain Parry's collection there is a small specimen not half the size of the type, and differing somewhat from it in marking, having a waved black line on the side of each elytron. In this collection from Chatham Islands there is also a great difference in the size of the specimens. In three the length is 12 mm., in another it is 10 mm., in another 9 mm., and in another only 7 mm. I can see no difference in colour, and there are no black marks on the elytra.
Acalles fougeri, species nova.
Subovate, black, covered with scales, except a median band on the thorax and elytra. The scales on each border of the nude band are black, those on the sides of the thorax and elytra and on the legs pale-yellowish white, variegated with black.
Length (without rostrum), 8–10 mm. Apparently allied to A. pascoei, but easily recognised by its colours.
The antennœ are piceous, inserted at about one-fourth from the apex of the rostrum; the scape is slightly curved and clavate, it reaches nearly to the eyes; the first two joints of the funiculus are about as long as the other five together, the club ovate. Rostrum black, moderately curved, the front strongly punctate. Eyes moderate, ovate. Head covered with black scales except a spot over each eye and a mark on the forehead, which are pale dirty yellow. Thorax longer than broad, the front constricted, the non-constricted portion slightly transverse; the base not much sinuated; the nude middle portion smooth; the sides covered with pale-yellowish scales, among which are some dark ones forming three indeterminate longitudinal lines. Scutellum invisible. Elytra ovate, without any shoulders, broader than the thorax, their apices much bent down; very coarsely pitted in longitudinal rows, the interstices finely granulated; two rows of pits on the nude portion of each elytron and about five more rows which are covered with scales. The scales on the sides of the elytra are pale-yellowish, with dark scales in the pits. Abdomen with the first two abdominal sterna very broad, the next two very narrow; all clothed with pale scales. Legs robust, covered with pale scales and transverse bands of fuscous scales on the femora and tibiæ; tarsi black.
The type is in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch.
Platypus apicalis, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 18; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 541.
Xuthodes punctipennis, Pascoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1875; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 580.
Xuthodes divergens, Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 581.
I have not been able to compare this insect with a specimen from New Zealand. The punctation of the elytra resembles that of X. punctipennis.
Zorion minutum, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 192; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 584.
Xylotoles costatus, Pascoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1875; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 599.
Tetrorea cilipes, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 21, pl. 4, fig. 9; Broun, Man. Coleopt. N.Z., p. 609.
Hybolasius trigonellaris, species nova.
Dark testaceous, clothed with yellowish hairs, each elytron having, near the centre, a triangular piceous mark, the apices of which nearly meet on the suture. Length, 5½–6 mm.
The first joint of the antennœ is thick and rather shorter than either the third or the fourth, which are nearly equal; the other seven are much shorter and gradually decreasing in length, their apices are fuscous. Head with the antennal elevations large, the vertex punctate and with a narrow impressed line down the centre. Thorax finely punctate, the lateral and dorsal tubercles low and rounded. Elytra coarsely punctate on the basal half, a few scattered white setae near the costal margin; an acute compressed basal tubercle on each. Legs long, fuscous, except the outsides of the femora, which are testaceous.
This species differs from H. wakefieldi in its colours and in the thoracic dorsal tubercles not being transverse. The type is in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch.
Coccinella 11-punctata, Linnæus.
A European species, which has also been introduced into New Zealand, and is now very abundant.
Pison morosus, Smith, Cat. Hymenoptera in Brit. Mus., part 4, p. 317; Hutton, Cat. Hymenoptera of N.Z., p. 103.
Ichneumon insidiator, Smith, Trans. Entomological Soc. of London, 1876, p. 476; Hutton, Cat. Hymenoptera of N.Z., p. 119.
Ichneumon sollicitorius, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 1774, p. 332; Hutton, Cat. Hymenoptera of N.Z., p. 120.
Paniscus ephippiatus, Smith, Trans. Entomological Soc. of London, 1876, p. 478; Hutton, Cat. Hymenoptera of N.Z., p. 126.
Dilophus nigrostigma, Walker, Cat. Diptera in British Museum, p. 121 (Bibio); Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 18.
Saropogon discus, Walker, Cat. Diptera in British Museum, p. 358 (Dasypogon); Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 26.
Odontomyia australiensis, Schiner, Reise der “Novara,” Diptera, p. 59; Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 38.
Clitellaria amyris, Walker (?), Cat. Diptera in British Museum, p. 535 (Odontomyia); Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 39.
The scutellum is black bordered with yellow, and not yellow, as in Walker's description, but New Zealand specimens are the same.
Helophilus trilineatus, Fabricius (?), White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 7, fig. 19; Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 41.
The small variety, which is also found in New Zealand. The Chatham Islands specimens have the hairs on the abdomen bright golden-yellow, and may be distinct.
Mallota ineptus, Walker, Cat. Diptera in Brit. Mus., p. 608 (Helophilus); Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 41.
Syrphus novœ-zealandiœ, Macquart, Dip. Exotiques, supp. v., p. 115; Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 44.
Calliphora aureopunctata, Macquart, Dip. Exotiques, supp. v., p. 130; Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 59.
Sarcophoga lœmica, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 7, fig. 18; Hutton, Cat. Diptera of N.Z., p. 62.
Rhopalimorpha ignota, species nova.
Like R. obscura, but without any smooth band on the head and pronotum. Length, 9 mm.; breadth, 4½ mm. Oval; ochraceous; shining; sparsely but deeply punctured with black on the head, pronotum, scutellum, and basal portion of the elytra. A narrow smooth line on the scutellum, but none on the pronotum or head. Antennæ ochraceous, darker towards the tips; the second joint rather shorter than the third. Nervures of the membranous portion of the elytra brown. Legs ochraceous. Abdomen margined below with red. The type is in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch.
Melampsalta cruentata, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 680 (Tettigonia).
Philœnus trimaculatus, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pi. 7, fig. 10.
Periplaneta undulivitta, Walker, Cat. Blattidæ in British Museum, p. 144.
Anisolabis littorea, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 6, figs, 4, 5 (Forficula).
Somatochlora smithii, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 6, fig. 2 (Cordulia).
Lestes colensonis, White, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 6, fig. 3 (Agrion).
Xanthagrion sobrinum, McLachlan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1873 (Telebasis); Trans. N.Z., Inst., vol. vi., Appendix, p. xciii.
Art. XX.—The Phasmidæ of New Zealand.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd November, 1897.]
The Phasmidæ, known also as “stick-insects” and “leafinsects,” have their head-quarters in the Malay Archipelago, but are spread over all the warm parts of the earth, including Polynesia, as far as Hawaii, Samoa, and Tonga. They are not favourites with collectors, because they take up a large amount of space in the cabinet, and consequently large collections for comparison are not available. Also, they are apt to lose one or more of their legs, which are redeveloped, but of a smaller size, and generally destitute of spines. There are other difficulties connected with their study. None of the New Zealand species have either wings or ocelli, and immature forms can only be distinguished by the imperfect development of their sexual appendages and by their softer integument; while the immature form is known, in some cases, to differ in colour from the adult. Also, the males are comparatively rare, and differ from the females in being more slender and often less spiny than the females. Indeed, the spines on the body and legs are generally variable in both sexes, and the
best distinguishing characters are the relative lengths of the different parts of the body. It is therefore evident that a considerable amount of observation in the field is necessary before we can decide how many species there are in New Zealand. And this work should be undertaken without delay, for our stick-insects seem to be unable to protect themselves from the introduced birds, and are rapidly becoming scarce in the neighbourhood of the towns.
In this family the first abdominal segment is consolidated with the metanotuin, and is called the median segment.” It forms part of the metathorax, and the first abdominal segment is really the second.
The habitats given to each species are only those known to me. They are merely intended as the commencement of a work which can only be carried out by the united efforts of several observers; but it is hoped that this paper will help to fix the nomenclature, which is the first step in any investigation.
|Antennæ shorter than the anterior femora, which are not longer than the posterior femora||Pachymorpha.|
|Antennæ as long as the anterior femora, which are longer than the posterior femora—|
|Metathorax longer than the middle femora.||Clitarchus.|
|Metathorax shorter than the middle femora||Argosarchus.|
Genus Pachymorplia, Gray (1835).
Body scabrous. Antennæ short, considerably shorter than the anterior femora (in the New Zealand species composed of 16–18 joints); first joint large; the second nearly as broad as the first, slightly longer than broad; the third narrower, longer than the second but shorter than the first. Head with two tubercles between the eyes, their bases approximated or continuous. Mesothorax about the length of the middle femora; metathorax shorter. Legs moderate or short, the posterior femora as long as the anterior, the middle and posterior legs with denticulations on the upper edges; tibiæ and first joint of the tarsi simple; tarsi short. Anal styles short, hardly projecting.
♂. Fourth segment of the abdomen longer than broad, not lobate.
♀. Fourth segment of the abdomen longer than broad, with a prominent depressed lobe on each side. Ovipositor not reaching the end of the abdomen.
Distribution. — New Zealand; Australia; Burma; and Africa.
The New Zealand species differ from the others in the body not being tectiform above.
Pachymorpha hystriculea, Westwood, Cat. Orthopterous Insects in the Brit. Mus., part i., p. 16, pl. 1, fig. 4 (1859). Bacillus hystriculea, Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of New Zealand, p. 75 (1881).
The spines on the body are short and very variable, and the species is best distinguished by the dorsal foliaceous appendage on the third and fourth abdominal segments. It is small on the third but largely developed on the fourth segment. The following are the dimensions of a female specimen in the Canterbury Museum: Length of the body, 53 mm.; of mesothorax, 10 mm.; of metathorax, 9 mm.; of abdomen, 27 mm.; of antennæ, 9 mm.; of anterior femur, 12½ mm.; of middle femur, 11 mm.; of posterior femur, 13 mm.
Pachymorpha annulata, sp, nov.
♀. Dark yellowish-brown, with indications of paler transverse bands on the femora. Body rugose with short blunt points, the dorsal surface rounded. Tubercles of the head broadly connected at their bases. Pro- and meso-notum with a pair of short spines near the posterior margin; metanotum with two pairs. The first seven abdominal segments with elevated posterior margins, each armed with a pair of spines, which are largest on the fourth segment. All the femora and tibiæ with blunt denticulations above; the middle and hind femora with three larger denticulations below, a pair near the distal end and a single one near the middle. Supraanal plate slightly emarginate at the apex. Ovipositor keeled, rounded at the apex. Length of the body, 49 mm.; of mesothorax, 9½ mm.; of metathorax, 8 mm.; of abdomen, 26 mm.; of antennæ, 10 mm.; of anterior femur, 12½ mm.; of middle femur, 11 mm.; of posterior femur, 13 mm.
This species is not so spiny as P. hystriculea, and the denticulations on the legs are blunter. But its distinguishing characters are the elevated posterior margins of the abdominal segments.
Genus Clitarchus, Stål. (1875).
Antennæ slender, about as long as the anterior femora, 20–22-jointed; first joint large, contracted towards the base; second joint narrower, subquadrate; third joint longer than the second but shorter than the first. Head with a keel on each side between the eyes and the bases of the antennæ. Pronotum with a transverse impression near the middle. Metathorax nearly as long as the mesothorax. First segment of the abdomen longer than broad. Legs medium, the middle
femora not longer than the metathorax; margins of the femora generally dentate throughout most of their length, the posterior armed with a tooth near the apex. First joint of the tarsi rather long, tectiform above. Anal styles foliaceous, elongated.
♂. Abdominal segments dilated at the ends; the last compressed, its sides deflexed and expanding posteriorly.
♀. Ovipositor reaching the apex of the abdomen; subcymbiform, gradually narrowed posteriorly.
Distribution.—New Zealand only.
Body smooth. First joint of the anterior tarsi longer than the others together. First segment of the abdomen much longer than broad. No spine on the ovipositor. Anal styles narrow.
Bacillus hookeri: White, Zool. Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 24, pl. 6, fig. 6 (1846). Westwood, Gat. Orthopterous Insects in Brit. Mus., part i., p. 14 (1859). Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of New Zealand, p. 74 (1881). Clitarchus hookeri, Stål., Recensio Orthopterorum, part iii., p. 83 (1875). Phasma hookeri, Butler, in Zool. Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 24 (1874).
Hab. North Island and Canterbury.
In this species all the femora are serrated, more strongly in the female than in the male.
Bacillus coloreus, Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii., p. 151 (1885).
This species is closely allied to C. hookeri, but Mr. Colenso says it is very distinct, owing to its many and bright colours, as well as the configuration of the head and anterior femora.
Hab. Hawke's Bay.
Clitarchus læviusculus, Stål., Recensio Orthopterorum, part iii., p. 82 (1875).
♀ “Pale-greenish, ornamented with a black dorsal line (in the example described it can be distinguished on the pronotum, on the bases of the other thoracic segments, and on the apices of the abdominal segments). Antennæ toward their apices and the bases of the anterior femora lightly tinged with rose-pink. Femora slender, the posterior pair below armed with an acute tooth near the apex on the mar-
gin. Length of the body, 83 mm.; of thorax, 36 mm.; of mesothorax, 16 mm.; of metathorax, 16 mm.; of abdomen, 42 mm.; of anterior femur, 20 mm.; of middle femur, 13 mm.; of posterior femur, 18 mm. Width of the mosothorax, 3 mm.” (Stål.)
This species differs from C. hopkeri in having the legs more slender and quite unarmed, except the subapical teeth of the posterior femora. The head has two slight tubercles at its base in the middle.
Thorax spined. First joint of the anterior tarsi not longer than the others together. First segment of the abdomen subquadrate. A spine near the base of the ovipositor. Anal styles broad.
1. A protuberance between the eyes.
Acanthoderus spiniger: White, Zool. Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 24 (1846). Westwood, Cat. Orthopterous Insects in Brit. Mus., p. 48 (1859). Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of New Zealand, p. 76 (1881).
Described from a single male specimen collected by Dr. Sinclair.
Hab. Auckland (?).
Bacillus atro-articulus, Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii., p. 154 (1885).
Hab. Hawke's Bay.
Described from a single female specimen. Perhaps it is the female of the last species.
2. No protuberance between the eyes.
Acanthoderus prasinus: Westwood, Cat. Orthopterous Insects in the Brit. Mus., part i., p. 49, pi. iii., fig. 2 (1859). Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of New Zealand, p. 77 (1881).
Described from a female collected by Sir G. Grey.
Hab. Auckland and Canterbury.
Bacillus filiformis, Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii., p. 153 (1885).
Hab. Hawke's Bay.
Probably the male of the last species.
Bacillus geisovii: Kaup., Pro. Zool. Soc. of London, 1866, p. 578. Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of New Zealand, p. 75 (1881).
This species is easily distinguished from C. prasinus by having the abdominal segments strongly spined above. The type, which is in the Berlin Museum, is a male. The following is a description of two females in the Canterbury Museum, which I believe to belong to the same species:—
Pale-green (turning brown when dry), with strong black spines. Head with about eight spines, of which two pairs are on the vertex. Prothorax with one to three pairs of spines above and two spines on each side, smooth below. Meso-thorax and metathorax with numerous strong spines above and on the sides, and a few below. The first four or five abdominal segments with strong spines above, nearly smooth below, the posterior segments with only a pair of spines. The fourth, fifth, and sixth segments have lateral lobes, those of the sixth segment being the largest. Anterior coxæ with strong spines; anterior femora with one row of spines below and slightly serrated above; middle and posterior femora with two rows of spines below and two above. Anterior tibiæ unarmed; middle and posterior tibiæ with a single proximal denticulation above. Supra-anal plate squarely truncated at the apex. Length of the body, 78 mm.; of the mesothorax, 15 mm.; of metathorax, 14 mm.; of abdomen, 42 mm.; of antennæ, 19 mm.; of anterior femur, 19 mm; of middle femur, 12½ mm.; of posterior femur, 15 mm.
Hab. Marton, near Wanganui.
Genus Argosarchus, gen. nov.
Allied to Clitarchus, but differing in the following characters: The spines on the body are more slender, and sharper. Antennæ 23-jointed; first joint with parallel sides; the second longer than broad; the third elongated, longer than the first. Metathorax considerably shorter than the mesothorax; not longer than the middle femora. Basal joints of the middle and posterior tarsi crested. Anal styles much shorter than in Clitarchus. Median segment shorter than the metanotum Tibiæ below carinate to the apex. Anal styles flattened.
Distribution.—New Zealand only.
Acanthoderus horridus: White, Zool. Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 24, pl. 5, fig. 4 (1846). West-wood, Cat. Orthopterous Insects in Brit. Mus., p. 49
(1859). Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of New Zealand, p. 76 (1881).
Hab. Auckland (?); Canterbury.
Bacillus gerhardii: Kaup., Pro. Zool. Soc. of London, 1866, p. 577. Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of New Zealand, p. 75 (1881).
This species is distinguished from the last by its smooth head and pronotum, but I believe it to be only a variety, as I have several intermediate forms. The following are the dimensions of the largest female in the Museum collection: Length of the body, 152 mm.; of the mesothorax, 32 mm.; of the metathorax, 24 mm.; of the abdomen, 80 mm.; of the antennæ, 38 mm.; of the anterior femur, 37 mm.; of the middle femur, 23½ mm.; of the posterior femur, 31 mm. The colour is generally brown or grey, and in the female lateral lobes are sometimes present on the fourth and sixth abdominal segments, but more often they are absent.
Hab. Southland; Canterbury.
Bacillus sylvaticus, Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xiv., p. 278 (1882).
Hab. Hawke's Bay.
This species has no spines on the head; but the pronotum is said to have three longitudinal rows of large distant spines, 3–4 in each row, and the prosternum is said to be very spiny, with long sharp spines. Perhaps there is some error in the description; and, if so, it will have to be united with the last species.
Bacillus minimus, Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii., p. 153 (1885).
Hab. Hawke's Bay.
The description is not sufficient to enable me to make out the genus to which this belongs. Mr. Colenso says that it is adult, but the reasons he gives for so thinking—viz., “its fully-developed antennæ,” &c.—are not very convincing.
Art. XXI.—Synopsis of the Hemiptera of New Zealand which have been described previous to 1896.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th July, 1897.]
The Hemiptera, or Rhynchota, are easily distinguished from other insects by having the mouth produced into a long, straight sucking-tube, or rostrum, bent under the body. Usually they have four wings, but some are apterous. There is no true pupa stage, the young, or larva, passing into the adult or imago, which, however, can almost always be recognised by possessing wings and ocelli, while the larva never has either.
They are divided into three sub-orders, as follows: Heteroptera—Tarsi three-jointed; wings horizontal, the anterior pair overlapping each other; rostrum springing from the front. Homoptera—Tarsi three-jointed; wings inclined, the anterior pair not overlapping each other; rostrum springing from the chin. Phytophthiria—Tarsi one- or two-jointed. The last sub-order contains a number of small insects of which the New Zealand species have been described by Mr. W. M. Maskell. They are therefore omitted in this synopsis, which includes the Heteroptera and Homoptera only.
In the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” vol. vi., p. 169, I published a list of the New Zealand Hemiptera which had been described previously to 1870. In 1871–73 Mr. Walker's “Catalogue of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera in the British Museum” appeared, which contained a few more. In 1874 Mr. A. G. Butler gave a new list in the “Zoology of the Voyage of the ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror’ ”; but the most important addition to our knowledge of the order was made by Mr. F. Buchanan White, who published a list, with descriptions of many new species, in the “Entomologists' Monthly Magazine,” vols. xiv. to xvi. (1878–79). Since then very little has been done except the rectification of the nomenclature of the Cicadidæ, by Mr. W. F. Kirby, in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” vol. xxviii., p. 454.
In the present synopsis the keys are adapted to the New Zealand genera only, and are merely intended to help the collector in naming his captures. It will generally be necessary to refer to the original descriptions before deciding that he has got something new.
These insects include what are known as the bugs. The fore-wings are called elytra, or hemelytra, and are generally coriaceous and opaque at the base, membranous and transparent at the apex. The basal portion consists of two pieces—the corium on the outsid and the clavus on the inside, the line between them being called the claval suture. In the Capsidœ and the Anthocoridœ the corium is produced into a triangular piece called the cunetcs, which is joined to the corium by a flexible suture. The apical portion of the elytron is called the membrane: sometimes it is not developed. The posterior wings are entirely membranous when present, but often they are wanting.
|A. Antenœ prominent; the posterior legs like the others, for walking.|
|1. Scucellum covering the whole inner margin of the elytra||Scutelleridœ.|
|2. Scutellum not reaching much beyond the base of the membrane of the elytra; body broadly oval.|
|a. Tibiœ unarmed.|
|a1. Abdomen with a spine projecting for wards||Acanthosomatidæ.|
|b1. Abdomen without any spine.|
|a2. Basal joint of rostrum not in a groove||Asopidœ.|
|b2. Basal joint of rostrum in a groove.|
|a3. Abdomen with a longitudinal furrow||Halytidœ.|
|b3. Abdomen without a longitudinal furrow.|
|a4. Head flat, slightly foliaceous||Sciocoridœ.|
|b4. Head not foliaceous||Pentatomidœ.|
|b. Tibiæ armed with spines||Cydnidœ.|
|3. Scutellum not reaohing the membrane of the elytra; body narrowly oval or elongate (except Saldidœ).|
|c. Elytra without a cuneus.|
|c1. Kostrum not entirely free; antennæ shorter than the body.|
|c2. Rostrum not in a groove.|
|c3. Antennæ inserted on upper side of the head||Berytidœ.|
|d3. Antennæ inserted on lower side of the head.|
|c4. Membrane of elytra with a cross-vein||Lygœidœ.|
|d4. Membrane with longitudinal veins only||Pachymeridœ.|
|d2. Rostrum in a groove.|
|e4. Fore-legs raptorial||Phymatidœ.|
|f4. Fore-legs like the others||Aradidœ.|
|d1. Rostrum entirely free; antennæ longer than the body.|
|e2. Head with a neck behind the eyes.|
|e3. Fore coxæ short||Reduviidœ.|
|f3. Fore coxæ very long||Emesidœ.|
|f2. Head without a distinct neck behind the eyes||Saldidœ.|
|d. Elytra with a cuneus.|
|g1. Cuneus on the outer margin of the corium||Anthocoridæ.|
|h1. Cuneus at the apex of the corium||Capsidœ.|
|B. Antennœ hidden.; the posterior legs elevated and ciliated for swimming.|
|e. Rostrum exposed; anterior tarsi two-jointed||Notonectidœ.|
|f. Rostrum hidden; anterior tarsi one-jointed||Corixidœ.|
|Second joint of the antennæ much shorter than third||Calliphara.|
|Second joint of the antennæ much longer than third||Peltophora.|
Calliphara imperialis, Fab., E.S., iv., 81, 6 (Cimex). Callidea imperialis, Dallas, B.M. Cat. Hemiptera, p. 24.
Pronotum and scutellum red; abdomen blue, margined with crimson.
Hab. An Australian species, a specimen of which in the British Museum is said to have come from New Zealand.
Peltophora pedicellata, Kirby, Introduction, iii., p. 517. Scutiphora picta, Gué., Voy. “Coquille,” Zool., ii., p. 165, pl. xi., fig. 7.
Greenish-blue, with the margins of the pronotum and two spots on the scutellum ochraceous. Length, 15 mm.
Hab. An Australian species, said to have been captured in Auckland by the “Novara” Expedition.
|Lateral angles of the thorax with sharp spines||œchalia.|
|Lateral angles of the thorax with blunt spines||Cermatulus.|
œchalia schellembergii, Gué., Voy. “Coquille,” Zool., ii., p. 168, pl. xi., fig. 9. Pentatoma consodalis, Boisd., Voy. de l'Astrol., ii., p. 630; Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 7, fig. 2. Rhaphigaster perfectus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., 8vo, part 2, p. 371.
Brownish-yellow, with black punctures; scutellum with a dark band beyond the middle and a pale-yellow apex. Length, 11 mm.
Hab. An Australian species, found also at Auckland, and in the Philippine Islands.
Walker described his R. perfectus as having the third joint of the antennæ longer than the second or the fourth; in other
respects his description agrees with that of P. consocialis, Boisduval.
Cermatulus nasalis, Hope, Cat., p. 32; Dallas, B.M. Cat., p. 106, pl. 2, fig. 3; Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 4; Hudson, Man. N.Z. Entomology, pl. 20, fig. 3. Asopus nummularis, Erichson, Arch, für Naturg., viii., p. 276. Rhaphigaster pentatomoides, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., p. 370.
Dull-red, with brown punctures. Pronotum with a slight transverse impression which is irregularly bordered with black. Scutellum with a pale tip. Elytra with a black spot beyond the middle. Length, 10 mm.
Hab. Throughout New Zealand, from Auckland to Otago. Found also in Australia and Tasmania; generally on trees.
|Membrane of elytra with reticulated veins||Dictyotus.|
|Membrane of elytra with longitudinal veins||Sciocris.|
Dictyotus polysticticus (White), Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 26, pi. 7, fig. 5. Pentatoma vilis, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., p. 309.
Brownish-red, with brown punctures. Scutellum with a small black spot on each angle. Margins of the abdomen spotted. Length, 8–9 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Otago. Found also in Tasmania.
If White's figure without description does not count, then Walker's name will have to be taken.
Sciocoris helferi, Fieb. Rhynchotogr., p. 449.
Greyish-yellow, punctured with brown; pronotum with yellowish sides. Corium longer than the scutellum; the membrane with brownish spots. Abdomen with a row of black spots. Length, 6 mm.
Hab. A South European species, said to have been collected in Auckland by the “Novara” Expedition.
In this family the middle lobe of the head is sometimes the longest in the larva, but in the imago the side-lobes project beyond it.
Nezara amoyti (White), Dallas, B.M. Cat., p. 278 (Rhaphigaster).
Abdomen not keeled. Green or greenish-brown, densely punctured. Pronotum, elytra, and abdomen margined with paler. Length, 15–17 mm.
Hab. Auckland and Canterbury. Found also in Australia.
Nezara prasina, Linn., S.N., i. (Cimex). Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., p. 354.
Abdomen keeled. Yellow, with green spots on the pronotum and scutellum, and a large subapical green spot on each of the elytra. Length, 13–16 mm.
Hab. Specimens are in the British Museum from New Zealand. The species is widely distributed over the greater part of the world.
Body broad, flat above, membrane generally rudimentary .. Platycoris.
Platycoris immarginatus, Dallas, Cat. Hemip. B.M., p. 154.
Black, sprinkled with small whitish warts. Anterior angles of prothorax and outer margin at the base of elytra yellowish. Legs yellowish - orange and black. Length, 8–9 mm.
Hab. There is in the British Museum one specimen from New Zealand and another from Australia.
|Abdominal spine small||Rhopalimorpha.|
|Abdominal spine large||Anubis.|
Rhopalimorpha obscura (White), Dallas, Cat. Hem. B.M., p. 293; Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 8. Rhopalimorpha similis, Mayr, Reise,” Novara,” Hemiptera, taf. 2, fig. 14.
Ochraceous, with brown punctures. A narrow smooth pale line down the middle of the pronotum and scutellum. Abdomen black above, margined with yellow. Length, 8–9 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Otago.
R. similis has the second joint of the antennæ longer than the third, and may be distinct.
Anubis vittatus, Fabr., E.S., iv., 96, and S.R., 165, 52 (Cimex). Acanthosoma vittatum, Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 7, fig. 1.
Greenish-brown, the anterior portion of the pronotum and the margins of the elytra yellowish. Pronotum subspinose on each side. Length, 10 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Otago, common; on bushes, &c.
|No ocelli||Chœrocydnus and Pangœus.|
Geotomus leptospermi (White), Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 25(œthus), pl. 7, fig. 3.
Black, with reddish-brown elytra and legs. Length, 5–6 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Canterbury.
Pangœus scotti, Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, 1882, p. 259, pl. 9, fig. 117.
Oval; maroon-brown, the rostrum and antennæ lighter; the tarsi yellow. Head with three and pronotum with seven or eight bristles on each side; front margin of the elytra with five hairy spots. Length, 6¾ mm.; breadth, 3½ mm.
Hab. New Zealand.
Chœnocydnus nigrosignatus, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 14 (1878), p. 275.
Brownish-yellow, remotely punctured with brown; an irregular transverse dark-brown band near the anterior border of the pronotum. Sides of the head, pronotum, and basal half of the front margin of the corium with long reddish-brown bristles. Length, 4–5 mm.; breadth, 3–3½ mm.
Hab. Canterbury and Otago.
|Apical lamina of the head reaching beyond the apex||Neides.|
Neides wakefieldi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 31.
Pale-red; sides of the head and prostethium with a longitudinal brown line. Elytra only one-fifth of the length of the abdomen. Length, 7–8 mm.; breadth, 1 mm.
Perhaps an apterous form of a dimorphic species (Buch. White).
|a. First joint of the rostrum longer than the head||Lygœus.|
|b. First joint of the rostrum not longer than the head.|
|a1. Fore femora unarmed.|
|a2. Third and fourth veins united near the base||Arocatus.|
|b2. Third and fourth veins parallel||Nysius.|
|b1. Fore femora with a spine before the apex||Paresuris|
Lygæus pacificus, Boisduval, Voy. “Astrolabe,” ii., p. 639, pl. 11, fig. 20.
Black; the head, three stripes on the pronotum, and a spot on the elytra reddish.
Hab. Found in Australia, Tasmania, and India. A specimen in the British Museum is said to have come from New Zealand.
Arocatus ruficollis, Walker, Cat. Hem.–Het. B.M., part 5, p. 64 (Lygœus).
Black; pronotum with an anterior red band; beneath red. Length, 7 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Otago.
Allied to A. rusticus, Stål, an Australian species.
Nysius zealandicus, Dallas, Cat. Hemip. B.M., p. 552; Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 6.
Greyish-brown; below, brown spotted with white. Antennæ black, apex of the third joint yellowish-brown. Length, 6–7 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Otago; common in Auckland, in gardens.
The teeth on the hind margin of the pronotum are often nearly or quite obsolete.
Nysius anceps, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 33.
Brownish-red, variegated with black; a yellowish band through the basal half of the head to the apex of the scutellum. Elytra short, the membrane rudimentary. Length, 5–6 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.
Nysius huttoni, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 32.
Greyish-red, variegated with black; membrane of elytra spotted with brown near the base; below black, marked with yellow. Length, 3–4 mm.; breadth, 1¾ mm.
Hab. Canterbury and Otago; common, running on the ground in gardens, &c.
Variable in the intensity of the dark markings.
Paresuris helmsi, Reuter, Rev. Ent. de France, 1890, p. 192.
Reddish-brown, with ochraceous spots. Elytra short, variegated ochraceous and red, with three opaque spots nearly in a line. Length, 3¾ mm.
The body is obovate; the head transverse; the second joint of the rostrum reaching the fore coxæ. Antennæ inserted near the eyes. Elytra strongly punctate.
|a. Pronotum contracted in the middle||Plociomerus.|
|b. Pronotum not contracted, the sides keeled.|
|a1. Anterior border of pronotum margined||Scolopostethus.|
|b1. Anterior border of pronotum not margined.|
|a2. Pronotum as long as broad||Margareta.|
|b2. Pronotum broader than long.|
|a3. Rostrum passing the middle coxæ||Targarema.|
|b3. Rostrum not passing the middle coxæ||Metagerra.|
Plociomerus inornatus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., part 5, p. 112. P. nigriceps, Mayr, Reise “Novara,” Zool. band ii., abtbl. i., p. 128 (not of Dallas). P. douglasi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol 13., p. 105.
Reddish; black beneath; hairy. Legs yellow, the femora with more or less black. Length, 5 mm.
Metagerra obscura, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15., p. 34.
Dull chestnut-brown; pronotum and scutellum with whitish-brown marks. A central band on the posterior half of the scutellum, and a streak in the middle of the apical margin of the corium, blackish. Length, 3–4 mm.; breadth, 1½ mm.
Targarema electa, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 74.
Dull chestnut-brown, variegated with paler. Corium with a dark streak from the base to near the middle of the claval suture, and another from beyond the middle to the inner apical margin. Also a dark patch near the outer apical angle. Length, 6 mm.; breadth, 2½ mm.
Targarema ståli, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 73.
Dull chestnut-brown, variegated with paler. Corium with a black streak from the inner apical angle to the middle of the claval suture. Length, 3–4 mm.; breadth, 1¼–1¾ mm.
Margareta dominica, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol 15, p. 75.
Above dull-brown, variegated with darker; below dark-brown. Posterior half of the pronotum rather coarsely punctured. Length, 6 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.
Scolopostethus putoni, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 75.
Dull reddish-brown, variegated with darker. A black spot in the middle of the scutellum, and one on each of the hind angles of the pronotum. Head and front lobe of pronotum black. Length, 3 mm.
|Head thick, quadrangular on the sides; the lateral margins of the pronotum produced and serrated||Phymata.|
Phymata feredayi, Scott, Stett. Ent. Zeit., vol. 31, p. 102 (1876).
Light ochraceous with dark-brown markings; head and pronotum covered with small, white, crowded granulations. Head prolonged anteriorly into two pointed protuberances with a slight bend backwards. Length, 6–7 mm.
Phymata conspicua, Scott, Stett. Ent. Zeit., vol. 31, p. 103 (1876).
Like the last, but the head not prolonged anteriorly. Length, 5–6 lines.
|a. Body granulated; rostrum longer than the head.|
|a1. Body oval||Aradus.|
|b1. Body elongated||Neuroctenus.|
|b. Body not granulated; rostrum shorter than the head.|
|c1. Membrane of elytra with veins; body linear.|
|a2. Second joint of antennæ not longer than the first||Crimia.|
|b2. Second joint of antennæ longer than the first||Mezira.|
|d1. Membrane of elytra without veins; body long-oval||Aneurus.|
The insects belonging to this family are usually found under loose bark, or in moss.
Aradus australis, Erichson, Wiegmann's Archiv. f. Nat., viii., band i., p. 281.
Black; thorax with six keels; membrane of the hemelytra hyaline, spotted with fuscous. Length, 5 mm.
Hab. Tasmania. This, or an allied species, is found in Otago and Canterbury.
Neuroctenus hochstetteri, Mayr, Reise “Novara,” Zool., ii., Hem., p. 166, pl. 4, fig. 47.
Black, the tarsi brown. Length, 7–8 mm.
Crimia attenuata, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vii., p. 22.
Black, the hind borders of the ventral segments red. First three joints of the antennæ about equal. Length, 9 mm.
Hab. There are specimens from New Zealand in the British Museum.
Mezira maorica, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vii., p. 29.
Black. First joint of the antennæ much shorter than the second or third, which are equal. Length, 8 mm.
Hab. There are specimens from New Zealand in the British Museum.
Mr. Butler thinks that this species is the same as the last.
Aneurus brown, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 13, p. 106.
Reddish-brown. First joint of the antennæ pyriform and truncate at the apex; about the same length as the second. Length, 3–4 mm.
|a. First joint of hind tarsi longer than the second.|
|a1. Body linear; first joint of rostrum longer than the head||Megalocerœa.|
|b1. Body oblong; first joint of rostrum as long as the head.|
|a2. First joint of antennæ reaching beyond the head||Morna.|
|b2. First joint of antennæ not reaching apex of head||Reuda.|
|b. First joint of hind tarsi not longer than the second.|
|c1. Pronotum with a collar on the fore border||Capsus.|
|d1. Pronotum without an anterior collar||Leptomerocoris.|
These insects run quickly and fly easily; they are fond of fruit.
Megalocerœa reuteriana, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 130.
Pale dull-red, variegated with brown. Middle and hind femora with indistinct pale-brown spots. Length, 5–7 mm.; breadth, 1¾ mm.
Morna capsoides, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 131.
Dull reddish-brown, variegated with red; a central band
through the head, pronotum, and scutellum, generally yellowish-red. Length, 7–8 mm.; breadth, 3–3½ mm.
Morna scotti, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 131.
Shining reddish - brown, variegated with blackish and whitish; legs black. Indications of a pale longitudinal line through the head, pronotum, and scutellum. Length, 5 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.
Hab. Canterbury and Otago.
Reuda mayri, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 132.
Brownish-red, with irregular brown spots; legs yellowish, with dark-brown rings; tarsi dark-brown. Length, 5 mm.
Capsus laticinctus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vi., p. 127.
Yellowish-brown, with dark longitudinal streaks. First joint of the antennæ half the length of the second. Length, 5 mm.
Hab. There is a specimen from New Zealand in the British Museum.
Capsus ustulatus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vi., p. 128.
Yellowish-brown, with darker longitudinal streaks. First joint of the antennæ twice as long as the second. Length, 5–6 mm.
Hab. There is a specimen from New Zealand in the British Museum.
Probably it is identical with the last species.
Leptomerocoris maoricus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vi., p. 146.
Dull-red or brown, paler beneath. Corium with a red mark on the middle of the exterior border. Length, 3 mm.
Hab. There are specimens from New Zealand in the British Museum.
Head elongate; pronotum with a broad transverse ridge Cardiastethus.
|a. Third and fourth veins of the membrane coalesce and form a small cell||C. brounianus.|
|b. All the veins of the membrane free.|
|a1. Sides of the pronotum straight||C. consors.|
|b1. Sides of the pronotum rounded||C. poweri.|
Cardiastethus brounianus, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 159.
Dark-brown, with long pale hairs; second joint of antennæ and legs brownish-yellow. Transverse depression of the pronotum nearly obsolete. Length, 2–3 mm.
Cardiastethus consors, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 16, p. 143.
Brownish-yellow, with long pale hairs, marked with reddish-brown; external part of the cuneus rosy. Only the outer vein of the membrane is distinct, Length, 3 mm.
Cardiastethus poweri, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 16, p. 143.
Dark reddish-brown, with long grey hairs; marked with paler. All the veins of the membrane are very indistinct. Length, 1–2 mm.
|Rostrum three-jointed, not extending beyond the fore coxæ||Pirates.|
|Rostrum four-jointed, extending beyond the fore coxæ||Nabis.|
These insects generally feed on other insects.
Pirates ephippigera, White, in Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” vol. 2, p. 283; Butler, in Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 7.
Black, with reddish-yellow legs and antennæ and an ochraceous patch on the inner edge of each elytron near the base. Length, 19 mm.
Hab. Specimens from Australia and New Zealand are in the British Museum.
This species belongs to the sub-genus Brachysandalus.
Nabis maoricus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vii., p. 145.
Pale dull-red, with four black spots on the elytra; legs pale-yellow; scutellum wholly pale. Length, 6 mm.
Hab. There are specimens from New Zealand in the British Museum.
Nabis saundersi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 159.
Yellowish-red, with a black central longitudinal band. Length, 8–9 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Otago.
|Wingless; fore femora with a tooth at the base||Emesodema.|
Emesodema huttoni, Scott, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 11 (May, 1874).
Dull-brown. Anterior margin, of pronotum slightly wider than the head, and with a narrow collar. Fore femora with two dense rows of short spines on the under-side, among which, at irregular intervals, are about five long ones. Length, 6 mm.
Hab. Auckland and Wellington.
|Body oval; pronotum with an anterior callosity||Salda.|
The animals belonging to Salda are found running over the stones and sand on the shores of the ocean and inland waters.
Salda australis, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol., 13, p. 106.
Black, with obscure yellowish-brown spots on the elytra; with dark-greyish pubescence and a few golden hairs. Femora with the base and a broad ring near the apex brownish-yellow. Membrane with four cells, fuscous, a blackish spot near the anterior margin. Length, 4–5 mm.
Salda butleri, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 160.
Black, marked with brownish-yellow on the pronotum and elytra; with black and golden hairs. Membrane large, with four cells, fuscous, spotted with paler in the cells. Length, 5 mm.
Hab. Otago: shores of Lake Wakatipu.
Salda lælaps, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 160.
Black, marked with brownish-yellow on the head, pronotum, and elytra; with black and golden hairs. Legs yellowish, a broad band at the middle of the femora and the apices of the tibiæ and tarsi blackish. Membrane small, with four cells, the innermost of which is very short. Length, 4–5 mm.; breadth, 2½–3 mm.
|Antennæ four-jointed, the fourth longer than the third||Anisops.|
Anisops wakefieldi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 161.
Shining yellowish-white; scutellum generally black, mar-
gined with yellowish-white; abdomen blackish, spotted above with yellow. Fore tarsi twice the length of the claws. Length, 9 mrn.; breadth, 2¾ mm.
Hab. Canterbury and Otago; in ponds.
The scutellum is sometimes entirely pale. The male and female are of the same size.
Anisops assimilis, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 161.
Shining yellowish-white; the scutellum slightly marked with black; abdomen yellow, marked with black. Fore tarsi four times the length of the claws. Length, ♂ 6–7½ mm., ♀ 7½–8 mm; breadth, ♂ 1¾–2 mm., ♀ 2 mm.
Female specimens are scarcely distinguishable from those of the last species, except by their smaller size and paler scutellum. The labrum, however, seems to be longer in assimilis, reaching nearly to the middle of the third joint of the rostrum, while in wakefieldi it scarcely extends beyond the base.
|Antennæ four-jointed; scutellum covered||Corixa.|
Corixa arguta, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 161. C. zealandicus, Hudson, Man. N.Z. Entomology, pl. 20, fig. 5.
Pronotum with about ten yellow - and - black transverse lines; elytra with undulating yellow-and-black lines. Length, 7–8 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Otago; abundant in stagnant water.
Rather variable in size, but constant in the markings.
In the female the palæ are narrowly cultrate. In the male they are cultrate, rounded on the back, a little produced at the base below; frontal fovea oval, passing a little beyond the lower angle of the eyes; venter fuscous in the middle; strigil circular, furnished with eight more or less shortened rows of teeth.
In this sub-order the anterior wings are called the tegmina. They are either altogether membranous, as in the Cicadas (Cicadidœ), or altogether coriaceous, as in the leaf-hoppers (Cercopidœ). They have a small basal area, followed by a long radial area. These are followed by a transverse row of six ulnar areas, and these by a row of eight apical areas, the area next the outer margin being, in each case,
considered as the first of each row. The posterior wings are smaller.
The Maori name for Cicada is tatarakihi.
|a. Antennæ six-jointed; ocelli three||Cicadidæ.|
|b. Antennæ three- or two-jointed; ocelli two or none.|
|a1. Ocelli placed on the crown||Cercopidœ.|
|b1. Ocelli placed between the eyes||Jassidœ.|
|c1. Ocelli placed below the eyes||Fulgoridœ.|
|Tympana uncovered; ulnar veins of tegmina united at their origin||Melampsalta.|
|a1. Apex of fifth ulnar area acute||M. scutellaris.|
|b1. Apex of fifth ulnar area obtuse.|
|a2. General colour reddiah, greenish, or yellowish.|
|a3. Abdominal segments not black on the sides.|
|a4. Tegmina greenish near the base||M. muta.|
|b4. Tegmina colourless||M. cutora.|
|b3. Abdominal segments black on the sides.|
|c4. Black marks on the lower surface of abdomen.|
|a5. Base of the wings red||M. cincta.|
|b5. Base of the wings colourless.|
|a6. Three or four black stripes on the mesonotum||M. cruentata.|
|b6. Two black stripes on the mesonotum||M. angusta.|
|d4. No black marks on the lower surface of abdomen||M. iolanthe.|
|b2. General colour blackish.||M. cingulata.|
|c3. Tegmina with fuscous marks near the apex||M. mangu.|
|d3. Tegmina without any fuscous marks.|
|e4. Larger, very hairy.|
|With reddish markings||M. mangu.|
|Without red markings||M. cassiope.|
|f4. Smaller, less hairy, with reddish markings||M. nervosa.|
Melampsalta scutellaris, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 150 (Cicada). Cicada arche, Walker, l.c., p. 195. Cicada tristis, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiii., p. 52.
Dull bronzy-greenish, with silvery pubescence; mesonotum with four obconical black marks, more or less vermiculated with reddish; abdomen with a broad central longitudinal dark band below. Tegmina rather narrow, tinged with brown or greenish, the costa tawny and the post-costal area fuscous; wings with the anal vein infuscated; fourth apical area does not project between the second and third ulnar areas. Length, 15–20 mm.; expanse, 45–63 mm.
Melampsalta cingulata, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 680, 9 (Tettigonia); Hudson, Man. N.Z. Entomology, pl. 20, fig. 1; Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 50. Cicada zealandica, Boisduval, Voy. “Astrolabe,” Ent., pl. 10, fig. 6. Cicada indivulsa, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., suppl., p. 33.
Head and thorax ochraceous or greenish, with black markings. A large black spot on the mesonotum just in front of the cruciform elevation, and a smaller black spot on each side of it. Abdomen dull-black, with reddish marks on the last segment. Tegmina with fuscous marks on the transverse veins at the bases of the second and third apical areas. Wings with a dark spot on the margin, at the anal angle, and another near the base. Length, 20–22 mm.; expanse, 67 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Southland.
Var. obscura, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 51.
Smaller and duller in colour.
Hab. Kaikoura Mountains, in river-beds.
Melampsalta muta, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 681, 17 (Tettigonia). Cicada muta, Hudson, Man. N.Z. Ent., pl. xx., fig. 2. Cicada muta, var. sub-alpina, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 52.
Green or ochraceous. Mesonotum with two black spots on the disc in front of the cruciform elevation, and a black mark on each side. Abdomen with a silvery band, which is usually margined with black; no dark markings below. Tegmina and wings tinged with green near the base. Tarsi black. Length, 20 mm; expanse, 53 mm.
Hab. Nelson, in sub-alpine localities, and Southland.
Melampsalta cutora, Walker, Cat. Homop. B.M., p. 172 (Cicada). Cicada ochrina, Walker, l.c., suppl., p. 34. Cicada aprilina, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 53.
Like the last, but the tegmina and wings are colourless, arid the legs rarely have dark markings. Length, 15–21 mm.; expanse, 42–58 mm.
Probably a variety of M. muta.
Hab. Auckland, Lake Taupo, and Canterbury.
Melampsalta cruentata, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 680, 10 (Tettigonia). Cicada rosea, Walker, Cat. Homop. B.M., p. 220. Cicada bilinea, Walker, Cat. Homop. B.M., suppl., p. 34. Cicada muta, var. rufescens, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 52.
Reddish, ochraceous, cr greenish, with black markings. Head thickly covered with hairs. Posterior margin of pronotum rosy red. Abdominal segments black above, with
posterior red borders; below, they are reddish, with a black spot in the middle of each. Costa rosy or brown. Length, 20 mm.; expanse, 49 mm.
Hab. Nelson to Southland, and the Chatham Islands.
Var. sericea, Walker, l.c., p. 172.
Costa green, black towards the tip.
Var. flavescens, Hudson, l.c., p. 52.
Hab. Mountains of Nelson.
Melampsalta angusta, Walker, Cat. Homop. B.M., p. 174 (Cicada). Cicada muta, var. cinerascens, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 52.
Yellowish-brown, with black markings. Mesonotum with only two broad obconical dark streaks. Abdomen as in M. cruentata, but the dark spots down the centre of the lower surface are broader and often confluent into a band. Length, 17 mm.; expanse, 47 mm.
Hab. Wellington and Canterbury.
Melampsalta cincta, Walker, Cat. Homop., in B.M., p. 204 (Cicada). Cicada muta, var. minor, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 52.
Tawny or reddish, with black markings; abdominal segments black, margined posteriorly with red above, and red with a black spot in the middle of each below. Tegmina rather broad, the basal area red; wings with the anal veins broadly margined with red. Length, 16–17 mm.; expanse, 35–37 mm.
Hab. Lake Taupo to Wellington.
Melampsalta iolanthe, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 53 (Cicada). Cicada iolanthe, Man. of N.Z. Entomology, pl 20, fig. 3.
Greenish or ochraceous, with black markings; the abdominal segments black, bordered posteriorly with red; below they are red. Tegmina rather broad, the costa green or brown. Length, 14 mm.; expanse, 34 mm.
Hab. Lake Taupo, Nelson, and Canterbury.
Melampsalta nervosa, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 213 (Cicada).
Black, with reddish stripes on the thorax; hind margins of the abdominal segments green. Legs yellow, marked with black. Length, 15 mm.; expanse, 36 mm.
Melampsalta mangn, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 214.
Black, with obsolete reddish markings on the thorax; long black-and-grey hairs and pale pubescence. Hind borders of the abdominal segments sometimes reddish or yellowish; lower surface pale-rosy. Legs pale-rosy, with black marks. Length, 17–20 mm.; expanse, 32–40 mm.
Hab. Mountains of Canterbury.
Melampsalta cassiope, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 54 (Cicada).
Black; the female with whitish hairs. Length, 19–21 mm.; expanse, 41–47 mm.
Hab. Mountains of Nelson and Marlborough.
Perhaps a variety of the last, but with longer wings.
|Ocelli wide apart||Philœnus.|
These insects are known as leaf-hoppers.
Aphrophora jactator, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 214.
Fuscous brown, with a greyish-green tinge. Tegmina with two pale blotches on the front margin, and a brown triangular blotch between them. Length, 10–12 mm.
Philænus fingens, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 718 (Ptyelus).
Yellow. Pronotum with a dark stripe on each side. Tegmina whitish, with an undulating ferruginous stripe through the disc. Length, 5 mm.
Philænus subvirescens (White), Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 9.
Ochraceous; elytra pale greenish-red. Length, 7 mm. Hab. Auckland.
Philænus trimaculatus (White), Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 10.
Dull-red or greenish, with a black spot on each side of the pronotum. Tegmina darker in the centre, with a large pale patch on the margin near the apex, and a curved pale subbasal streak. Length, 7 mm.
Hab. Auckland to Otago, and the Chatham Islands. Common.
|Head not produced; elytra not bordered||Athysanus.|
Dorydium westwoodi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 215.
Pale ochraceous. Head and thorax finely punctate. Tegmina coarsely punctate. Length, 14 mm.; length of the head, 4 mm.
Athysanus negatus, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 215.
Pale rufous-brown, with some indistinct darker spots on the pronotum. Back of the abdomen black in the male and pale-brown in the female. Length, 5 mm.
|a. Wings broad, horizontal in repose||Ricania.|
|b. Wings inclined in repose.|
|a1. Antennæ rather long; second joint longer than the first||Cona.|
|b1. Antennæ short; second joint globular.|
|a2. Hind tibiæ unarmed; head narrower than the pronotum.|
|a3. Veins of the tegmina without dark marks||Cixitis.|
|b3. Veins of the tegmina with dark spots or dots||Oliarus.|
|c3. Veins of the tegmina with dark rings||Aka.|
|b2. Hind tibiæ spined or toothed.|
|d3. Head narrower than the pronotum||Agandecca.|
|e3. Head rather broader than the pronotum||Semo.|
|a. Tegmina with a transverse mark on the disc||C. interior.|
|b. Tegmina without any discal mark; veins black at the tips.|
|a1. Veins yellow||G. punctimargo.|
|b1. Veins reddish.|
|a2. Stigma with a black dot||C. rufifrons.|
|b2. Stigma whitish, at the base||C. aspilus.|
Cixius interior, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 82.
Dull-red; abdomen pale-brown; posterior margins of the segments whitish. Veins pale-red, black towards the tips; stigma whitish. Length, 4 mm.
Hab. Specimens from New Zealand are in the British Museum.
Cixius punctimargo, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 81.
Pale-yellow. Tegmina with black transverse veins and a black mark at the tip of each apical vein. Length, 3 mm.
Hab. Specimens from New Zealand are in the British Museum.
Cixius rufifrons, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 83.
Pale-brown, the face red. Veins dull-red, with black points towards their tips. Length, 4 mm.
Hab. Specimens from New Zealand are in the British Museum.
Cixius aspilus, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 83.
Pale-reddish. Veins pale-reddish, black towards the tips. Length, 4 mm.
Hab. Specimens from New Zealand are in the British Museum.
Oliarus oppositus, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 345 (Cixius).
Black; crown of the head with a tawny ridge; pronotum margined with tawny. Mesonotum red, with fine bands. Hind borders of the abdominal segments yellow. Tegmina rather tawny, the stigma yellow and brown. Veins yellow, with dark spots. Length, 3–4 mm.
Hab. Bay of Islands.
Oliarus marginalis, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 82 (Cixius).
Black; the head and thorax bordered with reddish; hind borders of the abdominal segments reddish on each side. Tegmina colourless; stigma black, with a white dot at its inner end. Veins reddish, with black dots. Length, 5 mm.
Aka finitima, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 81 (Cixius).
Pale-yellowish or reddish, the face brown; thorax sometimes black; abdomen blackish above; legs with black bands. Tegmina greyish; the veins pale-reddish, with black rings. Length, 4 mm.
Semo clypeatus, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 217.
Pale ochreous-brown, marked with darker on the head, scutellum, and abdomen. Length, 4–5 mm.
Agandecca annectens, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 218.
Reddish. Tegmina yellowish, the veins marked with whitish; commissure of clavus, from the middle to the apex, piceous. Length, 5 mm.
Ricania australis, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 430 (Pochazia).
Ferruginous. Tegmina slightly tawny, the fore border near the base testaceous, margin and two imperfect bands brown; wings margined with brown. Length, 5 mm.
Hab. Auckland, probably introduced from Australia.
Cona cælata, Buchanan White, Ent Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 218.
Pale-brown, variegated with darker; keels of the head, pronotum, and scutellum generally red. Tegmina hyaline, more or less clouded with brown. Length, 4–6 mm.
Art. XXII.—Notes on New Zealand Starfishes.
[Read before the Nelson Philosophical Society, 30th August, 1897.]
Asterias calamaria, Gray.
This is a very variable species, and reminds one of the variations of A. rubens, as described by Professor Bell, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), vii., p. 469 (1891). There are at least two well-marked forms—a large, coarse variety with stout rays, covered with thick skin, having short, stout, truncated, irregular spines on the abactinal surface, often in groups of three or four closely packed together, each group surrounded by a wreath of pedicellariæ at the base, the rows of spines often interrupted; and a more delicate variety, with long, thin, tapering, flexible rays covered with thin skin, the
abactinal spines comparatively long, fine, pointed, single, and arranged in regular longitudinal rows on the rays, with a few smaller spines here and there between the rows, each spine with a narrow wreath of pedicellariæ at the base. The inframarginal plates, which are adjacent to the adambulacral plates, bear a double row of spines, which becomes triple towards the base of the arms, while the supramarginal plates only have a single spine on every other plate. Specimens of this variety when taken curl the rays backwards over the disc, and usually remain thus in a bunched-up basket shape. The latter seems to be the prevailing form at Nelson, while the coarse variety is abundant in Wellington Harbour. When I received a few young examples only of the finer variety from Mr. Lukins, of Nelson, I supposed that they belonged to a distinct species, but the receipt of a larger series, some of them full grown, proved their identity. Intermediate forms connecting the two varieties are not rare. Young individuals of this species always have a number of small arms budding out between the larger ones, or a group of small ones on one side of the disc, like that figured by M. De Loriol, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève, xxix. (1885), pl. vii., fig. 2. They appear to have only a small number of arms at first (4 to 7), and the others are added afterwards. The coarse variety, with which I am familiar in life at Wellington, is never found here under stones (except very young individuals), but always on stones or rocks, while Mr. Lukins reports that he finds the finer variety at Nelson plentiful under stones at low water. This explains a statement made by Mr. Etheridge which puzzled me for some time, that at Lord Howe Island “scarcely a stone of any size can be overturned but what examples of this species are to be seen clinging to it.” (“Lord Howe Island,” p. 39 (1889).)
I have received a giant specimen of this species from Mr. Lukins, collected by Mr. Donald Sutherland at Milford Sound. It has ten arms, and measures 20 in. between the extremities of the arms.
Stichaster insignis, Farquhar.
When collecting this species I noticed several times that there appeared to be a difference between specimens from Point Jerningham and those taken at Highwater Islet, in Evans's Bay. I therefore collected some specimens at Point Jerningham, and placed them in a glass jar, and then I went on to Highwater Islet and collected specimens there, which I placed in another jar. The difference was now seen to be very distinct. The colour of all the specimens from Point Jerningham was clear red or pink above and white or yellowish beneath, while those from Highwater Islet were
darker and usually tinged with purple or brown on the dorsal surface and brown beneath, and the rays not so stout as those from Point Jerningham. It is remarkable and extremely interesting to find two varieties of this little species at two stations only a mile and a quarter apart. I think we may conclude from this that the young are not carried far from their place of birth by the currents, and that this form is probably capable of great variations under different conditions of life.
If one is only alert enough there is always something new to be observed on the sea-shore which will add to our stock of knowledge, and although perhaps apparently insignificant, may presently tend to the solution of important biological problems. The study of the variations and habits of our littoral marine animals, their distribution in time and space, and their relations to one another, to the animals of other regions, and to those which inhabited the New Zealand seas in former times, is extremely interesting and important, and presents a large field for the future investigations of New Zealand naturalists; and, although the would-be generalisers of to-day (able to explain everything according to their own pet theories) despise those who occupy themselves with the minutiæ of natural history, we must always remember that it is necessary to study nature in detail to get a true general view of the whole.
Stichaster suteri, var. lævigatus, Hutton.
Mr. E. Lukins, who recently visited the southern islands in the Government steamer “Hinemoa,” brought three little starfishes from Carnley Harbour, Auckland Islands, which I at once pronounced to be specimens of Stichaster suteri, Loriol. When I examined them, however, I found that they had no spines on the abactinal surface. I have suspected for some time that the starfish from Dunedin, identified by Professor Hutton as Asterias rupicola (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi., p. 343), may have been a specimen of S. suteri, and Mr. Lukins's rediscovery of this variety at the Auckland Islands has confirmed my suspicion. I have recently been able to compare specimens of S. suteri with a specimen of Asterias rupicola from Kerguelen, and I find that they are quite distinct, the Kerguelen form being a true Asterias, as described by Professor Verrill (Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. i., p. 71, 1876). A. rupicola does not therefore belong to the New Zealand fauna.
The specimens brought from the Auckland Islands by Mr. Lukins agree in every respect with specimens of S. suteri, except in having no spines on the dorsal surface. Professor Hutton, however, obtained one specimen from the same locality with “a row of spines along the back and traces of a lateral
row on each side” (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi., p. 343). This variety suggests the question, Why is the armature on the abactinal plates of this species not developed, or only very feebly developed, at the Auckland Islands, in the cold water of the Antarctic drift, while it is always well developed on the shores of the main-land? A specimen found at Stewart Island by Mr. H. B. Kirk is intermediate. The specimens collected by Mr. Lukins are in the Nelson Museum.
Cribrella lukinsii, n. sp.
R = 23 mm.; r = 7 mm.
Rays five in number, rounded, rigid, inflated at the base and tapering rapidly to the extremity, which is rather finely pointed. Breadth of a ray near the base, 9·5 mm.; height, 9 mm. Disc small, not clearly marked off from the bases of the rays. The papular areas are small, but fairly well defined, with one to three pores in each. The abactinal and lateral plates are small and irregular in form, broader than long; they bear compact groups of very minute, uniform, delicate spinelets with denticulate tips. On the lateral surface of the rays the spinelets form somewhat irregular, double, transverse rows. The armature of the adambulacral plates consists of a single row of six to eight spinelets (sometimes rather irregularly placed, and double without) similar to those on the abactinal plates, but somewhat larger, increasing slightly in size towards the furrow, one minute smooth spinelet placed high in the furrow. The madreporite is small and indistinct, situated at the summit of one of the interbrachial arcs; it bears a few scattered extremely minute spinelets. In the only specimen examined there is a very large compact group of spinelets in the centre of the disc, apparently covering the dorso-central plate. The colour is very dark-grey, almost black, with a brownish tinge, slightly paler beneath.
I cannot give a figure at present, for the only specimen available was found by Mr. E. Lukins on a high cliff at the entrance of Carnley Harbour, Auckland Islands, where it had been thrown by the waves, and the spines are somewhat displaced. It had not been long exposed, however, for when Mr Lukins brought it to me in spirits the tube-feet were not decayed or dried up.
Type specimen in the Nelson Museum.
Cribrella ornata, Perrier.
I have what I take to be a specimen of this species, which was found by Mr. A. S. Danby at the Snares. Unfortunately, it has been roughly dried, and is, in consequence, much distorted, so that I cannot figure it. The colour is deep reddish-orange above and pale-yellow beneath.
Mr. Sladen gives for the distribution of this species, “Off New Zealand and Campbell Islands, and extending to the Cape of Good Hope” (“‘Challenger’ Report,” vol. xxx., p. 541). The original type specimens were collected by Count Castelnau at the Cape of Good Hope, and the naturalists of the “Challenger” Expedition found the species in the same locality. Through the kindness of Mr. A. Reischek, Director of the Linz Museum, I am able to give here M. Perrier's description of this species, from the “Annales des Sciences Naturelles,” xii., p. 251 (1869): “Cinq bas arrondis, s'amincissant graduellement du bas vers l'extrémité, obtus au sommet; quatre fois aussi longs è partir du centre que le rayon du disque, quatre fois également aussi longs que leur largeur è la base. Surface dorsale tout entière couverte de papilles granuleuses qui sont disposées en rangs surrés sur les ossiculesdu réseau et circonscrivent par conséquent des espaces nus dans lesquels se trouvent plusieurs pores tentaculaires. Plaque madreporique située au bord de la partie declive de l'intervalle de deux bras, c'est-è-dire vers le milieu du rayon du disque, et dont les collines saillantes rayonnet en se dichotomisant è partie d'un point excentrique. Ses piquants dessillons ambulacraires sont cylindriques, assez gros, tronqués au sommet et disposés sur deux rangs. En dehors on voit deux rangées longitudinales des groupes de papilles. Diamétre, 75 millimètres environ.”
Cribrella compacta, Sladen.
The starfish which was identified by Professor Hutton as C. occulata (Ech. of N.Z., p. 7) is, I believe, a specimen of Mr. Sladen's species C. compacta, the type of which was dredged up by the naturalists of the “Challenger” Expedition off the west coast. Professor Hutton's specimen, which, is in the Colonial Museum, is unfortunately glued to a piece of board, so that I cannot examine the actinal surface, except a small portion of the extremity of a ray. I have little doubt however, that it belongs to Mr. Sladen's species.
Art. XXIII.—A List of Recent and Fossil Bryozoa collected in various Parts of New Zealand.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 12th October, 1897.]
In 1880, when living at Petane, near Napier, I commenced a correspondence with Miss E. C. Jelly, who was then residing at Bristol, on the subject of our New Zealand Bryozoa, and from that time until quite recently I have been forwarding parcels of recent and fossil species from different parts of New Zealand. Miss Jelly has long been known as an enthusiastic student of the Bryozoa, and as one whose intimate acquaintance with the literature of the subject gives authority to the excellent synomymic catalogue of the recent marine Bryozoa, published by her in 1889.
Through Miss Jelly the specimens I collected have been passed on to the principal authorities on the various groups, and several of the new species have been described in English scientific publications, and others are still awaiting description. Many species still living have been obtained as fossils from the upper beds of the Wanganui series typically exposed at Petane and Napier; and many of these are also found in the Tertiary beds of Australia. Whenever deep-sea dredgings are undertaken in the deeper waters of the New Zealand coast we may expect a considerable addition to the rarer genera. The localities from which the specimens have been forwarded are:—
Napier.—The species under this heading are either from the littoral of the harbour, from the old dead shells thrown up by storm on the beach, or from adjacent parts of the Hawke's Bay coast. The fossil species are from the Napier limestone, a local formation included in the lower beds of the Wanganui series of the geological survey.
Wanganui.—Some of the species under this head are from the typical locality, Shakespeare's Cliff, Wanganui, others from the corresponding blue clays and sands on the Hawke's Bay side of the Island.
Wellington.—These are all recent species, collected at various times on the shores of Cook Strait.
Dunedin.—These are also littoral species collected at various times.
Foveaux Strait.—The oyster-beds of the strait between Stewart Island and the South Island of New Zealand afford a very large number of excellent specimens of Bryozoa, and by examining the oyster-shells and a little dredging many species have been obtained.
Dusky Sound.—I am indebted to Mr. R. Henry for a quantity of dead shells of Pinna novœ-zealandiœ, collected by him at Resolution Island, Dusky Sound, and on these and on some gigantic worm-tubes are a host of specimens in perfect condition, which makes one long for a dredging expedition in the West Coast Sounds.
The second list represents the result of Mr. Waters's examination of a collection of fossil Bryozoa sent Home to Miss Jelly by me from localities near Petane, together with some collected by Captain Hutton at Wanganui. The paper, with figures and full descriptive notes of the species, was published in the “Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society.”*
I take this opportunity of rectifying a slight misunderstanding about the exact localities, which is only of importance to our local geologists. The description of the localities says, “They are from Petane and Waipukurau, both representing a well-known horizon, and also some from Waikato (sic), and Trig's Station, Tanner's Run,” &c. In a footnote Mr. Waters says, “This (Waikato) is written ‘Whakati,’ but I have not been able to find out that there is such a place, whereas Bryozoa of this age are known from Waikato Heads.” I regret that the labels were thought to be in error, and that the name was changed to a place a hundred miles or so away, simply because Mr. Waters could not find out that there was such a place, as it is the proper name of the locality—a rocky headland just to the north of the Tongoio Creek and Lagoon, a few miles north of Napier. Possibly it should be Whakaati, but this is another matter.
Again, the locality given as Trig's Station, Tanner's Run, should be as it was written—trig, station (trignometrical station or peg) on Tanner's Run at Petane, a locality from which a great number of specimens were obtained, but which were generally in very poor condition.† Mr. Waters is entitled to our hearty thanks for the attention he has given to these specimens, as the task of determining fossil Polyzoa is a tedious one, demanding a prolonged examination of generally very unsatisfactory specimens. I hope he will publish the list of Cyclostomata of the collection as he promised in the paper quoted. In order to bring this list into line with the other I have prefixed the reference numbers of Miss Jelly's catalogue to each species, and in a few cases have altered the nomenclature to correspond. Of the seventy-eight species mentioned in the second list, sixty are known to be living at the present time, and twenty-eight are also found fossil in Australia.
[Footnote] * Waters, Tertiary Bryozoa of N.Z., in Quar. Jour. Geo. Soc., vol. 43, 1887, p. 40.
[Footnote] † Tommy Gully (Petane) = Tommy's Gully, is a local name for a valley opening on to the Tongoio Road.
|—||Napier.||Wanganui.||Wellington.||Dunedin.||Foveaux Strait.||Dusky Sound.|
|272. Catenicella ventricosa, Busk||x||x||x||x|
|251. " hastata, Busk||x||x|
|240. " cribraria, Busk||x||x||x|
|259. " perforata, Busk||x||x||x||x|
|233. " alata, Wyv. Thom.||x||x||x||x|
|239. " cornuta, Busk||x||x|
|236. " carinata, Busk||x||x||x|
|267. " scutella, Hutton||x|
|241. " crystallina, Wyv. Thom.||x|
|219. Calpidium ponderosum, Goldst.||x|
|224. Canda arachnoides, Lamx.||x|
|608. Eucratea chelata, Linn.||x|
|32. œtea dilatata, Busk|
|29. " anguina, Linn.||x||x|
|36. " recta, Hincks||x||x|
|437. Cellularia cuspidata, Busk||x|
|1099. Menipea crystallina, Gray||x|
|1105. " fuegensis, Busk||x|
|1111. " patagonica, Busk||x||x|
|1524. Scrupocellaria scrupea, Busk||x||x||x|
|210. Cabarea lyallii, Busk||x|
|215. " rostrata, Busk||x||x|
|202. " boryii, Audouin||x||x||x|
|101. Beania bilaminata, Hincks||x||x|
|106. " elongata, Hincks||x|
|108a. " hirtissima, Heller, var. robusta, Hincks||x|
|111. " intermedia, Hincks||x||x|
|115. " spinigera, McGill||x|
|112. " magellanica, Busk||x|
|116. " (Amathia?) swainsoni, Hutton||x|
|33. Bicellaria tuba, Busk||x|
|181. Bugula neritina, Linn.||x|
|168. " dentata, Lamx.||x||x|
|285. Cellaria malvinensis, Busk||x||x||x|
|294. " setigera, Desm.||x||x|
|296. " tenuirostris, Busk||x|
|1643. Tubucellaria hirsuta, Lamx.||x|
|1644. " opuntioides, Pallas||x|
|667. Flustra episcopalis, Busk||x||x||x|
|673. " indivisa, Busk||x|
|673a. " " var. cyathiformis, McGill||x||x|
|220. Calwellia bicornis, Wyv. Thom.||x|
|223. " sinclairii, Busk||x|
|558. Dimetopia spicata, Busk||x|
|556. " cornuta, Busk||x|
|1014. Membranipora membranacea, Linn.||x||x|
|1033. " pilosa, Linn.||x||x|
|1033g. " " forma foliacea, Hincks||x|
|1072. Membranipora trifolium, S. Wood||x|
|1048. " roborata, Hincks||x|
|1063. " spinosa, Q. and G.||x||x|
|1081. " valdemunita, Hincks||x||x|
|1060. " solidula, Alder and H.||x||x||x|
|992. " hians, Hincks||x|
|992a. " " var. occultata, Waters||x|
|931. " acuta, Hincks||x|
|1017. " monostachys, Busk||x|
|1047. " reticulum, Linn.||x|
|1051. " rubida, Hincks||x|
|1055. " serrata, McGill||x||x|
|937. " annulus, Manzoni||x|
|1183. Monoporella crassatina, Waters||x||x||x||x|
|1182. " capensis, Busk||x|
|1585. Steganoporella neo-zealandica, Busk||x||x||x|
|1584. " magnilabris, Busk||x||x|
|1133. Micropora lepida, Hincks||x||x|
|1135. " perforata, McGill||x|
|1144. Microporella ciliata, Pallas||x||x|
|1144c. " " var. vibraculiferá, Hincks||x||x||x|
|1147b. " decorata, Reuss, var. angustipora, Hincks||x|
|1145. " coscinophora. Reuss, var. mucronata, McGill||x|
|1161c. " malusii, Audouin, var. disjuncta, Hincks||x||x|
|445. Chorizopora brongniartii, Audouin||x|
|1217. Mucronella præstans, Hincks||x||x|
|1199a. " diaphana, McGill, var. armata, Hincks||x|
|1229. " tricuspis, Hincks||x||x|
|1212. " peachii, Johnston||x||x|
|1212. " " var. octodentata, Hincks||x|
|1190a. " biincisa, Waters, var. bicuspis, Hincks||x|
|" firmata, Waters||x||x|
|1555. Smittia napierii, Waters||x||x|
|1578. " unispinosa, Waters||x||x|
|1575. " trispinosa, Johnston||x|
|1547. " landsborovii, Johnston||x|
|1285. Porella marsupium, McGill||x|
|809. Lepralia cincta, Hincks||x|
|823a. " flexuosa, Hutton||x|
|826. " foraminigera, Hutton||x||x||x|
|848. " poissonii, Audouin||x||x|
|854. " rectilineata, Hincks|
|845. " pallasiana, Moll.||x||x||x|
|1328. Retepora cellulosa, Linn.|
|1324. " avicularis, McGill||x|
|1327. " fissa, McGill||x|
|1092. Membraniporella nitida, Johnston||x|
|473. Cribrilina figularis, Johnston||x|
|483. " monoceros, Busk||x||x||x||x||x|
|715. Haswellia auriculata, Busk||x||x|
|725. Hippothoa flagellum, Manzoni||x|
|723. " divaricata, Lamx.||x||x||x|
|1398. Schizoporella biserialis, Hincks||x|
|1405. " cinctipora, Hincks||x||x||x|
|1395. " auriculata, Hassall||x|
|1403. " cecilii, Audouin||x|
|1406. " circinata, McGill||x||x||x|
|1411. " cribrilifera, Hincks||x||x||x|
|1431. " hyalina, Linn.||x||x|
|1431a. " " var. cornuta, Busk||x||x|
|1431c. " " var. tuberculata, Hincks||x|
|1469. " ridleyi, McGill||x||x|
|" scintillans, Hincks||x||x|
|1408. " conservata, Waters||x|
|1476a. " sinuosa, Busk, var. armata, Hincks||x||x|
|1378. Rhynchopora bispinosa, Johnston||x||x||x||x|
|299. Cellepora agglutinans, Hutton||x||x||x||x|
|355. " granum, Waters||x||x|
|356. " hastigera, Busk||x|
|417. " tridenticulata, Busk||x|
|Adeonellopsis parvipunctata, McGill||x|
|501. Crisia edwardsiana, d'Orb.||x||x||x|
|773. Idmonea ramosa, d'Orb.||x||x||x|
|757. " contorta, Busk||x||x|
|757. " marionensis, Busk||x|
|771. " radians, Lamk.||x||x|
|770. " parasitica, Busk||x|
|775. " serpens, Linn.||x||x|
|769. " milneana, d'Orb.||x||x||x||x|
|458. ? " cancellata, Goldstein||x|
|585. Entalophora raripora, d'Orb.||x|
|582. " intricaria, Busk||x|
|580. " haastiana, Stoliczka||x|
|583. " parasitica, Busk||x|
|" proboscidea, Waters||x|
|448. Cinctipora elegans, Hutton||x||x||x||x|
|552. Diastopora sarniensis, Norman||x||x||x||x|
|553. " suborbicularis, Hincks||x||x|
|644. Filisparsa irregularis, Menegh.||x|
|1604. Stomatopora granulata, M.-Edw.||x|
|1608. " major, Johnston||x|
|754. Hornera foliacea, McGill||x||x|
|743. " striata, Stoliczka||x|
|735. " frondiculata, Lamx.||x|
|1645. Tubulipora biduplicata, Waters||x||x|
|1682. Supercystis digitata, d'Orb.||x||x||x||x|
|881. Lichenopora holdsworthii, Busk||x|
|887. " novæ-zealandiæ, Busk||x|
|875. " clypeiformis, d'Orb.||x||x||x|
|880. " hispida, Fleming||x||x|
|889. " pristis, McGill||x|
|" wanganuiensis, Waters||x||x|
|719. Heteropora pelliculata, Waters||x|
|697. Flustrella binderi, Harvey||x||x||x||x|
|Amathia swainsoni, Hutton||x||x|
List of Tertiary Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from New Zealand,
by Arthur W. Waters*
Note.—a or z indicates that the form is known living in Australia or New Zealand; 1 = Curdie's Creek; 2 = Mount Gambier; 3 = Bairnsdale; 4 = Muddy Creek; 5 = Aldinga; 6 = Murray Cliffs.
|—||Living.||Napier.||Waipukurau.||Petane.||Trig. Station.||Shakespeare's Cliff.||Australian (fossil).|
|285. Cellaria malvinensis, Busk||xz||x||x||1, 2, 3, 4, 6|
|1017. Membranipora monostachys, Busk||xz||x|
|1002. " lineata, Linn.||xz||x|
|" lacroixii, Audouin, var. grandis, Waters||x||x|
|978. " dumerilii, Audouin||x||x|
|" nobilis, Reuss||x||x|
|1060. " solidula, Alder and H.||xz||x||x|
|937. " annulus, Manzoni||x||x||x||x||2|
|956. " cervicornis, Busk||xa||x||2|
|1063. " spinosa, Q. and G.||xaz||x|
|985. " flemingii, Busk||x||x||5|
|1072. " trifolium, S. Wood||x||x|
[Footnote] * Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. 43, 1887, p. 40, pl. vi.–viii.
|992a. Membranipora hians, Hincks, var. occultata, Waters||xz||x|
|1182. Monoporella capensis, Busk||x||x||x||x|
|" " var. dentata, W.||x|
|1183. " crassatina, Waters||xz||x||x||2, 5, 6|
|1184. " disjuncta, Manzoni||xz||x|
|" waipukurensis, Waters||x||x||x|
|1585. Steganoporella neo-zelanica, Busk||xz||x||x||x|
|1133. Micropora lepida, Hincks||xz||x|
|1128. " elongata, Hincks||xz||x||x||x|
|1092. Membraniporella nitida, Johnston, var.||xz||x||x|
|483. Cribrilina monoceros, Busk||xa||x||x||3|
|473. " figularis, Johnston||x||x||6|
|485. " radiata, Moll., var. endlicheri, Reuss||xz|
|1144. Microporella ciliata, Pallas||xaz||x||x||x||2|
|1161. " malusii, Audouin||xaz||x||x|
|1160. " macropora, Stoliczka||xa||x|
|1147b. " decorata, var. angustipora, Hincks||xz||x||x||x||x|
|1217. Mucronella præstans, Hincks||xz||x||1, 2|
|1212. " peachii, Johnston||xz||x|
|1212b. " " var. octodentata, Hincks||xz||x||x||x|
|1187. " alvareziana, d'Orb.||x||x||x|
|1229. " tricuspis, Hincks||xaz||x|
|" " var. waipukurensis, W.||x|
|1214. " porosa, Hincks, var. minima, W.||x|
|" liversidgei, Ten.-Woods||x||2|
|" firmata, Waters||x||x|
|1190. " biincisa, Waters||xz||x|
|1562. Smittia reticulata, J. McGill||xaz||2, 3, 6|
|1547. " landsborovii, Johnston||xa||x||6|
|1556. " nitida, Verrill||xa||x||x||3, 6|
|1555. " napierii, Waters||xa||x||x||x|
|1298. Porina magnirostris, McGill||xa||x||2, 6|
|715. Haswellia auriculata, Busk||x|
|842. Lepralia mucronata, Smith||xa||x||1, 2, 3, 4, 6|
|848. " poissonii, Audouin||xz||x||x||x||x|
|854. " rectilineata, Hincks||xz||x||x||x|
|829a. " imbellis, Busk||x||x||x|
|846. " pertusa, Esper.||x||x||4|
|817. " depressa, Busk||x||x||6|
|" semiluna, Reuss, var. simplex, W.||x|
|826. " foraminigera, Hincks||xz||x|
|" bistata, Waters||x|
|530. Cyclicopora longipora, McGill||xa||x||x|
|1285. Porella marsupium, McGill||x||x|
|1285a. " " var. porifera, Hincks||x||x||x|
|1277. " concinna, Busk||x||x||2|
|725. Hippothoa flagellum, Manzoni||xz||x|
|1406. Schizoporella circinata, McGill||xz||x|
|1395. " auriculata, Hassall||xa||x||2, 3|
|1469. " ridleyi, McGill||xa||x||x|
|1453. " marsupifera, Busk||xz||x|
|1397. " biaperta, Mich.||xz||x|
|1411. " cribrilifera, Hincks||xz||x||x|
|" clavula, Manzoni||x|
|1408. " conservata, Waters||xa||x||1, 2|
|" obliqua (?), McGill||xa||x|
|1405a. " cinctipora, Hincks, var. personata, W.||xz||x||x|
|1487. " tuberosa, Reuss, var. angustata, W.||x|
|1431. " hyalina, Linn.||xa||x||x||x|
|300. Cellepora albirostris, Smitt.||xa||x||x||6|
|417. " tridenticulata, Busk||xa||x||5, 6|
|328. " coronopus, S. Wood||x||x||2, 5|
|331. " costata, McGill||xa||x|
|" decepta, Waters||x|
|1380. Rhyncopora longirostris, Hincks||xa||x|
|Lunulites petaloides, d'Orb.||x||x||x||2, 4|
|553. Diastopora suborbicularis, Hincks||x||x||x||x|
|585. Entalophora raripora, d'Orb.||x||x||x||x|
|735. Hornera frondiculata, Lamx.||x||x|
|880. Lichenopora hispida, Fleming||x||x|
[Footnote] * I find a few of our New Zealand fossil Cyclostomata mentioned in a paper by Mr. Waters “On North Italian Bryozoa,” part ii., in the Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. for 1892 (vol. 48, p. 153).
Art. XXIV.—On the Hydroids of the Neighbourhood of Dunedin.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 13th July, 1897.]
I shall divide this paper into three parts—First, an account of the methods employed in collecting and preserving the specimens, the books of reference at my disposal, the classification followed, &c.; second, a detailed account of the species obtained; and, third, a summary of results, both as regards my own knowledge and facts hitherto unrecorded.
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My chief collecting - ground has been Otago Harbour, especially on the stones and piles under the wharves. Two species were found in rock-pools on Tomahawk Beach, where the open ocean breaks, and the skeletons of a few dead specimens were found on Kuri Beach, a few miles further south. I collected intermittently during the six months between April and October, our winter season in this hemisphere, and therefore an unfavourable time as regards weather, while only in the last one or two months is there any chance of seeing anything of the reproduction. This accounts for the frequency of those unsatisfactory words “Gonosome not present.” I have preserved specimens of all the species and varieties obtained, as a rule staining them with borax carmine and mounting them in Canada balsam. Living specimens were always killed by osmic acid, since this is by far the quickest killing method known to me, often fixing the zooids before they have time to retract their tentacles. For examination of fresh specimens methyl green was usually employed as a stain, and treatment with 1 per cent. acetic acid was found to be a very satisfactory clearing agent. Sections were cut in a few cases where mere microscopic examination failed to reveal all the details of structure. Specimens to be cut in section were fixed by Flemming's strong chromo-aceto-osmic acid solution (vide Lee's “Microtomists' Vade-mecum,” sec. 36), hardened by increasing strengths of alcohol, imbedded in paraffin, and cut in sections 1/100 mm. thick. They were then stained with hæmatoxylin, and mounted in Canada balsam in the usual way.
I have had at my disposal a fair number of books and papers on the hydroids. The following are those that I have actually consulted:—Allman: Gymnoblastic Hydroids; Trans. Royal Society, vol. clxviii.; “‘Challenger’ Reports” in vols. vii. and xxiii.; “Linnæan Society Journal,” vol. xii.; “Gulf Stream Hydroids.” Hincks: Ann. and Mag. of Natural History, ser. 3, vol. viii.; ibid., ser. 2, vol. x. Thompson: Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 10, iv. Grey: Dieffenbach's “New Zealand.” Johnstone: “British Zoophytes. Hutton: Trans. N.Z. Inst., v., p. 256. Coughtrey: Trans. N.Z. Inst., vii., p. 283; ibid., viii.; and Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii. Von Lendenfeld: Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ix.; Zeitschrift für wiss. Zool., Band. xxxviii. Bale: Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 2, iii.; Catalogue of Aust. Hyd. Clarke: “Bulletin of Comparative Zoology of Harvard College,” vol. xxv., No. 6. Farquhar: Catalogue of N.Z. Hydroids, in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxviii., p. 459. In all, nineteen books and papers. Other works are referred to in the descriptions of the species, but these are all I have had the opportunity of consulting for myself. Mr. Farquhar's paper has been of the greatest service to me, as it contains an exhaustive and absolutely correct catalogue of our hydroids, with references to all the works in which they have been mentioned. Hydroids described under many names have been identified by careful comparison, and the study of the group greatly facilitated thereby.
I have followed the classification given by Allman in his report on the hydroids collected by the “Challenger” Expedition, vol. xxiii., p. lii.
|Tubularinæ||Glavidæ, Bougainvillidæ, Endendridæ.|
|Sertularinæ||Sertularidæ, Syntheciidæ, &c.|
|Calyptoblastea||Plumularinæ||Plumulariidæ, Aglaophenidæ, &c.|
Tubiclava fruticosa. Plate XVI., figs. 1, 1a.
Tubiclava fruticosa, Allman, 1871, Gymno.-Hyd., 257.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus attaining a height of 1 in., more or less branched; perisarc smooth. Hydranths claviform, tentacles occupying the distal two-thirds of the zooid. They are about fourteen in number.
Hab. Europe; Dunedin.
The specimens found by Allman were of a bright-vermilion colour and ⅓ in. in height. Mine, as I say, are a full inch in height, and of only a very dusky-red colour. They were, however, found under a wharf at Dunedin, and quite covered with slime and dirt. After preservation in spirit they have become quite black. My specimens grow in little tufts, just as Allman describes his as doing.
Hemitheca, nov. gen.
Hemitheca intermedia, nov. sp. Plate XVI., figs. 2, 2a.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus branching and well developed, divided into internodes by distinct constrictions in a conspicuous perisarc. A branch springs from the distal part of each internode of the main stem, and a hydrotheca from the same part of each internode on the branches. The hydrotheca does not deserve this name, for though it covers the peduncle of the hydranth, swells into a cup shape, and has a small intrathecal ridge, yet the zooid is quite incapable of being retracted into it. Hydranth has a conical hypostome, surrounded by eighteen tentacles, disposed in a single row.
Gonosome: Not present.
Hab. Submerged piles, Dunedin Wharf.
This genus possesses all the interest common to transition forms, for it markedly partakes of the characters of both gymnoblasts and calyptoblasts. The method of growth and branching, the division into internodes, the pseudo - hydrothecæ with their intrathecal ridges, all belong to the sertularian type of hydroids, and if I had found this as a dry dead specimen I should have referred it to the genus Campanularia; but the irretractability of the zooids (which is quite diagnostic of gymnoblasts), the conical hypostome, with its single row of tentacles surrounding it, is quite a characteristic of the Bougainvillidæ. The colony in my specimens reached the height of 2 in. The time of the year perhaps accounted for the entire absence of gonophores. Both specific and generic names denote the place of this hydroid between the two sub-classes.
Tubularia attennoides. Plate XVI., figs. 3, 3a.
Tubularia attennoides, Coughtrey, 1875, Trans. N.Z. Inst., viii., 302.
Trophosome: The hydrocaulus consists of a cluster of simple semi-tortuous stems springing from a branched creep-
ing hydrorhiza. The hydrophyton is from 1 in. to 2 in. in height. Perisarc is annulated for the proximal third of its length, where it is tough in texture and horny in colour; higher up it is only irregularly wrinkled and transparent, while near its distal end it is again delicately annulated. Hydranth consisting of two parts, each bearing its row of tentacles, proximal row about 24, distal about 16. General colour of the zooid, orange-vermilion.
Gonosome: Not present.
Hab. Dunedin Harbour and Tomahawk Beach, in rockpools.
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As this hydroid grows in patches about the size of a five-shilling-piece attached to the side of a rock-pool, with its bright colours and waving tentacles quite visible to the naked eye, it forms one of the prettiest objects to be met with in the rock-pools of our coast. When on a slide or in a watch-glass of salt-water it has a curious habit of curling up its tentacles into more or less of a spiral. The colouring is deepest within the distal or inner circuit of tentacles, and extends in a dusky vermilion into the distal end of the cœnosarc. Sections 1/2500 in. in thickness failed to show any trace of nerve cells, but showed that the endoderm cells almost close up the cavity of the enteron, leaving only a narrow tube.
Obelia nigrocaulus, nov. sp. Plate XVII., figs. 1, 1a.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus irregularly branched, the branches bearing hydrothecæ on alternate sides. Branches annulated (6 or 7 rings) above the origin of each hydrotheca. Hydrothecæ supported on pedicels almost as long as the theca and marked with 6–8 annulations; conical rather narrow, graceful, and with entire thecostome. Basal part of hydrocaulus deep-black, further up dark-brown, next light-brown, and distal branchlets quite transparent. Hydrothecæ borne only on distal ends of branches.
Gonosome: Not present.
Hab. On stones; very plentiful at low-water mark, Dunedin Harbour.
On several occasions I picked up stones covered with a black bristly growth while looking for hydroids under the Dunedin wharves. My pocket-lens showed nothing of the structure of this growth, and I frequently threw it away as a decayed seaweed; but one day, my curiosity having been piqued, I took a piece home and examined it in sea-water under the microscope. Then I found that, though the greater part of the growth was enclosed in a dense black cuticular substance, the distal parts of it bore very graceful campanulate hydrothecæ, from which equally graceful and slender polyps were protruded and actively waving their tentacles.
The black pigment lies in the perisarc, and seems to be deposited periodically, since it is deepest in the oldest parts of the hydrocaulus. The specific name is descriptive.
Obelia geniculata. Plate XVII., figs. 2, 2a.
Obelia geniculata: Linnæus, 1767, Syst. Nat., i., 1312. Allman, 1864, Ann. Nat. Hist. (3), xiii., 372, 1888; Rep. Hydroida, Chall. Exp., vol. 23, pt. 70, p. 23. Coughtrey, 1875, Trans. N.Z. Inst., viii., 299; Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 24. Hincks, 1868, Hist. Brit. Hyd. Zooph., 149. Bale, 1884, Cat. Aus. Hyd., 59, 1894; Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic. (new series), vi., 99. Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890, Annal. des k. k. Natur. Hofm., v., 208.
Laomedia geniculata; Lamouroux, Cor. Flex., 205. Johnstone, Brit. Zoo., 103. Coughtrey, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vii., 290.
Sertularia geniculata, Linnæus, Syst. Nat., i., 1312.
Eucope diaphana, Agassiz, Nat. Hist. U.S., iv., 322.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus consisting of simple stems, which arise from an open network hydrorhiza, and attain a height of ¾ in. Hydrothecæ conical, slender, with entire margin, alternate, supported each on a strongly annulated peduncle. Below the peduncle in every case is a bracket or knee-like swelling of the chitinous perisarc, which gives the species its name.
Gonosome: Gonangia borne on short annulated peduncles which spring from the angles between the hydrothecæ and the stem, urn-shaped, gradually widening from below upwards, and terminating distally in a short band-like neck which carries the orifice on its summit.
Hab. Australia; Wellington Harbour; Cook Strait; south and east coast of South Island; Europe; east coast of North America.
Coughtrey remarks that this species presents some variation between its New Zealand and European forms, the chief being the greater strength and stoutness of the New Zealand variety. A specimen that I secured at Port Chalmers seemed to have gone into a purely reproductive phase; all the nutritive polyps were dead, and even the hydrothecæ, with part of their peduncles, were broken off; but the whole hydrocaulus was covered with gonangia, from which the medusa buds, although it was mid-winter, were in the act of escaping. Another specimen from Tomahawk Rocks showed the same peculiarity. This is one of the commonest hydroids in our harbour, often spreading over whole masses of seaweed. Its milk-white appearance as it floats in the water, and its
bracket-like swellings of perisarc as it lies on the microscope slide, always make it easy to recognise.
Trophosome: A creeping filamentous hydrorhiza gives off shoots which are delicate, transparent, profusely branched, and rise to the height of 1 in. Hydrocaulus strongly ringed above the origin of each branch; branches annulated above their origin and distal to the origin of each hydrotheca; pedicels of hydrothecæ annulated. Hydrothecæ alternate, campanulate, with thecostome entire, wavy or regularly serrated, with small even teeth. Interior of central cavity of cœnosarc pigmented. Hypostomes very large.
Gonosome: Reproduction by means of sporosacs or degenerate medusæ affixed to the blastostyle. The gonatheca is large and campanulate, with a broad open mouth. Three sporosacs, as a rule; one blastostyle, which elongates as the distal sporosacs are extruded. They remain connected with, are receiving nourishment through, the blastostyle till the ova are matured, and the planulæ or ciliated larvæ formed.
Hab. On piles, Dunedin Harbour.
The most remarkable feature about the trophosome of this hydroid occurs in connection with the zooid. The hypostome is extremely distensible, and often expands into a great trumpet-like body considerably larger than the zooid itself. While in a state of retraction it projects above the retracted tentacles. A brown pigment is lodged in the endoderm cells. The nematocysts of the tentacles are very large, and are placed in bands round the tentacles at regular intervals, giving them a segmented appearance. The method of reproduction seems comparatively rare among Calyptoblasts, occurring only in three Sertulariæ and in Calycella. All the sporosacs that I observed were females, containing ova, but probably the sperms are liberated earlier, and I was too late to see them. One point in the reproduction seems unlike anything that I have read about—that is, that the planula, even after it has burst the acrocyst, seemed to be attached to the spadix by a stalk. For this to be the case all the ova must remain attached to the spadix when they are budded off from it, and this is proof of the endodermal origin of the reproductive elements in this case. There are two well-defined varieties of gonosome, and I think the one with the long gonatheca and numerous sporosacs may be named variety “Macrogonangiata.” This hydroid grows very abundantly on the piles up to 2½ ft. above the low-water mark. Thus it was for at least four hours per tide out of water. This is the only
hydroid that I have observed living above low-tide mark. The specific name is in honour of Professor T. J. Parker, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Sertularia bispinosa. Plate XIX., figs. 1, 1a.
Dynamene bispinosa, Gray, 1843, Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., 294.
Sertularia bispinosa: Hutton, 1872, Trans. N.Z. Inst., v., 257. Coughtrey, 1874, ib., vii., 284; 1875, ib., viii., 300; 1876, ib., Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 27. Bale, 1884, Cat. Aus. Hyd., 68; 1887, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vic., xxiii., 92; 1888, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 2, iii., 745. Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890, Annal. des k. k. Natur. Hofm., v., 229.
Sertularia operculata (?), Thompson, 1879, Ann. Nat. Hist. (5), iii., 106.
Diphasia symmetrica, v. Lendenfeld, 1884, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ix., 414.
Trophosome: The hydrophyton is long, lax, and strong. Hydrocaulus sparingly dichotomously branched. Hydrothecæ opposite, tubular; aperture obliquely truncated, and with two strong teeth on the outside.
Gonosome: Gonangia large and pyriform, smooth, with a strong tooth on each side at the top, rising above the gonostome.
Hab. Indian Ocean; Australia; Auckland; Lyall Bay; Dunedin.
This is by far the commonest hydroid of the neighbourhood. It grows very plentifully on the shells of sea-mussels, having there the appearance of a strong beard. In the specimens that reach a greater size the hydrocaulus is much more tender and thin. One specimen of mine is 18 in. high, while others of the strong variety do not attain a height of above 2 in.
Since writing the above I have found many specimens with a form of gonophore different from that figured in Plate XX., fig. 1. These specimens are so numerous that I cannot doubt that the variety of gonosome reproduced in Plate XX., fig. 7a, is the commoner one, and this opinion is strengthened by the fact that this is the form given by Coughtrey as the only one observed by him. Instead of the gonophore being pyriform it is almost triangular, and the lateral teeth, instead of being comparatively small, are immense projections rising far above the orifice of the gonophore. I have found this big-toothed variety in S. bispinosa, trispinosa, and elongata, and in S. trispinosa I have also found gradations between the two varieties figured.
Sertularia trispinosa. Plate XX., figs. 7, 7a, 7b.
Sertularia trispinosa: Coughtrey, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vii., 284; 1875, ib., viii., 300; 1876, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 28; Bale, 1884, Cat. Aus. Hyd., 69; 1883, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., xxiii., 92.
Trophosome: Hydrophyton lax, bushy. Hydrocaulus delicate, silvery-yellow, branched. Hydrothecæ opposite, tubular. Thecostome with three very distinct long sharp teeth.
Gonosome: Sessile, large, triangular. Gonophores with two large teeth rising on each side of the orifice, or the teeth may be of an uneven size and the orifice on an elevation, as in fig. 7a.
Hab. New Zealand; Australia; Taieri Beach.
I found my specimens of this species in the same habitat as those mentioned by Coughtrey—namely, on the stems of Boltenia. The two varieties of gonophore are interesting, for through the uneven-toothed one we easily arrive at that figured on Plate XIX., 3b, as the ordinary one for S. trispinosa and elongata.
Sertularia johnstoni. Plate XIX., figs. 2, 2a.
Sertularia johnstoni: Gray, 1843, Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., 294. Hutton, 1872, Trans. N.Z. Inst., v., 256. Coughtrey, 1874, ib., vii., 281.
Sertularia subpinnata, Hutton, 1872, Trans. N.Z. Inst., v., 256.
Sertularia delicatula, Hutton, 1872, Trans. N.Z. Inst., v., 256.
Sertularella johnstoni: Coughtrey, 1875, Trans. N.Z. Inst., viii., 299; 1876, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 26. Thompson, 1879, Ann. Nat. Hist. (5), iii., 101. Allman, 1876, Jnl. Linn. Soc. (Zoo.), xii., 261. Bale, 1884, Cat. Aus. Hyd., 109; 1887, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., xxiii., 93; 1894, ib., vi. (new ser.), 102.
Sertularella purpurea, Kirchenpauer, 1884, Abh. des Natur., viii.
Trophosome: Hydrophyton is lax and delicate. The hydrocaulus spreads dichotomously, and is subpinnately branched. The branching is profuse, so that the whole hydrophyton forms a tangled mass. The hydrothecæ are far apart, alternate, and exserted. Thecostome tridentate, two strong blunt cusps on the apocauline and one on the epicauline side.
Gonosome: Gonangia subpedicellate, large, transversely ridged; from six to ten ridges, the distal ones usually best marked. In some the gonostome is situated in a saucer-like depression in the truncated end of the gonangium; in others there is an infundibuliform tube; and in others again a simple tube.
Hab. Australia; Tasmania; Chatham Islands; Lyall Bay (Wellington); and east and south coasts of the South Island: in rock-pools and on seaweeds.
This hydroid is very common on the coast near Dunedin; it is found attached to fronds of a Laminarian and to pebbles. Tangled masses of dead specimens as large as one's fist are often picked up on the beach. Farquhar, in his catalogue of New Zealand hydroids, mentions this one as Sertularella johnstoni; but Samuel F. Clarke, writing in “The Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College” (vol. 25, No. 6, xi., p. 76), says that Allman is of opinion that the later knowledge gained of the genera Sertularia and Sertularella makes it necessary to unite them, retaining the name Sertularia; and, although I have not been able to find All-man's remarks to this effect, I have described this species under the name given it by Gray in 1843—Sertularia johnstoni.
Sertularia elongata. Plate XIX., figs. 3, 3a, 3b.
Sertularia elongata: Lamouroux, 1816, Hist. Polyp. Flex., 189. Thompson, 1879, Ann. Nat. Hist. (5), iii., 107. Bale, 1884, Cat. Aus. Hyd. Zooph., 75; 1888, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ii., 3, 770. Allman, 1885, Jnl. Linn. Soc. (Zoo.), xix., 140. Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890, Ann. des k. k. Natur. Hofm., v., 230.
Dyamene abietinoides, Gray, 1843, Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., 294.
Sertularia abietinoides: Hutton, 1872, Trans. N.Z. Inst., v., 257. Coughtrey, 1874, ib., vii., 285; 1875, ib., viii., 300; 1876, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 28.
Trophosome: The hydrorhiza forms a close strong fibrous network, spreading over and clinging to the object to which it is attached; it occurs in clumps or patches, not being very extensive. Hydrophyton erect. Hydrocaulus gives off alternate pinnæ at very short intervals; the more distant of the pinnæ may be themselves branched. The hydrothecæ occur in pairs, subopposite, tubular, slightly sigmoid, incurved, and free for about a third of their length. Thecostome furnished with five or six fairly long acute teeth. The hydrothecæ occur on the main stem, as well as on the pinnæ.
Gonosome: The gonangia spring from a point just below the origin of the hydrothecæ; they are pyriform and large, being about three times as long as a hydrotheca, truncated at the orifice, and having long spines springing from the sides of the gonangia, and rising considerably above the gonostome.
Hab. Australia; Tasmania; Lyall Bay (Wellington); Kuri Beach and Taieri Beach (Otago): on fronds of seaweeds.
This species seems to vary considerably in size. Thompson
mentions that the hydrocaulus may attain the height of 5 in. My largest specimen is 3 in. long, while Coughtrey's Lyall Bay specimen barely measured 1½ in. It is, according to Bale, by far the commonest species on the south coast of Australia, but does not seem so common in New Zealand, since Coughtrey found none in Otago, and all my specimens were collected on the Kuri Beach, where, however, they are fairly abundant. It is a very beautiful feathery hydroid, and its beauty is often increased by the secondary branching of its pinnæ. Thompson describes the Australian varieties as jointed, but my specimens do not show any sign of nodes. The colour varies from a light to a rather dark horn. The specimen found at Taieri Beach was well marked by having immensely long teeth round the thecostome. In some cases these teeth are as long as the rest of the hydrotheca. In this specimen, too, the gonophore was triangular, and had immense lateral teeth like that of S. bispinosa.
Sertularia minima. Plate XX., figs. 1, 1a.
Synthecium gracilis, Coughtrey, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vii., 286.
Sertularia pumila, Coughtrey, 1875, Trans. N.Z. Inst., viii. 301; 1876, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 29.
Sertularia minima: Thompson, 1879, Ann. Nat. Hist. (10), iii., 104. Bale, 1884, Cat. Aus. Hyd., 89; 1887, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic., xxiii., 109. Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890, Annal. des k. k. Natur. Hofm., v., 231. Allman, 1885, Jnl. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xix., 138.
Sertularia plumiloides, Bale, 1882, Jnl. Mic. Soc. Vic., ii., 21, 45.
Hydrorhiza delicate, creeping over the fronds of seaweeds. It is marked by little pit-like indentations.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus erect, attaining a height of no more than ¼ in., and bearing six to ten pairs of opposite synthecous, adnate, tubular hydrothecæ. Thecostome bidentate and oblique.
Gonosome: One gonangium to each hydrocaulus, arising from a point just below the lowest pair of hydrothecæ. Each is a large pyriform body, with an entire gonostome.
Hab. Australia; Cape of Good Hope; Timaru; Dunedin: on small seaweeds.
The only particular of structure that I have noted in addition to those observed by others who have described this species is the presence of pit-like indentations into the hydrorhiza, and even this seems to have been noticed by Coughtrey, for he gives a drawing of the hydrorhiza, but as it is not helped by any description I cannot quite understand it. The
hydrocauli spring only from the point of intersection of two filaments of the hydrorhiza, a peculiarity which I have not noticed anywhere else where the hydrorhiza was a creeping filamentous network as here. My specimens were found completely covering the fronds of a delicate ribbon-like seaweed.
Sertularia polyzonias. Plate XX., figs. 2, 2a.
Sertularia polyzonias, Linnæus, 1767, Syst. Nat., i., 1312.
Sertularella polyzonias: Hincks, 1868, Hist. Brit. Hyd., 235. Bale, 1884, Cat. Aus. Hyd., 104. Johnstone, Brit. Zooph., 61. Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890, Annal. des k. k. Natur. Hofm., v., 224. Allman, 1879, Trans. Roy. Soc., clxviii., 282.
Sertularia simplex, Hutton, 1872, Trans. N.Z. Inst., v., 257. Coughtrey, 1874, ib., vii., 283; 1875, ib., viii., 300.
Sertularella simplex, Coughtrey, 1876, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 27.
Sertularella kerguelensis, Allman, 1876, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 113.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus simple, divided by twisted joints into internodes, each bearing a hydrotheca on its upper end. Hydrothecæ adnate for about one-third of their length, large, divergent, swollen below, but narrow above. The edges of the thecostome are slightly everted, and bear four teeth.
Gonosome: Gonathecæ large, subpedicellate, with a few transverse wrinkles, very indistinct, and a short neck.
Hab. Europe; North America; Falkland Islands; South Africa; Kerguelen; Australia; Lyall Bay; Timaru; Dunedin.
This hydroid occurs in immense numbers on seaweeds and stones washed up on the beaches round Dunedin. The hydrocaulus does not attain a height of more than ¾ in., and only two of all the specimens collected showed branching. A good deal of variation is observable in all points of the structure. The teeth of the thecostome may be acute or obtuse, or even almost absent, leaving only a sinuous margin to the orifice. The character of the joint between the internodes varies in its obliqueness and distinctness. The swelling at the base of the hydrothecæ varies in size, and the distinctness of the wrinkles around the gonangium varies so as to make these either almost invisible or well-developed annulations.
Thuiaria subarticulata. Plate XX., figs. 6, 6a.
Thuiaria articulata, Hutton, 1872, Trans. N.Z. Inst., v., 258.
Thuiaria subarticulata: Coughtrey, 1874, ib., vii., 287; 1875, ib., viii., 301; 1876, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 30. Thompson, 1879, Ann. Nat. Hist. (5), iii., 110. Bale, 1888, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (ser. 2), iii., 746.
Thuiaria bidens, Allman, 1876, Jnl. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xii., 269.
Sertularia fertilis, Lendenfeld, 1884, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ix., 406.
Trophosome: Hydrophyton erect. Hydrocaulus gives off alternate pinnæ at very short intervals; the more distant pinnæ are themselves branched. Hydrothecæ occur in pairs, subopposite, tubular, slightly sigmoid, and free for about one-third of their length. In all this like Sertularia elongata, but the absence of nodes on the hydrocaulus between every pair of hydrothecæ makes this distinctly a Thuiarian. The hydrothecæ have two small sharp teeth on the inner side of the thecostome, and two obscure blunt ones on the outer side.
Gonosome: Gonophore a short clear stalk surmounted by a barrel-shaped expansion, round which run six or eight ribs, exactly as in S. johnstoni, though here the ribs are much fewer in number.
Hab. Lyall Bay; Oamaru; Timaru; Taieri Beach.
Synthecium elegans. Plate XX., figs. 3, 3a.
Synthecium elegans: Allman, 1870, Gymno. Hyd., 229; 1876, Jnl. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xii., 266. Coughtrey, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vii., 285.
Sertularia elegans, Coughtrey, 1875, ib., viii., 301; 1876, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 29.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus attains a height of about ½ in. or less, springing from a creeping filament, and very sparingly branched, or not branched at all. Internodes separated from each other by a deep constriction. Hydrothecæ borne along both the main stem and its branches, deep, tubular, cylindrical, perfectly even thecostome, adnate to the internode for about half their height, then becoming free and curving outwards.
Gonosome: Not present.
Hab. New Zealand (Allman); Stewart Island (Coughtrey). My own specimens came from Dunedin, Upper Harbour, on shells.
The gonosome of this species is so remarkable as to have necessitated the placing of the almost typical Sertularian into a distinct family. Although there were none present in my specimens, I shall here give Allman's description, from Jnl. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xii., 266: “Gonangia large, elliptical, opening on the summit by a tubular orifice, strongly annulated,
with the annular ridges discontinuous where they meet in a mesual zig-zag line on the front and back of the gonangium. Peduncle of the gonangium entirely concealed within the hydrotheca, which encloses it.” Allman's specimen, obtained from Mr. Busk's collection, had at least a dozen gonangia on it; but of all the specimens examined by Coughtrey only the lower three-quarters of one was found, and my specimens have none at all. The close approximation of the opposite hydrothecæ, which gave the genus its name, is, however, quite sufficient for purposes of identification. Allman's must have been a very favourable specimen, for he draws it at least 2 in. in height, while Coughtrey speaks of his numerous specimens as “pigmies in size,” and mine never exceed a bare ½ in. The polyps themselves are very active, protrude a great distance from the hydrotheca, and actively wave their particularly long tentacles in search of prey.
*Hypanthea asymmetrica, nov. sp. Plate XX., figs. 4, 4a, 4b.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus a creeping, branched, reticulated stolon, which gives off peduncles at intervals along its length. Peduncles ½ in. in height, having three or four very definite constrictions, between which the perisarc takes on a dice-box shape. Perisarc immensely thickened, and very asymmetrically in the hydrotheca. Zooid with a great lobe filling up part of the irregular cavity of the hydrotheca.
Gonosome: Not present.
Hab. Rock-pools at Kuri Beach; rather rare, creeping over seaweeds.
The one-sided thickening of the perisarc of the hydrotheca noticed in H. aggregata and H. bilabiata is here carried to an enormous degree. The cavity of the hydrotheca is hardly saucer-shaped, but almost quite flat. The canal through which the cœnosarc runs is not in the centre of the hydrotheca, but quite to one side, and the mouth and centre of the tentacular circuit are in the same straight line with this. Then, projecting from the side of the hydranth is an oval lobe, nearly as big as the zooid itself, and almost constricted off from it. In this is lodged a red pigment, sometimes dull, but sometimes bright-vermilion. I should have been tempted to call this the gonophore if it had not been so unique a thing among Calyptoblasts, although common among Gymnoblasts, and if I had not caught on one occasion, in conjunction with a specimen of this species, a broken part of what may have been a gonangium. I have given a sketch of the supposed shape of this gonangium. The excessive thickening of the perisarc observed in the hydrotheca is carried into the
peduncle, where the wall is at least one and a half times as thick as the cavity is wide, and into the hydrorhiza, where it is reticulated. The specific name is given because of the marked departure from the radial symmetry usually found in hydroids.
Hypanthea bilabiata. Plate XX., figs. 5, 5a.
Campanularia bilabiata, Coughtrey, 1874, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vii., 291; 1875, ib., viii., 299; 1876, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), xvii., 25.
Eucopella campanularia, Von Lendenfeld, 1883, Zeit. weiss. Zoo., 38, 497; 1884, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ix., 608. Bale, 1888, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (2), iii., 751; 1888, Cat. Aus. Hyd., 60.
Trophosome: “Hydrocaulus a creeping and reticulated stolon, from which are emitted scattered simple pedicels. The pedicels are about ¼ in. in height, and with a swollen summit, which, through the intervention of a single globular segment, supports the hydrotheca.” The pedicel is smooth and cylindrical. Hydrothecæ bilaterally symmetrical, with an oblique bilabiate entire margin. The walls of the hydrothecæ, peduncles, and hydrorhiza are greatly thickened, the perisarc thinning away only where the peduncle springs from the hydrorhiza.
Gonosome: Gonangia more numerous than nutritive zooids, springing, like the peduncles of the hydrothecæ, from the creeping stolon. Two forms, one as long as the peduncle with its hydrotheca, and another barely half as long as this. Both are urceolate, raised on very short but definite pedicels, and have greatly thickened perisarc.
Hab. Australia; Timaru; Tomahawk (Dunedin): on seaweeds, in rock-pools.
This species combines some of the characters of both H. hemispherica and H. aggregata, as described by Allman in the “‘Challenger’ Reports.” It agrees with H. aggregata in its size (about ½ in.), in the conical shape of its hydrotheca, and the thinness of its perisarc (relative to that of H. hemispherica). It agrees with H. hemispherica in the shape of its large gonangia, in their size, and in their distribution, being not densely aggregated, but occurring about alternately with the hydrothecæ. The perisarc of the peduncle as it nears the point of junction with the hydrorhiza thins away till it is no thicker than that of an ordinary Campanularian. The compression of the hydrotheca causing a bilateral symmetry is very peculiar: it causes the perisarc to be thicker on one side than on the other, and an oblique orifice to the hydrotheca. The hydrotheca is set on the peduncle at an angle of about 45 degrees.
Plumularia setacea. Plate XXI., figs. 1, 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d.
Corallina setacea, Ellis, Corall., 38 (an. 1755).
Sertularia pinnata, Lin. Syst., 1312.
Sertularia setacea: Ellis and Soland., Zooph., 47. Lister, Phil. Trans., 1534, 371.
Aglaophenia setacea, Lamour., Cor. Flex., 272.
Plumularia setacea: Lam., Anim. s. Vert., ii., 129. Hassall, Ann. Nat. Hist., vii., 285. Couch, Zooph. Cornw., 16; Corn. Faun., iii., 33. Johnston, 1867, Brit. Zooph., 97. Hincks, 1868, Hist. Brit. Hyd., 296. Bale, 1888, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (ser. 2), iii., 778.
Plumularia tripartita, v. Lendenfeld, 1884, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ix., 477.
Trophosome: Hydrocaulus attaining a height of 4 in., sometimes branched, pinnæ alternate, situated one at the top of each of the long internodes. The pinnæ are divided into alternate long and short internodes, of which only the long ones bear hydrothecæ. Hydrothecæ small, adnate almost to the thecostome, so that the aperture has its plane almost at right angles to the axis of the pinna. The character of the nematophores places P. setacea in the section Eleutheroplea, for they are narrow at the base and movable. One springs from below each hydrotheca, and a pair just above it, one from each short internode of the pinna, and one from the base of each internode on the stem.
Gonosome: The character of the gonangia places P. setacea in the still further division of the Eleutheroplean Plumularians—the Phyloctocarpa. The gonathecæ spring upward from the axils of the pinnæ, and, each being longer than the interval between two pinnæ, are densely crowded. They are slender, fusiform, with a rather long tubular neck.
Hab. Europe; Australia; Timaru; Dunedin.
This is the only Plumularian I have found, but it is extremely abundant, and gives excellent opportunities for the study of the Plumulariidœ as a whole. The nematophores are abundant, and the thread cells of large size. In the theca of the nematophore there is an intrathecal ridge, by which the cavity of the cup is divided into proximal and distal parts: this ridge does not occur in the hydrothecæ. The body of the hydranth is divided by a constriction into two parts, in both of which the enteric cavity is of considerable size. The ectoderm is composed of small cells, but those of the endoderm are of great relative size, and have scattered through them granular gland cells. Great masses of pigment are lodged in both proximal and distal divisions of the enteric cavity; they
are of many colours, varying through yellow, brown, and green. From their constancy these seem to be lodged in the endoderm cells, and have nothing to do with the presence of food. A strong core of endoderm cells runs through the axis of each tentacle, the ectoderm of which is loaded with irregularly distributed nematocysts. The mouth is placed on a conical hypostome, and the mosaic arrangement of the ectoderm cells is very apparent on the expanded parts of the zooid. Two varieties of this species have come under my own notice. In one the hydrocaulus attains the height of 4 in. or even 5 in., the oldest parts having taken on a light-horn colour. The other variety seems never to attain a height of more than ¾ in. or ½ in., has a milk-white appearance in the water, is really colourless, and occurs densely investing the seaweeds in rock-pools. The third variety is that described by von Lendenfeld under the name of Plumularia tripartita. This differs from P. setacea in the trilobation of the hydranth, and in a very different arrangement of the nematophores, the pairs of these structures occurring below instead of above the hydrothecæ. My variety, with its single constriction of the hydranth, is evidently intermediate between the European variety with no constriction and v. Lendenfeld's with two.
Aglaophenia filicula. Plate XXI., figs. 2, 2a, 2b.
Aglaophenia filicula, 1873, Allman, Chall. Rep., part xx., p. 36.
Trophosome: Colony attaining a height of 3 in., rooted by a creeping tubular fibre. Hydrocladia about ¼ in., alternate. Hydrothecæ deep, thimble-shaped, serrated margin, with the median tooth larger than the lateral ones. Intrathecal ridge near the base of the hydrotheca, springing only from the inner side. Mesial nematophores adnate to walls of hydrothecæ for about three-fourths of their height, and then becoming free as a beak-like process which scarcely overtops the margin. Lateral nematophores tubular, overtopping the margin of the hydrothecæ.
Gonosome: Not present.
Hab. Taieri Beach and Martin's Bay, New Zealand; Azores.
The appearance of this hydroid is deceptively like that of Sertularia elongata; it is not very common, although not distinctly rare here. The only difference I have observed between my specimens and those described by Allman is that I have not found “an imperfect septum near the distal extremity
of the mesial nematophore.” Allman found his specimen off the Azores in 2,700 ft. of water, while mine was cast up on a beach in New Zealand. The fact of it being found on this beach, however, says very little concerning its habitat, for the water off that part of the coast is very deep, very rapidly going to the 1,000-fathom line. Again, Antipatharians 5 ft. in height and 20 in. round the stem have been found on the same beach, so probably my specimen may be a deep-sea form, since Antipatharians of this size certainly are. Yet the fact that this species has been found only at the Azores and at New Zealand is interesting.
Since writing the above I have found a specimen at Taieri Beach, but there is not the slightest evidence as to whether it is a deep-sea form or not. This specimen differed in the following points from that found at Martin's Bay: (1) The colour is a light-horn, instead of a dark reddish-brown; (2) in the hydrocaulus two septa occur to one hydrotheca—one is just below the lateral nematotheca, the other just opposite the intrathecal ridge; (3) the intrathecal ridge is very distinct, and springs from all round the hydrotheca.
The following may be taken as a summary of the new facts set forth above:—
Three matters connected with geographical distribution: (a.) Concerning Aglaophenia filicula, which was hitherto found only in the Azores, I am inclined to think that this is a case of independent convergent modifications. Since we have so many nearly allied species of Aglaophenia here, it is not at all improbable that one should vary in the same way as those in the Azores. (b.) Concerning Pedicellina gracilis, this is distinctly a case for the distributionist; as also is (c.) Tubiclava fruticosa.
The discovery of a new genus so clearly intermediate between the two sub-orders of hydroids.
The discovery of the genus Calycella here; also another account of its reproduction, such accounts being rather scanty.
The ascertaining of the identity of Allman's genus Hypanthea with Euplectella and Campanularia.
A new species of Obelia, with a distinctively adaptive modification. The cuticular thickening is, I think, to be regarded as a protection against winter frosts.
A new species of Hypanthea.
Explanation of Plates XVI.–XXI.
Fig. 1. Tubiclava fruticosa.
Fig. 1a. " (natural size).
Fig. 2. Hemitheca intermedia.
Fig. 2a. " (natural size).
Fig. 3. Tubularia attennoides.
Fig. 3a. " (natural size).
Fig. 3b. Tr. séction of polyp.
Fig. 1. Obelia nigrocaulus.
Fig. 1a. " (natural size).
Fig. 2. Obelia geniculata.
Fig. 2a. " (natural size).
Fig. 3. Calycella parkeri.
Fig. 3a. Portion of tentacle, highly magnified.
Fig. 3b. Part of specimen (natural size).
Fig. 3c. Part of stem, highly magnified to show pigment in endoderm.
Fig. 3d. Variations of theca.
Fig. 1. Four stages in the reproduction of Calycella.
Fig. 1a. A variety of gonosome.
Fig. 1. Sertularia bispinosa.
Fig. 1a. " (part), (natural size).
Fig. 2. Sertularia johnstoni.
Fig. 2a. " (natural size).
Fig. 3. Sertularia elongata.
Fig. 3b. " (showing gonangium).
Fig. 3a. Natural size of colony.
Fig. 1. Sertularia minima.
Fig. 1a. Habitat of same (natural size).
Fig. 2. Sertularia polyzonias.
Fig. 2a. " (natural size).
Fig. 3. Synthecium elegans.
Fig. 3a. " (natural size).
Fig. 4. Hypanthea asymmetrica.
Fig. 4a. " (natural size).
Fig. 4b. Supposed form of gonotheca.
Fig. 5. Hypanthea bilabiata.
Fig. 5a. Gonosome.
Fig. 6. Thuiaria subarticulata.
Fig. 6a. Gonophore.
Fig. 7. Sertularia trispinosa.
Fig. 7a., 7b. Two varieties of gonangium.
Fig. 1. Plumularia setacea.
Fig. 1a. " (natural size).
Fig. 1b. Variety showing constrictions in cœnosarc.
Fig. 1c. Gonangia.
Fig. 1d. A gonangium with blastostyle and medusa buds.
Fig. 2. Aglaophenia filicula, from the side.
Fig. 2a. " from in front.
Fig. 2b. " (natural size).
Art. XXV. — On the Occurrence of Pedicellina in New Zealand.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 13th July, 1897.]
Among hydroids I found, growing on the stems of Obelia nigrocaulus, the only representative of the Polyzoa endoprocta yet recorded from New Zealand. It is Pedicellina gracilis, Sars, Plate XXII., figs. 1, 1a, 1b; Johnstone, Brit. Zoo., 385; Goodsir, Ann. Nat. Hist., xv., 380; Hincks, Ann. Nat. Hist. (2), viii., 360, and Brit. Zooph., 570.
This Endoproctan is quite microscopic, and may be recognised by the enlarged base of the peduncle, in which the muscular power is placed, and to which the remarkably energetic movements of Pedicellina gracilis are due, the part above being a rigid rod supporting the almost globular body. The variety mentioned by Hincks with the muscular swelling elongated and divided into two or three parts was also present.
The finding of this specimen has extended the geographical distribution of the Endoprocta in a rather remarkable manner. Formerly members of this order had been found only in Norway, Spitzbergen, White Sea, and Roscoff. Now it is found in New Zealand, quite the antipodes of all the localities in which it was formerly found. The fact, too, of this being precisely the same species, and even presenting the two same varieties, is noteworthy.
Explanation of Plate XXII.
Pedicellina gracilis, closed.
" with tentacles expanded.
A variety of the same.
Art. XXVI. — Further Coccid Notes: with Description of New Species, and Discussion of Points of Interest.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 16th February, 1898.]
The majority of the new species recorded in this paper form part of a collection of Coccidœ made by Mr. A. Koebele, in China and Japan, in 1896 and 1897. In my paper of last year I was able to include about thirteen species from this collection, but the rest did not reach me until too late for publication then. I sent to the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine in October, 1897, an advance list of all of these, and the new species described in this paper were briefly mentioned in it. As regards species already known, also included in the Koebele collection, I must refer students to the numbers for October and November, 1897, of the Ent. Mo. Mag.
An excellent work has been published during 1897 by Mr. Cockerell on the “Food Plants of Coccidœ,” in which he brings together in a compact and convenient form all the knowledge we have up to the present as to the plants attacked by all the species of Coccids. The work is a very welcome and very useful one, and must have required much industry and research. It is inevitable that in such a publication there should be a few points requiring rectification, but these seem to be not of much importance. I may mention two or three. On page 728, near the bottom, it is stated that “Aspid. camelliœ is A. rapax”; but A. rapax is frequently mentioned in the book, which must be an error, as the name camelliœ has priority. On page 733 it is stated that I once identified my own Dactylopius vastator as my own D. albizziœ. This would have been indeed a peculiar mistake, the two being absolutely dissimilar; but I cannot account for the statement. On page 755 it is suggested that my Poliaspis media and Plan-chonia epacridis may be Australian, being found in New Zealand on Leucopogon fraseri, which is an Australian plant. In the first place I must respectfully decline the accusation that I ever called Planchonia by the name Asterolecanium. However, Leucopogon fraseri, whether Australian or not, is a native of New Zealand.
But there is an error in the work of more importance than these small points, and it is one for which Mr. Cockerell is not
in the least responsible, for it has been made by every writer on Coccids down to the year 1897. It is that, as stated on his page 782, Icerya seychellarum attacks the sugar-cane. According to Mons. d'Emmerez de Charmoy (“Revue Agricole de l'Ile Maurice,” April, 1897) this insect never touches sugarcane. “During many years,” he says, “that I have given close attention to the parasitic insects of sugar-cane I have never known one single instance where this insect was found on cane, or even on any gramineous plant, in spite of its almost omnivorous character, … not even accidentally, when other plants in the immediate neighbourhood of a cane-field were infested with it.” M. de Charmoy repeats the same thing in a letter to me. I may observe that in 1896, reporting this species from China, on Rosa and Podocarpus (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxix., p. 330), I remarked that it evidently was not confined to the sugar-cane.
It is easy to understand how this curious—and in a way, possibly, mischievous—error came about. It arose from the far-too-common practice of speaking of injurious insects by the vulgar names used by farmers and gardeners. It appears that every scale in Mauritius which produces white cotton is called “le pou blanc,” or “le pou è poche blanche”; and when the insect in question was first described from that island it was assumed that it was identical with the Coccus sacchuri of Guéin Menneville, 1867, which Signoret, in 1875, placed in his new genus Icerya, stating that “it does great damage to sugar plantations.” Afterwards it was found to be identical with an insect from the Seychelles Islands, which Westwood, in 1855, had described as Dorthezia seychellarum, on palm-trees; but the sugar-eating propensity was still attributed to it. Every writer on Coccids, from Signoret and Riley to Cockerell and myself, fell into this mistake. Now, it appears that “le pou blanc,” or “le pou è poche blanche,” really means three (quite possibly more) different things—Icerya seychellarum, Dactylopius sacchari, and Pulvinaria gasteralpha, of which the second is certainly a sugar-pest; and also (as M. de Charmoy informs me) even Diaspis amygdali, because it is white; and that I. seychellarum infests nearly everything except gramineous plants.
M. de Charmoy tells me that he proposes to apply the name “le pou blanc” to I. seychellarum, “le pou è poche blanche” to Pulvinaria gasteralpha, and “le pou de la canne” to Dactylopius sacchari. This will, of course, be some improvement; but, personally, I would deprecate the use of trivial names. Some day we shall be falling into extreme confusion in consequence of them. Our friends in America are the chief sinners in this respect. Such names as “the white scale,” “the black scale,” “the round scale,”
“the long scale,” “the San José scale” may be good enough for newspapers or for farmers' meetings, where every Coccid is a “scale” and every other insect a “worm” or a “bug,” but they are out of place in a publication emanating from a scientific society or a scientific department, and the case of Icerya seychellarum is a proof of it.
In one of his letters to me M. de Charmoy enclosed a photograph showing that part of a Ceroplastes (species not indicated) which contains the dorsal abdominal lobes. These lobes are slightly expanded, and from between them there extrudes a cylindrical tube, slightly dilated at the tip, which M. de Charmoy rightly recognises as the honeydew organ. I am much pleased to get this photograph, which demonstrates the correctness of my observation in 1886 of a similar organ in Ctenochiton, a genus nearly allied to Ceroplastes. I think that no other writer has mentioned this organ, although the great prevalence of fungoid growth (black blight, smut, &c.) on plants infested by Coccids shows what a quantity of honeydew they must excrete.
Notes on the Genus Aspidiotus.
Two publications have appeared during the year which deal with Aspidiotus, and both propose to divide it into a number of sub-genera. One is merely a preliminary synoptical key, without detailed description, by Dr. G. Leonardi, of the Laboratory of Economic Entomology at Portici, Italy. This suggests nine sub-genera, all founded upon the anatomical features of the female insect, without taking any notice of the puparium. This, if subdivision is required, seems to be quite the correct principle to proceed upon, though I confess that the nomenclature of details (in Latin) is to me not clear; for example, I scarcely know what is meant by “trulla,” though probably it signifies “lobe”; and “paraphyses” I do not understand. But, unless Dr. Leonardi proposes to give much fuller details when defining completely his sub-genera, I think that some of his characters are scarcely valid. Thus, he separates Odonaspis from Chentraspis merely by the presence or absence of spinneret groups. I believe that this may be a valid character for distinction of species; but, seeing the very great variation in the groups even of any given species, even sometimes amongst several insects on the same leaf or twig, it can scarcely be sufficient for genera. For example, in Aspidiotus (Chentraspis, Leon.) unilobis I have, since my original description, seen a specimen with two orifices on one side and one on the other. I did not think the matter important enough to mention it at the time; but clearly these three orifices represented “groups”; consequently the absence of
groups is not constant. On this view three of Dr. Leonardi's genera would disappear—Chrysomphalus, Aonidiella, Aspidites.
The other publication is by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, and is entitled “The San José Scale and its Nearest Allies,” but it is really a revision of the whole genus Aspidiotus. In this work Mr. Cockerell partly agrees with Dr. Leonardi, but he goes much farther, and on the whole proposes thirteen sub-genera. For these, as far as I can make out, he employs both the puparium and the insect; but his definitions are vague and difficult to understand. For example, he includes in one group Chrysomphalus, Melanaspis, Mycetaspis, and Aonidiella; but all that he gives for comparison is “Melanaspis, a modified Chrysomphalus”; “Mycetaspis, a greatly modified Chrysomphalus,” &c. Again, “Pseudaonidia, type A. duplex, a remarkable Asiatic type”; Xerophilaspis, an extraordinary little form,” &c. As for the main genus Aspidiotus, he attaches to it the letters “s. str.,” of which I cannot as yet conjecture the meaning. It will be seen that some of Mr. Cockerell's names are the same as those of Dr. Leonardi, and I gather that on the whole the two writers agree.
There are a few points in Mr. Cockerell's paper as to which I shall have something to say presently; meanwhile, on the general question of generic subdivision, I must observe that it seems to me entirely premature. In my opinion it will be none too late twenty years hence to begin this work. The systematic study of Coccidœ, in the proper sense, does not date back beyond 1860, and even now there are scarcely twenty names known of men who devote themselves to it thoroughly (I exclude those who merely take it up in a fragmentary way, or in the intervals of economic or other work). Moreover, very few countries have yet been explored to any extent. The greater part of Asia, of North and South America, of the Pacific Islands, and even of Europe, is unworked; and whereas the total number of species of all the genera of Coccidœ which are now known to science does not exceed, if even it reaches, one thousand, it is absurd to imagine that we have discovered more than a fraction of those existing in the world. It results, as a matter of course, that any scheme of subdivision of so small a genus of insects as Aspidiotus must be continually subject to revision, to rerevision, to revision a fourth or a tenth time as new forms are found to obliterate the boundaries laid down by this or by that author. There is not the least cause for hurry. If all the species now known are left in Aspidiotus no harm can be done; whereas if all the suggested sub-genera have to be again divided, split into minuter fragments, shifted about
to suit the needs of the day, the future student must be subjected to confusion and trouble quite annoying and wearisome. I have already remarked that Odonaspis and Chentraspis, as they now stand, require alteration: such names as Pseudodiaspis, Morganella, Xerophilaspis, &c., invented to suit single species differing from others only in trivial details, will surely have to be abandoned. I observe also in Mr. Cockerell's list not less than twenty-two species which he is unable to attach to any one even of the long series of sub-genera proposed by him. This can only indicate that the series will have to be extended by perhaps half a dozen more very shortly; and there will be no end to it.
I willingly acknowledge the great industry and acumen manifested in Mr. Cockerell's work, and have no doubt that when Dr. Leonardi publishes the full details of his scheme the same qualities will be abundantly manifested. Yet the thing is premature, and it would probably be better to leave Aspidiotus alone for at least several years to come, as also Lecanium and other sub-families of Coccidœ.
As to a few matters of detail to which I remarked just now that exception must be taken, I find Mr. Cockerell stating (page 15) that he is convinced that my variety of A. perniciosus, found on Eucalyptus in Australia, does not belong to that species. I can only say that I am just as convinced that it does, and this after repeated examination and comparison of my specimens.
I cannot accept the proposed Morganella maskelli, Cockll., not only as to the new sub-genus, but as to the species. As for the genus, the insect is made to differ from Aspidiotus longispina (to which I had attached it in 1894) by having its lobes contiguous and the scaly hairs of the margin serrated. Surely neither of these can possibly be considered generic, or even sub-generic, characters. As for the species, I have compared it with type of longispina sent to me by Mr. Morgan, and I do not see the least difference in the lobes. The serrated hairs are different, certainly, and probably the insect may be a variety of longispina, as I put it in this paper, but I am quite unable to consider it as anything more, for it agrees absolutely with that species in every particular except these serrations.
I do not see in Mr. Cockerell's list any mention of Aspidiotus camelliœ, Boisduval, but Aspidiotus rapax, Comst., is included. But these two are identical, and Boisduval's name dates from 1867, Comstock's from 1880. The omission of one of these indicates that Mr. Cockerell acknowledges the identity; but, if priority is to be of any value, he should have inserted camelliœ and left out rapax.
Aspidiotus secretus, Cockerell, var. lobulatus, var. nov.
The type of this species was partly described by Mr. Cockerell in the Supplement to “Psyche,” March, 1890. A fuller description, with figures, is given by Mr. Green in “Coccidæ of Ceylon,” part i., p. 64, 1896. The insect lives “between the layers of the dry sheathing petioles of bamboo.”
The present variety differs from the type in having a clear and distinct small lobe at each side of the single large median terminal lobe; in the type these lateral lobes do not exist. The two large groups of spinnerets are joined at the top by a single line of orifices. Mr. Green says that in the Cingalese form this line is wanting.
Hab. In Japan, on Bambusa, sp. My specimens were sent by Mr. Koebele from Miyanoshita; he attached them to the genus Diaspis, judging probably from the appearance of the male puparium, but I agree with Mr. Green that, as this is not carinated, the species belongs to Aspidiotus.
This is No. 1513 of the Koebele collection.
Aspidiotus dictyospermi, Morgan, var.
This variety differs from the type only in having a rather lighter-coloured puparium and in the spinneret groups. I examined five specimens; three of them had no spinnerets at all, the two others had six orifices in each upper group (the type has three or four) and four in each lower group (the type has two). These differences are indeed scarcely sufficient to constitute even a valid variety.
Hab. In China, on Erythrina indica. Specimens from Hongkong, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1528).
Aspidiotus rossi, Maskell.
Mr. J. G. O. Tepper, of Adelaide, sends me the following note as to this species: “A. rossi breeds specially well on Coccoloba, apparently without injuring it, even in large numbers, likewise on Hyssop and Artemisia; but even a few injure, and a moderate number kill, Abutilons, notably the smaller kinds, as if they were poisoned.” Seeing that A. rossi is spreading to several countries outside Australia, these remarks will be interesting.
Aspidiotus cydoniæ, Comstock, var. tecta, var. nov.
The insect agrees entirely with the type in the lobes, hairs, and spinnerets, but the puparium differs, being flatter and also subcortical, with a thin covering of bark-cells.
Hab. In the Sandwich Islands (where also the type exists),
on “ohia” tree. Specimens from Mr. Koebele (his No. 1561).
Writing in 1894 on Chionaspis biclavis, Comst. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxvii., p. 49), I established a new variety of the species, characterized by lying exposed outside the bark instead of mining beneath it. In the “Report of the Californian State Board of Horticulture for 1895–96,” p. 37, Mr. A. Craw expresses the opinion that “this is very poor ground upon which to erect even a variety.” I venture to differ from him, considering that the habit of burrowing or not burrowing is quite important enough to warrant the placing of such emphasis upon it as is implied by the word “variety.”
Aspidiotus bilobis, sp. nov. Plate XXIII., fig. 1.
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Female puparium greyish or yellowish-grey, convex, rather solid; pellicles not quite central. Diameter about 1/25 in.; outline subcircular.
Male puparium similar in colour and texture to that of the female, but smaller and more elliptical.
Adult female yellow. Abdomen terminating in two median lobes, which are cylindrical with rounded ends; the sides are straight and parallel, the ends minutely serrated. Separated from these lobes by a small interval in which there are one or two fine hairs is a small denticulate projection on each side, which is scarcely distinct enough to be considered a lobe; and there are also a few triangular scaly hairs. No groups of spinnerets, but at the extremity of the abdomen there are a number of very small dorsal circular pores.
Hab. In China, on grass. The insects appear to affect the roots, or the lower parts of the stem just above the ground. My specimens are from Hongkong, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1518).
This species seems to be allied to A. camelliaœ, in which also there are only two terminal lobes and no groups of spinnerets. But the lobes in the present case are quite cylindrical and direct, whereas in A. camelliœ they are broadly and roundly triangular and oblique, sloping inwards.
Aspidiotus longispina, Morgan, var. ornata, var. nov.
This species was first described by Mr. A. Morgan in the Ent. Mo. Mag., August, 1889, on Cupania, from Demerara. In 1894 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxvii., p. 38) I reported it on various trees in the Sandwich Islands. I have it again in Mr. Koebele's collection (no number attached) from the same locality; and I have lately received it on an unnamed plant from Mauritius, sent by M. d'Emmerez de Charmoy. It is clearly a tropical form—at least, no report of it has come from a temperate region.
The variation here noted consists in the fact that the long scaly hairs on the abdominal margin are conspicuously serrated and even branched, whereas in the type they are simple. Writing of the species in 1894, I noted the point, but did not think it necessary to even found a variety upon it. However, now that it appears from two such widely-separated localities as Honolulu and Mauritius it may fairly be considered a variety from the serrations. In 1894, also, I mentioned that the marginal long setæ seemed to be six on each side, instead of four, as in the type. I do not find this to be a constant character; some specimens exhibit four, some six; this must therefore be discarded.
I have already mentioned (ante, p. 223) that Mr. Cockerell's proposed new sub-genus for this form, and his name, Morganella maskelli, cannot be accepted. Every single character with the exception of the serrated hairs, agrees with the type of longispina, and the difference is too trivial to even make a new species. As regards a point mentioned by Mr. Cockerell, “closely adjacent or contiguous median lobes,” that is not valid. Taking two specimens, one of the type the other of the variety, it requires very close examination indeed to see which has the closer lobes; and even then I think any difference may be accounted for by more or less pressure of a coverglass.
I therefore maintain my specific determination, but am willing to consider the form as a variety.
Aspidiotus implicatus, sp. nov.
Female puparium subcircular, white, slightly convex, thin and papery; pellicles pale-yellow, very indistinct. The puparia are entangled amongst the close thick hairs of the plant, and are very inconspicuous. Diameter about 1/44 in.
Male puparium whitish, elliptical, flat, non-carinated; length about 1/65 in.
Adult female yellow. Abdomen exhibiting two median terminal lobes, sloping inwards, the outer margin of each with a conspicuous notch, and a smaller notch on the rounded extremity. Beyond the lobes are on each side two deepish indentations of the margin, and several scaly hairs, of which some are simple, others broad and conspicuously forked. The spinnerets vary: in some specimens none at all are visible; in others there is a single superior orifice, and either one or two on each side.
Hab. In China, on Campanula, sp. (? the name of the plant was indistinct on the parcel). Specimens sent from Tamsui, Formosa, by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1498).
This species appears to be intermediate between A. camelliœ and A. cydoniœ, but is much smaller than either. The deep
notches in the lobes separate it from camelliœ, and the absence, or almost absence, of spinnerets from cydoniœ.
Aonidia elæagnûs, sp. nov. Plate XXIII., figs. 2, 3.
Female puparium circular; rather solid, yellowish-brown or reddish-yellow in colour; diameter about 1/30 in.; almost entirely occupied by the second pellicle; the first pellicle is small, yellow, and usually placed in a circular depression.
Male puparium elliptical, rather lighter-coloured than that of the female, the pellicle yellow, terminal; length about 1/25 in.
The larval pellicle is oval, and exhibits at the posterior extremity indications of terminal lobes.
The second female pellicle, which occupies almost the whole puparium, is elliptical, tapering posteriorly, and ends in six slender cylindrical emarginate lobes, all sloping inwards.
Adult female yellow, or brownish; length about 1/50 in. The cephalic and thoracic regions largely overlap the abdominal. Abdomen triangular, with nearly straight emarginate sides, terminating in a single median lobe; this lobe is slightly notched on each side, and has a deep indentation on the terminal edge, so that it looks as if it were double. Separated from it by a short interval along the margin is another very small lobe, and still further along another still smaller (or, indeed, rather an indication of a lobe). There are no hairs or spines except one or two, very short and fine, on the anterior abdomen. No groups of spinnerets, but there are a few minute circular pores near the posterior margin.
Hab. In Japan, on Elœagnus macrophylla. My specimens were sent by Mr. Koebele (no number attached to them).
This form is clearly distinct from any of the species of this genus described by Mr. Green from Ceylon, and from all others known to me. The abdominal characters in many species of this genus are most peculiar.
In the Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, August, 1897, Mr. C. Fuller describes a Diaspid insect forming galls on Eucalyptus in Australia, to which he gives the name Maskellia globosa. In its gall-making habit this insect is quite distinct from Aonidia elœagnus; but the figure of the abdominal region given by Mr. Fuller bears a remarkable resemblance to that of the Japanese form, with the exception of the projection on the anterior margin, which, however, is not important. In the six minute widely-separated lobes (assuming that in M. globosa there is really a median pair, and not one double), in the
absence of spinneret groups, and in the position of the scattered single orifices the two are precisely similar. I suppose, however, that the gall must be taken as a sufficient character for distinction.
Diaspis rosæ, Sandberg, var. spinosa, var. nov.
Puparia of both female and male resembling those of the type, but the colour of the adult female is brown instead of red, and the spines on the abdominal margin are much more numerous. In the type there are only seven or eight on each side, but in the present variety there are from fourteen to eighteen. The spinneret groups and lobes are as in the type, and the male puparium is distinctly carinated.
Hab. In Japan, on Smilax, sp. Specimens sent by Mr. Koebele from Atami (his No. 1545).
In “Coccidæ of Ceylon,” part i., page 91, Mr. Green describes D. fagrœœ, a species very close to D. rosœ; but he states that the male puparium is not carinated (which would seem to remove it from Diaspis). This character at once separates it from our variety; moreover, its pellicles are dark-red. Aspidiotus smilacis, Comstock, is quite different.
Diaspis amygdali, Tryon, var. rubra, var. nov.
The differences from the type are, first, the deeper red colour of the pellicles, which is quite conspicuous; and, secondly, the comparative smallness of the terminal lobes, which are not more than half, or two-thirds, of those in the type. Other characters identical.
Hab. In Japan, on Orixa japonica; specimens sent by Mr. Koebele (his No 1220): and in Ceylon, on Loranthus, sp., also from Mr. Koebele (his No. 1410).
The specimens from both localities are identical, and I think that they approach nearest to a form mentioned by Mr. Green (“Coccidæ of Ceylon,” part i., p. 89) on Geranium. Originally Mr. Green proposed to name this D. geranii, but he afterwards attached it to D. amygdali. In two prepared slides which I possess of this form on Geranium I find that the dimensions of the terminal lobes vary considerably.
Parlatoria sinensis, sp. nov. Plate XXIII., fig. 4.
Female puparium really whitish or yellowish, but covered usually with such a coating of fungus as to seem quite black. The puparia are massed together, encrusting the twig, so that the form of each is not easily made out; but it appears to be subcircular, somewhat convex, with a diameter of about 1/30 in.
Male puparium flatter and more elliptical than that of the female; not carinated.
Adult female brownish-yellow; form normal. Abdomen terminating in the usual fringe of emarginate lobes, with serrated scaly hairs between them; but these scaly hairs seem to be less numerous than usual, and do not extend along the whole margin.
Hab. In China, on Citrus aurantium. My specimens are from Hongkong, sent by Mr. Koebele (I think, his No. 1571, but the number was indistinct).
There is little whereby to distinguish the species of this genus, but I think this is new, from the paucity of the scaly serrated hairs. An insect named by Mr. Cockerell Aspidiotus biformis (Canad. Entom., 1894, p. 131) has a margin rather remotely resembling this, but its lobes have smooth sides.
Parlatoria proteus, Curtis, var. palmæ, var. nov.
Puparia, both female and male, resembling generally those of the type, but with a darker appearance to the naked eye or under a weak lens, on account of the darker pellicles.
Adult female also resembling generally the type, but in all the specimens examined I find the scaly hairs on the abdominal margin narrower, and some of them, instead of being laterally serrated, are terminally forked; possibly in living specimens the typical hairs would be seen. There are four groups of spinnerets, anterior pair with eight orifices, posterior pair with six. The marginal lobes are normal.
Hab. In Australia, on date-palms in the northern district of South Australia. These palms were imported, as I understand, from Algeria about three years ago, and were planted near Lake Harry. My specimens were sent by Mr. A. Molineux, of Adelaide, and I also received some from Mr. French, of Melbourne.
Mr. Cockerell (“Entomologist,” 1895, p. 52) describes, under the name Parlatoria victrix, an insect on date-palms in Arizona, imported from Egypt. Two of the characters which he gives are, “No grouped glands; plates scale-like.” The latter character I am not able to interpret, but the figure which he gives of the abdominal margin does not agree with my Australian form. If he is right in stating that P. victrix has no spinneret groups it must be a different species, for in my specimens the groups are quite clear, and exactly as in P. proteus.
I have seen somewhere (but cannot verify the reference) that date-palms in Algeria are attacked by P. zizyphi, Lucas, and the dark colour, superficially, of the puparia of this Australian form might easily cause them to be mistaken for that. Mr. Cockerell also states that his P. victrix was
formerly supposed to be zizyphi. I suppose there is no doubt that the palms brought their parasite with them from Algeria. I reported in 1892 the type of P. proteus in Queensland, but it is not likely that it spread from there to South Australia.
Mytilaspis flava, Targioni, var. hawaiiensis, Maskell, 1894.
This insect occurs in China, on Pyrus sinensis. Specimens sent from Amoy by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1133).
In 1894 I established this variety on the absence of spines from the anterior abdominal segment. My Chinese specimens clearly exhibit these spines, and therefore the variety should probably be abandoned. But it may be convenient to retain the name for the present to indicate that the form is indigenous in the Far East and in the Pacific, as well as in Europe.
Mytilaspis spinifera, Maskell, forma major.
This form is identical with the type in everything but size, being quite twice as large, and averaging ⅛ in. in length and nearly the same in breadth of puparium.
Hab. In Australia, on Acacia pendula (same as the type). Specimens from Hay, Riverina, New South Wales, sent by Mr. Musson.
Mytilaspis machili, sp. nov. Plate XXIII., fig. 5.
Female puparium dark-brown, elongated, pyriform; length about 1/12 in.
Male puparium more cylindrical than that of the female; colour darkish-yellow; length about 1/20in. Some specimens are white.
Adult female brown; form normal. Abdomen ending in two moderate lobes with a small median depression in which are two small spiny pairs; these lobes are rounded with very inconspicuous lateral emarginations; beyond them on each side are two much smaller subconical lobes. The margin bears a few spines in pairs. Five groups of spinnerets; upper group with 4 to 6 orifices; upper laterals 6 to 8; lower laterals 8 to 10. Several dorsal tubular spinnerets.
Adult male unknown.
Hab. In Japan, on Machilus thunbergii. Specimens from Yokohama, sent by Mr. Koebelele (his No. 1514).
In my list of the Koebele collection, published in the Ent. Mo. Mag. (October and November, 1897), I did not attach any name to this form, thinking that perhaps it might after all turn out to be a variety of M. crawii, Cockerell; but I now consider it as distinct. On the leaves sent to me there were
many more male puparia than females, mingled with Aspidiotus ficûs and a species of Parlatoria.
Poliaspis pini, sp. nov. Plate XXIII., fig. 6.
Female puparium elongated, mussel - shaped; colour brown, with the pellicles orange and the abdominal end white. Length about 1/10 in.
Male puparium similar in form and colour to that of the female; length about 1/16 in.
Adult female brown, of the normal elongated form. Abdomen ending in an emarginate curve, minutely serrated, and with several elongated oval pores near the margin; in the middle four small lobes of equal size and two smaller ones. Between the lobes, and along the margin, are a few short spiny hairs. The anterior abdominal and the posterior thoracic segments bear some short marginal spines. Eight groups of spinnerets; the anterior row of three groups, of which the two lateral ones have about 4 orifices; the median one about 10; of the rest, the median group has 4 to 6; the upper laterals 10 to 12; the lower laterals about 12. There are several dorsal tubular spinnerets.
Hab. In Japan, on Pinus densiflora. Specimens from Miyanoshita, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1494).
The dark-coloured puparium is unusual in this genus; indeed, I originally established the name from the Greek πoλís (white, shining), and the other known species have this character.
Chionaspis chinensis, Cockerell, Rep. State Board of Hort., California, 1895, p. 37.
Specimens of this insect were sent to me from Atami, Japan, on Quercus acuta, by Mr. Koebele (his Nos. 1496 and 1549). The form was originally described as on Quercus trees imported into California from China. Mr. Cockerell considers it as intermediate between C. nyssœ, Comstock, and C. eugeniœ, Mask., and I think he is right. Indeed, in my list in the Ent. Mo. Mag. (November, 1897) I set it down as probably C. eugeniœ, var.
Fiorinia signata, sp. nov. Plate XXIII., figs, 7—9.
Female puparium greyish-white, rather widely pyriform; the single terminal pellicle is yellow; the surface of the
secreted portion is marked by rather strong transverse striæ, forming shallow corrugations. The second pellicle, which is yellow, occupies almost the whole puparium. Length about 1/25 in.
Male puparium snowy-white, rather loose in texture, semicylindrical; length about 1/20 in.; terminal pellicle yellow.
The second female pellicle is broadly elliptical, with both ends tapering rapidly. The cephalic end is truncate and smooth; the posterior end is broken by many small irregular denticulate lobules, between which are six or eight spines, the anterior spine on each side being rather strong.
Adult female yellowish-brown. Length about 1/50 in. Abdomen terminating in a semicircular curve, broken by many irregularities, but there are no regular or conspicuous lobes. On the margin there are from fourteen to eighteen spines on each side, of which about half are short and fine, the rest long and strong. Four groups of spinnerets: upper groups with 14 to 18 orifices; lower groups, 12 to 16; in some specimens a small upper median group of 2 or 3 may be made out.
Hab. In Japan, on Bambusa tessellata. Specimens from Miyanoshita, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1495).
The pyriform striated female puparium at once distinguishes this species.
Fiorinia camelliæ, Comstock. Fiorinia pinicola, Mask., Ent.
Mo. Mag., Oct., 1897.
My identification of this in the Ent. Mo. Mag. was a gross error. Subsequent examination shows that there is no difference from F. camelliœ. The specimens were on Pinus sinensis, Hongkong, and on Cupressus juniperinus, Formosa, from Mr. Koebele (his Nos. 1529, 1130).
Fiorinia tenuis, sp. nov. Plate XXIII., fig. 10.
Female puparium pale-yellow, irregularly elliptical, very thin and transparent; length about 1/40 in. The second pellicle is also extremely thin and brittle, and occupies almost all the puparium; its posterior extremity exhibits some irregular indentations, amongst which are some short and rather strong spines.
Male puparium white, but the specimens seen were not in good order.
Adult female greyish-yellow. Length about 1/50 in. Abdomen exhibiting an irregularly serrated margin, the serrations bearing numerous rather strong and thick spines, but there are no regular lobes. Five groups of spinnerets, each consisting of from 5 to 8 orifices. The groups are so nearly contiguous as to form almost an arch. There are also several dorsal tubular spinnerets.
Hab. In Japan, on Bambusa, sp. Specimens from Miyanoshita, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1510). This particular species of bamboo has, at the junction of the leaf-stalk with the leaf, a coating of short hairs on the underside, and the insects are found amongst these hairs, but are very inconspicuous.
The very thin puparium and pellicles and the spines on the abdominal extremity will distinguish this form. It differs from F. saprosmœ, Green, in the absence of a terminal abdominal depression, in having no marginal “jointed tubercles,” and in the spinneret groups. The extremity of the second pellicle is not unlike that of F. syncarpiœ, Mask., an Australian form, but the adult differs.
Fiorinia bambusæ, sp. nov. Plate XXIV., figs. 1–5.
Female puparium very long and excessively slender; the length reaches 1/13 in., the width only about 1/150 in. The colour is white, but appears yellow, from the second pellicle showing through it. The texture is very thin and transparent. Sides straight and parallel.
Male puparium white, similar in form to that of the female; length about 1/25 in.; width about 1/150 in. The pellicle is yellow.
The first female pellicle is very pale-yellow, almost white, very elongate - elliptical, with parallel sides and smoothly rounded ends. The antennæ present no special features. I have not been able to make out the feet. The dorsum is covered with many transverse rows of minute specks, which, under a high magnification, appear multilocular, but they vanish in the medium employed for microscopic preparation.
The second pellicle is yellow, occupying almost all the puparium. The margin all along the sides is broken by minute irregular corrugations. Near the posterior end the pellicle is transversely segmented, and ends in a broad and shallow depression, and on each side a few rather strong spiny hairs.
The adult female is cylindrical and very slender. Length about 1/40 in. Abdomen ending in a curve broken by very minute serrations, and in the middle two very small trifoliate lobes, each with an interior thickening of the epidermis; between and alongside these lobes are a few spiny hairs. But many specimens show no indications of lobes at all, the margin of the abdomen in them, all round, being almost entirely smooth. This form is very noticeable in one of my prepared specimens, which shows the adult still in the puparium, covered by the second pellicle, and I imagine that it results from a bending under of the extremity whereby the ultimate edge is hidden. I have seen the same smooth
curves in females extracted from the puparium. I can see only two groups of spinnerets, each with three orifices.
Adult male unknown.
Hab. In China, on Bambusa fortunei. Specimens from Hongkong, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1534).
An extremely elegant and distinct species, remarkable for its length and slenderness. Mr. Green has a form, Chionaspis (originally Mytilaspis) elongata, on Arundinaria, which is a kind of bamboo, in Ceylon; but it is quite different in the puparium and in other characters.
Fiorinia nephelii, sp. nov. Plate XXIV., figs. 6–10.
Insects inhabiting small pits on the under-surface of a leaf. There is a corresponding elevation on the upper surface. Usually each pit contains three or four insects of different stages.
Female puparium yellow, but the median region appears dark-brown, from the second pellicle showing through it. The form is irregularly elliptical. Length about 1/35 in.
Male puparium white, semicylindrical, not carinated; pellicle yellowish-brown; length about 1/40 in. This puparium lies on the surface of the leaf, and not in a pit. When several are collected together the cottony secretion forms a mass of white fluff, the form of each being indistinguishable.
Larva in its early stage yellow, darkening with age, so that when its exuviæ form the first pellicle they are brown. Form regularly elliptical; length varying with age from about 1/100 in. The antennæ, feet, and terminal setæ are normal, but the margin, both in the male and the female, bears a number of rather long slender spiny hairs.
The second pellicle is dark-brown, elliptical, with a some what irregular edge. The posterior extremity has a conspicuous depression, the sides of which form minutely serratulate lobes; and on the abdominal margin there are a few short and thick spines.
Adult female entirely enclosed within the second pellicle, so that it is extremely difficult to extract. The form is normal. Colour brown; length about 1/50 in. The abdomen ends in a depression with serratulate sides, as in the second pellicle, and there are a few short marginal spines. I have not been able to satisfy myself as to the spinnerets, but there are probably the usual five groups.
Adult male unknown.
Hab. In China, on Nephelium longana, and in Queensland, on the same plant. Specimens sent from Hongkong, Tamsui, and Brisbane, by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1417).
It was only after very considerable trouble that I was able to extract sufficient of the adult females from the
second pellicle to make out the abdominal characters, but I did not succeed in getting a single uninjured specimen.
The terminal depression and spines of the female, both second stage and adult, in this species approach those of F. camelliœ; but its habit of forming pits in the leaf, and also the long marginal spines of the larva, clearly distinguish it. Mr. Koebele sent me the specimens under the name F. secreta, Green, but they do not agree with that. I have specimens of F. secreta from Mr. Green himself, and I find them quite distinct. They form little rounded galls on the upper surface of the leaf, and there is either no visible orifice in the under-surface, or else a very minute one; whereas F. nephelii forms a pit in the under-surface, and merely presses out the upper surface in a small elevation. Moreover, the long marginal spines are very clear and conspicuous on both male and female larva of F. nephelii, whilst Mr. Green makes no mention of them in F. secreta. and I can see none in my specimens.
Ceroplastes vinsonii, Signoret. Plate XXV., figs. 1, 2.
I have received from Dr. Anderson, of Calcutta, three specimens which I shall attach to this species; also a small coloured drawing of the insect as it appears when alive. These specimens agree altogether with Signoret's description, having the eight lateral waxy tuberosities and the central boss; moreover, in the specimen which I have prepared for microscopic examination I find the peculiar “arrow-headed” spines situated near the spiracular depressions, with spiny hairs posterior to them. These “arrow-heads” are made by Signoret a distinctive character of the species, and he separates C. fairmairii from C. vinsonii by the absence of spiny hairs from the former. Comstock (Rep. of Entom., 1880, p. 331) expresses a doubt whether these processes have sufficient specific value, for he says he finds them also in his species, C. floridensis; but it is quite possible that this may be identical with C. vinsonii. In any case, only three species of the genus are said to exhibit them.
Hab. In India, on Thea, at Darjeeling.
Ceronema japonicum, sp. nov. Plate XXV., figs. 3–9.
Female insects partially or wholly covered by closely-woven white semi-cottony threads; sometimes these are absent, except on the median dorsal region, the rest of the body being naked. On this median region the threads are very long, curl-
ing outwards in long elevated curves, and frequently extending beyond the margin.
Male pupa covered by a test of white secretion, which is rather more solid than that of the female, approaching to glassy plates. Some male tests exhibit median curling threads, but others do not. Length of male test about 1/20 in.
Adult female yellowish, of normal Lecanid form, rather flat, with a slightly-raised median longitudinal ridge of rather darker colour; length about 1/13 in. The outline is elliptical, rather narrowed anteriorly. Antennæ of seven joints, of which the fourth is the longest, then the third, and the rest are subequal; in the fourth there is a “false joint,” so that it might be sometimes taken for two; there is one hair on the first, two on the fourth, and four to six on the last. Feet moderately thick; the tibia is only slightly longer than the tarsus; upper digitules slender, knobbed hairs, lower pair dilated. The abdominal cleft is normal, but in all the specimens examined I find two anogenital rings, one anterior to the other, both “compound,” and both bearing several hairs; and there are two pairs of lobes, one to each ring. The margin of the body bears a double row of spines, one set being twice as large as the other. At each of the four spiracular depressions there is a group of about six much larger and longer spines. All over the body there are numerous scattered spinneret orifices of two sizes, the smaller ones being the most frequent. On the median dorsal region, where the raised ridge exists, there are two longitudinal series of short thick conical spines, extending from the rostrum nearly to the abdominal cleft.
Second stage unknown.
Larva yellow, active, flat, of normal Lecanid elliptical form; length about 1/80 in. Antennæ of six rather thick joints. Feet and abdominal lobes normal. I cannot detect any median spines or orifices. The margin bears a series of fine hairs, not set closely together.
Adult male unknown.
Hab. In Japan, on Ilex crenata, and in India, on tea. My Japanese specimens are from Miyanoshita, sent by Mr. Koebele (his Nos. 1476 and 1478); the Indian ones were sent by Dr. Anderson, of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, who gives no particular locality.
I think that this form is clearly allied to the Australian Ceronema banksiœ, Mask., 1894, the principal difference being that the organs which produce the long curling threads are here on the median dorsum, whereas in C. banksiœ they are nearer to the margin. The result is that in the Japanese species the threads curl outwards, while in the Australian they curl inwards. Other differences, of course, are in the marginal spines, the antennœ, &c. I am not able to explain the
appearance of two anal rings, but these were constant in all my specimens, both from India and Japan.
I shall presently describe another Japanese insect—Lecanium notatum—also partly on tea, in which there are markings on the median dorsal carina; but that is different in other respects, as will be seen.
Lecanium ficus, sp. nov. Plate XXV., figs. 10, 11.
Adult female elongated, narrow, convex, smooth, without dorsal carina; colour darkish-brown; length about 1/7; in. Antennæ of eight joints, the third, fourth, and fifth the longest, and subequal, the sixth and seventh the shortest. Feet moderate; tibia not quite twice the length of the tarsus; upper digitules fine hairs, lower pair only slightly dilated. Margin bearing only a very few short hairs. Epidermis marked by numbers of oval spots, rather large, and on the abdominal region with some fine hairs.
Female of the second stage yellow, flat, elliptical; length about 1/25 in. Antennæ of six joints. Margin bearing only a very few fine hairs.
Larva yellow, flat, elliptical; length about 1/65 in. The antennæ and feet present no special features. The margin is very minutely crenulated, but bears no hairs. Terminal setæ moderate.
Hab. In China, on Ficus, sp. Specimens from Swatow (on the sea-shore), sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1349).
This form is allied to L. longulum, Douglas, and it also seems to be near to L. anthurii, Signoret, and to L. terminaliœ, Cockerell, but it appears to differ from all. L. longulum may perhaps (apud Douglas) have eight-jointed antennæ, anthurii has seven, and in terminaliœ the antennœ are not described. I shall leave the species separate for the present.
Lecanium ribis, Fitch.
I have received from Mr. T. W. Kirk specimens of this species on grape-vine from the Wairarapa district, New Zealand. They are identical with those mentioned in my paper of 1891 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiv., p. 22) as occurring on the same plant at Ashburton.
Lecanium berberidis, Schrank.
I reported this species from Australia in 1896 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxix., p. 311), but with a note of interrogation, because I was not certain as to one character given by Signoret—viz., the swollen anterior tarsi and median tibiæ. Since then I have received, by the kindness of Dr. Berlese,
Part II. of his “Chermotheca italica,” containing the European type of the species. On examination I find that these specimens also do not show any abnormal form of the feet, and that the only thing in which the Australian form differs is size, which may be accounted for by climate, food-plant, &c. If any note, therefore, is required, it need only be to add the words “forma major.”
Lecanium notatum, sp. nov. Plate XXV., fig. 12–15.
Adult female yellow, flattish, with a slightly-raised longitudinal dorsal ridge; form elliptical; length about 1/11 in. Antennæ of eight joints, of which the third is much the longest; next the fourth and second, which are equal; next the fifth; the rest short and subequal. Feet rather long; the tibia is twice as long as the tarsus; upper digitules long fine knobbed hairs, lower pair long and rather widely dilated. Margin bearing a single series of fine hairs. The dorsal ridge is marked by an irregular longitudinal series of polygonal cells; these cells disappear in a prepared and mounted specimen. Mentum monomerous.
Male pupa covered by a white glassy test of the usual angular-elliptical form, composed of flat polygonal plates.
Adult male yellow. Length about 1/32 in. The spike is rather long, but there are no special characters.
Hab. In Japan, on Pittosporum, sp., and on tea. The male tests are most numerous on Pittosporum. Specimens from Atami, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1475).
This species appears to be allied to L. minimum, New-stead, but differs in the antenna, in the proportions of the tibia and tarsus, and in the median dorsal cells.
Lecanium globulosum, sp. nov. Plate XXVI., figs. 1, 2.
Adult female semiglobular, the border somewhat flattened; colour clear yellow; diameter about ⅛ in. Epidermis covered with many minute yellow spots, but no definite tessellation is apparent either in the natural state or after preparation for the microscope. Antennæ of six joints, of which the third is much the longest, the rest subequal. Feet moderate; upper digitules long fine hairs, lower pair long and very slightly dilated. Abdominal cleft, lobes, and anal ring normal. Margin without hairs.
Female of the second stage clear yellow, elliptical, flattish, with a median longitudinal dorsal carina; length about 1/13 in. Antennæ of six joints.
Larva yellow, flat, elliptical; length about 1/50 in. Antennæ of six joints. The margin is minutely crenulated; the spiracular spines are rather long, and there are some shortish fine hairs, set rather far apart.
Hab. In China, on Stillingia sebifera (the “tallow-tree”). Specimens sent from Hongkong by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1541).
This insect belongs to Signoret's third series, and seems to be allied to L. genevense, L. prunastri, &c., species in which the dermal tessellation is extremely indistinct.
On the packet containing the specimens sent Mr. Koebele writes, “Covered over by ants.” I found no ants in the parcel, and Mr. Koebele does not state that the species is subterranean, whilst the piece of the plant sent is clearly not part of a root. All ants, however, are not subterranean, as I understand.
Lecanium melaleucæ, sp. nov. Plate XXVI., figs. 3–8.
Adult female reddish-brown, elliptical, tapering anteriorly, very slightly convex, the median dorsal region darker coloured than the margins, but there is no conspicuous dorsal carina. Length averaging about 1/9; in., but may reach 1/7; in. Epidermis slightly rough with minute pustules, which, in a prepared specimen, appear as subcircular cells. In some specimens, on the median dorsal region, there is a longitudinal series of white waxy tufts, but these are by no means constant. Antennæ of (probably) six joints; the last three are confused, and may be four; the basal joint is very thick, the rest tapering, the third being much the longest; on the last are some short hairs, and there is a long hair on the second. Feet moderate; in the early adult the tibia is shorter than the tarsus, but when fully grown it is longer; the upper digitules are long fine hairs, the lower pair long and widely dilated. The margin bears no hairs, but there is a group of blunt spines in each of the four spiracular depressions. The rostrum is normal, the mentum globular, monomerous; in the early adult the rostral setæ, before passing through the mentum, are often encased in a sort of cylindrical sac, or agglomerated together; but I have failed to find this feature in a fully-grown specimen, and in the early state it seems to be not constant. The abdominal cleft, lobes, and anal ring are normal.
Female of the second stage lighter coloured than the adult, elliptical; length about 1/20 in.; on the dorsum there is a slightly-raised longitudinal ridge, with two other transverse ones less conspicuous. Antennæ of six rather confused joints. The rostral setæ are usually encased as in the early adult.
Larva yellow, elliptical, flat; length varying from about 1/65 in. in the earliest to 1/40 in. in the latest stage. Antennæ of six rather thick joints. Feet moderate, digitules rather thick. Abdominal setæ moderate. Rostral setæ encased as in the second stage, the loop being usually very long, and reaching
almost to the abdominal extremity. Margin bearing a few scattered short fine hairs; spiracular spines rather long.
Male pupa covered by a glassy thin test of the normal Lecanid form, composed of polygonal plates. Length of the test about 1/11 in.; but the central portion of this test is again covered by a snow-white mass of thicker and more waxy material, and this is, as a rule, divided on the median dorsal region by a shallow longitudinal groove, which becomes much deeper at the cephalic extremity, where the mass is separated into two parallel portions; at the abdominal extremity the two divisions converge; the lateral regions of the test bear narrow ridges of white wax covering the divisions of the plates; so that, on the whole, the upper covering of a test presents somewhat the appearance of the egg-case of a dogfish, only snowy white.
Adult male dark-red; length about 1/17 in., inclusive of the head and the spike. Wings iridescent, with red nervures. Haltere fusiform, with a single terminal seta bent into a hook. Antennæ of probably nine joints, but the divisions are not clear, and there may be ten; all have numerous hairs, four on the last joint being knobbed. Feet rather long, with numerous hairs on every joint. Anal spike moderate, slightly curved.
Hab. In Australia, on Melaleuca, sp. Specimens from Palmer Island, Clarence River, New South Wales, sent by Mr. Froggatt.
I am not able to attach this to any known species, on account principally of the curious rostral setæ of the female and the test of the male pupa. Externally, and to the naked eye, or under a weak lens, the female is not unlike L. tessellatum, but there is no dermal tessellation. I think it may fairly be considered as new.
Lecanium casuarinæ, sp. nov. Plate XXVI., figs. 9–14.
Adult female dull dark-red in colour, semiglobular; diameter averaging ⅜ in.; dorsum sometimes smooth, sometimes with one longitudinal and two transverse ridges, not very conspicuous; scattered over the body are a number of minute specks of white wax, which, however, are scarcely visible to the naked eye or under a weak lens. The ventral surface is concave, with a thick margin, and covers a number of larvæ. Antennæ and feet entirely wanting, the only organs visible, even after preparation, being the rostrum, the spiracles, and the abdominal lobes. The rostrum is moderate, the mentum monomerous, the setæ remarkably long. The spiracles are very large, bivalvular, situated in deep depressions, with enormous tracheæ. Abdominal cleft normal, the lobes very small, triangular. The dorsal skin bears some
rather large scattered circular orifices which appear to be at the apices of small pustules; also a number of minute simple circular orifices. The margin bears only very few or no spines.
Female of the second stage elliptical, slightly convex. The true colour is red, but the dorsum is covered with a coating, not very thick, of white wax, not homogeneous, but composed of small polygonal segments as in the adult, only much more closely set, and almost wholly concealing the insect. The ventral surface is slightly concave, and varies in colour from dull-yellow to dull-red. Dorsally there is a longitudinal raised ridge and also two transverse ones, all rather inconspicuous as a rule. The length of the insect at this stage is about ⅕ in. Antennæ and feet entirely absent. Rostral setæ extraordinarily long, coiled in a large circle before passing through the mentum. Abdominal lobes small and black. The spiracles, as in the adult, and the tracheæ, are enormously developed, and the spiracular depressions very deep. The margin of the body, all round, bears a row of moderately long blunt spines set closely together. Dorsally there are the same large spots and small orifices as in the adult, but these, especially the small ones, are very much more numerous.
Larva flat, regularly elliptical, active; colour dull-red; form normally Lecanid; length about 1/20 in. Antennæ rather long, with six joints, of which the third is twice as long as any other; all the joints bear many hairs. Feet also rather long; the tibia is twice as long as the tarsus; tarsal digitules fine hairs, lower pair very slightly dilated. Abdominal cleft, lobes, and setæ normal. Margin bearing some spines, but not set so closely as in the second stage. The spiracular depressions are very deep, and bear club-like spines. The rostral setæ are enormously long.
Hab. In Australia, on Casuarina, sp. Specimens from Myrniong, Victoria, sent by Mr. Lidgett, who says in his letter, “They were found in the centre of the branch, having evidently followed the hole left by the larva of the moth Marogia gigantella, Walk., and had taken up their abode about 18 in. from the point of entrance, quite safe from the attacks of birds, &c. Half a dozen ants seemed to be busy attending to them.”
The burrow of the moth larva is rather less than ½ in. in diameter, so that there is just room for these large Coccids to occupy it without too much crowding. It may be presumed that they do not begin to make use of this tunnel until after the moth has emerged, unless it does so from some other orifice than that where the larva enters; otherwise it is not easy to see how it could make its way out, as the Lecanids practically fill up most of the space.
This species is second in size only to L. mirificum, Mask., 1896, and in many respects is curious and interesting. The spiracles, which are only noticeable in the adult and the second stage, being absent from the larva, differ from those of any other Coccid with which I am acquainted; and, as my figures show, the irregular and pubescent joints of the larval antenna and foot are abnormal amongst the Lecaninœ. It is curious that the marginal spines, so numerous in the second stage, should disappear in the adult. The very extraordinary length of the rostral setæ in all stages is also a curious character, although it would not at all serve for specific distinction, seeing that scarcely any two species of Coccids have setæ of the same length, some being just as exceptionally short as those of L. casuarinœ are long.
Pulvinaria psidii, Maskell.
This species is evidently widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, and has been found in Ceylon, in China, and in Japan since I first described it from Hawaii in 1892.
Amongst the Koebele collection (his Nos. 1277, 1507) were many males. The male test is of the normal glassy angular form. The adult male is brown, about 1/32 in. long; the feet rather long, the tibia three times as long as the tarsus; antennæ of nine joints; abdominal spike rather long and thick.
This insect appears to attack a good many various plants in hot countries.
Pulvinaria maskelli, Olliff, var. spinosior, Maskell.
Specimens of this species were sent to me by Mr. Musson, on Pittosporum phillyrœoide, Richmond, New South Wales (collected by Mr. G. Valder); amongst them were a number of male tests, hitherto undescribed.
These tests present no special features, but are rather more waxy than usual, and also less angular, the corners of the plates being rounded off, so that the outline is almost or quite elliptical. I could not find a male insect.
Genus Mallococcus, gen. nov.
Mallophora, Maskell, 1896.
I am informed that my name Mallophora, for the Chinese species M. sinensis (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxix., p. 314), was employed by Macquart, in 1834, for a genus of flies. I must
therefore make a correction as above; probably the name now proposed will be free from any such objection.
Eriococcus graminis, sp. nov. Plate XXVII., figs. 1–3.
Adult females enclosed in sacs of white cotton, which are massed together, and appear as if encrusting the plant. These sacs are rather closely felted, elliptical. Length about 1/10 in., but, being crowded together, it is not easy to make this out clearly. Sacs from which the female has fallen out are usually filled with empty white egg-shells.
Male pupa-sacs similar to those of the females, but smaller; usually mixed up with them on the plant.
Adult female elliptical, but shrivelling as usual at gestation; colour dull dark greenish-brown; length before gestation about 1/15 in. Antennæ of seven joints, rather thick; the third is the longest. Feet rather long; tibia shorter than the tarsus, as usual in the genus. Anal tubercles and ring normal. Epidermis covered with very numerous fine rather short hairs interspersed with blunt spines, and on the margin the spines are arranged in a row, and are longer and thicker.
Larva yellow; form normal; length about 1/80 in. Antenna of six rather thick joints. Foot bearing several hairs on the tibia and tarsus.
Second stage and male unknown.
Hab. In China, on grass. Specimens from Hongkong, sent by Mr. Koebele (his Nos. 1523 and 1546).
This form is not far removed from the New Zealand E. pallidus. It differs in the marginal spines, and also in the massing of many sacs together (but this last character may be due to the food-plant).
Eriococcus exiguus, sp. nov. Plate XXVII., figs. 4–6.
Sac of adult female yellow, elliptical, rather loosely felted; length about 1/40 in. The sacs are entangled amongst the numerous hairs of the leaf.
Sac of male white, loosely felted, cylindrical; length about 1/60 in.
Adult female brownish-yellow, of normal form, shrivelling at gestation. Length before gestation about 1/70 in. Antennæ thick, with six subequal joints. Feet showing no peculiar characters. Anal tubercles rather long. Margin bearing a row of short, thick, sharply conical spines.
Larva brownish-yellow, of the normal elliptical form; length about 1/110 in. The margin bears short, thick, conical spines, as in the adult.
Hab. In China, on a plant the name of which was not sent to me. The leaves are light-green, rather like those of a rose, but covered on the underside with a dense pubescence. Some very small Diaspid male puparia are on the same leaves. Specimens from Hongkong and Tamsui, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1525).
The extreme smallness, the yellow sac, and the marginal conical spines will distinguish this species.
Eriococcus eucalypti, Maskell.
Mr. Tepper informs me that this species, in South Australia, is usually accompanied by Dactylopius eucalypti, and that both are especially injurious to Eucalyptus rostrata (red-gum, river-gum), which is “simply ruined by it since the brush-tongued parrots and other sweets-loving birds have been exterminated in the locality.” I do not remember noticing any previous observations as to the action of birds upon Coccids, excepting a remark of my own several years ago that the white-eye, or blight-bird (Zosterops lateralis), pecked at Lecanium hesperidum; and a paper by Mr. Newstead in the Ent. Mo. Mag., April, 1895, in which he states that four species of Coccids were found by him in the stomachs of birds in England. Mr. Tepper's remark is therefore of great interest, and will, I hope, induce some naturalist to investigate this subject, which is important in many respects.
Eriococcus paradoxus, Mask., var. simplex, var. nov.
Sac of female similar to that of the type, so closely felted as to seem waxy, but not (in the specimens seen) aggregated in such solid masses.
Adult female of a deep-red colour, similar to the type in the peg-top form, the terminal lobes, the anal ring, and the size, in the atrophied antennæ, and in the absence of feet, which are replaced by spines; but instead of large numbers of figure-of-eight spinnerets there are only moderate numbers of simple circular orifices, most of which are small, a few near the abdominal extremity being larger.
Hab. In Australia, on Eucalyptus, sp. Specimens from Albury, sent by Mr. Froggatt.
Mr. R. H. Pettitt, of Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A., was kind enough to send me specimens of an insect of this genus found in ants' nests in that region. He did not ask me to describe it, but I have suggested to him the name R. myrmecophila.
It appears to be distinguished from other species by its great pubescence, not only on the body, but also on the antennæ and feet.
I should attach this form to Ripersia on account of the six-jointed antenna. Mr. Newstead has included in this genus a number of species—e.g., R. pulveraria, R. tomlinii, R. tumida—where the antennæ have seven joints. I am obliged, although with diffidence, to differ from him on this point, for I imagine that what has led him to such a conclusion is the absence of tarsal digitules, and this seems to be a character usually difficult to make sure of. I often find that the digitules in a dead specimen are broken off, and they are often frequently destroyed in the process of preparation. The digitules of the claw are more permanent. Moreover, in such species as R. fraxini, Newst., or R. fagi, Mask., the tarsal digitules are present, as also in this Michigan species. It would follow, therefore, that by-and-by we should have to further subdivide Ripersia, making a separate division of those with six-jointed antennæ and tarsal digitules, which would be a great pity. I prefer very much to put all the six-jointed forms (with otherwise Dactylopid characters) into Ripersia, leaving those with seven or eight joints (whatever their digitules) in Dactylopius, as being the plan least likely to lead to confusion.
Dactylopius graminis, Maskell, var. orientalis, var. nov.
Insects enclosed in sacs of white felted cotton, which are massed together on the plant, the proper form of each being irregularly elliptical. Insect dark-purple or dark-brown, sub-globular or slightly elliptical; length about 1/15 in. Antennæ of seven joints, the first six subequal, the last as long as any two others. Feet moderate; digitules all fine hairs. Anal tubercles very inconspicuous, almost obsolete, with shortish setæ and fine hairs; anal ring with six hairs. Epidermis covered with numerous simple circular spinneret-orifices of two sizes.
Larva and male not observed.
Hab. In China, on stems of grass. Specimens from Hongkong, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1501).
This is so near to D. graminis, described by me in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiv., 1891, p. 36, that I have decided to attach it to that species as a variety, on account of the seven-jointed antenna, the only conspicuously differentiating character. It differs from D. herbicola, Mask., 1891, in the form of the feet and in the entire sac, and it may be distinguished from Ripersia tomlinii, Newstead, 1892, by its aërial habitat, and by the smooth hairless feet (R. tomlinii has a
good deal of pubescence). The type of D. graminis came from the Cape of Good Hope.
Dactylopius syringæ, sp. nov. (?) Plate XXVII., figs 7, 8.
Adult females enclosed in very loosely woven snow-white elliptical sacs aggregated in a mass on the plant.
Male pupæ in similar but smaller sacs.
Adult female yellow; length about 1/16 in. Antennæ of eight joints, the eighth being the longest and fusiform; the antennal formula is 8213 (45) (67); there are two or three hairs on each joint. Feet moderate; the trochanter bears a long seta; the tibia and tarsus have a few hairs on the inner margins; the tarsal digitules are fine hairs, digitules of the claw very slightly dilated. Anal tubercles rather broad, but not very prominent; each bears a seta and several short conical spines; anal ring with six hairs. Epidermis covered with numerous small simple circular spinnerets, and with a rather dense pubescence, many of the hairs, especially on the cephalic region, being rather strong and long. In two specimens examined there were three transverse elongated irregular spots on the dorsum, one on each of the anterior abdominal segments.
Larva not observed.
Adult male brown; wings grey; length about 1/20 in. Antennæ and feet presenting no special characters. Abdominal spike short and conical; setæ and cottony “tails” rather long.
Hab. In Japan, on Syringa amurensis. Specimens sent from Atami by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1550).
I advance this species with some diffidence, because on the pieces of bark sent to me almost all the specimens were males, and I could only extract three females in a condition for observation. The antennal formula is not far removed from that of D. cocotis, Mask., 1889, or perhaps of D. solani, Cockerell, 1894. The latter, however, differs in other particulars. The cottony secretion of D. cocotis is much less distinctly separable into elliptical sacs (although even in D. syringœ the sacs are not very clearly defined). The male of D. cocotis is not known. Probably D. syringœ may be best separated from that species by the more conspicuous anal tubercles, the fewer hairs on the tibia and tarsus, and the longer dorsal hairs, which do not form tufts at the margin. For the present I shall leave it as a distinct species.
I established this section in 1892 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxv., p. 236) for the express purpose of including a number of species which are of so peculiar a character that
they could not be made to enter into any known group or section. But even amongst themselves these forms present such divergences that it really might be quite possible to erect a new genus to suit each one. Such a proceeding, however, would be to me so distasteful that I prefer almost any plan to it. In consequence, when laying down the characters of the section I made them purposely extremely general, and as wide as possible. Unfortunately, in one instance I departed from this rule: I definitely stated that the anogenital ring was hairless. The departure was unfortunate, as it obliges me now to modify the sectional characters a little, a thing which it would have been better to avoid. Up to the present date I possess twenty-two species and varieties included in this section, and Mr. Cockerell has another—Sphœrococcus tokionis.
But there are two of these species which depart from the general rule in having anal rings with hairs. For these, therefore, it seems necessary to erect a new genus; but, as in all other respects they enter into the section Idiococcinœ, and certainly cannot be satisfactorily placed in any other section, I shall simply enlarge a little the sectional characters, and lay them down now as follows:—
Adult females active or stationary; gall-making, or naked, or producing cotton or wax. Anal tubercles absent or rudimentary. Anal ring with or without hairs. Antennæ with usually less than seven joints, frequently atrophied. Body not prolonged posteriorly in a “tail.”
The genera included in this section up to the present time will be—
|Insects gall-making; form much elongated; anal ring hairless||Cylindrococcus.|
|Insects naked, or covered, or gall-making; form various; anal ring hairless||Sphœrococcus.|
|Insects naked, or covered, or gall-making; form various; anal ring with hairs||Chœtococcus.|
At present the last of these three will include the insect described by me in 1892 as Sphœrococcus bambusœ, and a new species lately discovered in China—C. graminis. The form reported by Cockerell as S. tokionis appears to be not unlike bambusœ, but I have not been able to make out the anal ring.
Sphærococcus parvus, sp. nov. Plate XXVII., figs. 9–11.
Insects dwelling in the rugosities of the bark of the plant, where their presence is primarily indicated by small tufts of
white cotton, in the midst of which are the yellowish-brown, hard, semiglobular tests covering the insects. The test averages about 1/40 in. in diameter.
Adult female reddish-brown, globular, filling the test. The antennæ are almost completely obsolete, being represented by very minute tubercles bearing a few hairs. Feet absent. Anal ring simple, hairless; anal tubercles absent. Indeed, with the exception of some small circular multilocular spinnerets scattered on the dorsum the only visible organs are the rostrum and the spiracles. The rostrum is moderately large, with a monomerous mentum and shortish setæ; the spiracles are tubular.
Larva red; length about 1/100 in. Form normal; antennæ of six confused short joints, on the last of which are two long hairs. Feet rather thick; digitules fine hairs. Anal tubercles prominent, but small; setæ moderate.
Hab. In Japan, on cherry. Specimens sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1521); locality not mentioned.
In the absence of organs there is only the test to fall back upon for distinction, and the size. I think that in both respects this species is new.
Amongst Mr. Koebele's parcels was one (No. 1515) labelled “Japan, on Quercus.” I was unable to observe definitely any insects. There were some small brown tests on the bark, and one mutilated female extracted was reddish-brown, seemingly about 1/40 in. in diameter, and without any organs visible. It is possible that this also was S. parvus.
Sphærococcus populi, sp. nov. Plate XXVII., figs. 12–16.
Adult female covered by a very hard and solid waxy test of a dull dense-black colour, considerably convex, circular in outline; diameter about 1/13 in.; this test is roughened by numbers of minute polygonal pustules, which, after prolonged boiling in potash, and viewed sideways, form conspicuous elevations; on the median dorsal region there may be faintly discerned six small depressions, or pits, in two rows.
On turning over the test the flat ventral surface of the insect is seen surrounded by a ring of black wax, within which is visible some of the thin white powdery meal scattered over the interior of the test. This ventral surface is just as black as the test. It is very difficult to separate the insect from its covering, and the best plan for examination is to boil the whole together, when the dorsal part of the test, and the enclosed insect, become more or less transparent, though the marginal ring defies the action of the potash. When so treated it is found that the insect possesses six feet, although nothing can be seen of them by external observation.
It is probable that atrophied antennæ and an anogenital ring also exist, but both of these must be situated under, or close to, the marginal ring, and as this will not dissolve they cannot be made out. The feet are peculiar: the two anterior pairs are short, thick, and deformed, the joints much swollen, and the tibia and tarsus fused into one; the posterior pair are longer and more slender, and the joints can be separated. The rostrum is normal, the mentum probably dimerous. On the dorsum six round spots are visible in two rows, answering to the six depressions in the test. Epidermis much wrinkled. There are no clear spinneret-orifices, but towards the margin the skin is covered with great numbers of very minute puncta, which may be spinnerets, and also with rather large clear oval cells. If antennæ exist they must be extremely small.
Larva and male unknown.
Hab. In Japan, on Populus tremula, var. villosa. Specimens from Nikko, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1492).
When publishing in the Ent. Mo. Mag. my list of Mr. Koebele's collection I had not made up my mind as to this species, but I think it is undoubtedly a Sphœrococcus. In its hardness and resistance to potash it approaches Chœtococcus bambusœ, and in the unequal and deformed feet Sphœrococcus inflatipes.
Genus Chætococcus, gen. nov.
General characters of Idiococcinœ; anal ring bearing some hairs.
Chætococcus bambusæ. Sphœrococcus bambusœ, Maskell, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1892, vol. xxv., p. 237.
Mr. E. E. Green drew my attention some months ago to the fact that this species has hairs on the anal ring. When originally describing it I had great difficulty in finding the ring at all, on account of the excessive hardness of the epidermis, which refused to become transparent even after very long boiling; but I find one of my prepared specimens, after five years' immersion in dammar solution, sufficiently lucid to show some long hairs, which, as far as I can make out, are six in number, though there may be eight.
This species, originally from the Sandwich Islands, has since been found in Ceylon, and I hear lately from M. d'Emmerez de Charmoy that it is plentiful in Mauritius.
But Mr. Green, in the same letter to me, made the somewhat startling statement that he was convinced that specimens in Ceylon “identical with Sphœrococcus bambusœ” were also identical with the genus Antonina, Signoret, a statement founded upon actual comparison with specimens of A. purpurea
sent to him by Herr K. Sulc. I confess that this, coming from so thorough a student of Coccids as Mr. Green, not only astonished, but rather disturbed me. A. purpurea is placed by Signoret (although not very definitely) amongst the Acanthococcidœ. I possessed in my cabinet a specimen sent to me by Signoret himself in or about 1881, but as it was a single one I did not like to remove it for examination, and I therefore wrote to Mr. Green and also to Mr. Newstead in the hope of procuring others. But later, in looking through some boxes of duplicates, I found that Dr. Signoret had sent me four specimens, three of which were in the box. Being thus enabled to examine the species microscopically, I can state definitely that there is no resemblance between A. purpurea and C. bambusœ except externally and superficially. I had already some suspicion of this, because Signoret's figure (in his pl. xv., 3A) bears no likeness at all to C. bambusœ; and his descriptions of both the adult and the larva, although by no means satisfactory, will also not agree with that species. But on examination I find that A. purpurea produces a good deal of dark-red or purple matter; that it easily yields to the action of potash; that the spinneret-orifices, the marginal hairs, the segments of the abdominal region, and the posterior extremity correspond with Signoret's figure, and are quite different from C. bambusœ. As for the larva, there is nothing in that of C. bambusœ resembling what Signoret calls the “striking and extraordinary” development of the rostral setæ in A. purpurea. Whatever, therefore, may be the superficial resemblances, the anatomical characters forbid me to place bambusœ in the genus Antonina.
It remains to note that this further inquiry of mine seems to indicate to me that Antonina was erroneously placed by Signoret amongst the Acanthococcidœ. The anal tubercles of A. purpurea resemble those of Dactylopius or Ripersia much more nearly than those of Eriococcus or Planchonia. However, I cannot positively decide this point without an examination of the larva and the second stage, which is not in my power at present. I am not aware of any account of the species since that of Signoret in 1874.
Chætococcus graminis, sp. nov. Plate XXVII., figs. 17–19.
Adult female partially (often almost wholly) covered by a coating of white cotton, which is closely felted, and looks sometimes quite solid. Insect dark-brown, semiglobular, becoming concave beneath at gestation; diameter about 1/13 in. As usual in this section the principal organs have disappeared; the antennæ are reduced to mere tubercles, and the feet are entirely absent. The rostrum and spiracles are normal. Epidermis covered with great numbers of circular
spinnerets, which are most numerous at the abdominal extremity, where they are frequently tubular, and are mingled with many short fine hairs. The extreme abdominal margin also bears some hairs longer than the others. The anal ring is large, compound, and bears eight rather strong hairs. In the margin beneath it there is a shallow depression, and from this to the anal ring there is a band of much darker brown colour.
Larva and male unknown.
Hab. In China, on grass. Specimens from Hongkong, sent by Mr. Koebele (his No. 1520). The parcels were labelled “Eriococcus”; but, although the cottony sacs at first suggest that genus, the insect clearly does not belong to it. The specimens of the plant have been cut just at the surface of the ground, but I am not able to say whether the species should be called subterranean or aërial.
In the close assemblage of spinnerets on the abdominal region, in the much darker colour of that part, and in the terminal marginal depression, C. graminis resembles the Australian species Sphœrococcus casuarinœ, Mask., 1891, but that species produces (as far as is known) no cotton, and its anal ring is quite clearly hairless.
Explanation of Plates XXIII.–XXVII.
Fig. 1. Aspidiotus bilobis, abdominal margin.
Fig. 2. Aonidia elœagnûs, abdominal margin of second pellicle.
Fig. 3. " pygidium of adult female.
Fig. 4. Parlatoria sinensis, lobes and scaly hairs.
Fig. 5. Mytilaspis machili, lobes.
Fig. 6. Poliaspis pini, pygidium of female.
Fig. 7. Fiorinia signata, puparia, female and male.
Fig. 8. " second pellicle.
Fig. 9. " abdominal margin.
Fig. 10. Fiorinia tenuis, pygidium of female.
Fig. 1. Fiorinia bambusœ, female and pellicles.
Fig. 2. " spots on first pellicle.
Fig. 3. " termination of second pellicle.
Fig. 4. " adult female, diagram.
Fig. 5. " pygidium of female.
Fig. 6. Fiorinia nephelii, insects on underside of leaf, male and female.
Fig. 7. " elevations on upper side of leaf.
Fig. 8. " larva early.
Fig. 9. " first pellicle.
Fig. 10. " abdominal margin of female.
Fig. 1. Ceroplastes vinsonii, adult female, dorsal view.
Fig. 2. " marginal spines.
Fig. 3. Ceronema japonicum, adult female, dorsal view.
Fig. 4. " " diagram.
Fig. 5. " " antenna.
Fig. 6. " " abdominal extremity.
Fig. 7. " " marginal spines.
Fig. 8. " " spines of spiracular depressions.
Fig. 9. " " conical spines of dorsum.
Fig. 10. Lecanium ficûs, adult female, dorsal view.
Fig. 11. " " antenna.
Fig. 12. Lecanium notatum, adult female, dorsal view.
Fig. 13. " " antenna.
Fig. 14. " " foot.
Fig. 15. " " dorsal spots.
Fig. 1. Lecanium globulosum, insects on twig.
Fig. 2. " " antenna of adult female.
Fig. 3. Lecanium melaleucœ, insects on leaf.
Fig. 4. " adult female, dorsal view.
Fig. 5. " " dorsal cells.
Fig. 6. " " antenna.
Fig. 7. " rostral setæ.
Fig. 8. " test of male.
Fig. 9. Lecanium casuarinœ, adult female, side view.
Fig. 10. " female, second stage, dorsal view.
Fig. 11. " female, second stage, spiracle, trachea, dorsal orifices, and spines.
Fig. 12. " larva.
Fig. 13. " antenna of larva.
Fig. 14. " foot of larva.
Fig. 1. Eriococcus graminis, insects in sacs on leaf.
Fig. 2. " antenna of adult.
Fig. 3. " marginal spines of adult.
Fig. 4. Eriococcus exiguus, sacs on leaf.
Fig. 5. " antenna of adult.
Fig. 6. " marginal spines of adult.
Fig. 7. Dactylopius syringœ, insects on twig.
Fig. 8. " antenna of adult.
Fig. 9. Sphœrococcus parvus, insects on bark.
Fig. 10. " adult female, dorsal view.
Fig. 11. " adult female, side view, with cotton.
Fig. 12. Sphœrococcus populi, insects on twig.
Fig. 13. " pustules of test, side view.
Fig. 14. " adult female, ventral view.
Fig. 15. " anterior of foot.
Fig. 16. " posterior of foot.
Fig. 17. Chœtococcus graminis, insects in sacs on grass.
Fig. 18. " adult female, dorsal view.
Fig. 19. " adult female, abdominal extremity.
Art. XXVII.—Notes on Regalecus Sp.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 4th Augugst, 1897.]
Easter gales seem now to have become established facts, and those of last Easter in our Island were quite up to the record. Many sea-birds were blown far inland. The petrels seem to suffer the most, and still more so if hailstones are driven by the fiercer squalls of the south-east gales. Some of the Prions were found alive thirty-six miles from the sea. I saw several albatros, and secured one in immature plumage of the shy albatros (Diomedea salvini, Roths.), which had been blown in at Waitotara.
The only fish that has come to hand here from the effects of the gale is a young Regalecus sp. This uncommon fish was cast ashore at Waikanae, and kindly forwarded to me by Mr. John Field. It was in fairly good order for a Regalecus, though almost broken in two about 18 in. from the tail, the dorsal fin being also very much destroyed. The total length was 7 ft. 4¼ in. The fish tapered very gradually, but the greatest depth seemed to be about 2 ft. from the gill-openings, and was 8½ in., the dorsal fin here being 2 in. in addition. The head measured 8½ in. with the mouth open, which is protractile; the eye 1⅝ in. in diameter. The length of ventral or oar fins I found to be 3 ft. 1 in. The one bony ray forming the fin was very much the same in thickness and appearance as the quill of a peacock's tail-feather would be if the feather part had been stripped away. The blade parts of these oarfins were oval in shape, measuring 12 in. by 1 in., the colour being bright rosy-crimson shaded by deep-blue markings. There were films or finlets along the spine of this fin of the same colours, but no doubt the colours of these tender parts were much altered by the knocking about they received on the beach. The other fins were of a rosy-red colour. The dorsal fin contained 168 rays; pectoral fin, 14. The body of the fish was like bright frosted silver, reminding me much of the satin silver we see so much of now in electro-plate—not shining like a mackerel, but with the surface grained, and much brighter than a frost-fish. The irregular perpendicular markings of deep blue were much wider than in other two much larger specimens I have seen, these being over ½ in. wide. There was no caudal fin; the fish ended abruptly with thick rounded end, and there were no spines at caudal end, as mentioned by Couch: no filament or membrane. The crest
plumes consisted of six; four were broken away, but the two left measured 16 in. and 16¾ in. The liver was bright scarlet. The stomach was quite empty, except some coarse sand, small pieces of shell, and pumice-stone that had been swallowed in the creature's death agony.
Art. XXVIII.—Notes on Occurrence of Regalecus argenteus on the Taranaki Coast.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th October, 1897.]
The specimen came ashore at Moturoa Bay, at the first reef to the east of the life-boat shed, on the 28th November, 1895, and, so far as I can learn, is the first recorded occurrence of the fish on the coasts of the North Island, all those hitherto obtained having been incidental to the South Island.
It may not be out of place to state that for a couple of days previous to the stranding of our visitant, and also on the morning the event happened, the neighbouring sea had been frequented by several small whales—evidently of the goose-beak variety, and which were both fighting amongst themselves and were attacked by one or more threshers. In their rampaging below they may have disturbed the ribband fish, and so have been the primary cause of its deviation into shallow water, and so on to the beach.
The finder, Mr. McKay, stated he was sitting quietly amongst the rocks near the margin of the sea (it being dead low-water at the time) when, hearing a gentle splashing, he proceeded to the spot, and discovered the fish, which was not quite dead, but giving the little tremor now and then which led to its detection. He informed me it was perfectly undamaged, except that the two ventral rays were broken off; but I imagine this was done in hauling the fish out of the water, and placing it in the cart on a board, in which fashion it was brought up to town, a distance of about two miles. However, by the time I saw it but one of the rays was left, and it was only on my drawing attention to it, under the fish, that the existence of such appendages appeared to be in his cognisance.
The fish then was not long dead, as a few slight movements or quivering of the muscles occurred. It presented a
most beautiful and at the same time fragile appearance, looking as if it were made out of brilliant polished silver, the jet-black markings on the shoulders being very much enhanced thereby, as were also the varied scarlet and bright-red tints of the elevated anterior portions of the dorsal fin or crest, whilst the oval and rounded markings on the sides seemed to alternately intensify or diminish in tone. The first and second elevated portions of the dorsal were exactly as described by Professor Parker (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx., p. 25), the formulæ agreeing, but the rays of the third extended, or lower, portion of the dorsal, as may be seen by my enumeration, are much more numerous. In all other particulars but those hereafter described there was perfect agreement also. The fractured pelvic or ventral ray had the shaft partly split and then broken diagonally, making a perfect joint with the stump left on the fish, verifying that there had been no curtailment in its total length, and I have much delight in fully describing and illustrating its peculiar and so far hitherto undetected development. The bony part of the shaft reminded me very much of such portion of the plume of a peacock, but in consistence was much harder. The total length of the filament when fitted in its position was 3 ft. 1¾ in., and it was supplied, as has been before described, along its rearmost or axillary edge with a membrane. This membrane commenced at the axillæ with a width of about 3/10 in., which width was kept for a little distance, but slightly decreasing, then gradually increasing until, at a point about 2 in. from commencement, it had widened to a rounded shape, with a width about equal to twice the height of the lower central portion of the emargination; thus the membrane continued in emarginations or waves of like spacing and proportions until a point 7·5 in. from the commencement of the spatulate expansion of the extremity was reached; here the membrane terminated, not abruptly, but with a flowing curve from the previous expansion, leaving the now extremely delicate shaft perfectly bare. The regularity of the distances between the summits of the waved outline of the membrane kept pretty constant at the distance (2 in.) noted, but the heights gradually and slightly declined from those near the origin of the shaft of 0·2 in. for the lower and 0·4 in. for the higher portions to near and at the extreme end of the membrane, where the heights were respectively 3/20 in. for the lower and 3/10 in. for the higher emargination. The shaft was quite white at the thicker or basal end, darkening at the thinner or terminal. The colour of the membrane between the more elevated portions was a transparent ruby tint, and at the more elevated portions a bright and opaque scarlet, capped on each summit with an ellipsoidal patch of opaque milk-white. My drawings (Plates XXVIII.–XXX.)
will delineate more fully the size and shape of the membrane, the ray or filament, and its extraordinary spatulate termination, which, as far as I can discover, are now exactly illustrated for the first time.
The appendage at the extremity reminded one more of a petal from an orchidaceous flower than as forming part of the fin of a fish—bizarre enough as fish-fins are in shape and colour. In fact, the view of this beautiful fish in its pristine glory and brilliancy created in me quite an awesome effect, its aspect was so expressive of probable future enlightenments of nature's wonderful and perfect constructions from the deep.
The total length of the spatulate process was 3·45 in. From the point of its origination on the lower edge of the shaft a fine membrane gradually arises, of a semi-transparent light-red colour. This borders the lower edge of the shaft, rising gradually in height, but with a slightly waved outline, until it reaches the extreme width of 0·3 in.; it then decreases gradually in width, following the shaft, which takes a bold sweep round the lower and posterior margin of the principal fleshy and opaque central portion of the appendage (which is thus strengthened and stiffened), running out to nothing at the termination of the shaft. On the upper edge of the shaft, 0·8 in. posterior to the point of commencement of the lower part, originates another fine membrane, also of a semi-transparent light-red colour, which runs along the upper edge in gradually-widening outline for 0·55 in., where it meets the angle of origination of the principal fleshy central and opaque portion before alluded to, along the margin of which it then runs in rapidly-decreasing width until, at a point about 0·8 in. from such angle of origin, it terminates. The central portion of the appendage is of general pyriform shape, 2·1 in. in extreme length, with a width of 1·15 in.; it is quite thick and fleshy; on the outward surface coloured light purple-grey, flecked towards the upper margin with small blood-coloured gouts or splashes. It reminds one much in its tints and roughly in shape of a highly-coloured bird's egg. The lower surface of the fleshy portion is of a uniform darker purplish-grey.
The drawings show this appendage spread out flat to its fullest extent, the membranes all lying smooth and even. It also had this shape when immersed in water, but in life it is also probably capable of being turned to the shape as shown on the alternate little drawing which shows the whole length of the ray or filament.
From the half-dried or mutilated conditions of the few portions of these pelvic rays which have been previously observed it is easily conjectured that unless the individuals describing had been fully prepared by former acquaintance
with these fish, either by actual contact or. careful bibliographical study, minutiæ now ventilated may have escaped notice hitherto, or have been undistinguishable. Mr. Kingsley's article on the specimen taken in Nelson Harbour (published in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., 1889, p. 333) shows two lobes or widened portions of the membrane; probably the rest were destroyed, but, more likely (and as it would have been difficult to notice without soaking and floating out in water), a large portion of the membrane had been partially broken away from the shaft, and thus, coalescing, gave the two-lobed appearance. Another item which may have been existent in other specimens, though it so far remains undescribed, but which existed in this one, was a double row of minute re- and slightly out-curved spines which ran along the summit of the back of the fish on each side of and immediately at the base of the third or low portion of the dorsal fin, each pair being slightly in advance of the origin of each fin-ray. They were more developed towards the caudal extremity. The tubercles along the lower surface of the fish, near the caudal extremity, were very much harder and stronger than in any other part of the body, slightly resembling in that respect the larger size and more indurated condition of the dermal processes along the upper limb of the caudal extremity of Notidanus.
With this paper I forward an exact reproduction of the caudal extremity (Plate XXX.) This I traced from the original. As it shows, the fin-rays of the dorsal were getting very short, so that it was evidently very near the “perfect” end of such fin. The lower margin of the fish, up to within ½ in. of its termination, exhibited its original configuration, and was not scarred or defaced in any manner, the tubercles, as before noted, near termination becoming quite ossified. The upper margin, on the contrary, had a freshly-healed cicatrix, 3·3 in. in length, the healed dermis being of quite a different and distinct nature from the silvery covered epidermis adjoining. It had the aspect of having been cut or bitten off diagonally, and then healed, one and a half of the delicate vertebræ showing at the extreme end of the scar (for a full ½ in.), reminding one of a badly-amputated finger, or of the early stage after the fracture of a lizard's or snake's tail. The sketch delineates what I describe. This part of the caudal extremity was exceedingly delicate, the cross-section thickness being not more than ¼ in. at the thickest part. Like most of the Tæniiform fishes I have had the opportunity of examining, the forehead was not covered with the same kind of tuberculated skin common to the rest of the body. It is there perfectly smooth, and almost agrees in coloration with the rich purple skin on the soft and protractile portions of the mouth.
|Total length of fish with mouth closed||11||1½|
|" " protruded||11||4½|
|Length from chin (mouth protruded) to anal orifice||4||2|
|Greatest depth of fish (with dorsal erect included)||0||11|
|" of body of fish (at vertical between second and third feet of length)||0||9½|
|Depth of body under vertical of fourth foot of length||0||9¼|
|" " fifth "||0||8·8|
|" " sixth "||0||7·8|
|" " seventh "||0||7·2|
|" " eighth "||0||6·5|
|" " ninth "||0||5·5|
|" " tenth "||0||4·5|
|" " eleventh "||0||3|
The above depths are all at the distances noted from the extremity of jaws with mouth protruded. The fish died with the mouth protruded. If the points had been fixed with mouth closed in, variations would have arisen, on account of the considerable “spring” the mouth then had.
Extreme length of head (with mouth protruded), 8¾ in.; length of head (with mouth closed), about 6¼ in.; diameter of orbit of eye, 1·42 in. Altitude of head through vertical of centre of eye is almost equal to four diameters of orbit. Diameter of eye (from margin to margin of iris, including same, and across pupil) = width of base of pectoral fin. Pupil of eye is small and horizontally oval: horizontal diameter, 0·45 in.; vertical diameter, 0·33 in.
The forehead is decidedly concave. The eye is much larger in proportion than as shown by Professor Parker's drawing (vol. xvi., plate xxiii.); also, the free limbs of the opercula differ in contour from such drawing; and in the specimen I am describing the front part of the erect pectorals slightly overlaps the posterior margins of gill-covers. The pelvic or ventral rays commence immediately in the vertical with the posterior termination of bases of pectorals. The nostrils are not as large also as shown in Plate XXVIII. The eyes are much closer to the top of head. The drawing referred to shows a space of almost two diameters of the orbit between the top of same and dorsal outline, whilst in my specimen it is a little more than one only. The space between the origin of lateral line also and dorsal outline is in mine but half in proportion as therein shown, being one diameter of the orbit below such outline only, whilst from such more elevated position it falls still more rapidly. The angle at summit of forehead in profile is not as acute as that shown in drawing of Moeraki specimen quoted. From the angle at commencement of opening of gill-covers the outline of margin of same is curved concavely for a distance of 1·55 in.; it then falls obliquely at a generally obtuse angle, but as both intersection marginal boundaries are convex the resultant angle appears more acute than it is
actually. The distance to the next angle is 0·8 in. Here the margin falls downwards, at nearly a right angle to its former course, for a distance of 1·85 in., whence it turns in an oblique and rounded sweep, running thence under the throat to the commissure.
The pectoral fin of the Moturoa specimen differs from that shown in Professor Parker's drawing. In the first place, it is set further forwards (nearer to the gill-covers), leading to the overlap before mentioned; in the second, the first rays are much shorter in proportion, and the last rays much longer, resulting in a much squarer total outline for fin.
The basal portions of membrane of elevated anterior of dorsal were continuous, and ran in due ratio into that of the low portion, when I first examined the specimen; but from its excessive fragility—being much more so than is due to its comparison with the size of the fish—very little handling soon broke it; and the owners, not appreciating the necessity for keeping the delicate rays of the high division of the fin intact, did not take sufficient care of them in the many changes of location the specimen was subjected to in its exhibition, &c., and so they were soon most woefully injured. I luckily spread these and the ventral ray and their delicate membranes fully out at the earliest opportunity, and took tracings from their outlines.
Classifying the dorsal fin as in three sections of which the bases were continuous, the first had one comparatively stout ray (almost 1/10 in. in diameter at the base) and four very delicate ones, scarcely thicker at bases than fine darning-needles. The second section started with six stoutish rays, the first four having about equal thickness at their bases (not quite 1/10 in., and being less in thickness than the first ray of all), and being very close together at bases. The next two were less stout, and, with the next four (also decreasing in stoutness), were placed further apart from each other. Thus the total of rays in the first two divisions equalled those described by Professor Parker—fourteen. The quality of these, however, is of a much firmer nature than any of those forming the low extended portion of the dorsal. They are decidedly osseous (though so fine), the thicker ones more so; elongated spines may better express their substance. Those supporting the membrane of the low portion of the dorsal may be described as “simple, soft, inarticulated rays.” The membrane of the first division was continuous up to such a height as left a proportion of about a fifth of the total altitude with the rays partially free, or only fringed more correctly with membrane; whilst the first ray, at its extreme tip, had the peculiar anterior fringe about 1½ in. in length. The coloration of the membrane was a semi-transparent ruby-red, dotted in more or less even
transverse rows with dark-scarlet. These dots were more numerous than as described by Professor Parker, but still in single series between each ray. The second division had the membrane continuous at the base only, extending thus continuously for a height ranging from nearly 3 in. at its anterior to a little less than 1 in. at its posterior portion. The remainder of the rays were merely fringed along their posterior surfaces, with membrane scolloped in same fashion and degree almost as that already described as belonging to the ventral (pelvic) ray, except that as they decreased in height and position posteriorly the said scolloping decreased also until it ran out into the continuous basal portion of the membrane before referred to. The extreme tips of each of the rays belonging to this division had what also forms another distinctive feature—viz., the peculiar membranous “tag,” resembling somewhat in shape the head of an assegai. What formed the first ray of the low and extended portion of the dorsal (and is the fifteenth consecutive ray of the total extent of such fin) is slightly higher than the sixteenth consecutive ray, but, as before mentioned, is quite different in quality. The seventeenth ray, again, showed an increase in height, equalling almost half that of the extreme height of the low portion of dorsal. The third or low division of the dorsal contained, up to the point of fracture of what was left of the caudal extremity, 245 rays: making the total for the whole of the dorsal existing 259 rays. This considerably exceeds those of Professor Parker's Moeraki and Otago Harbour specimens (of 1883 and 1887), and of the New Brighton Regalecus (of 1876), which were respectively 205, 189, and 232.
The condition of the Moturoa specimen with regard to the proportions of the dorsal rays as compared with Professor Parker's specimens hardens our facts as to the permanence of his species argenteus, but to me it is obvious that comparisons of head-lengths and body-depths with total existing lengths of, in all cases so far exactly described, mutilated specimens cannot be of any value yet for specific distinctions, any more than can the total number of dorsal rays existing in any of the incomplete specimens; also, the proportion of the fishes ante and post the anal orifice. Granting this, in spite of the considerations of Collett and Lütken (vide Professor Parker's article, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx., page 23), we have available the ratios of the head-length and body-depth as compared with the distances between tip of snout and anal orifice, and the number of dorsal fin-rays to the vertical from same. The comparison of the body-depth with such space is not, however, infallible, I own, on account of the variations arising therein from sex and condition; but it is better than a comparison with the total length of any fish exhibiting mutila-
tion at the caudal extremity. Personally, I think when we do obtain a Regalecus with a perfect caudal extremity we will find that the caudal-fin is partly placed at a considerable angle with the longitudinal axis of the body, closely resembling that of Trachypterus. Unfortunately, so many of the old illustrations extant of these fish evidence, with what we now know, great artistic license with regard to their extremities.
|Proportion of head with protruded jaws to distance from snout to anal orifice||1 : 5·7|
|Proportion of head with mouth closed to distance from snout to anal orifice||1 : 7·6|
|Greatest depth of body is to same distance||1 : 5·2|
|Total number of dorsal fin-rays to vertical with anal orifice (i.e., 93rd ray of low portion of dorsal.)||107th|
For purposes of comparison, however, as such proportions of other New Zealand specimens have been tabulated, I give those of head and depth to total of existing length, &c.:—
Head with jaws protruded total length : 1 :: 15·5.
Head with jaws closed : total length : 1 : 21.
Greatest depth (with jaws protruded) : total length : 1 :: 14·3.
Greatest depth : total length with jaws retracted : 1 :: 14.
Proportion of pre-anal region to trunk—
Head (with mouth protruded) + trunk is to total length (with mouth protruded) : 1 :: 2·7.
Head (with mouth retracted) + trunk is to total length (with mouth retracted) : 1 :: 2·.
The greatest thickness of the body was barely over 2 in.
|The depth of body at vertical through posterior angle of operculum||0||7¼|
|Height of pectoral fin||0||1·85|
|Width of base of pectoral fin||0||1·1|
|Depth of body at vertical through first foot of length||0||8|
|" " second "||0||9·5|
|" " third "||0||9·3|
|Extreme height of first ray of dorsal||1||9|
|" second "||1||7|
|" third "||1||4|
|" fourth "||1||1|
|" fifth "||1||0|
|" sixth "||2||4|
|" seventh "||2||0|
|" eighth "||1||7|
|" ninth "||1||3|
|" tenth "||0||11|
|" eleventh "||0||8|
|" twelfth "||0||6|
|" thirteenth "||0||3|
|" fourteenth "||0||1½|
|" dorsal rays over first foot line||0||1¾|
|" " third "||0||2¼|
|" " fifth "||0||2·1|
|" " seventh "||0||1¾|
|" " ninth "||0||1½|
|" " eleventh "||0||0·6|
The longitudinal ridges were not so pronounced as I expected to find them when the fish was perfectly fresh, perhaps because of its good condition; but they became more prominent when the fish became partly dry. Nor did they all lose themselves in the lateral line, as has so frequently been described; the two lowest certainly did, but the others approached it and each other at their termination on top of head without merging. There was no appearance of teeth, and the internal economy of the fish I was unable to examine, from a cause referred to later on.
The intense black markings stopped short of the 3 ft. vertical line; they were confined wholly to the upper part of the fish in such limit with the exception of two, one of which was situated about intermediate in such length, and was of considerable length, almost touching the lateral line; the other, a short one, almost at the limit, and lower down on the side, about midway between the top of back and the lateral line. As the fish gradually dried, in two or three days' time, numerous transverse markings developed themselves, more especially along the whole of the post-anal division, and the round and oval greyish markings became more apparent.
The membrane of the long low portion of dorsal was from the first, and continued, immaculate. The rays thereof also had no colour.
The lateral line ran generally along the sides at a distance of about one-third the depth from and parallel with the lower margin until the third foot vertical line from the snout was reached, when its contour gradually rose. On reaching near the first foot vertical it inclined upwards more rapidly still, just clearing the upper angle of gill-opening, from whence it continued, ending over and close to the top of eye.
I endeavoured to obtain the specimen for the Wellington Museum and afterwards for New Plymouth, but the price required was much too high. When decomposition had far advanced, and the specimen had been much injured, from the rough handling before referred to, the owners desired to sell, but it was useless for scientific purposes then. Unfortunately for science, the “shillings” came in too rapidly on its exhibition, though I am afraid, from the good advertising I gave it, I was much to blame. I happily took copious notes, measurements, and sketches when I first examined the fish, and, when I discovered satisfactory negotiations would fail in obtaining it for dissection and preservation in part, Mr. Gordon, of our department, very kindly took a couple of photographs of it with a half-plate camera. This was on the second day, when the fragile dorsal had so severely suffered. The intended fulllength “shot” failed, as it cut off the fore part of the head, but the second exposure was taken close to the fish, taking
in the head and about a foot of the trunk only. Mr. McKay thereafter would not allow us, either for love or money, to take any more photographs, drawings, or measurements, or do anything further with the fish until it was practically rotten and worthless, which was a pity. The remaining pelvic ray was soon lost; for this latter I was very sorry, as I should have taken steps to obtain it at the first, it being a perfect specimen, as before mentioned.
My drawings comprise an outline tracing from my large drawing of the whole fish (Plate XXVIII.); drawing to scale of part of the scolloped margin of the pelvic (ventral) ray; of the spatulate tip; and of the whole length of the ray (Plate XXIX.); enlarged sketch of the little outcurved spines at the bases of the low dorsal rays; and drawing to scale of the caudal termination of the fish (Plate XXX.).
In terminating my notes I cannot fail to observe how favoured we have been on the coasts of our adopted country in the comparatively numerous occurrences of these fishes. Writing in 1880, Professor Günther, in his “Study of Fishes,” notes the scarcity of the capture of very closely resembling species on the British coasts, not more than sixteen being recorded between the years 1759 and 1878; whilst in New Zealand, since record of the first occurrence of a Regalecus in 1860 to the present date, ten have been publicly recorded to my knowledge, a recapitulation of which may not be amiss:—
No. 1. At Nelson, in October, 1860. Described by Mr. W. T. L. Travers in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. iii., p. 307.
No. 2. Found on beach at Hominy Cove, near Jackson's Bay, Westland South, by Mr. James Teer, in February, 1874 (as noted by me in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xiii., p. 196). Length, 14 ft. Part of the vertebræ and cranial cartilage deposited by me, on behalf of Mr. Teer, in Hokitika Museum.
No. 3. At New Brighton, Canterbury, 7th May, 1876. Described by the late Sir Julius von Haast and Dr. Powell (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. x., p. 246, and vol. xi., p. 269). 12 ft. 5 in. in length. Preserved in Canterbury Museum.
No. 4. At Little Waimangaroa Beach, Karamea, Nelson District, in July, 1877. Picked up by Mr. Alexander McDonald (noted in Westport Times, July, 1877, and referred to in preceding article in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. x., p. 250). Length, 14 ft. 4 in.
No. 5. At Cape Farewell Sandspit, Nelson District, circa November, 1877. Noted by Sir James Hector to the Wellington Philosophical Institute, 1st December, 1877 (vide Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. x., p. 533). 13 ft. in length. Ventral ray in Wellington Museum.
No. 6. Near Moeraki, Otago District, 1881. Noted by Professor Parker (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvi., p. 285).
No. 7. At Moeraki, Otago District, 14th June, 1883. Fully described by Professor Parker (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol xvi., p. 284). Length, 12½ ft. Skeleton in British Museum.
No. 8. At Portobello, Otago District, 3rd June, 1887. Found by Mr. Harwood, and presented by him to the Otago Museum. Described by Professor Parker (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx., p. 20). Length, 11 ft. Skeleton and skin now in Otago Museum.
No. 9. At Nelson Harbour, 23rd September, 1889; by Mr. Aske, fisherman. Described by Mr. R. J. Kingsley (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 333). Length, about 13 ft.
No. 10. At Moturoa Bay, near New Plymouth, Taranaki District, on 28th November, 1895. Noted by me in Taranaki Daily News, 30th November, 1895. The subject of the present notes.
Since writing the above I saw by telegram that another specimen of Regalecus had been obtained near Dunedin, which appears also to have fallen into the hands of Professor Parker, by whom (so it stated) it was credited with being the most perfect specimen so far obtained.
Further Notes on the Occurrence of Regalecus on the Taranaki Coast.
I find that an amendment must be made to my former notes on the occurrence of Regalecus on the New Zealand coasts, inasmuch as I omitted mention of the specimen described by H. O. Forbes; Esq., F.Z.S. (vol. xxiv. of the Transactions, p. 192), which was caught at Okain's Bay, Banks Peninsula, Canterbury, on the 26th May, 1891. This should stand as tenth on the list, making the Moturoa specimen the eleventh. The Okain's Bay fish, from its expressedly dried condition as defined by the description thereof, must have lost much of the prominence of the smaller tubercles covering the spaces between the ridges of the larger sized. All are purely epidermal, and decrease much in size and height on the sides of the fish the nearer they approach the caudal extremity, almost disappearing as the skin dries. The blackness of the so-called longitudinal bars and the dark colour along the post-anal ventral edge was also, I think, due to such condition.
The five specimens of Regalecus now more carefully described and measured allows contrast of the ratios as between head-length and body-depth with that of the pre-anal division as proposed by me. Following the example set by Professor Parker and Mr. Forbes for further ready re-
ference in connection with any future specimens, I repeat their tabulations of measurements, adding thereto the proportion for the above bases—from their data—for their fish, placing my equivalents for comparison in a further column. As you will note, the results are remarkably close in some of them, identical in others.
|—||New Brighton (South Island).||Moeraki (South Island).||Otago Harbour (South Island).||Okain's Bay (South Island).||Moturoa (North Island).|
|Greatest height of body||0||13·5||0||15·25||0||12·1||0||14·5||0||9·5|
|Length of head (jaws retracted)||0||7·75||0||9·0||0||9·5||0||8·125||0||6·25|
|Distance between snout and anus||4||11||5||6||4||9·5||5||4·125||3||11·5|
|Proportion of height to length||1::11||1::10||1::11||1::15·6||1::14|
|Proportion of length of head to total length||1::19||1::17||1::14||1::27·35||1::21|
|Proportion of pre-anal region to total length||1::2·5||1::2·27||1::2·29||1::3·36||1::2·8|
|Proportion of head to pre-anal region||1::7·6||1::7·3||1::6||1::7·9||1::7·6|
|Proportion of greatest height to pre-anal region||1::4·37||1::4·32||1::4·75||1::4·42||1::5·2|
|Total number of dorsal fin-rays (to mutilated termination of tail)||232||205||189(?)||422(?)||259|
|(9 (?)+223)||(14+191)||(14+175)||14(?) 17(?)||14+245|
It is a pity no drawing or copy of Mr. Forbes's photograph was given showing the caudal extremity of the Okain's Bay specimen.
Since the occurrence of Regalecus in Victoria, referred to in Mr. Forbes's article on the Okain's Bay fish (and which Victorian specimen was described by Professor McCoy, “Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,” decade xv.), another is reported as having been found by the Cape Everard lighthousekeeper, for which vide issue of the Melbourne Leader of the 1st August, 1896, page 7, in which paper is also reproduced the illustration—a very rough one—and which, if correct in its details as far as they go, differs considerably from what we recognise as argenteus—for instance, the longitudinal lateral bands or ridges, counting the thin one shown nearest the dorsal margin, number seven; the transverse irregular bands extend over more than half the total length, and in some case right across the body; whilst the higher portion of the dorsal rays are shown as all connected with a common membrane, with the anterior rays the highest, gradually decreasing rearwards without any division.
Art. XXIX.—Notes on Acclimatisation in New Zealand.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 13th July, 1897.]
It was only natural in a country like New Zealand, with such a limited indigenous fauna, that the settlers should establish acclimatisation societies, and endeavour to introduce the familiar forms of wild life from their native lands; but it is a matter for regret that the zeal of the earlier acclimatisers was greater than their knowledge, and that mistakes were made by them fraught with evil results of a far-reaching and permanent nature. Due care and consideration would have prevented the introduction of several undesirable immigrants, which now, like the poor, are always with us. For example, I remember talking to a gentleman who was then a member of the council of our local society when the first shipment of birds was brought here, and in telling me what they were getting he mentioned the green linnet amongst others that was being imported. Knowing that the greenfinch was often called by that name, I ventured to suggest that it was anything but a suitable bird; but he replied that I was mistaken, and that the bird they were getting was harmless, and a beautiful song-bird. It, alas! proved to be no linnet, but that pest of the farmer, the harsh-voiced greenfinch. Now, though probably the man employed to bring out the birds gave the
gentleman referred to the erroneous information regarding the bird's vocal powers and harmlessness, a little inquiry as to its habits and repute in the Old Country would have made the society hesitate before turning loose such a well-known enemy of the seed-grower.
One result of such mistakes has been to render the acclimatisation societies timid of introducing anything that could be called a “small bird,” as the rabbit has made them afraid of importing anything that will eat grass. These societies have now pretty well become mere piscicultural societies, which make occasional spasmodic efforts to introduce “something to shoot” in the way of game birds. I do not desire to underrate the valuable work they have done in stocking our rivers with splendid fish, and thus adding an additional attraction to life in this colony; but while they did these things they ought not to have left other work undone which would have been more within the scope of their functions than keeping up a supply of fish for the anglers' hooks. Their work should have ended when the trout were successfully established, and had they left the restocking of the rivers to anglers' associations they might have had leisure to devote more of their energies to acclimatisation proper. Of course, the answer is that their main source of revenue is from the fishing licenses, and that without this income they would hardly be able to exist, so I suppose we must accept the situation and be thankful for the good work that they have done. I cannot but think, however, that if the societies were to extend the scope of their operations somewhat they would be more popular, and might increase their roll of members. One duty in which the societies have been lacking is that no attempt has been made, so far as I know, to keep any record of the results of their experiments, which, on the whole, have been conducted in a very haphazard and unsystematic manner.
It would have been impossible to have obtained full or continuous observations of the divers birds and animals that have from time to time been introduced, recording what changes of habit, if any, were induced by their new environment, and also what changes, if any, their introduction brought about in our native flora or fauna; but something might have been done in this direction. Imperfect as such records would have been, I have no doubt but that, had the societies endeavoured to compile them, much interesting information would have been collected and preserved. For example, I remember hearing that many years ago it was almost impossible to grow barley in the Oamaru district, owing to the depredations of a black hairy caterpillar, which attacked the grain when it was swelling by gnawing the juicy stem just under the ear, which was thus caused to fall and
wither. The caterpillar then dropped to the ground, and, climbing up the next stem, repeated his operations. So numerous were they that a field, if attacked, would hardly be worth harvesting. After the starlings became numerous these caterpillars disappeared, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that the Oamaru farmers owe a debt of gratitude to the Acclimatisation Society for their freedom from this scourge—indeed, probably the whole colony owes its continued ability to grow barley to the introduction of the starling, for, though I never heard of the caterpillar referred to behaving in the same manner in any other district, yet if it were the larva of an accidentally introduced insect it would surely have spread; while if it were indigenous it probably would have discovered the new food-supply in other districts also, and, if naturally local, have spread from the same reason.
Now, had our societies authenticated and recorded facts like these they would have preserved evidence of their own usefulness. The errors that have been made remain patent, the good they have done is mostly hidden from sight, and, as my criticism of their doings may have seemed somewhat adverse, I may say that I firmly believe the good done far outweighs the evil. Had they done nothing but introduce the starling they would have done well. I shall give you another instance of the benefits conferred by that bird. Before the starlings became numerous it was no uncommon thing to see English grass wither up in large patches, as though scorched by fire. This was due to the work of two different insects—a crane-fly and an Elater, or click beetle, the larvæ of both of which were addicted to the habit of eating the roots of the grass just under the surface. They were both, I believe, native insects, though there are similar insects with similar habits in Britain; but, as both are still to be found in the colony, their identity or difference could easily be established. English grass was then comparatively limited, and was often greatly damaged by these depredators. I remember, in 1867, visiting a runholder who had a small lawn of English grass laid down in front of his house, which, to my surprise, was covered with toumatukuru bushes, which had been collected from the run. On my asking the reason for this new departure in lawn decoration, he replied, “Oh! it's to keep the hens off. I don't know what has taken them, but I could not keep them off any other way. They were scratching the grass out by the roots even.” Suspecting the cause, I made an examination, and found the grass so full of the beetle grubs that in places one could almost roll it up like a carpet and disclose the larvæ beneath. I showed them to my host, saying, “These are what the hens are after: it is the grubs, not the hens, that are destroying your lawn, and if you keep the
fowls off the grubs are so thick there will be no grass left soon.” Seeing is believing. He was easily convinced, and called a man to remove the scrub he had been at such trouble to gather to keep his best friend at bay. Since the starlings became established I have never observed the grass injured to the extent I have described. To the agency of the starling I attribute the almost total disappearance of the grasshopper and the Cicada in this neighbourhood. When I came here the Town Belt was alive with the former, while the latter were very much more numerous than they are now. I do not know that either of these insects did much harm, though the grasshoppers were sometimes injurious to young turnip-crops. Their disappearance, as well as what I have related about other insects, proves that the introduced birds keep insects in check.
It is impossible in the time at my disposal to deal exhaustively with the subject of acclimatisation, even were I competent to do so, and I shall therefore merely glance at what has been done locally in the past, and throw out a few suggestions as to what might be done in the future. I shall omit all reference to fish-culture, as I have already referred to the success which has crowned the work of the societies in the introduction of trout; and, as the subject of the introduction of sea-fish has been enthusiastically taken up by Mr. G. M. Thomson, I shall not touch on that branch of the subject further than to say that I hope when the marine hatchery is established the experiment of introducing lobsters will be renewed, and that a trial will also be made to acclimatise the edible crab. It may also be well to introduce the good edible variety of the mussel, which is largely cultivated for the market in the south of France, and is not to be despised as an addition to our coastal harvest. It should not be very difficult to transport them.
Oysters were successfully brought out by the Provincial Government in the old days of sailing-ships, so with our present more rapid communication mussels might be carried in safety. The mention of these oysters reminds me of their fate. A small number were landed alive, and as the extensive beds at Foveaux Strait was then unknown the juicy natives were looked upon with peculiar interest. They were put in a small enclosure in the harbour near Portobello, under the care of a local member of the Provincial Council, who, observing one day a stranger in a boat in the vicinity of the oyster-bed, hurried to the spot, and when he got to the shore plainly saw the stranger swallowing an oyster. He called out to him, went for a boat, and when he reached the bed found that the stranger had disappeared and the oysters with him, for there was nothing left but the empty shells. The perpetrator of the
outrage was never discovered. And so ended the only attempt at acclimatisation made by the Otago Provincial Government. Would that the efforts of the Provincial Government of Southland had terminated in a similar manner. It is to them that we are indebted for the presence of the rabbit, which we could well have done without, though bunny is not the unmitigated evil some would have us think. It is true he ruined a number of our runholders, and greatly lessened the stock-carrying capacity of extensive areas of country, but he has afforded employment to large numbers of our population, and now figures as a not unimportant item in our export lists, to say nothing of his supplying healthy sport to thousands annually. His presence is, however, responsible for the introduction of the stoats and weasels by the General Government, which must be classed as one of the grave errors in acclimatisation; and also to the introduction of the microbe of chicken cholera, which I, like the Gore farmers, fear will be attended with more evil than good, for it stands to reason that, if it takes root so as to be of service in perceptibly reducing the rabbits, it must also decimate our feathered fauna, and may lead to our old enemies the hairy caterpillar and the Elater grub getting the upper hand again, to say nothing of its perhaps killing off some of the less robust species of our indigenous avifauna.
I have referred to the timidity of our societies regarding the introduction of “small birds,” and some may think that if their numbers be reduced by the chicken cholera good will result; but, unfortunately, it will not discriminate between the green linnet or finch, in whose favour nothing can be said, and our benefactor the starling. In importing further birds more care should be taken to select the subjects, and there are many small birds which could be acclimatised with advantage. The stupid idea that because some small birds are nocuous all small birds are, instead of being encouraged by our acclimatisation societies, should be combated, and our country population taught better. At present some of our County Councils give rewards for the eggs and heads of small birds, and pay for sparrows, green linnets, goldfinches, and hedge-sparrows indiscriminately. The two former are destructive, and should be kept in check; the goldfinch does little or no harm, though a seed-eating bird, and must do good in checking the spread of the Californian thistle and other weeds with winged seeds; while the latter is one of our best friends, lives on insects, and should be protected rather than destroyed. Perhaps, being misnamed a sparrow, he shares in the curses hurled at the head of his namesake the impudent sparrow of our streets. I regret to observe that this pretty little sombre-coated bird, which is our earliest songster—his sweet warble being heard before
even the earliest thrush—is not nearly so common as he once was. As to the sparrow proper, it is a matter for regret that he was not left at Home; and there was the experience of other lands as a warning, for he was introduced into New York to keep down some insect-pest, but the inhabitants were not long in regretting that they had made his acquaintance. I believe our society turned out one or two, but the sparrows came to us from Christchurch. When I first visited that city they were then already numerous, and I had not seen any since I left the Home-country. A year or two afterwards I saw them in considerable numbers at Oamaru; shortly afterwards I observed their advanced guard at Palmerston; and the year after that I saw the first sparrow I had noticed in Dunedin, where they bred and mustered with great rapidity.
No doubt the sparrow does a great deal of good, for he feeds his numerous broods of young almost, if not entirely, on insects; but I think it might have been possible to get a bird or birds that would have done the same amount of good without any attendant harm. I have been told that the sparrow was not voluntarily introduced by the Christchurch society, but that a few pairs were brought out by a ship captain as a speculation about the time the society was importing birds. He was, however, disappointed in realising his shipment at a good price, for the society would have none of them, so he liberated the lot. If the tale be true, how often must the members of the society who declined the purchase have regretted that they did not buy the sparrows and wring their necks.
A similar ignorance to that of the farmer in putting all small birds in the same category has been displayed by our legislators. For example, “The Animals Protection Act, 1880,” absolutely prohibits the importation of hawks and birds of prey. One would almost think that the Parliament had been composed of English gamekeepers, who are the uncompromising foes of any bird or animal that they even imagine might kill a young pheasant or partridge. Yet the kestrel, a well-known British hawk, feeds chiefly on field-mice and the larger insects, such as fat-bodied moths and beetles. Our own sparrow-hawk is rather a rare bird, and the large swamp-hawk is of little or no use in keeping the small-birds in check; so I think it would be a good thing to introduce some birds of prey from other lands—for there is no reason why we should not look to America, as well as Europe, for subjects for acclimatisation. The British owls are useful birds, and would, I think, help to keep down the sparrows. Some of the shrikes or butcher-birds, of which there are two species which visit Britain, might also be introduced with advantage; they prey upon insects and young birds. Even the carrion-crow would,
I think, do more good than harm. It would destroy a good many young rabbits, and if it did kill a weakling lamb or two it would merely take the place of the seagulls, which are addicted to that pernicious custom, whose numbers it would reduce, as from its partiality for eggs it would find a rich harvest in the nests of the gulls, which breed in the shingly riverbeds.
None of these birds could be imported as the law now stands, but the present prohibition might be repealed, as the Act of 1895 prohibits the importation of any animals, birds, insects, or reptiles without the consent of the Minister for Agriculture. This provision was introduced because of the Christchurch society contemplating the introduction of wood-pigeons. Their intention was announced in the Press, and, knowing that wood-pigeons were anything but farmers' friends, I wrote to the Otago Daily Times protesting against their introduction, and suggesting that the farmers' clubs should petition the Government to interfere. Several clubs did so, with the result that the project was abandoned, and the legislative enactment referred to passed. It is a wise provision, if the Minister be well advised, as it will prevent ill-considered experiments; and it is better that good things should not be imported rather than any bad ones should be introduced.
Of the other birds introduced by our society, the blackbird and thrush are amongst the most prominent. The former, notwithstanding his mellow song, would have been better omitted from their list, owing to its partiality for fruit. The thrush is also given to the same bad habit, but in a lesser degree, and he is a shyer bird and more easily kept under. He is also very fond of snails, which have, unfortunately, been introduced, and are very numerous in different localities in the North, and have also, I am told, made their appearance at Gore. For my part, I would willingly allow the tuneful mavis his modicum of fruit in return for his pleasant song; but those who do not take the same view may find consolation in his snail-destroying habits. If the sparrow, the greenfinch, and the blackbird could be eliminated, I do not think we should have much to complain of in the work done by the societies. The chaffinch, a seed-eating bird, throve splendidly at first, but, so far as the neighbourhood of Dunedin is concerned, has almost died out. For some years the bush at the Glen used to be full of them, and their sharp, bright little song was pleasant to the ear; but they are now all gone—why or wherefore I cannot tell. I saw a few at Moeraki some years ago, and also more recently at Banks Peninsula, but in neither locality were they at all numerous. The cirlbunting, a bird which lives on insects in summer and seeds in winter, throve and increased in this neighbourhood for some
years, and, like the chaffinch, disappeared. It is still to be met with, I am told, in the Tokomairiro district. It was often mistaken for the yellow-hammer by those not familiar with both birds. The latter was amongst the number let loose, and, though they increased somewhat, they never became numerous, but were to be seen about where St. Clair now is, and amongst the gorse above Caversham for a few years. They never took a firm hold, however, and have, I think, all died off. Red-poles, twites, and reed-sparrows were turned loose and never heard of again, while the English robin failed to find a congenial habitat in our land. The skylark, on the other hand, has spread all over the country, and, though it is granivorous, does no great amount of harm.
These are all the small birds that have been introduced into Otago so far as I have been able to ascertain, though the society have no easily accessible records earlier than 1876. Some nightingales were, if I recollect aright, let loose by the Hon. Mr. Larnach on the Peninsula; but, seeing we have few ants here, they could hardly be expected to thrive, as ants' eggs, as they are popularly called, being really the pupæ, form an important item of their food; besides, being birds of passage, they might have sought other localities, though I have never heard of their turning up in the North Island or Australia. The latest introduction by our society is the lapwing, which should, if it thrives, prove a desirable acquisition; but it is too soon yet to judge of the result of the experiment. Most of the birds mentioned are seed-eating. Such birds are most easily introduced, and, as a rule, are the least to be desired; but in these days of direct steamers it would be easier to bring out insectivorous birds than it was in the old sailing-ship days, when most of the birds were imported, and I think the attempt should be made. I fear such useful birds as the goat-sucker, or any of the titmice, would not stand the long voyage; but some of the warblers might do so, as I think would that delightful little songster the wren, which is a very hardy little bird.
It may be urged that most of the British insectivorous birds are birds of passage, and that our position is so isolated that such birds would have nowhere to go. If they were compelled to migrate in search of food it is possible that in the milder climates of the North Island and the west coast of this Island they might find a sufficient food-supply without going farther afield. Our pretty little native fantailed fly-catcher could not survive a British winter, yet here a descent to the coastal districts from the colder inland regions is for them a sufficient migration. They frequently visit my garden and verandahs in the winter in search of food, but are rarely
to be met with so near Dunedin in the summer. If our fantail can survive our winter with such a slight migration I think many British birds could also do so, whilst such birds as the wren and titmouse would in winter search every crack and cranny for the hidden eggs and pupæ of insects which from their habits escape the starling and other insectiverous birds we already possess.
But, as I have said before, I think a mistake is made in looking chiefly to Britain for objects for introduction. The conditions in California and Oregon must in some respects be more allied to those in New Zealand than are those of Britain, and it is probable that some useful birds might be procured thence. The larger birds which it has been attempted to acclimatise have been chiefly introduced with a view to sport—such as pheasants, partridges, Californian quail, black grouse, English wild-duck, and Australian swans. The latter have spread all over the country, but, with the exception of the Californian quail, none of the others have been successfully established. Both pheasants and partridges gave good hopes of becoming well acclimatised, especially the former, but they were destroyed when rabbit-poisoning became prevalent. No doubt that had a great deal to do with their extinction; but it was not the only factor, for the pheasants, after increasing rapidly, died off in localities where no rabbit-poisoning was resorted to, such as Banks Peninsula. A gentleman resident there for many years informed me that the same thing happened with the domestic turkey, which he let run wild when he first settled there. The turkeys increased not merely in number, but also in size, for several years, but after a time they began to dwindle in number and decrease in weight till none were left in a wild state.
Our society also turned out some Indian minahs and Australian magpies, but, so far as I know, neither succeeded. A few of the former took up their abode in First Church spire, and lived there for two or three years, but eventually died out. Minahs are, however, numerous in some parts of the North Island. Near Wanganui I saw many of them. And the Australian magpie is, I believe, quite established in some localities in Canterbury. If our climate be too rigorous for them their place might be supplied in Otago by the English magpie, which is a most useful bird, though an enemy to the gamekeeper. I need only mention that there were also introduced hares (which in this province shared the fate of the pheasants), axis, fallow, and red-deer—of which the two last, at least, have done well; but it has always seemed to me a pity that nothing has been done in the way of stocking our high mountains with chamois, ibex, big horns, or some such mountain sport-affording denizen.
What an immense attraction sport of that nature would be in the eyes of many, and though these animals eat grass they would interfere but little, if at all, with the seemingly more useful sheep. I say “seemingly more useful,” for I believe that were some such sport-affording animal established in our mountains it would be more profitable than the slightly increased number of sheep which the country might carry would be.
There might also possibly be animals which could be introduced with advantage viewed from another standpoint than that of sport. When I was a boy I remember reading a great deal about the bovine-like antelope, the eland, which it was suggested might be domesticated in England, be the means of affording a new source of food-supply, and a change from the continual beef and mutton. I was reminded of this lately by seeing it mentioned that an English nobleman owned a small herd in his park. Probably the experiment of domestication was never tried, but it would, I think, have much more chance of success in our more genial clime than in England, and might be worth trying if the animals could now be got, for they are almost, if not altogether, extinct in their native land—South Africa. The fact that ostriches have been successfully reared in this colony would augur well for success, and at the present price of frozen mutton it might pay us to tickle the British palate with a new sensation, and ship frozen eland instead.
The only other animal besides those that I have mentioned that has been introduced in this part of the colony is the opossum, which is increasing, and, I am told, here yields a better fur than in its native home. Our society once got some hedgehogs, but landed only one, I think. They ought to repeat the experiment, for it is a most useful animal, living on insects, slugs, and snails, as does the shrew (or shrew-mouse as it is often called, though its diet no more resembles that of the mouse proper than does that of the hedge-sparrow resemble the diet of the house-sparrow). Either or both of these animals should be introduced, and would keep in check some of our insect foes.
While some native insects have already disappeared or been reduced in number, others have increased. As an instance of the former I may mention a small bright metallic-green beetle that used to be very common thirty years ago. Its favourite food was the manuka scrub, but it by no means confined its attention to that, and used to attack introduced plants as well. It has disappeared in this neighbourhood, and probably the much-abused sparrow may claim credit for its extinction.
An instance of the increase of an indigenous insect is that
of a brown beetle, which is very destructive both in the larval and imago stages. Those of you who are gardeners must be familiar with the larvæ, especially if your gardens are on a dry and sunny slope. They are white grubs with the hinder part doubled up under them, and look very much like the grub of the cockchafer. These beetles have increased greatly of late years, no doubt owing to the loosening of the soil by cultivation permitting more of the larvæ to attain maturity, and probably also owing to the introduction of additional food-supplies, though they do not seem to be very particular as to what they eat. They are partial to the roots of young Cupressus macrocarpa, strawberries, and other plants. I know one man who had to abandon a small piece of ground he had leased for nursery purposes because of the ravages of this pest. The beetles live on the foliage of many plants, and are so numerous as to sometimes quite disfigure them, and the larvæ, as I said, live on the roots; so that in both stages this insect is a pest. The beetle is nocturnal, or at least crepuscular in its habits, and so escapes our birds. In the day-time it hides about the roots of bushes and under clods of earth, and places of that sort, where it would be found by the hedgehog or shrew.
The toad, too, is a reptile which would assist in thinning their numbers, and would, I should think, be very easily introduced. It might not be in favour with bee-keepers, as toads have been known to take up a position near a hive and pick off the bees from the landing-stage, but this drawback could be easily combated, and would be more than compensated by the services it would render in destroying the woodlice or slaters, which are a great pest to gardeners, to say nothing of other insects which it would keep down. English entomological collectors sometimes obtain specimens of rare beetles by catching toads in the early morning and cutting them open on the chance of finding some of these rare Coleoptera undigested. The British frog, too, would be useful, but not so much so as the toad, as it does not travel so far from water as does the latter.
An attempt might be made to introduce some useful insects, though extreme care would have to be exercised in any experiments in this direction. So far as I am aware, the only attempt to do so was the introduction of the bumble-bee by the Canterbury society, their object being the fertilisation of the red-clover, a result which has been successfully attained, while several garden plants, such as the foxglove and primrose, seed much more profusely now than they did before the bumble-bee was numerous; indeed, so far as primroses are concerned, I never noticed my plants spreading at all by seedlings before the advent of the bumble-bee, but now they
do so freely. One at times hears complaints of the depredations of these bees amongst the flowers from gardeners, but on the whole I think their introduction is not a matter for regret. Probably if some of the insect-eating creatures I have mentioned were introduced they would aid in keeping the numbers of these bees within proper bounds. There are also carnivorous insects which might be introduced with advantage. For instance, there is the golden ground-beetle (Carabus auratus), which is a very useful predacious beetle, and the Calosoma sycophanta is of such a voracious nature that it is a true cannibal, eating anything in the shape of an insect, including even its own kind. Then, the European glow-worm, which is the female of a beetle (Lampyris splendidula), lives on snails and slugs, as also does one species of Silpha (S. lavigata), while another species (S. quadripunctata) lives on caterpillars. But one species of this genus (S. opaca) lives on vegetable food, and is fond of young beet-root; so that care would have to be taken that the desired kind was obtained. I have mentioned two or three insects, but the list could be increased. Some of these could, I should think, be easily imported by bringing out the pupæ in the cool-chamber of a direct steamer.
There is one other aspect of acclimatisation which must be touched upon before I close. I refer to what may be called accidental acclimatisation, and, as a rule, the immigrants we receive in this manner are decidedly undesirable. In this category must be placed rats, mice, the house-fly, the bot-fly, snails, fruit-tree blights, Hessian fly, and other noxious insects, some species of earthworms, &c. I suppose the slater or woodlouse is also an introduction, but I am not certain; at any rate, this destructive crustacean is quite at home here now. The earthworm is perhaps the only unobjectionable name in that list, and it has thriven and multiplied exceedingly, so that now the majority of our garden earthworms belong to introduced species. Possibly the house-fly should also be excepted, which, though somewhat of a nuisance, is perhaps the lesser of two evils, for it is said to have driven away to a large extent the native blow-fly, which was so numerous and objectionable in the early days. The house-fly was supposed to have been introduced by the Australian cattle-ships, and I remember hearing of country people taking them from town to their homes in match-boxes after it had been ascertained that they supplanted the blow-flies. Some may think that the diminution of the numbers of the native blow-fly is due to the imported birds, but it began some years before any such birds had been liberated. The latest accidental introduction that has come under my notice is the earwig, of which we also have an indigenous
species, which I saw a few months ago at Nelson. This addition to our population will be much deplored by our gardeners, especially by dahlia-growers. These accidental introductions are a strong reason why our acclimatisation societies should not relax their efforts if any argument be necessary in favour of continuing acclimatisation, which, rightly directed, might still be of great service to our agriculturists and the community generally.
Time will not permit my referring to the acclimatisation of plants, which is a department in which much more can be and has been done by individual effort than is possible in the others which I have glanced at.
In conclusion, I would again reiterate that it is desirable that the societies should in the future endeavour to keep more perfect records regarding their work than they have done in the past. Another desideratum, in my opinion, is the publication of a cheap handbook, giving in popular form some information regarding not only our introduced but our native fauna, so that our rural population might be enabled to discriminate between the noxious and beneficial, or, at least, harmless, species of birds and insects. The lack of knowledge is prevalent in the Old World as well as here. I have already referred to the mania of gamekeepers for indiscriminate slaughter, while such useful creatures as the shrew and the toad are often treated as evil things, and ruthlessly killed whenever seen. Dr. Duncan, in his “Transformation of Insects,” in writing of the golden ground-beetle, which I have mentioned, says, “It destroys a great number of insects which do much mischief to agriculture; but, of course, country people crush them whenever they have an opportunity, instead of preserving them.” The information contained in such a book would be a most important part of the technical education of our farmers, and it is to be hoped that some day such a book may be written. The Government have done a little in the way of printing leaflets regarding different pests, but what is wanted is something more comprehensive and in a more permanent form, and I trust that my suggestion may some day bear fruit.
I observe it is arranged that a conference of the acclimatisation societies of the colony is to be held, and I venture to suggest that they might consider the advisability of coming to some arrangement whereby the waste of energy that has occurred in the past might be obviated in the future, which arises from their independent action. An example of this is to be found in the fact that more than one society imported the same kind of birds and fish, while with a little patience they might have drawn their supplies from another portion of the colony at considerably less expense. No doubt such points as
this will receive due consideration at the hands of the conference, and they might possibly agree to take united action in some of the more expensive experiments. The proposal to hold the conference is a good sign, and one which augurs well for the future of acclimatisation in New Zealand, which is a field in which much yet remains to be done.
Art. XXX.—Notes on Bird-life in the West Coast Sounds.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th October, 1897.]
We have cleared most of the little peninsula on which our house stands, and now it is a favourite place for the wood-hens, but they do not like each other's company, and there are seldom more than two to be seen at once, though there are half a dozen occasional visitors. They often treat us to some spirited races across the open, and are no mean runners when assisted by their wings, but all seem to be so well matched that they generally run dead heats. If there happens to be one a little slow it is sure to be minus its tail, which is not of much account anyway; yet they seem to think a great deal of it, for the pulling of a feather is sure to bring on a fight, very fierce at first, but quickly dying away into threatening attitudes and various grunts which may represent bad language. The championship appears to be awarded more for courage than muscle, because the smallest hen, when she was thinking of nesting, would hunt away all the others, both males and females, except her mate, with whom she was generally friendly, but not always so. Those were the only pair here mated throughout the winter, and the only pair that would sing in concert. The male is our pet, and we call him “Chicken.”
Out of all the others we hardly heard a chirrup until about the 16th July, when several of the old widows became quite musical all at once, and vied with each other in calling the loudest and the fastest. Then, to our surprise, we heard by the lower note and slower tune of one that it was a male. This one came to our place in a most disreputable rig-out of half-moulted feathers, so I called it “Scrag.” It was a weakly, poor thing, and one of the hens used to thrash it and
hunt it away. That is why I thought it a widow, though it had the stronger beak and legs of a male. However, I gave it a few good dinners of boiled fish, and it soon plucked up courage and learned to know the rattle of the lid on the dog's pot, and would come up carefully for a share. The dog seemed to notice that they only took little bits, and he soon disregarded them; so that now when I spread out fish on a stone it is common to see a weka on one side and a dog on the other, and both quite contented.
With better times and a grand new coat Scrag actually captivated the hen that used to hunt him about so contemptuously—the old story, “The course of true love,” &c. Then he started a series of fights with Chicken, and kept them up for several days, until both had lost nearly all the pretty feathers on their heads; and Chicken was obliged to give up part of his domain, retaining the house and Sandy Bay, while Scrag has Boatshed Beach. The boundary is a bunch of fallen timber, and they keep it fairly well, only Scrag is tempted up to the house sometimes for scraps, when he knows he is poaching, and will run with whatever he gets and eat it on his own ground. Chicken often hunts him to the boundary, but Scrag will not run a yard past it, so that they often have a fight down there, but nothing very serious. They jump up and kick like common fowl, but their claws are very weak, and can have no effect on such tough hides as theirs; and their wings are soft and fluffy, and only useful to hide their heads when down at the end of a round. The beak is the weapon, and the head the only place they aim at, so that there is a lot of shaping and fencing for very little bloodshed; in fact, their whole aim appears to be to disfigure each other by plucking the feathers that contribute most to personal appearances. At all events, that is the result of their battles. If Chicken was fighting for a mate now he would have no chance at all, for he looks so scrubby about the head that no self-respecting Maori-hen would look at him. The hens seems to have the same object in view when they fight, and it is equally effective. There was a pretty little hen here until she got her head plucked and lost all her good looks, and now she is always calling for a mate, but apparently cannot find one. This is surely an advance on the old method of deciding between rivals, for science has a better show, and there is less cruelty, yet the desired effect is attained.
Chicken can dance beautifully when he likes, which is very seldom, and very little of it at that. He waves his wings, dives his head, swings it to and fro, and then with a flap, a jump, and another wave of the wings, he blinks his eyes as if he forgot the rest. Yet he has the right idea, and knows perfectly well what is graceful in motion. He has also some idea
of “showing off,” his beauty-spots being the bared primaries, which he shows to the best advantage by stretching his wings forward towards the ground, at the same time making himself tall and full breasted; but the humour takes him just as seldom as the dancing.
I found their nest about 200 yards away, in the sunniest place they could find, on a little hill. It is sheltered from the rain by the drooping flax-leaves, is deep and warm, and lined with frayed and dead flax. Every evening she used to go up there and call for him, and if down at the house he would answer and go away at once. They were always clucking and croaking about there, but I could never find any eggs in it.
On the 24th August, in the early morning, Chicken marched into the house and craned his neck at my hands with unusual eagerness. I thought he must be very hungry, and I gave him some food, which, contrary to his usual custom, he took up and carried away, trotting along the beach with his neck stretched out as if he was in a great hurry. After breakfast, when working at our big boatshed, we noticed him passing several times with some tiny grub or worm in his bill. I thought he must be feeding his mate while hatching, and went away to see the nest, but it was empty and cold. Yet all that day he was running back and forward until evening, when his gait gave the idea that he was tired out with so many journeys. Late in the evening he stayed away, and his mate came up to the house for food. Next morning when he came I went away along his track, and Burt gave him something, which he promptly brought along, but instead of going to the nest he turned away in the bush, and I had to follow his beaten track until I heard him clucking and soon saw him under the bushes breaking up the food and calling his mate to the feast. I saw her on a new nest, but fearing she might forsake that also I came away and left them.
A day or two later, when both were at the house, I went away to see the eggs; but the nest was empty—no eggs and no young ones. “All a hoax,” said I, “or else the rats have eaten them.” But next day, when coming home, we met them near the beach, and they scolded and threatened the dogs, so that I knew they had chickens; but I had to wait a long time before the old ones got confidence enough to call out of their hiding three tiny little black chickens, which were just able to stagger about, yet with sense enough to scramble under cover when the old ones told them to do so. They gradually brought them nearer the house until they occupied a sheltered corner, where the little ones remained while the parents went away for food. They are the very best of nurses. The male in particular is never tired of running here and there and bringing home something. They seldom succeed in getting
more than enough, because when we give them too much they cram the little ones until they cannot eat-another scrap, and then the old ones become solicitous, and hold up food to them with a crooning, pitiful note, as if they feared the little gluttons were going to die because they could not eat.
On a wet day the parents look miserable running about in the wet, but the little ones will be stowed away in some cosy nook, and never think of following the old ones without a great deal of calling and coaxing. In this matter they appear quite intellectual compared with other fowl; but they may have learned the idea before the advent of rats, and retained part of it for more than a hundred generations after its utility had become doubtful. That is in theory. In practice there are as many wekas as can get a decent living, many of them being poor and insufficiently fed, for which they can thank the rats. Recently I left a penguin's egg near a rat-hole, and when I returned ten minutes later the egg was gone. The rats are numerous and fierce, and why they have not eaten the little chickens when both parents are away I cannot understand, especially when they are so often in holes that would just suit the rats.
The staple food of the wekas appears to be sand-fleas, which are here in plenty, not only on the beaches, but all through the bush, under the dead leaves and rubbish; and they are never tired raking over this and pulling about the seaweed in search of them. They also pull about the dead grass and turn over every chip in search of other things, but it is all done with the beak—they are not such fools as to go kicking things all over the place like common fowls. The sand-fleas are lively, and can make long jumps, so that whilst a rooster would be turning round to look for them they would have all jumped away. Of course, there are hosts of other insects, including cockroaches in plenty and monster earthworms, which they may catch at night, for they are often out on mild nights, and always active late in the evening. Yet they seem to prefer the scraps from our table to anything they have on their own, and soon learn to eat everything we have. They may have acquired their taste for fish by finding some stranded on the beach, but where they learned to eat bread and butter is a mystery, for they take to it like a robin. There is a little plant with a white bulb like a marble which they know well, and like to eat, but it is watery and quite tasteless.
I threw my hat at one of them one day for being in some mischief, and it is quite comical how long and how well he remembers it, for whenever I take my hat off now he is under cover like a flash. And, again, a young one came to us at the clearing, and after dinner we brought it some food; and in that one lesson it learned the motion of the hand in throwing
the food, so that some days after when I pretended to throw it something it ran towards me and looked for it on the ground. Thus they appear to be strikingly sensible, because they learn at once by experience; and if every living thing did that there would be hardly any fools after a few years' experience. Though their brain may be very small, it is probably of fine quality, or perhaps a host of fancies are absent in their case, and only the useful faculties are developed.
I found Scrag's nest on the 7th September, with two eggs in it, but they laid another after that, and brought out the chickens on the 8th October, so that the period of incubation was about twenty-seven days. They took turns at hatching, for when I saw the hen on the beach I found the male on the nest, and vice versâ; and in this they show their sense also, for it is easy for two compared with one doing it all, as in the case of the kiwi and kakapo.
In July, when out at the clearing, I heard a woodhen screaming in distress down in a gully, and as it continued I called to Burt, who was nearer the spot, to see what was the matter. Guided by the sound, he went down quickly and found a sparrow-hawk holding on to a woodhen under a log. He caught the hawk, and the hen ran away. When I went over I saw that the hawk's beak was full of the inner down of the hen, so that she had a narrow escape that time, and by calling for help exchanged places with her enemy. They have a special note to indicate the presence of a sparrow-hawk, and generally let us know when there is one about. The tuis, mokos, and robins can also sing out “Sparrow-hawk!” in their own language, and all the others understand; so that he is proclaimed everywhere he goes, which is just what he does not want, and he must have a very vexatious time of it trying to get a living. On another occasion I hung a fishing-net on the clothes-lines to dry, and when we came home a little male sparrow-hawk was caught in the net about 1 ft. from the ground. Our tame weka was in a great state of agitation, yet bold enough to come up and peck at the hawk in defence of her chickens, who was probably stooping for one of them when the net caught him.
In seven weeks the three chickens grew up nearly as big as their parents, but very soft, of course. And then one of them disappeared, with a hawk, I suppose, though we had killed six, and thought we were doing a good turn, because we saw one hunting a pigeon.
When the tide is low and the wekas are tempted away out on the beaches I think the hawks take 90 per cent of the young ones, which may be quite desirable, because from recent developments the wekas appear to be the worst enemies of the ducks.
Our goose made her nest right before the window, and only 10 yards from the house. In gathering material she took a little straw, but preferred more substantial stuff. When leaving the nest she carefully covered up the egg, so that I was surprised to find it so deep among the sprigs and chips. I covered it up again as I got it, but next morning the nest was opened, and only a few scraps of eggshell remained. I was not sure whether it was the dog or the weka, but intended to find out. The weka was evidently interested in the nest, for we saw him walking round while the goose was on it. We knew, also, that he would break an egg at sight, for we tried him with a penguin's egg; he had also stolen a roa's egg-shell and destroyed it. This was a strong shell, and I saved part of it to show how he could punch holes in it. He could pick up a penguin's egg and run away with it so quickly that I could hardly get it from him. We got several goose-eggs by going at once and taking them away, until one morning I was busy with log-fires and did not go at once. I heard when the goose came off, because her mate gave her a noisy greeting, and a few minutes afterwards I found the nest torn about and the weka and his family around the broken egg some yards away. Next time the goose was on the nest the weka waited about there all the time, though the gander tried to drive him away, and I went out and threw soft things at him, yet he flipped about and defied me, so that I took a dislike to him for his outrageous cunning. When the goose came away Burt went at once and found the weka digging up the nest in search of the egg; and when she started to hatch, though there were no eggs, she regularly covered up the nest when leaving it, and the weka never failed to rake it out when he found her absent, and, of course, a goose could never hatch an egg where there was such an artful and patient thief as that.
Long ago I knew they were egg-eaters, but I never dreamed that they were half so bad as this shows them to be. We have had this weka since it was a chicken, and he has only a small domain where there are no penguins. Probably he never saw a duck's nest in his life, and certainly not a goose's, for this was the first in the sound, yet he seemed to know all about it, and that the eggs would be covered up. The ducks cover theirs until they start to hatch, and then also when they leave the nest of their own accord; and that is evidently where this weka's forefathers learned the habit, and faithfully handed it down to this promising youngster. To this small matter hangs a very long, old story, which we will never hear in full, about the ducks watching and fighting for their eggs, and the wekas successfully robbing them year after year until it became a fixed habit for transmission, the result of which we saw plainer and truer than by writing.
No doubt the weka is a finished thief; but he is not a fighter, because his wings are useless, and his courage is very little better for that purpose. The little teal are terrors to fight with each other, and then they make their wings crack like whips, so that they could easily drive off a weka; and as for a “paradise,” she could kill one if she caught hold of it—but that would be the trouble.
There are wekas on Resolution Island, and when I saw this one's talent I feared for the mother kakapo, who has to do all the nesting herself, until I remembered that she stays at home during the day and only goes to feed at night, when the wekas are mostly tired. This habit she can thank for the very existence of her race.
We have spent a great deal of time clearing for grass, in the hope of fostering paradise ducks. We were inclined to foster wekas also, and were fortunate in having the experience with the goose's nest, otherwise we might have worked for a certain failure. Now, if I get the ducks the Maori-hen will have to leave Pigeon Island. With all their intellect they have weak points, of course, for the strangers will walk up and put their heads in a snare when you hold them out a bait on the point of a stick; and all those who are near at hand will come out and show themselves, while those that are far away are often calling out to tell where they are. I was always friendly to the poor old wekas, and thought them well worth developing, and I am very sorry to have to write them down so mischievous among their fellows. For all that they may turn out to be the most valuable pets in New Zealand.
We saw them skipping about at dusk catching moths and beetles on the wing; and with their very great cleverness and their tireless activity I think they would be a cure for the codlin-moths in orchards. There was some talk of importing bats from England for that purpose, but a bat is a mammal that might catch flies near an anthrax carcase and then fly away over fences and rivers to drop the germs of disease or die among healthy stock; and if we only knew enough about their migrations in the Old World the flight of disease might not appear so mysterious. In Victoria I knew where many hundreds of bats, perhaps thousands, used to sleep in a great old hollow tree, and often saw them streaming out of there in the evening like a swarm of bees. They were easily caught in dozens with a piece of netting, and I found that every one carried a variety of very visible parasites, and perhaps invisible ones, because they had an offensive smell. They often hawk for flies about dwellings and animal camping-grounds, so that they appear to be ideal mediums for collecting, exchanging, and distributing germs.
A new race of bats invigorated by transportation might turn
out the very worst importation for New Zealand. On the other hand, a weka is the easiest of all birds to inclose where it is wanted, also the easiest to catch, to keep, and to carry, and would be likely to thrive well in its native land. If they only lived in England our fruitgrowers would be longing for them; but because they are at hand they are not much thought of in their own country. No doubt they will be eagerly inquired for in far-off countries if ever it is known that they have all the qualifications required.
Since writing the above I find that they will kill each other's young, and this, with the curious habit of leaving them behind, makes it necessary that each pair, when breeding, should have a run of their own, and be able to make it warm for all intruders. When the little ones are alarmed they pipe out a penetrating call for assistance, and then the old ones appear as if by magic. Perhaps that is why the cunning rat did not eat them—he feared that shrill call and its consequences. When our chickens were about seven weeks old the mother handed them over to the father and took no more care of them, but went up on the hill behind the house, built another nest, and had three eggs in it partly hatched on the 28th October. I took one of them to get the embryo for Dr. Parker, intending to take the others at different stages if I am at home. At this rate every gardener could breed as many as he wanted.
They can swim and dive well to escape, but I never saw them in the water except on business. It is wonderful how they can dispose of food, for they seem to be never beaten either by quality or quantity. A few minutes after a feast they are as hungry as ever, and they get rolling fat very quickly.
Our weka looks after his two big chickens during the day, bags food for them or hunts it up on the beach, and apparently gives them everything he gets. Sometimes he gives them a wigging and chases them away—for schooling, I suppose—yet he fights for them and has many a lively run hunting away intruders, who sometimes chase them and make them scream for assistance. Then he snorts and coughs, and his eyes glare with indignation as he rushes about looking for the offender, who is often sly enough to flip round a corner and make a bee-line out of dangerous ground.
At the end of October this is his usual day's work until some time in the afternoon, when he goes up the hill to the nest where his mate is hatching, takes her place, and lets her come out for food. If we see her we give her plenty, but she is in no hurry returning, evidently confident that the eggs are safe in his keeping until she has had her outing at leisure.
I wonder greatly they are such good managers if they
cannot talk. Fancy him going up to the nest, if you can, and putting her off it without exchanging ideas about his object or intention, and without promising to remain until she returns. It is far easier for me to imagine him saying, “Come out now and get something to eat; I will take care of the eggs until you return, and do not be in any hurry, because I am tired and will be glad of a rest here.”
17th November.—This evening I was looking at the antics of the woodhens when Scrag made a rush at something, and then I heard a rat screaming in a big hole under a stump. The dogs also heard it, and I had just time to see the weka drag out a rat when the dogs rushed in and killed the rodent, and I lost the chance of as great a treat as a bull-fight. I know it would require the keenest activity for a weka to kill a rat single-handed, and am not sure that it could do so; but the rat's screams would be sure to attract another weka, and then I think the pair could manage it quite easily, for one could hold while the other stabbed, or both could tug and pull, in which they seem to take a delight, and are very tenacious, so that the rat would be worried to death. This tenacity of hold is quite unexpected from the shape of the weka's beak, but I have played with them by trailing a little fish on the rod, and was surprised how they could hold on until I lifted them off the ground.
22nd November.—We went to Breaksea Sound, and camped in a beautiful place called Beach Harbour, two miles east of Acheron Passage. We soon had the Maori-hens for company, of course, and there were two grown-up chickens. They were all rather shy at first, but food soon opened the way to their friendship or gratitude. I threw an old fellow some crabs, which he evidently took note of at once, for he followed me along the beach, and, after a few lessons, when I turned over a stone and he saw the crabs running he would come up and catch them himself, and his example soon made the others tame. Then I opened cockles for him with my knife, and he would stand at my knee and eat them with more confidence than the Maori-hen I had reared. But the reason I mention him at all is because he gave us an exhibition of his skill as a fisherman. Often I saw them wading in shallow water, but thought the fish too lively for them to catch. However, this one brought up several little fish as long as my finger, and paraded them about, calling his chickens to come for them. His neck and legs appeared to be rather long, as if to suit that sort of work, and I saw him peeping cautiously round corners as if expecting shy game, so that he must have been an old hand at it; and probably his forefathers were fishermen, because the circumstances were suitable.
With the isolation which these birds seem to crave, and indefinite time, it would not be hard to imagine the origin of a race of waders. In fact, the weka appears to be just the sort of bird to start with, because it will eat anything, and the little chickens are very hardy, with apparently a surplus of digestive power, which latter may be nearer the spirit of life than the old people used to think.
If a tribe of wekas had abundance of any one sort of food, either fish or fruit, I think they would be content with that, and become adapted for obtaining it; and with such material the simple laws we recently heard of could develope a variety of forms in accordance with the great variety of conditions, and the wonder is there are so few to fill them.
In Australia I knew the rails that came there in the spring, when the corn was knee-high. They made their nests in clover bottoms, and I often found their eggs, which were just like the weka's, but much smaller of course. The chickens were also quite black like the weka's, and the parents made the same sort of croaking noise when I went near their nest, but I do not remember their ordinary cry. They could fly well, but did so unwillingly when alarmed, as if they preferred the long grass for refuge; but a dog would make them fly, and then their style was like that of the swamp-hen. They were distinctly migratory, but I never heard where they came from, nor could I imagine any suitable place for them in Australia during the dry season, because they seemed to like damp places. Then, if ever they came to New Zealand, it is no wonder they thought it a paradise, and, deciding to remain for ever, gave up flying. And the wekas have still a trace of their old migratory habits, because they will risk their lives like the rats, and swim for miles to get away out on some lonely island, far from their old homes and their persecuting neighbours. And perhaps these two, with their colonising impulse and great digestive power, may represent advanced germs of the fauna of many lands.
The Roa (Apteryx australis).
In coming home on the 10th December we brought two roas, and I have been feeding them since, and watching their manners in their little paddock in the evenings. Two things are notable—the large quantity they eat, and their unexpected activity. The ones I used to keep for a little while at Te Anau gave me the idea that they were slow creatures, but one of these can skip about like a rabbit, and I suspected it of eating all the food, so kept on putting in more and more, till now they get about 1½ lb. of fish and a few extras.
They do not take kindly to fish or meat at first; they often
refused it when we had them in cages for removal to the islands. So now I do not trouble them the first night, but the second evening I catch them and make them eat a few pieces, and the night after they will eat it readily themselves. I knew they ate a few berries in their own homes, and, fearing fish might be too monotonous, I rolled it in oatmeal, until now they will eat porridge by itself. In the day time they sleep huddled up together, though at first they would fight, not being mates, but now they seem to be the best of friends. I made a dark den for them, but they would not go into it, preferring to sleep behind it, under the log, where I can see them shivering with the cold, and annoyed by the sandflies.
The male is always much smaller than the female, and this one is moulting, which makes him look smaller still; so he gets in a nook inside, and the female sits close to him and almost over him, as if to keep him warm. There is only a round ball of their brown drooping feathers to be seen, and perhaps the point of the long beak clear of the feathers in some unexpected place.
When disturbed they lift their sleepy-looking heads from under the mantle of long feathers on the shoulders, where one would think them safe from sandflies, but I often see dots of blood around the eyes and mouth, for the flies are very insidious, and may bite severely without leaving a trace. Where there were no sandflies they might thrive much better than they do here; and, as they are so easily enclosed, it is a wonder every extensive garden has not a pair, for there is no doubt about their value, because they are specially fitted for finding the garden-pests that can so easily hide from jabbering sparrows and other musical humbugs that came here under false pretences.
The song of the roa is not very musical, but might become sweeter by association than our blackbirds and thrushes that pay us in whistles for stealing our fruit; while roas are humble, and so harmless that they will not even scratch the ground, but probe it with their slender beaks, guided by scent and hearing in the night time, and then go to their holes at daylight, only to come out again when the other workers are going to bed.
There can be no harm in speculating about how these curious birds came to New Zealand, for there are no degrees in ignorance when nobody knows. Men may have done the mysterious distribution as part of their business here. The fact of finding no geological proof only amounts to the silly man's evidence when he offered to bring a dozen men to swear that they did not see him steal a spade. We know that men are eminently fitted for such work, and that they
have been at it as long as we know anything about them; then, why not previously? They brought lions and tigers to Rome about two thousand years ago. There are as wonderful ruins in Java as there are in Egypt, and some of the Rajah's keep pet tigers there to-day. Then, why not formerly, when perhaps they brought them as far as the Romans did, and even across “Wallace's line”? Even the sea-shells benefit more than half the living things by extracting the surplus lime that might poison the fish. Then, why should not the ablest have useful work to do for the community?
Recent research suggests the probability of roas originating from birds that could fly. That is a very good story, but there is not nearly enough of it, because they must have had many adventures since they first flew up for a skite round some Old-World mountain-tops and got blown away to New Zealand. In the first place they found no enemies in the New Zealand scrub, or they would not have lost their wings; and possibly there were swift hawks about that made them afraid to show themselves until they quite forgot about their wings.
There might have been a long period of cold, when roas were the fittest to survive as long as any forest remained. There may have been a sinking of the land, when such mountaineers as roas would be the most likely to survive with their varied food; and when the land rose again some of them may have gone down relieved of enemies, and developed into moas in the fruitful valleys; for nature takes no heed of time in fitting her people for their surroundings. And even now no more perfect fit exists than that of the roas for their dominions. Their feathers are hairy at the tips and hard to wet or disarrange, yet soft and downy at the roots, amply warm and waterproof; and their skins are thick and oily, as if to defy the everlasting damp of the shady forest, where they never feel a gleam of sunshine.
As their food is in the ground, on the steep hill-sides, they have powerful legs for climbing, with strong spurs on their heels to let them go down steep and slippery places with ease and safety. The wing is no bigger than one of their toes, and naked with the exception of a row of little penfeathers, in memory of the old quills of long ago; while the tiny shoulder is useful as a rest for the beak when asleep.
The wonderful beak is long, slender, and slightly curved, but, unlike all others, with the nostrils at the very tip, which fit it for finding its food deep in the moss and roots, where it had no competitors. It has also cutting-edges, which I was not aware of until I saw them rasping a lath of the cage. It is white when alive and partly transparent when recently dead, showing a network of blood-vessels, as if highly sensi-
tive for feeling its food at the bottom of the holes. Those holes are the size of a pencil when in earth, and 4 in. or 5 in. deep, but when in moss are cone-shaped, as if made with the head, and perhaps 10 in. deep, thus showing how acute their scent and hearing must be to locate some silent grub or worm down there. Only in a garden in the evening or bright moonlight can one be seen at work. Then it lifts its foot and puts it down so gently, with its neck outstretched and ear forward, in a listening attitude, that I am almost sure it depends greatly on its hearing for finding its food; and it must be sharp to detect the small noises of white grubs and wireworms 1 in. or 2 in. underground, yet near grass-land at Te Anau I have found their stomachs half-filled with them in the spring, and with beetles and other things I never noticed else where.
It often rests the point of its beak on the ground, apparently for support, but it may be to scent the worm-holes that come to the surface. Though their sight seems to be of little use to them, there is no doubt about their keen scent, because when a worm or piece of meat is thrown near them they are aware of its presence at once, and touch the ground here and there, coming nearer and nearer until it is felt and taken up. I have often seen their tracks on the sandy beaches at Te Anau, and was puzzled to know why there were only a few regular steps and then a deep footprint and a long stride to the right or left; but now I think they get part of their food in the spring by catching insects that fly close to the ground, especially in those seasons when green beetles and the like are a nuisance; so their eyesight is of some use to them, notwith-standing their blind manner. I find that they can change their food, like the woodhen, for I put in a big moki's head, boiled, a few nights ago, and they picked it clean: and now I only put in a dish of promiscuous scraps, and they clean it up like little pigs, so that they are very satisfactory to feed.
Mr. Ness, of Port Chalmers, has kept a splendid one in perfect health for years, and I promised to send him a mate for it; so that is what my captives are for. Three-foot netting is quite sufficient to enclose them, and, as there are hundreds of places already enclosed, it is a pity no one tries this way of dealing with pests in gardens, of which we hear so much now and then, with the value of sparrows, &c. It is not at all hopeless to domesticate them. Though they only lay their one great egg, yet they may breed twice as fast as sheep or cattle, because I have found eggs in July and November; so that many of them may lay twice in the year under favourable circumstances. I am confident that if they were better known they would be highly valued by gardeners, and become quite common, which would be the best of all ways of saving them
permanently. At all events, some one should try the experiment, and if authorised to do so I would send a pair to any one having a suitable place, and willing to give them a little food in winter, for of course they could do nothing in frost unless there were plantations.
Though they could make holes for themselves in the soft banks, yet I think they very seldom do so, for there are always plenty to choose from under the roots of trees where they can sleep during the day. For the nest they like rather a small hole with only one entrance, and in the driest place they can find. There they gather a few handfuls of dry fern-leaves and scrub and lay their one great egg; and I think the male takes entire charge of it, and never leaves it until it is hatched, but I am not quite sure of this, for the female may sit a while at night and let him come out for food, but I never found one on an egg, though I have seen dozens of nests in the last fourteen years. On a very few occasions I have found the female in the hole with him when sitting, but generally he is there alone, though at other times the adults are always in pairs. Even if I was to go up the spur in the dark to a nest I might disturb them and learn nothing; but the point of his endurance can be easily settled by those that keep them in gardens.
At the beginning of his task he is in good condition, but when the egg is nearly hatched he is poor and quite stupid, while his mate is wide awake and fightable, so that they have just exchanged places since she laid that egg. I found two chickens just hatched, one of them not quite dry; yet there was not a scrap of eggshell in the nest, and I could not account for it. The chickens were quite helpless, and unable to stand up, so they must have either absorbed food enough to last them until they could walk or the parents carried it to them. When they are able to walk some of them at least are quite careless about staying with the old ones, for I have found a tender little thing several yards away from where the parents were asleep; and I found a tiny grey kiwi in a knothole near the beach, and my dog could not find the mother at all. So there are many questions to be asked about them, for they have some curious ways, and as yet we may not know half their history. From the size of the egg and the shape of his body it would be impossible for him to hatch two eggs at one time, so that the big egg must be a very old legacy.
The voice of the male is a high-pitched rather musical scream, with a tremble and a sudden drop of several notes at the end of each call, which may be about two seconds duration, repeated five or six times. The female sings nearly the same tune, but in a much lower and hoarser tone, somewhat
like ro-ar, ro-ar, with both syllables accented and a slight rest between.
When disturbed in their holes they crack their beaks like a snap of the fingers, and protest in a grunt or growl, but never use the beak for defence. In fact, I often take both legs in my hand before they seem to be aware of it. But long ago I caught one by the head, and with its powerful legs and strong sharp claws it wounded my hand and wrist severely—poisonous wounds that were very slow to heal.
If cornered in their paddock here their behaviour is quite courageous, especially that of the female, for she will come towards my hand and stamp and kick with such energy that I take care to keep it out of the way. I think she could easily defend herself against a ferret out in the open, but not in a hole. So whoever essays to keep them should provide a den with a small entrance and a chamber inside without corners, so that poor roa would have room to use its legs.
On one occasion I found a little male A. oweni hatching an A. australis egg. He could not have driven away his big cousin, so there may be hybrids which would be somewhat like A. haastii. Every item is worth recording, because we know so little about them.
When a roa passes by our tent at night and becomes conscious of intruders it instantly alters its creeping step, and tramps along with such a heavy footfall that I could not believe it to be a roa until I proved it several times by letting loose my dog. As their hearing is the keenest perhaps that heavy tramp is “putting on style” from their point of view, where sight is not of much account.
Art. XXXI.—A Romance of Samoan Natural History; or Records relating to the Manu Mea, or Red Bird of Samoa, now nearly, if not quite, extinct.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 4th August, 1897.]
“What shall I send you from the islands?” was the question I put to an old friend, fond of natural history pursuits, as I was leaving England for the South Seas in 1838. “Send me a dodo,” was the prompt but startling reply, and one
that I thought had but little chance of being in the slightest degree realised; but, strange to say, as the years rolled on, from that most unlikely part of the world, and in a very unexpected manner, I was enabled to do a great deal towards making known to the scientific world the nearest approach now known to the long-lost and long-extinct dodo.
In 1843, or some five years after my friend's strange and jocular request, a Samoan native brought me a couple of what I at once saw were rare and extraordinary birds, male and female—the manu mea, or red bird of Samoa. I had never seen any before, and the man assured me that they were very rare birds, and most difficult to obtain. I gladly paid the required reward, and made arrangements for the safe keeping of my prizes. That they were extraordinary birds was at once seen, not simply from their rarity, but also from their singular appearance. The head and strong hooked beak resembled a parrot, but the legs were as unmistakably of the pigeon family; so that the whole appearance of the bird was a puzzle. I searched in vain through every book at my disposal for some clue as to its character, but could find nothing whatever to solve the mystery. The birds had been captured on the nest, and were thus uninjured, and likely to do well in captivity; but at that time I had no idea of the treasure thus brought to me. Still, I was greatly delighted with my prizes, and took every precaution to insure their safety. My native lads were familiar with the food required, and fed them after the manner of their pigeons, at feeding which they were adepts.
At first the birds were very timid and shy, but soon began to quiet down, and there seemed every prospect of our being able to keep them in confinement. Some time after, however, one of the birds was, unfortunately, killed, but the other continued to thrive, until late in the year 1843 a friend, Mr. Evans, who was going to Sydney, kindly offered to take the bird there, and endeavour to ascertain something about it, and thus satisfy my curiosity as to its character and class. Some native lads on board the vessel took charge of the bird, and fed it, native fashion; and, as they are clever bird-fanciers, it reached Sydney safely. Mr. Evans at once took it to a taxidermist, andeavoured to ascertain from him something further about it, but the man was equally at a loss with myself, and could give no information whatever: the bird was a marvel he could not solve. My friend's business engagements prevented his taking further trouble in the matter, and he left the bird with that gentleman, bringing me, on his return, a lory in exchange, but not the slightest information of the kind I so much desired.
Deprived of native care and attention the bird, apparently,
soon died, and the skin, with others, was purchased by or for Lady Harvey, either in Sydney or else in Scotland; but eventually this unique and precious specimen came into the possession of Sir William Jardine, of Edinburgh, and was first described by him in 1845 (“Annals of Natural History,” vol. xvi., p. 175) under the name of “Gnathodon strigirostris.” Its true habitat, however, was unknown until it was announced later on, in Mr. Strickland's “Report on the Progress and Present State of Ornithology,” read before the British Association at York, that “the recent American voyage of discovery will extend our knowledge of Polynesian zoology, and its researches will be made known by Mr. Titian Peale, who is said to have discovered, among other varieties, a new bird, allied to the dodo, which he proposes to name Didunculus,' and we believe strigirostris has been applied specifically.
I may here mention that during the visit of the United States Exploring Expedition to Samoa, in 1838–40, before alluded to, several members of the expedition, including Mr. Peale, the naturalist, were my guests for a short time at Falelatai, on their way to the mountain at the back of the settlement, and during their visit I spoke to them of the manu mea, described its habits as well as I could, and told them how I had tried in vain to obtain it. I did not see them on their return from the mountain, but heard afterwards that they had obtained a specimen.
From the specimen in Sir William Jardine's possession the bird was figured by Mr. Gould in his magnificent work the “Birds of Australia,” and its distinctive character shown. At that time there were only two specimens known to exist—viz., the one in the United States, taken there by Commodore Wilkes, and the other the one in the collection of Sir W. Jardine, in Edinburgh—the identical bird that I had sent to Sydney in 1843.
After my return to England in 1846 the late Dr. Gray, of the British Museum, showed me a drawing of this bird, which I at once recognised, as also a drawing of a new species of Apteryx, which had been made from a skin purchased in Sydney in the same lot with the skin of the manu mea which I had sent from the islands to Sydney, and which he explained came from some place unknown. A native chief who was with me at the time at once recognised this latter bird as the puna'e (springer-up), a bird well known in Samoa, but which, like the manu mea, was rapidly becoming extinct. Both Dr. Gray and the late Mr. Mitchell, of the Zoological Gardens, took great interest in the description I gave of the habits of these birds; and I suggested that prompt and special efforts should be made to procure further specimens of both
before it was too late, advice which after many years was acted upon.
Fourteen years pass: and I had been many years resident in Victoria, but had heard nothing further of the famous manu mea, when one day I was surprised to see a notice in the Argus of the 2nd or 3rd August, 1862, calling attention to the fact that at a meeting of the Royal Society, recently held in Melbourne, a letter was read from His Excellency Sir H. Barkley referring to a communication which he had received from London relative to some rare pigeons (Didunculus strigirostris) from the Navigator Islands, which the Zoological Society of London were most desirous of procuring. The society offered £50 per pair for living specimens, and £10 to £12 for skins. His Excellency forwarded some drawings of the pigeon, and stated that he had endeavoured to assist the effort, but asked for further information, if it could be obtained. I at once communicated with Dr. Mueller, the then vice-president of the Society, and told him that I recognised the description as that of the manu mea, or red bird of Samoa, and gave him such information as I possessed respecting it. My letter was quickly followed by a reply from Dr. Mueller, accompanied by a coloured drawing of the bird, which could not be mistaken.
Subsequently a notice of a meeting of the Royal Society was published in the Argus of the 14th August, 1862, in which it was stated that an interesting letter was read from the Rev. J. B. Stair, of Broadmeadows, relating to the pigeon from the Navigator Islands, upon which information had been requested by Sir H. Barkley on behalf of the Zoological Society of London. Mr. Stair had seen the tracing of the bird, and recognised it as the manu mea, or red bird of the islands. He had also kindly mentioned the names of several gentlemen in the islands who he thought would use their best influence in endeavouring to procure specimens, but in consequence of the great rarity of the bird he is very doubtful of their success.
Under date of the 15th August Mr. Sprigg, the secretary of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, wrote to me stating that Dr. Mueller had placed my letter respecting the Didunculus before the Society, and that he had been directed by them to return me their best thanks for the information I had afforded them. Mr. Sprigg stated that he had written to J. C. Williams, Esq., H.B.M. Consul at Samoa, asking his help in procuring specimens of the bird. He had also sent copies of my letter to Mr. Williams. He further said, “I have also furnished a complete copy to Sir H. Barkley,” who, in reply to Mr. Sprigg, says, “With the information supplied by the Rev. Mr. Stair I trust there will be no insuperable difficulty in obtaining the bird, if still in existence; but, should it
not be forthcoming, I will beg of Commodore Burnett to let one of the ships of war passing that way call and repeat the inquiry, as suggested by Mr. Stair.”
Five months later, under date of the 10th January, 1863, Mr. Sprigg, of Melbourne, wrote to me, enclosing copy of a letter he had received from Mr. Williams, of Samoa, re the manu mea, in which he says, “I have been” over twenty years trying to get one of the birds you write about, and have only just within the last two months been fortunate enough to secure one, which is now thriving well, and I hope that when I go to Sydney I shall be able to take it with me. Although, for myself, I should rather favour the Sydney Acclimatisation Society, yet, as you have first written to me about the bird, I should think it only just to give you the first offer. I have had great difficulty in obtaining the bird, as they are nearly extinct, having been destroyed by the wild-cats. The Rev. J. B. Stair's account is very correct. I hope to be in Sydney about May or June, when I shall be happy to hold any further communications with you.—John Williams, British Consulate, Apia, Upolu, Samoa, 19th November, 1862.”
From this time onward, until the end of August, 1863, with the exception of a notice concerning the habits of the bird, by Dr. G. Bennett, of Sydney, no further information appeared respecting the success or otherwise of the search for this much-coveted bird. At length, on the 30th August, 1863, the Melbourne Argus of that date announced the fact that a pair of Didunculus had reached Sydney from Samoa, and had been purchased by Dr. Bennett for the London Zoological Society, and that the birds “were doing well.” Dr. Bennett bought them on his own account, for transmission to the Zoological Society of London. At a meeting of the Acclimatisation Society of New South Wales, at which he made the statement, he said, “He wished to express his thanks to that Society, as also to the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, for the liberal resolutions passed by them to unite with him in the purchase, on account of the very high price demanded for the birds, the ultimate object, however, of which would be to send them to the same destination he intended; but, on reflection, he considered it more desirable and more satisfactory to take the sole responsibility upon himself, as well as the expense. These birds were nearly, if not quite, extinct, and were remarkable as forming a living example of the long-extinct dodo, of which nothing now remained but one head and foot, the first being placed in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, and the latter in the British Museum. A cast from this foot could be seen in the Museum at Sydney.” Dr. Bennett further stated that the only specimen of the Didunculus at present in Europe was the one in
the possession of Sir William Jardine, and from it all the drawings and descriptions of the bird had been made. There were also, it is said, two specimens in America; and these three, with his two living birds, now in Sydney, were all at present known to exist. No living specimen had as yet ever been seen in Europe.
Three days later, on the 3rd September, 1863, the following paragraph appeared in the Argus: “With reference to the paragraph which appeared on Monday concerning the purchase of a pair of rare birds (the Didunculus) by Dr. George Bennett, of Sydney, we have been requested to state that, although Dr. Bennett is the actual possessor, it is solely to the exertions of the council of the Acclimatisation Society of Melbourne that the scientific world is indebted for the possession of these long-sought-for birds. It was at the request of this council, and upon the faith of their representations, that Mr. J. C. Williams, the British Consul at the Samoan Group, brought them to Sydney, and it was intended that the purchase should have been a joint one with Dr. Bennett, the council being desirous of allowing him to participate in the honour, as he had for many years been endeavouring to procure a specimen of this bird.” This arrangement, however, had not been carried out, and Dr. Bennett observes that he “considered it more advisable and satisfactory to take the sole responsibility and expense. The Zoological Society of London had been informed to whom the credit is due.” This explanation was most certainly due to the council of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, as they had been under the distinct promise of first offer of purchasing the bird by Mr. Williams in his communication of the 19th November, 1862.
Mr. Williams reached Sydney on the 13th June, 1863, and five weeks later, on the 24th July, a second manu mea was brought to Sydney for him, so that he could offer two birds for sale, a fact considered of much importance. The last bird that reached Sydney was from a different island—Savaii —and was considered older than the one brought by Mr. Williams. Both were, however, placed together, but the last-received bird seemed wilder and more restless than the other, a fact no doubt arising from its having been more recently captured and placed in confinement. Up to the time of purchase the birds had continued under native care and feeding, which was of great help alike to the birds themselves and to those who subsequently took charge of them, the Samoans being very successful in their treatment of the native birds.
On the 21st August, 1863, Dr. Bennett completed the purchase of the two birds, and took possession. A little over three weeks later the older and last-received bird sickened and
died, to the great disappointment of all concerned. Alluding to the time subsequent to the purchase, Dr. Bennett says, “The adult bird often runs wildly about the cage, flapping its wings, and, when the door is opened, makes every effort to escape. On the 12th September, a little over three weeks after the purchase, the older and last-received bird refused food, which continued to the morning of the 14th September, when several fits carried it off in the course of the day. I placed the body, entire, in spirits, to enable a complete anatomical description to be given of the bird by Professor Owen.” Dr. Bennett further says, “I observed a quantity of white powder, such as is often seen to fall from the white cockatoos, on the bottom of the cage, and on the 4th October, the remaining bird not seeming well, a change was made in the food, loquats being given, of which the bird cracked the seeds, and seemed better for the change. On the 23rd October it again refused food, but took a large quantity of gravel, yet still eating nothing for two days. It was therefore thought that the loquat-seeds did not agree with it, and they were discontinued. On the 25th October the bird got much worse, and, fearing it might die, it was placed in a parrot-cage, so as to enable the artist summoned to finish the drawing from life, as it would be better seen in a large cage, when, to the great surprise of all, the bird jumped from the perch, and commenced eating what, on examination, was found to be hemp-seed, and from that time it was fed on that kind of food, and soon regained its usual health.” This singular circumstance clearly points to the difficulty of arranging food for a bird whose habits are so little understood. I have no doubt that the death of the other bird arose from change of food, and also, perhaps, from change of attendance, the natives so much better understanding their habits than Europeans. The surviving bird throve well on this change of diet, and after a time was placed on board the ship “La Hogue,” Captain Williams, and given in charge of Mr. Broughton, the chief steward, who had acquired great experience in the management of birds, and in whose skill and care every confidence was felt.
The “La Hogue” sailed from Sydney on the morning of the 12th January, 1864, and reached England safely on the 10th April following, and on the next day—11th April—the manu mea was handed over to the charge of the authorities of the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, thus realising the long-cherished dream of having one of these wonderful birds alive in England.
A few days later, under date of the 26th April, 1864, Dr. Sclater, the secretary of the gardens, wrote to Dr. Bennett: “I am delighted to be able to tell you that the Didunculus is now alive, and in good health, in the gardens. The bird is not
in good feather, but feeds well, and Mr. Bartlett assures me is likely to live.”
Thus ends this, to me, interesting and romantic story of this strange bird, connecting, as it does, so significantly with the past.
A few remarks on the general characteristics of the bird, as also its habits when wild in its native forest and when in captivity, may be acceptable.
As to these, I cannot do better than quote from “Further Notes on the Tooth-billed Pigeon of the Navigator Islands (Didunculus strigirostris),” written by Dr. Bennett from data given, by myself, and published in the Sydney Morning Herald of the 3rd September, 1862:—
“Since the publication of my observations on the tooth-billed pigeon of the Navigator Islands, in the Sydney Morning Herald of the 19th August, 1862, I have received a communication from the secretary of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, containing some valuable notes given to them respecting this rare and valuable bird by the Rev. John B. Stair, of Broadmeadows, Victoria, formerly resident for some time at the Samoan or Navigator Islands, considered the exclusive habitat of this singular bird. I have now selected those portions relating to the bird which are new to science, or will more fully add to its history, and complete, as far as possible, our knowledge of this nearly extinct bird. Mr. Stair says he has seen the Didunculus, and that it is named by the natives the manu mea, or red bird, from the most pre-dominant colour of its plumage being chocolate-red. In 1843 Mr. Stair had two in his possession, one of which was unfortunately killed, and the other was taken to Sydney by a friend to see if it were known, but nothing could be learnt respecting it. The bird was left there, and subsequently died, the skin being afterwards purchased, with others, either by or on account of Lady Harvey, and eventually found its way into the possession of Sir William Jardine, of Edinburgh. The bird was formerly found in great numbers, and this assertion may excite some surprise that such a bird should not have been seen and procured by the early navigators. Now Mr. Stair further observes that which I have for some time suspected—viz., that the bird is nearly, if not quite, extinct. It feeds on plantains, and is partial to the fruit of the soi, a species of Dioscorea, or yam, a twining plant found in the forests of the islands, and producing a fruit resembling a small potato. The habits of this bird, Mr. Stair says, are exceedingly shy and timid, and, like the ground-pigeon, it roosts on bushes or stumps of trees, and feeds on the ground.
They also build their nests in such situations, and during the breeding season both parents aid in the duty of incubation, and relieve each other with great regularity; and so intent are they when sitting on the eggs as to be easily captured. It was in this way that the two living specimens were obtained for him. They are also captured by the natives with bird-lime, or shot with arrows, the sportsman concealing himself near an open space in which some quantity of the soi, their favourite food, has been placed.”
“The power of wing of most of the pigeon tribe is very great, and it also obtains in this bird. It flies through the air with a loud noise, like our topknot pigeon (Lopholimius ant-arcticus), found in the Illawarra district, and many of our Australian pigeons. Mr. Stair describes it when in flight as making so great a noise with its wings that when heard at a distance it resembles the rumbling of distant thunder.”
I have myself often mistaken it for this in the forest when travelling, and can quite understand the delusion. Tradition states that on one occasion a company of atua (warriors) were put to flight, on the march to the scene of action, through mistaking the noise of the distant rumbling caused by this bird on the wing for the rapid approach of a body of opposing troops. They broke, and fled in dismay; but their faint-heartedness was chronicled in sarcastic verse, and resounded long afterwards to their dismay and confusion, as their prowess was rehearsed. A canoe-song, which I have often heard sung, thus records it:—
Pa; lulu le manu, e,
(With a thunder-crash the bird flies, And Safata runs away !)
Dr. Bennett alludes to the singular fact of the manu mea not having been observed by the early navigators, or, indeed, by later ones. Many causes may have contributed to this. In its wild state it was strictly a forest bird, very timid and shy, but apparently at one time very abundant, and taken for food in great numbers. From this peculiar shyness, however, the birds do not appear to have become pets with the natives, as is the case with many other pigeons and doves, both ground or otherwise. Many hundreds of these other birds were caught, and tamed and trained by the natives of Samoa, who were very fond of them, and spent much of their time with them.
Bougainville, who discovered the islands in 1768, says, “The islands where we touched were clothed to the summit with trees laden with fruit, on which wood-pigeons and green, rose, and different coloured turtle-doves reposed. The islanders amuse themselves in their
leisure hours by taming birds. Their houses were full of wood-pigeons, and they bartered them by hundreds.” But it seems certain that no bird like the manu mea was offered for sale to any of those visitors, for we may be sure that a bird of so singular a form would not have escaped the notice of the naturalists attached to those expeditions.
I think the fact is clear that these birds were seldom tamed by the natives, from their timid and restless habits. Hunting them, however, was a very favourite sport with the natives, especially those who resided in the inland villages, and who thus had greater facilities for seeing them, and becoming familiar with their habits. Of late years, however, their numbers have decreased rapidly, since, added to human enemies, the wild-cats, which have increased rapidly, have destroyed vast numbers, and, there being no power to order the destruction of these pests, the complete extinction of the bird becomes simply a question of time.
As to its bearing in confinement, we have many interesting particulars given us by Dr. Bennett, who was an enthusiastic and careful observer. Speaking of the first bird brought by Mr. Williams to Sydney, Dr. Bennett says, “I examined the bird carefully, and found it in good health, but very timid, and a young bird, in immature plumage, with the teeth of the lower mandible not yet developed. It was the size of the Nicobar pigeon, but rounder and more plump in form. It kept steadily looking at me during the time I was examining it, uttering occasionally a plaintive ‘Goo, goo, goo.’”
Referring to the same bird later on, Dr. Bennett says, “It has now attained the full plumage of the adult bird, and the teeth of the lower mandibles are fully developed. When any one approaches the cage it will sometimes retire to an obscure corner, but at other times will remain quiet on the perch, watching every movement of the spectator. It invariably feeds in the light, but will not do so if any one is present. The only opportunity we had of observing its mode of feeding was through the window, when the bird was placed in the verandah of the house. It usually kept on the low perch, but when disturbed would jump on the ground and run rapidly about, and then take refuge in the darkest part of the cage. The whole time that the bird was in my possession it never became domesticated, nor evinced the slightest attachment to the lady who daily fed it; it was the same to her as to a stranger, and I do not think the Didunculus a bird that will be easily domesticated, or reconciled to captivity. At that time the cleaning of the cage was attended with difficulty, from its violent fluttering on any one approaching for the purpose, in which it evinced no little power of wing.”
Dr. Bennett's description of the bird last brought to Sydney, the older bird of the two, will give a good idea of its general appearance. He says, “I found it was a full-grown bird, in adult plumage, with the teeth of the lower mandibles well developed. The head, neck, and upper part of the back was of a greenish-black; the back, wings, tail, and tail-coverts of a chocolate-red. The legs and feet were of a bright scarlet. The mandibles are of a bright orange-red, shaded off near the top with very bright yellow. The cere around the eyes is also of a bright orange-red colour; the irides brownish–black.”
Dr. Bennett cherished an idea which I fear is not likely to be carried out. He says, “For some length of time I have been endeavouring to procure this bird and naturalise it in New South Wales, considering that, from its inhabiting a very limited range, it might soon become extinct, similar to the dodo, Dinornis, and more recently the Notornis (Notornis mantelli) and Phillip Island parrot (Nestor productus); and unless some exertion is made to protect them the Apteryx, kakapo or night-parrot (Strigops habroptilus), and the singular Neomorpha (‘huia’ of the natives), all inhabiting New Zealand, will also perish.”
This will, I fear, be very soon the case with the remarkable bird we have been considering, as also with the puna'e, or Apteryx, of Samoa, a smaller and apparently distinct species from that of New Zealand.
Art. XXXII.—On Rats, and their Nesting in Small Branches of Trees.
[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 12th October, 1897.]
It is a singular fact that certain natural occurrences may remain unnoticed and without record for many years, and that after such lapse of time more than one person will almost simultaneously be attracted towards them by accident or otherwise, and take special notice of the self-same peculiarity. In this case, previous to my reading Mr. Kingsley's paper on the occurrence of rats nesting in low trees and bushes,* I had also quite recently obtained evidence of the
[Footnote] * “Note on Arboreal Nests of Bush-rat (Mus maorium),” by R. I. Kingsley, Trans. N. Z. Inst., xxvii., p. 238.
same habit, and this paper should have been prepared and placed before the members of our society during one of the meetings of last session, but owing to a pressure of other work the writing of this note was never accomplished, and this preliminary opening is for the purpose of enabling me to claim an original discovery, and not a following of Mr. Kingsley's original remarks on the same subject.
I have long known that rats, which I suppose are Norway rats (Mus decumanus), were in the habit of climbing up the many-stemmed and thickly-clustering heads of the kiekie, a many-headed plant which clings so pertinaciously to many of our forest-trees, and often ascends to a considerable height— not by turning around so much as by the hold it takes by short rootlets, which are given off at frequent intervals along its extended length, and by these root-fibres the plant firmly grasps the rough bark of its supporter. These stems make good ladders by which the rat can climb to his favourite cluster of kiekie heads, which, with their long ribbon-like leaves, form a good hiding-place and a dry thatched roof, and here our friend the rat can take his daily slumbers and become suitably refreshed and invigorated preparatory to his midnight rambles.
There is very little doubt that the forest rats occasionally make a kind of nest in the kiekie clumps, by drawing together the dry leaves of their shelter, and nests built in such a thicket of drooping leaves would be entirely concealed from the view or knowledge of any but the most persevering searchers after hidden treasures in the animal or vegetable kingdom. I only remember to have once seen a rat's nest in the kiekie stems, and in this instance the surroundings were different, for the forest had been felled, burnt, and sown in English grass, so that the clinging kiekie and the giant tree (left standing) which supported it had been long dead. The day previous to my passing that way had been a specially windy one, and the long and sinuous stems of kiekie had given way, and lay extended on the ground. I was attracted to the spot by noticing a roll of fibrous material among the stems, and, although in a great hurry at the time, I stopped to investigate it. The bunch of dry material proved to be a dome-roofed nest; but I never examined it very closely, for on my first touching it out sprang an animal of a yellow or cream colour, which had the size and appearance of a rat. This creature speedily hid itself in the long swamp-grass on the edges of a pool of water, and although I and my dogs made diligent search for it we were unsuccessful. Whether the animal was a rat or a weasel I cannot be positive, but its colour being of a much lighter shade than that of a weasel, whose colour I call a dull red, my conclusion was that it was a rat of an abnormal colour.
During the winter season previous to the present—that is, in the year 1895—when cutting down a small tree so that my Angora goats might eat the leaves, I saw among its branches a dark something, seemingly a short piece of the trunk or stem of the punga, or fern-tree. When looking more closely, it proved to be a nest of a most peculiar architecture, and a great novelty. The base or foundation was formed by a number of dry sticks, or, rather, thin twigs, having no leaves adherent to them. These were crossed, and roughly interlaced, and most probably had been placed and brought together by a bird, possibly a tui, or, as the people at the Zoological Society's gardens in London name it, the “poi bird,” thereby following Captain Cook's very mistaken rendering of its Maori name. Upon this platform a rat had evidently raised a superstructure which was to serve him as a permanent home, or perhaps Mrs. Rat required a nursery for her children; but on this latter point we have no evidence. The back of the rat's nest was of moss, mixed with a few twigs, similar to those forming the platform, and no doubt were raised from the latter, and used as a stiffener, to give solidity to the back wall of the nest. The sides and front were of moss alone, and the entrance was not visible, but could be found by touch of the fingers. The covering material used for roofing-in the top gave to the structure a most singular appearance, and readily gave the idea that a parody of the human head had been manufactured. This most remarkable result was obtained by the introduction of an entirely different material for the roofing of the dome—namely, the hairy covering taken from the young fronds of the black punga. These being of a stiff hairlike texture, black and shining, made a very good but rough imitation of a crop of short-cut bristly hair. The interior of the nest was lined with the large, coarse, and serrated leaves of the so-called native currant, which would seem anything but a desirable lining. The small tree which held the nest, some 10 ft. from the ground, was growing in close proximity to a large rata-tree—the species that produces a mass of scarlet flowers at Christmas time. Into the top of this large tree extended the rope-like vines of a second species of rata, having small white flowers, which, although it reaches and competes for light and air with the tallest forest-trees, never attains to the dignity of a tree itself. This rata-vine is named in Maori “akatea,” and is in Maori story sometimes the vehicle by whose assistance the spirits of the dead descend to the reinga, or place of abode after death. By the aid of this natural ladder my rat evidently climbed up to the nest, and by this road carried all the material for the building of the nest.
After finding No. 1 rat's nest I kept a sharp look-out for others, and in a few weeks' time discovered No. 2; but for the
succeeding twelve months I have been unable to find any others. This nest was in the upper branches of a young ribbon-wood tree, alias thousand-jacket or lace-bark, all of which names denote a remarkable characteristic of this small tree. Its inner bark is made up of a great number of separate wrappers, each of which is finer than writing-paper, and each wrapper is made up of fine fibres, held together by a glutinous tissue, and has the similitude of open lace-work. This lace-work, or easily-divided bark, is superior in design but somewhat after the same plan as that peculiar material known as bass matting, a European mercantile product exported from Russia, and greatly used by British gardeners in tying plants to a support. I think the lime- or linden-tree (Tilia europœa) supplies this material. This small ribbon-wood (Hoheria betulina) was supporting and thickly surrounded by a bush-lawyer (Rubus australis), and near by was growing a large toitoi (Arundo conspicua), having seed-stems with their straw-coloured feathery grass-heads. This nest was about 7 ft. from the ground, and the outer part was built of the flower-heads or culms of the toitoi grass (a grass almost identical with the pampas grass of South America). These yellow culms were massed together, to the size of a man's two hands when placed together, and were mainly held in place by the entangled runners of the bush-lawyer. The inside was lined with the coarse leaves of the native currant-bush, as was also No. 1 nest. The using of this coarse lining was remarkable, for the toitoi flowers would seem a warmer, softer, and more suitable substance than the thick, harsh, disconnected leaves.
These are the only two nests I have seen, and I am unable to say for certain what species of our rats is the architect, but suppose they were made by the black rat (Mus rattus). It still seems to be the general idea in the northern parts of New Zealand that the original native rat is the black animal resembling Mus rattus of Europe, whereas the true Mus maorium is a smaller-sized rat, very similar in colour to the Norway rat (Mus decumanus). I was greatly interested to notice in the publication of “New Arrivals at the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park,” mention made of the safe arrival of fifteen or more rats received from the Kermadec Islands, presented by Lady Glasgow, the wife of our present Governor. I have little doubt but that they will be found identical with our small grey-brown rat (Mus maorium). Sir Walter Buller informs me that he saw in the zoological department of the British Museum specimens of this New Zealand rat, which had been presented by Sir George Grey many years ago, and which up to the present have remained unnoticed.
Mention is made of the black rat by Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, of Auckland, in his interesting paper on New Zealand rats,
wherein he remarks that many persons consider the Maori rat extinct, but that “others, whose views are perhaps equally entitled to attention, believe that the small black rat still found in forest districts and on the outlying islands, and which occasionally makes incursions in considerable numbers into the settled portion of the country, is the true indigenous species.*
In vol. xxvii., p. 238, of the Transactions Mr. R. I. Kingsley heads his paper “Arboreal Nests of Bush-rat (Mus maorium),” but I fail to see that he satisfactorily proves the identity of the nest-builder in his communication; in fact, from a newspaper cutting of later date it seems to me that he champions the black rat. A farmer residing in Aniseed Valley complains that a hitherto unnoticed species of rat of a black colour has commenced to climb his fruit-trees and eat the fruit suspended from the branches. The editor replies that Mr. Kingsley says this black rat is the original rat of New Zealand (Mus maorium). Therefore I maintain we have as yet no satisfactory proof as to whether Mus rattus or Mus maorium are the arboreal nest-builders, and I favour the idea that it will prove to be Mus rattus. One reason for assuming this is that the Maoris make no mention of this habit pertaining to their edible rat of long ago. Further, I am inclined to suppose that this nesting in the small branches of trees and shrubs is a newly-acquired instinct, possibly developed to aid the black rat (?) in the struggle for existence against his stronger and cannibal neighbour Mus decumanus. If so, it is very remarkable that instances of this new habit should appear simultaneously, and be recorded for the first time in two places so far apart, and with Cook Strait intervening.
To show how prevalent the black rat is in the North Island I will give a few extracts from letters received:—
Under date the 27th June, 1895, Captain Thomas Good, of Oeo, Taranaki, writes, “The native black, or tree-climbing, rat is not uncommon. It is different both in size and colour to the Norwegian rat, the latter being dingy-brown, and the former black, inclining to slate underneath.”
Mr. H. C. Field, of Wanganui, writes on the 16th May, 1895, “As regards the rats, it is the black kind which the Maoris of this part always told me was the ‘kiore Maori,’ and the brown Norway one is called the ‘kiore pakeha.’ They eat the former greedily, because it is exclusively a vegetable feeder, while they reject the latter on the ground that it will eat excrement. I was present when Buller exhibited the small brown or fawn-coloured rat from the Pacific Islands and said it was the true ‘kiore Maori,’ and I was
[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxvi., p. 219.
surprised at the assertion, both because I had never seen such a rat, and because our Maoris had always identified the black one as the rodent in question. I made inquiry lately at the principal grain-stores in town as regards the rats, of which they catch a good many, and find that the only animals of the Mus tribe which trouble them are the brown Norway rat and the common mouse, though the black fellows are far from uncommon in the gardens and orchards around the town. I often, too, see dead rats, which have been killed either in the streets or thrown there after death, but they are all brown ones. I do not at all believe that the black rat is driving out the brown one, but should say the opposite was the case, as the brown fellow is carnivorous, while the other seems exclusively a vegetable feeder. In England, too, the brown rat drives out the black one.”
A further communication, dated the 26th June, 1895, says, “‘Kiore’ is not an unusual part of Maori names [i.e., personal and local.—T. W.] I do not think the Maoris ever caught rats in pits as traps, the native tawhiti being arranged on the same principle as an English mole-trap, and wonderfully effective; but it is by no means unlikely that the rodents were often caught in the kumara-pits, which were beehive-shaped excavations in dry ground, usually on top of ridges, and had only a square opening at the top, just large enough to enable a person to descend into them. If a rat got into one to eat the kumaras he would find it hard to get out, particularly as the pits were usually lined with weki, the fibrous lower part of a fern-tree stem, which rats seem greatly to object to gnawing. It was also used to line potato-pits.”
Mr. J. R. Annabell writes me as follows: “I cleared the bush off a hill near the junction of the Ketaruki and Wanganui Rivers, and found four or five pits about 4 ft. to 5 ft. deep, with overhanging sides. The natives told me they were dug many years ago to catch rats. I found the remains of several kiwi (Apteryx) in them, which skeletons I have since set up.”
Wishing to find out if the black rat (Mus rattus) occasionally comes to this country in the shipping, I sent circular letters to several of our leading merchants who have their storage buildings near the shipping at Port Ahuriri. Messrs. Williams and Kettle have sent me word that a black rat, having a longer tail than usual, has been caught on their premises, and placed in spirits. It will be deposited in our Museum at Napier. Some eighteen years ago I picked up a dead specimen of Mus rattus at the front entrance to Messrs. Murray, Roberts, and Co.'s store at the same place. These two instances are fair evidence that this rat will be found arriving in the shipping. It is notable that Mus rattus is never found occupying buildings or corn stacks, but keeps to
the forest and open country. Can the small Mus maorium also be an emigrant at this date, or would the more powerful and savage Mus decumanus destroy them on the voyage?
Particulars of a rat's nest in a C. macrocarpa tree, which is mentioned in the Hawke's Bay Herald, where two black rats were killed by the employés of Mr. Goddard, of Havelock North, have not yet come to hand.
Art. XXXIII.—Notes on Patellidæ, with reference to Species found on the Rocks at Island and Lyall's Bays.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th October, 1897.]
I have placed upon the table this evening some specimens of the Patellidœ obtained from the rocks and pools of Island and Lyall's Bays, several of which, as you will see, are of great beauty; and I also exhibit a couple of specimens of a species found at the Kermadecs, as an example of the remarkable increase in size which animals of this genus attain in warmer seas. It is at once apparent to observers that the shells of all the animals belonging to this family differ materially from those of any other of the shelled Mollusca, inasmuch as they are destitute of any special aperture, and show no trace of a spire. Each consists of one piece only, the ordinary form being that of a widened cone, varying in height in the several species, and having the apex more or less distant from the true centre. The animal which occupies each of these shells is large in proportion to the dimensions of its shell,—is furnished with a fleshy mantle, under the projecting edges of which the respiratory organs are placed,—and possesses tentacles carrying eyes on the undersides of their bases.
But its most remarkable organ is the tongue, which, in the great majority of the species, consists of a flattish and extremely narrow ribbon-like body varying from 3 in. to even 10 in. in length, soft and vascular and somewhat dilated at the tip, the whole length, except the tip, being armed with three practically parallel rows of spinous teeth, pointing backwards. Each of the teeth of the middle row is cut into four points, and those of the outer rows,—which are not absolutely opposite to those of the middle row,—into two points only; the width of the surface on which the three rows are placed does not exceed 1/12 in. These teeth are used for rasping down during their passage into the gullet the minute sea weeds on which the
animal feeds. Mr. Patterson, who first observed the tongue of the limpet, mistook it for some strange species of worm, but on examining several animals the supposed worm was found in all, and great was his astonishment when he discovered that what he saw was in reality the tongue of the animal, and not a mere intruder into the privacy of its conical abode. So long as the animal is not feeding the tongue is rolled into a spiral like a spring, but when used for feeding it is thrust out from side to side until it has become charged with food, and is then withdrawn into the stomach, unloaded, and again put forth. This class of tongue, however, except as regards its remarkable length, is common to all the phytophagous gasteropods, and is thus alluded to by Johnson in his “Introduction to Conchology”: “When a phytophagous gasteropod is about to eat it thrusts forward a spinous tongue, protruding at the same time the lip on each side, by which the tip of the tongue is compressed and forced into the form of the bowl of a spoon. The food is then taken hold of by the lips, and, being pressed by the tongue against the upper horny jaw, a portion is bitten off, and this is passed along the tongue by a peristaltic motion of that organ, and by the retropulsive action of the adjacent muscles, until, torn and rasped by the sharp teeth, it is made to enter the gullet. At the entrance of this canal there is a uvular caruncle, which is supposed to be the seat of the animal's taste, and on its side a pair of lobulated salivary glands, or sometimes two pairs, which convey a secretion into its upper part to lubricate and soften the mass. The gullet is a muscular canal, lined interiorly with a mucous coat, presenting the same structure as the whole alimentary canal and is generally plaited in a longitudinal direction.” I do not know that any of the New Zealand species have been dissected, or that any detailed observations of their habits of feeding have been made, and as I have not had time myself to make any such observations I must leave it to others to determine to what extent the foregoing general remarks apply to our indigenous species.
The family Patellidœ consists of three sub-families, the species of which are very numerous and widely distributed, though I believe none exist in the Arctic seas, and we may therefore assume that none will be found in the Antarctic zone. As already mentioned, the largest species are usually found in the warmer seas, the example which I show from the Kermadecs illustrating this rule. Each of the sub-families is specially liable to variation in the form, colour, and surface of the shell, and these characters therefore must not be implicitly relied upon in the determination of species. Several of these animals possess the means of wearing the surface of the rocks to which they adhere into pits coincident in form
with the edges of their shells, each of these pits constituting the permanent abode of one individual, to which it regularly returns after its excursions in search of food; but I suspect that in the case of those which possess this habit it is only acted upon when the animal has attained its full growth. The pits referred to are said by Mr. Gosse to be excavated by means of sharp crystals of silica embedded in the substance of the under-surface of the animal's foot. I am informed by my son that the Kermadec limpet usually occupies slight elevations, the surrounding rocks being worn away by the action of the waves.
In the case of the large species which I now exhibit this habit certainly cannot prevail, for, contrary to the usual rule as regards the Patellidœ, its shell is insufficient in size to hold the entire animal, the mantle at all times protruding beyond its edge, and remaining fully exposed, whilst it also possesses in only a feeble degree the power of adhering to the rock. It is evidently a rare species too, for I have only found four specimens during the last year and a half.
The common limpet of the English coast affords a special example of the habit of using a fixed abode, the full-grown animal at all events invariably occupying an oval pit corresponding exactly in shape and dimensions with its shell. This habit was first noticed by Mr. Jukis, a native of Guernsey, who tested it by marking individuals to avoid mistake, and then noticing their roaming from and regular return to their places of rest, where the shell in each case was found exactly to correspond with the surface of the rock to which it was attached. “There,” he says, “it will rest or sleep, and only relax its strong adhesion when the muscular fibre becomes exhausted by long contraction, in which state a sudden blow given horizontally will easily displace it.”
Collectors well know the force with which the limpet adheres to the rock, especially when it becomes aware of an attack, and has had time to put forth its muscular strength. Réaumur found that a weight of from 28 lb. to 30 lb. was required to overcome the force with which this adhesion took place in some cases, which he attributed wholly to the exercise of muscular energy; but Dr. Johnson, in dealing with this point in his “Introduction to Conchology,” mentions that if the finger be applied to the foot of a detached animal, or to the spot on which it rested, it will be held there by a very sensible resistance although no adhesive matter is perceptible, but that if the spot be moistened with water no further adhesion will occur on the application of the finger,—the adhesive matter having as he supposed been removed, the sea-water being apparently the solvent by which the animal's connection with the rock is loosened at its own will.”
Careful observations on these points in regard to our own species will be of special interest, and would not be difficult if conducted by means of a well-established aquarium, the materials for which are obtainable from the localities referred to.
In this other species which I now exhibit you will see a remarkable instance of another habit of these animals—namely, that of adapting the rim of its shell to the shape and irregularities of the substance to which it adheres. Looking at the bizarre shapes of the shells before you it is difficult to suppose that the animals had the ordinary regular form possessed by such as inhabit strictly symmetrical shells; but as a fact the inhabitant of each of those now shown was quite as regular in form as those which occupied the perfect ovals of the other specimens, as you will see on looking at the dried specimens now shown. I am inclined to doubt whether this particular species ever leaves its special site, and to think either that it depends for its food on the numerous minute vegetable organisms which are brought within its reach by the tidal water, or that it finds sufficient pasture at all times within reach of its tongue. I have found that nearly all the species I exhibit form, as it were, separate colonies, and are not generally intermixed on any particular rock; but, even if this observation should be corroborated, I am not prepared to suggest any particular reason to account for the fact.
In Europe the common limpet constitutes an article of food, especially amongst the lower classes who live in the neighbourhood of the sea-coast, many tons of them being so used daily in some localities; and, although the edible portion is coarse, hard, and unsavoury, its use has often been the means of escape from the horrors of famine.* It is largely employed as bait for sea-fishing, but is inferior even for this purpose to many other species of the Mollusca.
To the student of natural history the varied forms of this family will be found to be full of interest, and will afford abundant scope for the exercise of intelligent observation; and I venture to express a hope that some of our young naturalists will endeavour to settle many points which are still moot in regard to their life-history and habits. They will find ample means for doing this in the localities from which I made my own collections.
[Footnote] * It is interesting to note that the animal of the limpet was used for food by primitive man, for the shells occur in large quantities in their ancient cooking-places; whilst necklaces formed from the shells are also found in the most ancient cromlechs or subterranean burying-places.
Art. XXXIV.—Notes on New Zealand Sponges: Fourth Paper.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 16th February, 1898.]
Plates XXXI. and XXXII.
Order Heterocœla, Poléjaeff.
Family I. Leucascidæ, Dendy. (See “Synopsis of the Australian Calcarea Heterocœla,” published by Royal Society of Victoria, 1892.)
Genus Leucascus, Dendy.
Leucascus simplex, Dendy, loc. cit.
This interesting sponge occurs between the tide-marks in Cook Strait. It is readily distinguishable from the Ascons, in company with which it is often found, by the comparatively smooth non-reticulated surface. Dr. Dendy says, “All the spicules are alike, except that some exhibit an incipient apical ray.” I have found quadriradiate spicules constantly present, the apical rays being thin and thorn-like, 0·07 mm. long and about 0·003 mm. thick, curved slightly, and protruding generally into the flagellated chambers, although occasionally they protrude into the larger exhalant canals.
Family II. Sycettidæ, Dendy, loc. cit.
Radial chambers not intercommunicating. Articulate tubar skeleton. The distal end of the chambers provided each with a tuft of oxeote spicules.
Sponge tubular, narrowly pyriform in shape, carried on a hollow pedicel, which is connected with a branching stolon, from which three to a dozen sponges may spring. Height of sponge and pedicel from 5 cm. to 8 cm.; greatest breadth of sponge, 1 cm. to 1·5 cm. Oscule provided with an inconspicuous fringe of oxea.
Oxea: (a.) Oxea of the peristome: These are very slender, and are slightly curved. Length, 1·7 mm.; breadth, 0·005 mm. (b.) Large oxea of the parenchyma: These resemble the oxea of the peristome, except in size. They are comparatively
large, 0·36 mm. × 0·01 mm. They enter sparingly into the wall of the radial tubes. They often reach from the gastral wall, and they project from the outer surface of the sponge, entering, in their distal portion, into the composition of the dermal cones. They taper evenly to a sharp point at either end. (c.) Oxea of the dermal cones: These are slender spicules, twisted after the fashion of many “mortar spicules.” Size, 0·12 mm. × 0·003 mm. (d.) Oxea of stolon: These are straight or slightly curved, and sharp-pointed. They echinate the surface freely.
Triradiate spicules: These are all sagittal. They may or may not be slightly irregular. (a.) Subgastral: Paired rays short and slightly curved towards the basal ray, 0·03 mm.; basal ray, 0·17 mm. × 0·008 mm. The paired rays are almost at right angles to the basal ray. (b.) Parenchymal: Paired rays sometimes nearly as long as basal ray, making an angle of about 120° with it. These spicules also enter into the composition of the distal cones. (c.) Triradiates of stolon, like the gastral triradiates, but often having the tips of the paired rays strongly recurved.
Quadriradiates: These occur in the gastral cortex and in the stolon. They are all sagittal. The angle made by the paired rays with the basal ray may be from 90° to about 145°. Basal ray, 0·14 mm.; oral ray, 0·13 mm.; apical ray, 0·1 mm. Greatest breadth, 0·005 mm.
All the spicules of this sponge are very graceful and slender. The flagellated chambers are hexagonal in section, and the intercanals triangular.
In spiculation this sponge resembles Sycon carteri, Dendy, from which, however, it differs in the more slender character of all its spicules, in the shape and size of the oxea of the distal cones, and in the presence of the parenchymal oxea. To a less extent it resembles Haeckel's Sycandra ampulla, from which, however, it is quite distinct. Colour, brownish-white.
Locality: Whangaruru and adjacent coast of North Auckland, between the tide-marks.
Note.—Since this description was in type I have found the sponge in a much finer form at Plimmerton, in Cook Strait.
Sponge solitary, tubular, generally broader near the base than above; about 15 cm. in height, from a quarter to half of the height being made by a narrow spicular funnel, provided at its mouth with a delicate peristome and, occasionally, with a thin spicular veil. To the naked eye the body of the sponge is hispid in appearance, from the oxea of the distal cones. This appearance is not noticeable in the funnel, although the funnel
is provided with fine oxea. The radial tubes are hexagonal in section, the intercanals quadrangular.
Oxea of the peristome: Long, slender, slightly curved, very finely pointed at each end; 0·64 mm. × 0·005 mm.
Oxea of the distal cones: These are of three kinds—a long spicule, 0·72 mm. × 0·018 mm.; a shorter one much more numerous than the first, 0·25 mm. × 0·01 mm.; and a very slender spicule, 0·25 mm. × 0·003 mm. The spicules of all three kinds are straight, or nearly so. The oxea that are scattered over the surface of the funnel are mainly of the two latter kinds.
Triradiates of the parenchyma: These are sagittal, the oral rays making an angle of about 110° with the basal ray. Length of basal ray, 0·1 mm. to 0·14 mm.; of oral rays, 0·06 mm. to 0·1 mm. Oral rays slightly curved towards each other, or straight. Thickness, 0·01 mm. Spicules of similar shape, but about twice as large, and with the oral rays straight or slightly curved towards the basal rays, are found in the funnel.
Subgastral triradiates: Sagittal, oral rays slightly curved towards the basal ray, which is about 0·16 mm. long. Occasionally a fourth ray is developed.
Gastral quadriradiates: Basal ray, 0·16 mm. × 0·015 mm.; oral rays, 0·1 mm. × 0·01 mm.; apical ray, 0·07 mm. × 0·015 mm. This ray is slightly blunt, furnishing the only instance of any but a sharp-pointed ray in this sponge. It is directed upwards, at an angle of about 130° with the basal ray, and is only very slightly curved. Similar spicules, but about twice as large, are found in the funnel.
Locality: Cook Strait, between tide-marks.
Explanation of Plates XXXI. and XXXII.
Ia. Sycon pedicellatum, enlarged.
Ib. " section showing arrangement of skeleton.
IIa. Sycon ornatum, natural size.
IIb. " section showing arrangement of skeleton.
I. Spicules of Sycon pedicellatum.
a. Oxeote of parenchyma.
b. " peristome.
c. Small oxeote of distal cones.
d, d, d, d. Parenchymal triradiate spicules.
e, e, e. Subgastral triradiate spicules.
f. Rare subgastral spicule with incipient fourth ray.
g. Triradiate spicule from stolon.
h, h, h. Gastral quadriradiate spicules; a. r., apical ray.
i, i. Quadriradiate spicules from pedicel.
II. Spicules of Sycon ornatum.
a. Large oxeote of distal cones.
b. Oxeote of peristome.
c, c. Ordinary oxea of distal cones.
d, d. Slender oxea of distal cones.
e, e, e. Parenchymal triradiate spicules.
f, f. Subgastral triradiate spicules.
g. Subgastral spicule with incipient fourth ray.
h. Triradiate spicule from funnel.
i, i. Gastral quadriradiate spicules.
k, k. Quadriradiate spicules from base of funnel.
Art. XXXV.—On the Sponges described in Dieffenbach's “New Zealand.”
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd November, 1897.]
Plates XXXIII. and XXXIV.
Some years ago my friend Mr. H. B. Kirk, M.A., called my attention to the fact that certain sponges had been described by Gray in Dieffenbach's “Travels in New Zealand,” published in 1843. The descriptions of that period being quite insufficient for purposes of identification, and it being a matter of some interest to know what these sponges really were, I applied to my friend Mr. R. Kirkpatrick, in charge of the sponges at the British Museum, for further light on the subject. Mr. Kirkpatrick most kindly instituted a search for the original types, and fortunately succeeded in finding them. I desire to express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Kirkpatrick for his trouble, and also to the keeper of the Zoological Department for his kindness in permitting the specimens to be forwarded to me here in New Zealand. Thus after a lapse of more than half a century the actual specimens collected by Dr. Sinclair in the early days of the settlement of the colony have again found their way to New Zealand, and it is possible to redescribe them in the light of modern knowledge. Whether or not the specimens sent are only portions of the originals I do not know, but at any rate they are quite sufficient to make a specific description easy. They will be deposited in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, where
they were photographed for the purposes of this paper by Mr. W. Sparkes. All the specimens had been dried.
Axinella sinclairi, Gray, sp.
1843: Spongia sinclairi, Gray, Dieffenbach's “Travels in New Zealand,” vol. ii., p. 295.
The original description runs as follows:—
Spongia sinclairi, Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. A. Sinclair.
Branchy; branches cylindrical, forked; apices conical, yellow; surface with branched subcylindrical grooves, in certain spots; ostioles small, numerous.
Var. 1. Branches elongate, cylindrical, free.
Var. 2. Branches short, repeatedly forked, apices often anastomosing.
I have received two specimens of this species from the British Museum, marked in Plate XXXIV. as F and G.
F is labelled “Spongia sinclairii, Gray, var. 1. Type. New Zealand: Dr. Sinclair,” and there is no reason to doubt the correctness of this label. The specimen (vide Plate XXXIV.) consists of three rather slender subcylindrical branches of a pale-yellow colour, each about 65 mm. in length and 5 mm. in diameter. The branching is apparently dichotomous. The surface is minutely hispid, and is marked by irregularly stellately-arranged grooves, doubtless representing convergent exhalant canals. (These are not well shown in the figure, as they are visible chiefly on the other side of the specimen.) Texture rather hard, with friable surface and strong axial condensation. The skeleton is typically axinellid, consisting of a very dense axial portion extending over nearly one-third of the diameter of the branch, with irregular subplumose columns springing from the axial portion and curving outwards and upwards to the surface, where they terminate in irregular close-set tufts. Both in the axial and peripheral portions of the skeleton numerous spicules cross the principal lines in all directions, rendering the whole indefinite. There is no conspicuous horny matter. The spicules are of three chief forms, but, as usual in the genus, they are very variable: (1.) Smooth oxea, usually gradually sharp-pointed and more or less curved; size, say, about 0·3 mm. by 0·0125 mm., but very variable. (2.) Smooth styli, similar to the foregoing, but broadly rounded at one end and less abundant. (3.) Very long, smooth, sinuous spicules (strongyla), with both ends broadly rounded off but often unequal. Owing to their great length, it is difficult to see both ends of any given spicule in situ, one being generally either broken off or concealed by adjacent spicules in the sections. They occur abundantly, mixed with the other spicules and lying in various directions, in the axial portion of the sponge,
and are two or three times as long and proportionately very much more slender than the average oxea. Preparations boiled out in hydrochloric acid show these sinuous strongyla so numerous and of such length as to be extremely characteristic, measuring up to about 0·8 mm. by 0·008 mm.
G is labelled “Spongia sinclairii, Gray, var. 2. Type. New Zealand: Dr. Sinclair,” and here again there is no reason to doubt the correctness of the label. The specimen (vide Plate XXXIV.) consists of short branches forking in a very regular dichotomous manner, slightly stouter than in var. 1 and occasionally anastomosing. In other respects, including the skeleton, it agrees so closely with var. 1 as to require no further description.
Chalina ramosa, Gray, sp.
1843: Spongia ramosa, Gray, Dieffenbach's “Travels in New Zealand,” vol. ii., p. 295. 1887: Ceraochalina levis, Lendenfeld, “Die Chalineen des Australischen Gebietes,” Zool. Jahrbuch, vol. ii., p. 782, pl. xix., fig. 19.
The original description runs as follows:—
Spongia ramosa, Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Pale-brown, soft, spongy, branchy; branches elongate, subcylindrical, of a very fine uniform texture, with a few small scattered ostioles in a line on each side; fibres horny, very thin.
Var. 1. Branches moderately elongate, sometimes anastomosing.
Var. 2. Branches very long, free.
I have received four specimens nominally belonging to this species from the British Museum, marked in Plate XXXIII. as A, B, C, and D.
A is labelled “Spongia ramosa, Gray, var. 1. Type. New Zealand: Dr. Sinclair.” It is evidently really var. 2. It consists of three long slender branches and one much shorter. The total length of the specimen is 265 mm., and the width of the somewhat compressed branches is about 8 mm. in the widest parts. The vents are minute but numerous, arranged in single series along the margins. The surface is smooth, but finely granular. The colour is pale-brown and the texture now decidedly hard. The main skeleton towards the surface is a pretty close subrectangularly-meshed network of stout horny fibre of a pale-yellow colour. The primary lines contain a narrow multispicular core, the secondaries a sparse single series of similar spicules. The primary and secondary fibres are both of about the same thickness, averaging about 0·075 mm. in diameter, while the meshes measure about 0·28 mm. across. Passing inwards the meshes become wider and very loose and irregular, while the fibres are many of them slenderer and with fewer spicules. The dermal skeleton
is a close polygonal-meshed network of rather slender horny fibres containing spicules for the most part scattered uniserially in the axis of the fibre, occasionally projecting in small irregular tufts; the meshes of the network are about 0·1 mm. in diameter, the fibres varying under 0·055 mm. The spicules are short but rather stout, hastately - pointed or spindle-shaped oxea, with very conspicuous axial canals—size about 0·04 mm. by 0·005 mm.—occurring sparsely in the fibres and forming a very inconspicuous part of the skeleton in comparison with the spongin.
B is labelled “Spongia ramosa, Gray, var. 2. Type. New Zealand: Dr. Sinclair: 42, 12, 2, 122.” It is evidently really var. 1, as shown by the shorter branches anastomosing in one place. The vents are fewer, but arranged similarly, and there are no external differences worth mentioning. The skeleton also is practically identical with that of A, though better preserved, and therefore less irregular in the interior of the section examined, with the spicules a trifle smaller, and with much less conspicuous axial canals.
C is labelled “Spongia ramosa, Gray, var. 2. Type. New Zealand: Dr. Sinclair.” It is identical in structure with the preceding, though a little softer in texture.
D is also labelled “Spongia ramosa, Gray, var. 2. Type. New Zealand: Dr. Sinclair,” but it is doubtful whether it really belongs to the same species as the preceding. The branching is more bushy, and the branches more slender and nodose, while the oxea are fewer, slightly longer, and much slenderer, measuring about 0·05 mm. by 0·0021 mm. It is, at any rate, a closely-related Chalina.
Spongelia varia, Gray, sp.
1843: Spongia varia, Gray, Dieffenbach's “Travels in New Zealand,” vol. ii., p. 295.
The original description runs as follows:—
Spongia varia, Gray.
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair.
Pale-brown, soft, flexible, branchy; branches elongate, subcylindrical, soft, of a fine texture, with large scattered ostioles; tips of the branches subclavate, sometimes united to one another.
Like the former,* but of a larger size, rather looser texture, and with larger ostioles.
I have received one specimen of this species from the British Museum, marked on Plate XXXIV. as E, and labelled “Spongia varia, Gray. Type. New Zealand: Dr. Sinclair,” with the number “180” on a smaller label. It is an irregularly-branched sponge (vide Plate XXXIV.), and the
[Footnote] * i.e., “Spongia ramosa.”
branches are now much compressed; but this is evidently in part, though not entirely, due to artificial pressure. The branches are about 85 mm. long and vary much in breadth.
The vents are fairly numerous and irregularly scattered, each about 1 mm., or a little more, in diameter. The texture is tough and resilient, fibrous; the colour light-brown; the surface even but minutely conulose and reticulate from the exposed fibre, only the skeleton remaining. The skeleton is a fairly close-meshed irregular network of very pale-coloured horny fibre. The primary fibres, running more or less parallel with one another towards the surface, are about 0.1 mm. thick and, say, 0.2 mm. distant from one another; they have an uneven outline, and are filled with small particles of sand or mud. They are connected by an irregular network of much slenderer secondary fibres, free from foreign matter, and about 0.03 mm. in diameter.
Description of Plates XXXIII. and XXXIV.
Fig. A. Chalina ramosa (Spongia ramosa, Gray) x × 11/18.
Fig. B. Chalina ramosa (Spongia ramosa, Gray) x × 11/18.
Fig. C. Chalina ramosa (Spongia ramosa, Gray) x × 11/18.
Fig. D. (?) Chalina ramosa (Spongia ramosa, Gray) x × 11/18.
Fig. E. Spongelia varia (Spongia varia, Gray) x × ⅞.
Fig. F. Axinella sinclairi (Spongia sinclairi, Gray) × ⅞.
Fig. G. Axinella sinclairi (Spongia sinclairi, Gray) × ⅞.
Art. XXXVI.—Notes on a Remarkable Collection of Marine Animals lately found on the New Brighton Beach, near Christchurch, New Zealand.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st September, 1897.]
The New Brighton Beach does not usually afford a very rich harvest to the collector of marine animals. Formed by a gently-sloping expanse of sand, rising inland into low dunes, it is entirely devoid of those rock-pools which, on other parts of the coast, afford such a happy hunting-ground to the naturalist.
The littoral fauna of New Brighton consists of animals which for the most part live buried in the sand, such, for example, as the well-known pipi (Mesodesma spissa), which forms enormous beds in certain parts of the beach, recognised by the innumerable small holes in the sand, through which, when the beds are covered by the advancing tide, the bivalves protrude their long extensile siphons, in order to take the sea-water into the mantle-chamber for respiratory and nutritive purposes. Nearer the sea, just about low-water mark, lives that remarkable sea-urchin Arachnoides placenta, whose delicate flat shell, though common enough, is so rarely found entire among the déAbris thrown up at high-water mark; and it is to this same zone that we must probably assign the common but handsome bivalves Dosinia australis and Mactra œquilatera.
Further out again, and probably at a depth of several fathoms, there must be a great sandbank inhabited by a very rich animal population. As a rule this bank appears to be undisturbed by tides and currents, and its inhabitants are rarely seen thrown up on the shore. Occasionally, however, dead valves of Glycymeris (Panopea) and Zenatia are met with on the beach, and one or two specimens of the pink scaly Holothurian, lately described by me under the name Colochirus ocnoides, have also been found from time to time. In July, 1896, also, immense numbers of young specimens of the even more strange-looking Holothurian long since named by Captain Hutton Caudina coriacea were met with on the beach, but they were all young, and probably came from a bank in shallower water than that frequented by the adults.
A few days ago, on the 24th August, I was informed by Mr. Sinclair that a large quantity of shellfish had been thrown up on the New Brighton Beach, and my curiosity was keenly aroused by the sight of fresh specimens of Glycymeris (Panopea) and Zenatia, with the animal in a perfect state of preservation, which he kindly brought for my inspection. I immediately went down to New Brighton, and was rewarded by a sight which was truly astonishing. About half a mile south of the pier, between tide-marks, lay an immense bank of shellfish, intermingled with other animals. I believe I am not exaggerating when I say that there were many tons of animals there. So numerous were they that even the voracious gulls, which usually destroy everything almost as soon as it is thrown up on the beach, had been able to make very little impression upon the great mass of animal food thus unexpectedly provided for them. I am told that a similar bank of shellfish was lying nearer the Heathcote estuary, but I had no time to visit this. Of course, there were also quantities of the animals scattered along the shore.
The bank which I visited was made up principally of Zenatia acinaces (=deshayesi), a bivalve hitherto considered rare, at any rate on this part of the coast. It evidently lives buried in the sand, and it has a long single siphon containing the united exhalant and inhalant tubes, and a well-developed foot of a beautiful pink colour, which is doubtless used for boring its way into the sand. Much less common, but still abundant, was Vanganella taylori, also in a living condition, a large bivalve of a genus peculiar to New Zealand, of which the animal has been almost, if not quite, unknown. It also has a well-developed foot, but of a white colour, and a well-developed siphon containing the united exhalant and inhalant tubes. A much more remarkable bivalve is Glycymeris (Panopea) zealandica, with an enormous siphon, which must be fully 8 in. or 9 in. long in the extended condition, and an aborted foot, which can probably be protruded through a small aperture left between the soldered mantle-lobes in front, and may still be used as a boring-organ. It must have required a powerful disturbance of the sea to dig out and cast on shore this animal, buried probably to a depth of about 1 ft. in the sand. It was not nearly as common as Zenatia, but many specimens were found.
The most beautiful of the shellfish was the delicate unequal-valved form generally known under the name of Anatina angasi, a species which I believe has hitherto rarely been found so far south, but which was thrown up in large numbers on this occasion. These living specimens showed that the animal possesses separate inhalant and exhalant siphons, a fact which Mr. Suter tells me will probably necessitate the removal of the species from the genus Anatina altogether. The other bivalves met with in the fresh condition were Tellina alba, Mactra discors, Dosinia australis, Venus yatei, and Solenomya parkinsoni, the last named, which is extremely rare, being remarkable for its peculiar sucker-like foot. Lucina dentata was brought to me with the animal in a few days later, and I believe a good many specimens were found.
Mr. J. B. Mayne also obtained a fine living specimen of Pinna zealandica a few days afterwards from the same beach. It is probable, however, that the Pinna, which is not infrequently met with on the beach, came from a different locality from the majority of the Lamellibranchs mentioned; it is found incrusted with seaweed and Polyzoa, and probably comes from some muddy shore in the neighbourhood of Lyttelton Harbour.
In addition to the lamellibranchiate molluscs, which constituted by far the greater part of the spoil, I must mention the following animals found amongst them: Pinnotheres
pisum, a small crab which I have found living as a commensal in Mytilus latus, Vanganella taylori, and Pinna zealandica, and which Mr. Suter tells me also occurs in Mactra discors and Mactra equilatera, was very abundant.
The remarkable Holothurian Caudina coriacea was found in enormous numbers, and the specimens were nearly all adult, while on a previous occasion, as already mentioned, large numbers of young specimens were thrown up, and no adults. The American Caudina arenata is known to bury itself in the sand with only the tip of the tail projecting, and doubtless the same is true of our species, so that only a considerable disturbance of the sea-bed could cause it to be thrown on shore in such quantities.
Colochirus ocnoides, a curious scaly Holothurian, resembling a pink worm, which I have lately described for the first time in the “Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London,” and which has hitherto been known only from a very few specimens, was found in thousands. Probably I should be correct in saying that there were millions of this animal lying on the beach; they lay in heaps, and might have been collected with a shovel.
Echinocardium australe, a widely-distributed heart-urchin, rarely found at New Brighton, was represented by a few dead specimens.
I reserve for the end the most interesting find of all, a very large Gephyrean worm, a new species of Echiurus, which I propose to describe under the name Echiurus novœ-zealandiœ. Of this I was fortunate enough to find three specimens in the short space of time at my disposal, and Mr. Alfred Cockayne, who afterwards kindly searched for it at my request, found four more, three of which are now in the possession of the Canterbury Museum. This animal in life resembles an elongated cylindrical bag or bolster. It may be more than 8 in. long, with a thickness in the middle of about 1 in. when extended. When contracted it looks like a short thick sausage, becoming loose and baggy when badly preserved. The colour in life is dark purplish-red, and the body cavity is filled with a rather thick dark-red liquid resembling blood and containing numerous corpuscles. The skin is smooth. Anteriorly the body is produced into a very short proboscis, resembling a stand-up collar, with a slit down the front. At the base of the collar, below the slit, are two horny hooks, and a single ring of similar hooks surrounds the body at the hinder end, a short way in front of the terminal anus. The animal resembles a Japanese species, Echiurus unicinctus, which is used by the Japanese fishermen for bait, but it differs in its much larger size, its smooth integument, and probably also in some details of internal anatomy. It forms an extremely in-
teresting addition to the New Zealand marine fauna. Mr. H. B. Kirk informs me that he has in former years seen this animal thrown up in large numbers on the beach at Petone, near Wellington. My own attention was first attracted to it by a specimen in the Wellington Museum, of which the history was unknown, since when I have been on the look-out for it, and it afforded me no little satisfaction to rediscover it in the living condition at New Brighton.
Pelagic animals, such as Physalia, Spirula, and Phronima, which are sometimes thrown up on the New Brighton Beach,* the first named often in large numbers, were on this occasion remarkable for their absence, the only indications of pelagic animals which I noticed being a few lumps of jelly, apparently belonging to some medusa.
It was surprising to notice how quickly the vast heaps of shellfish disappeared, buried in the sand or swept out to sea again; in a fortnight from the time when they were cast on shore scarcely a trace of them was visible, and the beach had resumed its ordinary uninteresting aspect.
The cause of the unusual and, so far as I know, unprecedented phenomenon recorded in this short notice is not very easy to determine. Mr. R. M. Laing, M.A., who has had much experience in collecting on this coast, tells me—and what he says harmonizes very well with my own observations—that there are two well-marked currents in the sea off New Brighton—the one more inland coming from the mouth of the Waimakariri River, trending south along the shore, and bringing with it enormous quantities of drift-wood when the river is in flood; the other, a more important current, trending northwards for a long distance up the coast. It is probably this latter which, in heavy weather, brings to the beach, from the rocky coast of Banks Peninsula and the mouth of Lyttelton Harbour, the vast quantities of the giant seaweeds Macrocystis and D'Urvillea, amongst whose roots numerous Polyzoa, Chitons, and other small animals are to be found, and also the remarkable stalked Ascidian Boltenia, one of the commonest animals found on the beach, and the handsome Pinna already referred to. It is possible that, as Mr. Laing further suggested to me, the two currents may meet and form a vortex. I imagine that under certain conditions this vortex may become so powerful as to churn up the sand to a considerable depth, bringing to light its buried inhabitants, which are then cast on the shore by the heavy tides. Something of this kind seems to have happened lately, for the majority of the animals cast up were certainly sand-dwelling forms. They probably came from some locality directly opposite the
[Footnote] * In the case of Spirula only empty shells, as usual, are found.
beach, and they reveal a hitherto unsuspected wealth of animal life which may be of great importance as a food-supply for marine fishes, which are very abundant along this coast. Callorhynchus antarcticus must have a breeding-ground somewhere close by, for the egg-cases of this fish are thrown up in enormous numbers on the New Brighton Beach.
Mr. C. O. Lillie, of the Canterbury Agricultural College, has kindly supplied me with the appended information as to the wind during the ten days prior to the 24th August, as recorded at Lincoln, distant about sixteen miles inland from New Brighton. The great mass of animals was certainly thrown up on the shore a few days before the 24th. I have little information as to the exact time of their appearance, but I am informed by one of my students that they had begun to appear on the 21st, though not in any quantity. It will be seen from Mr. Lillie's report that there was an unusually strong north-east wind on the 17th and 18th, and to this I am inclined to attribute the disturbance. The normal currents may have been diverted temporarily so as to cut into a sandbank usually undisturbed; or a vortex may, as already suggested, have been produced, possibly assisted by the sudden change of wind from north-east to south-west.
|Number of Miles of Wind for Previous Twentyfour Hours.||Direction at 9.30 a.m.|
Too much reliance should not be placed on these records—in fact, regard them as rather qualitative than quantitative. A high wind for twenty-four hours gives a reading between 300 and 350 miles. The reading of 354 miles on the 18th shows that there was a strong wind on the 17th–18th.
C. O. Lillie,
Mr. Henry Suter has kindly supplied me with the following list of Mollusca which he has found on the New Brighton Beach at various times, including those recently thrown up:—
Plaxiphora coelata, Reeve.
" ovata, Hutt.
Chiton sinclairi, Gray.
Onithochiton undulatus, Q. and G.
Patella stellifera, Gmel.
Haliotis iris, Martyn.
" virginea, Chemn.
Emarginula striatula, Q. and G.
Astralium cooki, Chemn.
Calyptræa calyptræformis, L.
Struthiolaria papulosa, Mart.
Siphonalia nodosa, Mart.
Trophon ambiguus, Phil.
Scaphella pacifica, Lam.
Ancilla australis, Sow.
æolis plicata, Hutt.
Amphibola avellana, Chemn.
Siphonaria zealandica, Q. and G.
Solenomya parkinsoni, Smith.
Mytilus magellanicus, Chemn.
" latus, Chemn.
Pinna zealandica, Gray.
Ostrea reniformis, Sow.
Chlamys zealandica, Gray.
Lucina dentata, Wood.
Tellina alba, Q. and G.
" disculus, Desh.
Mactra discors, Gray.
Mactra æquilatera, Desh.
Vanganella taylori, Gray.
Zenatia acinaces, Q. and G. (= Z. deshayesi, Reeve).
Mesodesma novæ - zealandiæ, Chemn.
Mesodesma spissa, Reeve.
Dosinia australis, Gray.
" subrosea, Gray.
Venus yatei, Gray.
" stutchburyi, Gray.
" costata, Q. and G.
Petricola siliqua, Desh.
Psammobia lineolata, Gray.
Solenotellina nitida, Gray.
" spenceri, Hutt. (M.S.).
Glycymeris zealandica, Q. and G.
Saxicava arctica, Sow.
Bontæa (?) angasi, C. and F. (Anatina angasi, Auct.)
Spirula peronii, Lam.
Art. XXXVII.—A Synonymic Last of the Lepidoptera of New Zealand.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 4th November, 1896.]
The formation of this list is due to Captain Hutton, F.R.S., who some time ago impressed upon me the desirability of collecting together and arranging the several named and described species of Lepidoptera of New Zealand comprised in numerous papers of Mr. Meyrick, published from time to time in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” and other publications. I have to thank Captain Hutton for very valuable assistance in compiling the list and rendering my task more easy; but at the same time he is not to be considered in any way responsible for any errors that may be found therein.
Danais archippus, Fab.
Papilio archippus, Fab., Spec. Ins., p. 55, n. 243 (1781). Danais berenice, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. vi., p. 183; Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 276. D. archippus, Butl., Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 265. D. plexippus, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 192.
Percnodaimon pluto, Fered.
Erebia pluto, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., iv., p. 217, and xii., p. 265, pl. ix., fig. 2; and vol. xv., p. 197. E. merula, Hewitson, Ent. Mo. Mag., xii., p. 10. Oreina (?) othello, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., viii., pp. 302–4, pl. ix. Percnodaimon pluto, Butl., Ent. Mo. Mag., xiii., p. 153 (1876), and x., p. 268.
Brebiola butleri, Fered.
E. butleri, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xii., p. 265, pl. ix., fig. 4.
Argyropheuga antipodum, Doubl.
A. antipodum., Doubl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xvi., p. 307 (1845); Gen. Diurn. Lep., pl. 63, fig. 6 (1851); Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 2, tab. 1, figs. 4–7 (1874), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 268.
Dodonidia helmsi, Fered.
Genus (?) helmsi, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 193 (1882).
Dodonidia helmsii, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xiii. (5th series), pp. 171–3 (1884). D. helmsi, Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxviii., pp. 312–3, pl. xv.
Pyrameis gonerilla, Fab.
Papilio (n.g.) gonerilla, Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 498, n. 237 (1775); Sp. Ins., p. 82, n. 361 (1781); Ent. Syst., iii., p. 103, n. 317 (1793). P. generella, Fab., Mant. Ins., p. 44, n. 437 (1787); Donovan, Ins. New Holland, pl. 25, fig. 2 (1805). Vanessa gonerilla, Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., app., p. 284 (1843); White, in Taylor's “New Zealand,” pl. ii., fig. 1 (1855). Pyrameis gonerilla, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 2, tab. i., figs. 10, 11, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 270; Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 196.
Pyrameis itea, Fab.
Papilio (n.g.) itea, Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 498, n. 238 (1775); Sp. Ins., p. 82, n. 362 (1781); Mant. Ins., p. 45, n. 438 (1787); Ent. Syst., p. 103, n. 318 (1793); Donovan, Ins. New Holland, pl. 26, fig. 1 (1805). Vanessa itea, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix., p. 321, n. 57 (1819); Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., app., p. 284 (1843); White, in Taylor's “New Zealand,” pl. 2, figs. 2, 2 (1855). Bassaris itea, Hübn., Samml. Esot. Schmett (1816–24). Pyrameis itea, Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., p. 202 (1849); Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 3 (1874), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 270.
Pyrameis kershawii, M'Coy.
Cynthia kershawii, M'Coy, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., iv., vol. i., p. 76 (1868). C. cardui, White, in Taylor's “New Zealand,” pl. 2, fig. 5 (1855). Pyrameis cardui (var. P. kershawii), Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 3, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 269, pl. xii., fig. 1.
Diadema nerina, Fab.
Papilio nerina, Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 509, n. 277 (1775); Donovan, Ins. New Holland, pl. 27, fig. 1 (1805). P. iphigenia, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 1, pl. lxvii., figs. D, E (1779). Var. P. proserpina, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 3, pl. ccxviii., figs. C, D (1782). Male (?) P. auge, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 2, pl. cxc., figs. A, B (1779). Diadema bolina, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix., p. 463. D. nerina, Butl., Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 271.
Sub-family Heliconinæ (Danainæ).
Hamadryas zoilus, Fab.
Papilio zoilus, Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 480, n. 163 (1775); Sp. Ins., p. 53, n. 229 (1781); Mant. Ins., p. 25, n. 265 (1787); Ent. Syst., iii., p. 42, n. 128 (1793); Gen. Diurn. Lep., pl. xviii., fig. 1 (1847). Hamadryas zoilus, Boisd., Voy. Astrol., p. 91; Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., app., p. 284 (1843); Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 2 (1874), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 276.
Chrysophanus salustius, Fab.
Hesperia (R.) salustius, Fab., Ent. Syst., iii., p. 310, n. 175 (1793). Lycœna edna, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” app., p. 283 (1843). Polyommatus edna, Westwood and Hewitson, Gen. Diurn. Lep., pl. 76, fig. 6 (1852); White, in Taylor's “New Zealand,” pl. 2, figs. 3, 4 (1855). Chrysophanus salustius, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 3, tab. 1, figs. 1–3 (1874), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 274 (1878); Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix., p. 461 (1877), and x., p. 253, pl. viii., figs. A, B, 2 (1878).
Chrysophanus maui, Fered.
C. maui, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix., p. 254, pl. viii., fig. C, 1 (1878).
Chrysophanus rauparaha, Fered.
C. rauparaha, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 255, pl. viii., figs. E, 4 (1878).
Chrysophanus enysii, Butl.
C. enysii, Butl., Ent. Mo. Mag., xiii., p. 153 (1876), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 274, pl. xii., figs. 4, 5, 6 (1878).
Chrysophanus feredayi, Bates.
C. feredayi, Bates, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., p. 53 (1867); Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 3 (1874); Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix., pp. 461–2 (1877), and x., p. 254, pl. viii., figs. D, 3 (1878); Butl., Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 275, pl. xii., figs. 7, 8, 9 (1878)
Chrysophanus boldenarum, White.
Lycœna boldenarum, White, Proc. Ent. Soc., ser. 3, i., p. 26 (1862). Chrysophanus boldenarum, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 3, tab. 1, figs. 8, 9 (1874), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 273 (1878); Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix., pp. 461–2, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 256, pl. viii., figs. I, H, 5, 6, 7, 8 (1878).
Lycæna oxleyi, Feld.
L. oxleyi, Feld., Reise der “Novara,” Lep., ii., p. 280, n. 354, pl. 35, fig. 6 (1865); Bates, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., p. 53; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 4 (1874), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 273 (1878).
Lycæna phœbe, Murray.
L. phœbe, Murray, Ent. Mo. Mag., 1873, p. 107; Butl., Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 272, pl. xii., figs. 2, 3 (1878).
Porina dinodes, Meyr.
P. dinodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 206.
Porina mairi, Buller.
P. mairi, Buller, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. v., p. 279, pl. 17; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 207.
Porina enysii, Butl.
P. enysii, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. (1877), p. 381, pl. xlii., f. 7; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 207.
Porina characterifer, Walk.
Hepialus characterifer, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., suppl. ii., p. 594 (1865). Oxycanus impletus, ib., p. 598. Hepialus charactifer, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 5. Porina charactifera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 208.
Porina cervinata, Walk.
Elhamma cervinata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., suppl. ii., p. 595. Porina vexata, ib., p. 597. P. fuliginea, Butl., “Cistula Entomologica,” vol. ii., p. 488. P. cervinata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 5; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 208.
Note.—Mr. Meyrick also includes “Pielus variolaris, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. v., p. 1,” as a synonym, but it must be a mistake, for I have a duplicate of the type de-
scribed by Guénée, and it is quite different from cervinata.—R. W. F.
Porina despectus, Walk.
Hepialus despectus, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., suppl. ii., p. 594. Porina despecta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 209.
Porina umbraculatus, Guén.
Pielus umbraculatus, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. v., p. 1 (1868). Porina umbraculata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 5; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 209.
Porina variolaris, Gué.
Pielus variolaris, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. v., p. 1. Porina signata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 5. P. umbraculata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 208.
Porina signata, Walk.
Elhamma signata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., vii., p. 1563 (1856). Porina novœ-zelandiœ, ib, p. 1573. P. signata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 5, tab. 2, f. 8; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 210.
Hepialus, Fab., Gen. Ins., p. 162 (1776).
Hepialus virescens, Doubl.
H. virescens, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” vol. ii., p. 284 (1843); White, Taylor's “New Zealand,” pl. i., f. 6 (1855). H. rubroviridans, White, l.c., pl. 1, fig. 1. Charagia virescens, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., vii., p. 1569; Scott, Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S.W., ii., 28. C. fischeri, Feld., Reise der “Novara,” pl. lxxx., f. 1. C. hectori, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 380. C. virescens, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 4. Hepialus virescens, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 211.
Hepialus ingens, Walk.
Charagia ingens, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxxii., supp. ii., p. 596. Seto ingens, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 5.
Meyrick says, “I believe the record to be erroneous; it is certainly Australian, and I have never met with a really authentic New Zealand specimen” (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 205).
œceticus omnivora, Fered.
Liothula omnivora, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. x., p. 260, pl. 9. œceticus omnivorus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 212.
Orophora unicolor, Butl.
Psyche unicolor, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 381. Orophora toumatou, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. x., p. 260, pl. 9. O. unicolor, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 212.
Sphinx convolvuli, Linn.
S. convolvuli, Linn., Syst. Nat., 1, 2, p. 789 (1766); White, Taylor's “New Zealand,” pl. 1, f. 13 (1855). S. convolvuli, var. 03B3, Walk., Cat. Lep. N.Z., viii., p. 213 (1856). S. convolvuli (var. S. distans), Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 4, tab. 2, fig. 11. S. convolvuli (Protoparce distans, Butl.), Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 213.
Sesia tipuliformis, Linn.
Sphinx tipuliformis, Linn., Faun. Suec., p. 289, n. 1096. Setia tipuliformis, Fab., Ent. Syst., iii., 1, p. 385, n. 21 (1793). Sesia tipuliformis, Meigen, Syst. Beschr., ii., p. 119, n. 25, pl. 62, f. 2. ægeria tipuliformis, Stephens, Ill. Brit. Ent. Haust., 1, p. 142 (1829). Trochilium tipuliforme, Newman, Ent. Mag., i., p. 78. Sphinx salmachus, Linn., Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 493, n. 30. ægeria tipuliformis, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 4. Sesia tipuliformis, Cl., Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii., p. 214.
Metacrias strategica, Hudson.
Arctia strategica, Hudson, Entom., 1889, p. 53. Metacrias strategica, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 216.
Metacrias erichrysa, Meyr.
M. erichrysa, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 749 (1886), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 216.
Metacrias huttonii, Butl.
Phaos huttonii, Butl., “Cistula Entomologica,” ii., p. 487. Metacrias huttonii, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 750 (1886), and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 216.
Deiopeia pulchella, Linn.
(? genus) pulchella, Linn. Deiopeia pulchella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 217.
Nyctemera annulatum, Boisd.
Leptosoma annulatum, Boisd., Voy. de l'Astr., Ent., v., p. 197, pl. 5, fig. 9 (1853); Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., p. 284. Nyctemera doubledayi, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., ii., p. 392. N. annulata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 4. Leptosoma annulatum, Bates, Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 2. Nyctemera annulata, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1886, p. 760, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 218.
Physetica cærulea, Guén.
Agrotis cœrulea, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 38. Physetica cœrulea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 5.
Leucania griseipennis, Feld.
Maniestra griseipennis, Feld., REise der Nov., pl. cix., fig. 22. Chera virescens, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 489. Spœlotis inconstans, ib., p. 545. Leucania moderata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 7; ib., xx., p. 44.
Leucania moderata, Walk.
Agrotis (?) moderata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., supp. ii., p. 705. Eumichtis sistens, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 39. Agrotis (?) moderata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7. Mamestra sistens, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 19. Leucania moderata, Meyr., ib., xx., p. 45.
Leucania temperata, Walk.
Bryophila temperata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xv., p. 1648. Xylina inceptura, ib., p. 1736. X. deceptura, ib., p. 1737. Bryophila temperata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 6. Leucania temperata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 45.
Leucania nullifera, Walk.
Agrotis nullifera, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 742; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7, tab. 2, fig. 5; Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 3. Leucania nullifera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 7.
Leucania purdii, Fered.
L. purdii, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 195; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 8.
Leucania atristriga, Walk.
Xylina atristriga, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxxiii., supp. iii., p. 756. Mamestra antipoda, Feld., Reis. der Nov., pl. cix., n. 23. Xylina atristriga, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 9. Leucania atristriga, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 8.
Leucania propria, Walk.
L. propria, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., ix., p. 111; Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 2; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., fig. 4; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 6; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 9.
Leucania acontistis, Meyr.
L. acontistis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 9.
Leucania phaula, Meyr.
L. phaula, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 10.
Leucania alopa, Meyr.
D. alopa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z., Inst., xix., p. 10.
Leucania unica, Walk.
L. unica, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., ix., p. 112; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., fig. 9; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 6, tab. 2, fig. 9. Nonagria juncicolor, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 2. Leucania unica, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 10.
Leucania aulacias, Meyr.
L. aulacias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 11.
Leucania arotis, Meyr.
L. arotis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 11.
Leucania sulcana, Fered.
L. sulcana, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xii., p. 267, pl. ix.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 11.
Leucania semivittata, Walk.
L. semivittata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxxii., suppl. ii., p. 628; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 12.
Leucania blenheimensis, Fered.
L. blenheimensis, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 196; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 12.
Leucania extranea, Guén.
L. extranea, Noct., v., p. 77; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., fig. 2; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 6; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 12.
Ichneutica ceraunias, Meyr.
I. ceraunias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 13.
Mamestra disjungens, Walk.
Heliophobus disjungens, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xv., p. 1681; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., fig. 1; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 6. Hadena nervata, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 40. Mamestra disjungens, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 15.
Mamestra paracausta, Meyr.
M. paracausta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 15.
Mamestra insignis, Walk.
Euplexia insignis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxxiii., suppl. iii., p. 724; Xylina turbida, ib., p. 754; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 9. Euplexia insignis, Butl., ib., p. 8. Hadena lignifusca, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 385. H. insignis, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 492, Mamestra polychroa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 16. M. insignis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 45.
Mamestra plena, Walk.
Erana plena, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxxiii., supp. iii., p. 744. Mamestra sphagnea, Feld., Reise der Nov., pl. cix., fig. 17 Erana plena, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8. Dianthœcia viridis, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 547. Mamestra plena, Meyr., Trans. N.Z Inst., xix., p. 17.
Mamestra lithias, Meyr.
M. lithias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 17.
Mamestra mutans, Walk.
Hadena mutans, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 602. H. lignifusca, Walk., ib., p. 603. Mamestra angusta, Feld., Reise der Nov., pl. cix., fig. 18. M. acceptrix, ib., fig. 19. Hadena mutans, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8. H. debilis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 385, pl. xlii., fig. 6. H. mutans, ib., and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 491. Mamestra mutans, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 17.
Mamestra agorastis, Meyr.
M. agorastis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 18.
Mamestra pictula, White.
Dianthœcia pictula, White, Taylor's “New Zealand,” pl. i., fig. 3. Hadena pictula, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 602; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8. Meterana pictula, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 386, pl. xlii., fig. 1. Mamestra pictula, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 18.
Mamestra rhodopleura, Meyr.
M. rhodopleura, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 19.
Mamestra pelistis, Meyr.
M. pelistis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 20.
Mamestra vitiosa, Butl.
Apamea vitiosa, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 384, pl. xlii, fig. 3. Mamestra octhistis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 20. M. vitiosa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 45.
Mamestra proteastis, Meyr.
M. proteastis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 45. M. vitiosa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 20.
Mamestra tartarea, Butl.
Graphiphora tartarea, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 384, pl. xlii., fig. 2. Mamestra tartarea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 21.
Mamestra homoscia, Meyr.
M. homoscia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 21.
Mamestra composita, Guén.
Cloantha composita, Guén., Noct. vi., p. 114. Auchmis composita, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 616; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., fig. 12; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8. Mamestra maori, Feld., Reise der Nov., pl. cix., fig. 24. M. composita, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 22.
Mamestra steropastis, Meyr.
M. steropastis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 22.
Mamestra infensa, Walk.
Orthosia infensa, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 748; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7. Mamestra arachnias, Meyr., xix., p. 23. M. infensa, Meyr., xx., p. 45.
Mamestra omoplaca, Meyr.
M. omoplaca, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 24.
Mamestra dotata, Walk.
Dasypolia dotata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 522; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8. Mamestra dotata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 24.
Mamestra stipata, Walk.
Xylina stipata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., iii., supp., p. 753; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 9. Xylophasia stipata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 488. Mamestra stipata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 25.
Mamestra rubescens, Butl.
Xylophasia rubescens, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 489. Mamestra rubescens, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 25.
Mamestra lignana, Walk.
Hadena lignana, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 543; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 385, pl. xlii., fig. 6. Xylophasia morosa, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 543. Mamestra lignana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 26.
Mamestra ustistriga, Walk.
Xylina ustistriga, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 630. X. lignisecta, ib., p. 631; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 386. Mamestra ustistriga, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 26.
Mamestra prionistis, Meyr.
M. prionistis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 27.
Mamestra phricias, Meyr.
M. temperata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 27. M. phricias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 46.
Mamestra cucullina, Guén.
Xylocampa cucullina, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 40; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8. Agrotis mitis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 383, pl. xlii., fig. 5; Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 489. Mamestra cucullina, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 28.
Erana graminosa, Walk.
E. graminosa, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 605. E. vigens, ib., xxxiii., supp., p. 743. E. graminosa, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8; Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 492; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 28.
Miselia pessota, Meyr.
M. pessota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 29.
Orthosia comma, Walk.
Mamestra comma, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., ix., p. 239; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., fig. 6; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7. Graphiphora implexa, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., x., p. 405. Hadena plusiata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxxiii., supp., p. 742; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8. Nitocris bicomma, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 4; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7. Orthosia comma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 30.
Orthosia immunis, Walk.
Tœniocampa immunis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., x., p. 430. Cerastis innocua, ib., 1710. Agrotis acetina, Feld., Reis. der Nov., pl. cix., fig. 6. Teniocampa immunis, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7. Orthosia immunis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 30.
Xanthia purpurea, Butl.
Graphiphora purpurea, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 490. Xanthia ceramodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 31. X. purpurea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 46.
Bityla defigurata, Walk.
Xylina defigurata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxxiii., supp., 756. Bityla thoracica, ib., p. 869; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 10. B. defigurata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 31.
Bityla sericea, Butl.
B. sericea, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 387, pl. xlii., fig. 12; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 31.
Agrotis ypsilon, Rott.
Noctua ypsilon, Rott. Agrotis suffusa, Hübn. A. ypsilon, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 32. (?) If same as Agrotis suffusa, Treitschke, and Noctua suffusa, Denis, see Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7, and Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 383.—R. W. F.
Agrotis admirationis, Guén.
A. admirationis, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 38; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7, and Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., ii., p. 384. Also, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 33; but Mr. Meyrick has made some mistake, for I have duplicate of the type named by Guén., and Mr. Meyrick's description in a way agrees with it, and it was not found on roots of tussockgrass on sandhills.—R. W. F.
Agrotis sericea, Butl.
Chersotis sericea, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 490. C. inconspicua, ib., p. 545. Agrotis sericea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 33. A. inconspicua, ib., p. 34. A. sericea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx. p. 46.
Agrotis ceropachoides, Guén.
A. ceropachoides, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 39; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 7; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 34.
Heliothis armigera, Hübn.
H. armigera, Hübn., Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct., pl. 79, fig. 370; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 9. H. conferta, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 690; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 9, and Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 387. H. armigera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 84.
Cosmodes elegans, Donovan.
Phalœna elegans, Don., Ins. New Holl., pl. 36, fig. 5. Cosmodes elegans, Guén., Sp. Gen. Lep. Noct., vi., p. 290; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 9; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 35.
Plusia eriosoma, Doubl.
P. eriosoma, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” p. 285; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. x., figs. 1, 2; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 9, tab. 3, figs. 1, 2. P. argentifera, Guén., Gen. Noct., vi., p. 352. P. eriosoma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 36.
Dasypodia selenophora, Guén.
D. selenophora, Guén., Noct., vii., p. 175; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 10; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 38. (?) erebus, n.s., White, in Taylor's “New Zealand,” pl. 1, figs. 2, 2 (1855).
Page 327, lines 22 and 23. For Argyrophenga read Argyrophenga.
Page 328, line 5 from bottom. For Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix., read Trans. N.Z. Inst., x.
Page 332, line 9. For Maniestra read Mamestra.
Page 336, line 15. For in a way agrees read in no way agrees.
Page 337, line 18, should read Orthosia, Ochs.,* to connect with footnote.
Page 337, line 22. Dele Family Monocteniadæ.
Page 337, lines 23 to 26. Transfer Genus Theoxena, Meyr., to p. 345, after Dichromodes.
Page 338, lines 25 and 26. For Paneyma read Pancyma.
Page 338, line 9 from bottom. For magaspilata read megaspilata.
Page 341, line 18. For subducta read subductata.
Page 345, After Dichromodes insert Theoxena, from p. 337.
Page 345, line 17. After L. alectoraria, Walk., l.c., insert xx., p. 259.
Page 345, line 17. For Aspitates read Aspidates.
Page 345, bottom line. For 316 read 216.
Page 349, line 15 from bottom. For hybreadalis read hybreasalis.
Page 349, line 10 from bottom. For Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., read Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884.
Page 356, line 13. For p. 22 read p. 23.
Page 356, line 15. For p. 22 read p. 24.
Page 366, line 11. After Stainton insert Man. Brit. Butt.& Moth. ii., p. 358.
Page 369, lines 12, 13, 15. For Eutoma read Eutorna.
Page 372, line 6 from bottom. For Stt. read Stainton.
Page 372, line 6 from bottom. For 397 read 399.
Page 374, line 10. For C. miniellum read S (?) miniella.
Page 374, line 10. After pl. cxl. insert fig. 42.
[To be inserted opposite page 336.]
Rhapsa scotosialis, Walk.
R. scotosialis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxxiv., supp., p. 1150; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 10, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 388, and Cist. Ent, ii., p. 492. Herminia lilacina, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 388, pl. xlii., fig. 11. Rhapsa scotosialis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p 38.
Hypenodes exsularis, Meyr.
H. exsularis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 46.
Xylina spurcata, Walk.
Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xi., p. 631; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 8.
Xylina provida, Walk.
l.c., xv., p. 1737; Butl., l.c., p. 9.
Xylina vexata, Walk.
l.c., xxxiii., supp., p. 755; Butl., l.c., p. 9.
Orthosia communicata, Walk.
l.c., xxxiii., supp., p. 716; Butl., l.c., p. 7.
Theoxena scissaria, Guén.
Panagra scissaria, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 43. Theoxena scissaria, Meyr., Trans., N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 56.
Acidalia rubraria, Doubl.
Ptychopoda (?) rubraria, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., p. 286. Acidalia repletaria, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxiv., p. 778. A. attributa, Walk., ib., p. 779. A. rubraria, Walk., ib., p. 781. Fidonia (?) acidaliaria, Walk., ib., xxv., p. 1037. Acidalia figlinaria, Guén. A. rubraria, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 390; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 498; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 57, and xvii., p. 63.
Xyridacma hemipteraria, Guén.
Hemerophila hemipteraria, Guén. Xyridacma hemipteraria, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 60.
[Footnote] * See Meyrick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix., p. 39, as to these.
Paradetis porphyrias, Meyr.
Parysatis porphyrias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 59.
Epicyme rubropunctaria, Doubl.
Ptychopoda rubropunctaria, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., p. 287. Asthena risata, Guén. A. mullata, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 42. Acidalia pulchraria, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxiv., p. 780; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13, tab. 3, fig. 18. Hippolyte rubropunctaria, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 60; ib., xvii., p. 63.
Epiphryne undosata, Feld.
Cidaria undosata, Feld., Reise der Nov., v., pl. cxxviii., fig. 2. Acidalia undosata, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 391, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 499. Epiphryne undosata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 60.
Aulopola xanthaspis, Meyr.
Hermione xanthaspis, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 61.
Asaphodes abrogata, Walk.
Aspilates abrogata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxiv., p. 1075; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14. Fidonia (?) servularia, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 43. Thyone abrogata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 61.
Paneyma verriculata, Feld.
Cidaria verriculata, Feld., Reise der Nov., v., pl. cxxxi., fig. 20. Phibalapteryx verriculata, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 396. Panopœa verriculata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 62.
Homodotis rufescens, Butl.
Larentia (?) rufescens, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 502. Eurydice cymosema, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 63.
Probolæa megaspilata, Walk.
Larentia megaspilata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., xxiv., p. 1198. Cidaria assata, Feld., Reise der Nov., Lep., v., pl. cxxxi., fig. 4. C. nehata, Feld., l.c., fig. 6. Larentia megaspilata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 502. Larentia (?) nehata, ib., p. 503. Harpalyce magaspilata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 63.
Probolæa parora, Meyr.
Harpalyce parora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 63. H. humeraria, ib., xvi., p. 64.
Arcteuthes euclidiata, Guén.
Coremia euclidiata, Guén. C. glyphicata, ib., 420. Fidonia catapyrrha, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 392, pl. xliii., fig. 2. Stratonice catapyrrha, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 64; ib., xvii, p. 63.
Arcteuthes chrysopeda, Meyr.
A. chrysopeda, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 47.
Elvia glaucata, Walk.
E. glaucata, Walk., l.c., p. 1431; Feld., l.c., cxxxii., fig. 25; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 509; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 65.
Pasiphila plinthina, Meyr.
P. plinthina, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 49.
Pasiphila muscosata, Walk.
Eupithecia muscosata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1246. Euthecia cidariaria, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 62. Cidaria aquosata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 33. Eupithecia cidariaria, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. Cidaria muscosata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 508.
Pasiphila bilineolata, Walk.
Eupithecia bilineolata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1246. Scotosia denotata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1361; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16; Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 67. S. humerata, ib., xxv., p. 1362. Eupithecia semialbata, ib., xxvi., p. 1708. E. (?) bilineolata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. Scotosia humerata, ib., p. 16. Eupithecia semialbata, ib., p. 15. Helastia charybdis, ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 503. H. calida, ib., p. 504. Pasiphila bilineolata, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 50.
Pasiphila nereis, Meyr.
P. nereis, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 51.
Pasiphila sphragitis, Meyr.
P. sphragitis, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 51.
Pasiphila lichenodes, Purdie.
P. lichenodes, Purd.; Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 52.
Pasiphila indicataria, Walk.
Eupithecia indicataria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1708; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. Pasiphila indicataria, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 52.
Pasiphila inductata, Walk.
Coremia inductata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1322; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15; Scotosia subitata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1362; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Pasiphila inductata, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 53.
Pasiphila dryas, Meyr.
P. dryas, Meyr., l.c., xxiii., p. 97.
Phrixogonus denotata, Walk.
Scotosia denotata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1362; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Phibalapteryx parvulata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1721; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Phrixogonus denotatus (sic), Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 53.
Tatosoma lestevata, Walk.
Cidaria lestivata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1416. Sauris ranata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 11. Tatosoma lestevata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 398; Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 67.
Tatosoma agrionata, Walk.
Cidaria agrionata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1417. C. tipulata, ib., 1417. C. inclinataria, ib., 1418. C. transitaria, ib., 1419. C. collectaria, ib., 1419. Sauris mistata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 12. Tatosoma transitaria, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 304. T. agrionata, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 64.
Tatosoma timora, Meyr.
T. timora, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 64. T. agrionata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 68.
Asthena pulchraria, Doubl.
Acidalia pulchraria. Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” app., p. 286; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 390. Chlorochroma plurilineata, Walk., l.c., xxii., pp. 563 and 676. Asthena ondinata, Guén., Sp. Gen. Lep. Phal., i., p. 438, pl. xix., fig. 4.; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12, tab. 3, fig. 20; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 498. Cidaria ondinata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxviii., fig. 17. Asthena pulchraria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 69.
Asthena schistaria, Walk.
Acidalia schistaria, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 782; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 391; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 498. Asthena subpurpureata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1588; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 390; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 498. A. schistaria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 69.
Scotosia gobiata, Feld.
Cidaria gobiata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 2. Phibalapteryx gobiata, P. simulans, P. undulifera, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 506. P. anguligera, P. rivularis, ib., p. 507. Scotosia gobiata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 70.
Cephalissa deltoidata, Walk.
Coremia deltoidata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1321; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. Cidaria inclarata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1411; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 398; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 508. C. perductata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1412; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. C. congressata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1412; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. C. congressata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1413. C. descriptata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1414. C. bisignata, Walk., l.c., p. 1415. C. aggregata, Walk., l.c., p. 1415; Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 508. C. congregata, Walk., l.c., p. 1415; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 397. C. plagifurcata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1416; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 398. Coremia pastinaria, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 64; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Cidaria inopiata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxii., fig. 3. C. monoliata, ib., l.c., pl. cxxxii., fig. 8. C. perversata, ib., pl. cxxxii., figs. 14, 24. Scotosia deltoidata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 70. Cephalissa deltoidata, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 54.
Epyaxa rosearia, Doubl.
Cidaria rosearia, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., p. 285. Coremia rosearia, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15, tab. 3., fig. 13; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 396; Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 505. C. ardularia, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 63; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z.,
p. 16; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 396. C. inamœnaria, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 63; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Epyaxa rosearia, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 71.
Epyaxa orophyla, Meyr.
E. orophyla, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 71.
Epyaxa semifissata, Walk.
Coremia semifissata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1320; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. C. ypsilonaria, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 94; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Cidaria delicatulata, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 94; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. Epyaxa semifissata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 72.
Epyaxa chlamydota, Meyr.
E. chlamydota, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 72.
Epyaxa limonodes, Meyr.
E. limonodes, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 54.
Epyaxa subductata, Walk.
Larentia subductata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1198; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14. Epyaxa subducta, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 55
Anachloris subochraria, Doubl.
Aspilates (?) subochraria, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., p. 285. A. euboliaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1684; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14; and see Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 66. Camptogramma subochraria, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16, tab. 3, fig. 16; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 396. C. strangulata, Guén., Gen. Lep. Phal., ii.(?), p. 423. C. fuscinata, Guén, Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 92: Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Arsinoe subochraria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 73. Anachloris subochraria, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 56.
Anachloris prionota, Meyr.
Arsinoe prionota, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 73.
Cidaria triphragma, Meyr.
C. triphragma, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 74.
Cidaria rixata, Feld.
C. rixata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxii., fig. 1. Coremia squalida, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 505. Cidaria rixata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 75.
Cidaria purpurifera, Fered.
C. purpurifera, Fered., N.Z. Journ. Sc., 1883, p. 531, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 119; Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 75.
Cidaria similata, Walk.
C. similata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1413; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 397, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 508. C. timarata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxii., fig. 19. C. similata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 76.
Cidaria callichlora, Butl.
C. callichlora, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 509; Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 76.
Cidaria arida, Butl.
Melanthia arida, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 505. Cidaria chaotica, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 76. C. arida, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 64.
Larentia stinata, Guén.
Camptogramma stinata, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 92; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16, and Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 396. Larentia stinaria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 78.
Larentia præfectata, Walk.
Acidalia præfectata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 781; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13. A. subtentaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1610; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13. A. absconditaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1611; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13, tab. 3, fig. 21. Larentia præfectata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 78.
Larentia nephelias, Meyr.
L. nephelias, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 78.
Larentia cataphracta, Meyr.
L. cataphracta, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 79.
Larentia clarata, Walk.
L. clarata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1197; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14, tab. 3, fig. 14. Cidaria pyramaria, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 93; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. Larentia clarata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 79.
Larentia beata, Butl.
Cidaria beata, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 397, pl. xliii., fig. 6; ib., Cist. Ent., vol. ii., p. 508. Larentia beata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 79.
Larentia chlorias, Meyr.
L. chlorias, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 80.
Larentia ægrota, Butl.
Selidosema œgrota, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 499; Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 80.
Larentia lucidata, Walk.
L. lucidata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1200; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14. Coremia plurimata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1321; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. Panagra venipunctata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1666; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13. Larentia psamathodes, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 81. L. lucidata, ib., l.c., xvii., p. 64.
Larentia quadristrigata, Walk.
L. quadristrigata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1200; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14. L. interclusa, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1202; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13. L. quadristrigata, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 67.
Larentia helias, Meyr.
L. helias, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 81.
Larentia prasinias, Meyr.
L. prasinias, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 81.
Larentia chionogramma, Meyr.
L. chionogramma, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 82.
Larentia obarata, Feld.
Cidaria obarata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxii., fig. 33. Larentia obarata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 82.
Larentia subobscurata, Walk.
Scotosia subobscurata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1358; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Larentia petropola, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 82. L. obscurata, ib., l.c., xvii., p. 64.
Larentia cinerearia, Doubl.
Cidaria (?) cinerearia, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., p. 286. Larentia (?) invexata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1199; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 503. L. semisignata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1200; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 394. L. inoperata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1201. L. diffusaria, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1201; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. L. punctilineata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1202; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15, tab. 3, fig. 12; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 501. Cidaria dissociata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1734; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. C. similisata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1735. C. semilisata, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. Larentia corcularia, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 61; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. L. infantaria, Guén., l.c., p. 62; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. Helastia eupitheciaria, Guén., l.c., p. 95; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. Cidaria sphœriata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 14. Larentia cinerearia, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15; Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 83; ib., xvii., p. 64.
Larentia subductata, Walk.
L. subductata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1198; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14; Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 66.
Larentia anthracias, Meyr.
L. anthracias, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 84.
Larentia bulbulata, Guén.
Cidaria bulbulata, Guén., l.c., p. 94; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. Larentia bulbulata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 84.
Larentia falcata, Butl.
L, (?) falcata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 501; Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 67; ib., xx., p. 58.
Larentia mnesichola, Meyr.
L. mnesichola, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 56.
Larentia cosmodora, Meyr.
L. cosmodora, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 57.
Larentia bryopis, Meyr.
L. bryopis, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 57.
Larentia camelias, Meyr.
L. camelias, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 58.
Larentia chorica, Meyr.
L. chorica, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 58.
Notorias insignis, Butl.
Aspilates insignis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 393, pl. xliii., fig. 1. Pasithea insignis, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 85.
Notorias orphnæa, Meyr.
Pasithea orphnæa, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 85.
Notorias mechanitis, Meyr.
Pasithea mechanitis, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 86.
Notorias paradelpha, Meyr.
Pasithea paradelpha, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 86.
Notorias strategica, Meyr.
Pasithea strategica, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 87.
Notorias callicrena, Meyr.
Pasithea callicrena, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 87.
Notorias perornata, Walk.
Fidonia perornata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1672; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. Pasithea perornata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 87.
Notorias niphocrena, Meyr.
Pasithea niphocrena, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 88.
Notorias ferox, Butl.
Fidonia ferox, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 392, pl. xlii., fig. 8. Pasithea ferox, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 88.
Notorias zopyra, Meyr.
Pasithea zopyra, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 89.
Notorias vulcanica, Meyr.
Pasithea vulcanica, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 89.
Notorias brephosata, Walk.
Fidonia brephosata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1037; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14, tab. 3, fig. 3; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 391. Larentia catocalaria, Guén., l.c., v., p. 62; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 15. Fidonia catocalaria, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 499. F. brephos, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxix., fig. 5. Pasithea brephos, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 89.
Notorias omichlias, Meyr.
Pasithea omichlias, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 90.
Stathmonyma enysii, Butl.
Fidonia enysii, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 391, pl. xlii., fig. 9. Stathmonyma homomorpha, Meyr., l.c., xvi., 9. S. enysii, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 65.
Stathmonyma anceps, Butl.
Fidonia anceps, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 392, pl. xliii., fig. 3. Stathmonyma homomorpha, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 91.
Stathmonyma hectori, Butl.
Euclidia hectori, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 387, pl. xlii., fig. 4. Stathmonyma hectori, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 91.
Dasyuris partheniata, Guén.
D. partheniata, Guén., l.c., p. 93; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16; ib., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 393; Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 92.
Cephalissa siria, Meyr.
C. siria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 93.
Samana falcatella, Walk.
S. falcatella, Walk., l.c., xxvii., p. 197; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19; Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 93.
Samana acutata, Butl.
S. acutata, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 401; Meyr. l.c., xvii., p. 67.
Dichromodes nigra, Butl.
Cacopsodos nigra, Butl.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 60; ib., xxiii., p. 184.
Dichromodes gypsotis, Meyr.
D. gypsotis, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 60. Cacopsodos niger, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 94.
Dichromodes petrina, Meyr.
D. petrina, Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 216.
Dichromodes niger, Butl.
Cacopsodos niger, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 395; Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 94; and see Meyr., l.c., xviii., p. 184, and xx., p. 60.
Lyrcea alectoraria, Walk.
L. alectoraria, Walk., l.c.,; Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 496; Aspitates (?) primata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1076; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14, tab. 3, fig. 4. Ennomos ustaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1519; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12. Endropia mixtaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1506; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11, tab. 3, fig. 5. Amilapsis (?) acroiaria, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxiii., fig. 6. Lyrcea varians, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 496; L. alectoraria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 95; Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 66.
Hybernia indocilisaria, Walk.
Zermizinga indocilisaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1530; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12. Hybernia boreophilaria, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 61. H. indocilis, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 97.
Selidosema fenerata, Feld.
Rhyparia fenerata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 7. Zylobara fenerata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 498. Boarmia fenerata, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 61; and see Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 216, as to Selidosema.
Selidosema productata, Walk.
Larentia productata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1197; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 14; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 394. Pseudocoremia indistincta, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 498. Selidosema pungata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 23; S, (?) fragosata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 29; and see Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 216, as to Selidosema.
Selidosema suavis, Butl.
Pseudocoremia suavis, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 497. Pachycnemia usitata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 501. Pseudocoremia lupinata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 98. Boarmia suavis, Meyr., l.c., xxiii., p. 101; and see Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 216, as to Selidosema.
Selidosema lupinata, Feld.
Cidaria lupinata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 19. Pseudocoremia lupinata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 496. Boarmia lupinata, Meyr., l.c., xxiii., p. 101; and see Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 316, as to Selidosema.
Selidosema melinata, Feld.
Numeria melinata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxix., fig. 9. Pseudocoremia indistincta,* Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 394, pl. xliii., fig. 8, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 498. P. confusa, Butl. (see Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 65). P. melinata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 99. Boarmia melinata, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 61; and see Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 216, as to Selidosema.
Selidosema dejectaria, Walk.
Boarmia dejectaria, Walk., l.c., xxi., p. 394; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12, and Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 390. B. attracta, Walk., l.c., xxi., p. 394; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12. B. exprompta, Walk., l.c., xxi., p. 395. Tephrosia patularia, Walk., l.c., xxi., p. 422; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12, tab. 3, fig. 8. T. scriptaria, Walk., l.c., xxi., p. 422; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12. Scotosia lignosata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1361. S. erebinata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1358. S. stigmaticata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1359; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Gnophos panularia, Guén, l.c., p. 42. Scotopteryx maoriata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxvi., fig. 4. Hemerophila (?) sulpitiata, Feld., l.c., cxxvi., fig. 7. H. caprimulgata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxvi., fig. 12. Boarmia dejectaria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 100; and see Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 216, as to Selidosema.
Selidosema panagrata, Walk.
Scotosia panagrata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1360; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 16. Angerona menanaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1500; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11. Epirrhanthis (?) antipodaria, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxvi., fig. 3. Hyperythra dessicata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 495. H. arenacea, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 495. Barsine panagrata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 100; and see Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 65, as to Barsine, and xxiv., p. 216, as to Selidosema.
Selidosema rudisata, Walk.
Cidaria rudisata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1420; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. Boarmia astrapia, Meyr., l.c., xxii., p. 218. B. rudiata, Meyr., l.c., xxiii., p. 101; and see Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 216, as to Selidosema.
Selidosema aristarcha, Meyr.
S. aristarcha, Meyr., l.c., xxiv., p. 216.
Detunda atronivea, Walk.
D. atronivea, Walk., l.c., xxxii., p. 619. Chlenias (?) manxifera, Fered., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xii., p. 268, pl. ix., fig. 1. Detunda atronivea, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 101.
Detunda egregia, Feld.
Chlenias egregia, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 24; Fered., l.c., xii., p. 268, pl. ix., fig. 2. Detunda egregia, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 101.
Declana floccosa, Walk.
D. floccosa, Walk., l.c., xv., p. 1649; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 398. Argua scabra, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 448. Declana scabra, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 500. D. feredayi, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 398, pl. xliii., fig. 5. D. nigrosparsa, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 500. D. floccosa, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 102.
[Footnote] * Mr. Meyrick puts this so. I think it must be a mistake; indistincta does not appear to me to be identical with melinata.—R. W. F.
Declana junctilinea, Walk.
Politeia junctilinea, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 643. Chlenias verrucosa, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 22. Declana crassitibia, ♂, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 103. D. junctilinea, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 65.
Epicasis niveata, Butl.
Declana niveata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 500. Atossa niveata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 104; and see Meyr., l.c., xviii., p. 184.
Ipana leptomera, Walk.
I. leptomera, Walk., l.c., xv., p. 1662; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 6. Amphilape crassitibia, Feld., l.c., pl. cix., fig. 10. Declana crassitibia, ♀, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 103. Ipana leptomera, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 66.
Gonophylla nelsonaria, Feld.
Gonodontis nelsonaria, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxiii., fig. 3. G. felix, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 389, tab. xlii., fig. 10. Phyllodoce nelsonaria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 104; and see Meyr., l.c., xviii., p. 184.
Sestra humeraria, Walk.
Macaria humeraria, Walk., l.c., xxiii., p. 490. Lozogramma obtusaria, ib., p. 985. Sestra obtusaria, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 390. Cidaria flexata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1421; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 17. Sestra flexata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 494. Cidaria (?) obtruncata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1421; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 389. Sestra fusiplagiata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1750; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 12. S. humeraria, Butl., Cist. Ent, ii., p. 494. Amastris encausta, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 105. A. humeraria, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 66; and see Meyr., l.c., xviii., p. 184.
Chalastra pellurgata, Walk.
C. pellurgata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1430; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18. Itama cinerascens, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxi., fig. 1. Stratocleis streptophora, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 106. Chalastra pellurgata, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 66.
Azelina fortinata, Guén.
Polygonia fortinata, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 41. Caustoloma (?) ziczac, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxii., fig. 4. Azelina fortinata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 106.
Azelina gallaria, Walk.
Selenia gallaria, Walk., l.c., xx., p. 185; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11, tab. 3, figs. 6, 7. Euchlœna (?) palthidata, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxii., figs. 21, 22. Stratocleis gallaria, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 105. Azelina gallaria, Meyr., l.c., xx., p. 62.
Drepranodes muriferata, Walk.
Gargaphia muriferata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1635; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13. Panagra ephyraria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1761; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 13. (?) Zanclognatha (?) cookaria, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxiii., fig. 26. Z. haastiaria, Feld., l.c., fig. 32. Drepranodes muriferata, Meyr., l.c., xvi., p. 107.
Asopia farinalis, Linn.
Phalœna-Pyralis farinalis, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 880; Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 555. Asopia farinalis, Meyr., l.c., xvii., p. 122.
Deana paronalis, Walk.
Scopula (?) paronalis, Walk., l.c., xviii., p. 797. Daraba paronalis Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 388. Deana paronalis, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 555.
Diplopseustis minima, Butl.
Cymoriza minima, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 684. Diplopseustis minima, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, 1884, p. 285; ib., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 63.
Siculodes subfasciata, Walk.
Morova subfasciata, Walk., l c., supp. ii., p. 523; Butl., Cat Lep. N.Z., p. 4. Cacœcia gallicolens, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 20. Siculodes subfasciata, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 108.
Musotima aduncalis, Feld.
Diathrausta aduncalis, Feld., l.c., cxxxv., fig. 11. Musotima aduncalis, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 289.
Musotima nitidalis, Walk.
Isopteryx nitidalis, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1417. Dianthrausta timaralis, Feld., l.c., cxxxv., fig. 23. Musotima nitidalis, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 290.
Diasemia grammalis, Doubl.
D. grammalis, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” ii., p. 287; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 10; Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 556; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 302. D. spilonotalis, Snell., Midd. Sum., 73.
Sceliodes cordalis, Doubl.
Margaritia cordalis, Doubl., l.c., ii., p. 288. Sceliodes mucidalis, Guén. Scopula (?) cordalis, Walk., l.c., xviii., p. 794. Daraba extensalis, Walk., xxv., p. 1311. D. cordalis, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 10, tab. 3, fig. 22. Eretria obsistalis, Snell., Tijd. v. Ent., 1880, p. 206; ib., 1883, pl. vi., fig. 12. Sceliodes cordalis, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 303, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 187.
Zinckenia recurvalis, F.
Phalœna recurvalis, F., E.S., 407. Zinckenia, Caff., 55; Guén., 225. Phalœna angustalis, F., Mant., 309. P. fascialis, Stoll., pl. xxxvi., fig. 13; Cr., 398; O. Hydrocampa albifascialis, Boisd., Mad., 119, pl. xvi., fig. 1. Zinckenia recurvalis, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 308.
Proternia philocapna, Meyr.
P. philocapna, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 317.
Mecyna deprivalis, Walk.
M. deprivalis, Walk., l.c., xix., p. 806; Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 557. Botys maorialis, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxiv., fig. 34; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 327, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 188.
Mnesictena marmarina, Meyr.
M. marmarina, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 329.
Mnesictena flavidalis, Doubl.
Margaritia flavidalis, Doubl., l.c., ii., p. 287. M. quadralis, ib., p. 288. Scopula dipsasalis, Walk., l.c., xviii., p. 796; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 10. S. flavidalis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 388; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., pp. 493 and 556. S. quadralis, Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 10, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 557. Botys otagalis, Feld., l.c., cxxxiv., fig. 35. Mnesictena flavidalis, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 330.
Mnesictena notata, Butl.
Scopula notata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 493; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 330.
Mnesictena daiclesalis, Walk.
Scopula daiclesalis, Walk., l.c., xix., p. 1017; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11. Mnesictena daiclealis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 155.
Nesarcha hybreadalis, Walk.
Scopula hybreasalis, Walk., l.c., xviii., p. 797; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11. S. paronalis, Walk., l.c., xviii., p. 797; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11. Adena zanthialis, Walk., l.c., xxvii., p. 198; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19, and Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1877, p. 402. Nesarcha hybreadalis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 330.
Nyctarcha atra, Butl.
Orosana atra, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 404. Nyctarcha atra, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 346, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 70.
Scoparia oreas, Meyr.
S. oreas, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 81.
Scoparia philerga, Meyr.
S. philerga, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 81.
Scoparia chlamydota, Meyr.
S. chlamydota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 82.
Scoparia minusculalis, Walk.
S. minusculalis, Walk., l.c., xxxiv., p. 1503; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 557; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 347, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 82.
Scoparia hemiplaca, Meyr.
S. hemiplaca, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 155.
Scoparia linealis, Walk.
S. linealis, Walk., l.c., xxxiv., p. 1503; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11; and vide Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 119.
Scoparia minualis, Walk.
S. minualis, Walk., l.c., xxxiv., p. 1504; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 347, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 83.
Scoparia chimeria, Meyr.
S. chimeria, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 84.
Scoparia dinodes, Meyr.
S. dinodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 85.
Scoparia acharis, Meyr.
S. acharis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 85.
Scoparia cymatias, Meyr.
S. cymatias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 86.
Scoparia microphthalma, Meyr.
S. mycrophthama, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 87.
Scoparia hemicycla, Meyr.
S. hemicycla, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 87.
Scoparia ergatis, Meyr.
S. ergatis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 88.
Scoparia encapna, Meyr.
S. encapna, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 65.
Scoparia critica, Meyr.
S. critica, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 88.
Scoparia characta, Meyr.
S. characta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 90.
Scoparia ustimacula, Feld.
S. ustimacula, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxv., fig. 17; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 347, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 91. S. conifera, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 493.
Scoparia pongalis, Feld.
S. pongalis, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 33; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 347, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 91.
Scoparia melanægis, Meyr.
S. melanœgis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii, p. 92.
Scoparia trapezophora, Meyr.
S. trapezophora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 93.
Scoparia philetachra, Meyr.
S. philetacra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 93.
Scoparia colpota, Meyr.
S. colpota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 65.
Scoparia periphanes, Meyr.
S. periphanes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 94.
Scoparia diphtheralis, Walk.
S. diphtheralis, Walk., l.c., xxxiv., p. 1501; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11, also Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 388, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 557; Meyr., Trans. Ent Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 347, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 94.
Scoparia submarginalis, Walk.
Hypochalcia submarginalis, Walk., l.c., xxvii., p. 48; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18. Nephopteryx maoriella, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1720; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18. Scoparia submarginalis, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 347, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 95.
Scoparia cataxesta, Meyr.
S. cataxesta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 96.
Scoparia tetracycla, Meyr.
S. tetracycla, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 97.
Scoparia indistinctalis, Walk.
Hypochalcia indistinctalis, Walk., l.c., xxvii., p. 48; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18. Scoparia rakaiensis, Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., p. 80; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11, and Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 389. S. indistinctalis, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 557; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 347, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 97.
Scoparia chalicodes, Meyr.
S. chalicodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 98.
Scoparia leptalea, Meyr.
S. leptalea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 98.
Scoparia psammitis, Meyr.
S. psammitis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 99.
Scoparia epicomia, Meyr.
S. epicomia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 99.
Scoparia feredayi, Knaggs.
S. fereaayi, Kuaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., p. 80; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11. S. moanalis, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 34. S. feredayi, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 348, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 100.
Scoparia acompa, Meyr.
S. acompa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 100.
Scoparia manganentis, Meyr.
S. manganentis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 102.
Scoparia crypsinoa, Meyr.
S. crypsinoa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 102.
Scoparia axena, Meyr.
S. axena, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 103.
Scoparia steropæa, Meyr.
S. steropœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 103.
Scoparia exilis, Knaggs.
S. exilis, Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., p. 81; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 348, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 104.
Scoparia elaphra, Meyr.
S. elaphra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 105.
Scoparia paltomacha, Meyr.
S. paltomacha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 105.
Scoparia deltophora, Meyr.
S. deltophora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 106.
Scoparia sabulosellus, Walk.
Crambus sabulosellus, Walk., l.c., xxvii., p. 178; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 509. Scoparia sabulosella, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 348, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 106.
Scoparia panopla, Meyr.
S. panopla, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 107.
Scoparia trivirgatus, Feld.
Crambus trivirgatus, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 29; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 400, and Cist., Ent., ii., p. 558. Scoparia trivirgata, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 348, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 107.
Xeroscopa petrina, Meyr.
X. petrina, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 111.
Xeroscopa cyameuta, Meyr.
X. cyameuta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 112.
Xeroscopa astragalota, Meyr.
X. astragalota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 113.
Xeroscopa rotuellus, Feld.
Crambus rotuellus, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 30. Xeroscopa rotuella, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 350, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 113.
Xeroscopa harpalea, Meyr.
X. harpalea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 114.
Xeroscopa ejuncida, Knaggs.
Scoparia ejuncida, Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., p. 81; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 11. Xeroscopa ejuncida, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 349, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 114.
Xeroscopa niphospora, Meyr.
X. niphospora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 115.
Xeroscopa apheles, Meyr.
X. apheles, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 115.
Xeroscopa aspidota, Meyr.
X. aspidota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 115.
Xeroscopa nomeutis, Meyr.
X. nomeutis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 116.
Xeroscopa epicremna, Meyr.
X. epicremna, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 117.
Xeroscopa legnota, Meyr.
X. legnota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 117.
Xeroscopa octophora, Meyr.
X. octophora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 118.
Xeroscopa asterisca, Meyr.
X. asterisca, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 118.
Xeroscopa leucogramma, Meyr.
X. leucogramma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 119.
Aciptilia furcatalis, Walk.
Aciptilus furcatalis, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 950; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 25; Aciptilia furcatalis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 123.
Aciptilia lycosema, Meyr.
A. lycosema, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 124.
Aciptilia monospilalis, Walk.
Aciptilus monospilalis, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 950; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 25. Aciptilia monospilalis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 124.
Aciptilia innotatalis, Walk.
Pterophorus innotatalis, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 945; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 25. Aciptilia innotatalis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii. p. 124.
Lioptilus celidotus, Meyr.
L. celidotus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 125.
Mimæseoptilus orites, Meyr.
M. orites, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 126.
Mimæseoptilus charadrias, Meyr.
M. charadrias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 126.
Mimæseoptilus lithoxestus, Meyr.
M. lithoxestus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 127.
Platyptilia haasti, Feld.
P. haasti, Feld., l.c., pl. cxi., fig. 58; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 128.
Platyptilia falcatalis, Walk.
Platyptilus falcatalis, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 931; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 25. P. repletalis, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 931; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 25; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 407. Platyptilia falcatalis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 128.
Platyptilia heliastis, Meyr.
P. heliastis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 129.
Paraponyx nitens, Butl.
P. nitens, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 556. Hygralia nitens, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 130.
Clepsicosma iridia, Meyr.
C. iridia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 64.
Hednota leucophthalma, Meyr.
Thinasotia leucophthalma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 7.
Cryptomima acerella, Walk.
Gadira acerella, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1742; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 399, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 558. Botys mahanga, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 27. Cryptomima acerella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 8.
Scenoploca petraula, Meyr.
S. petraula, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 9.
Diptychophora pyrsophanes, Meyr.
D. pyrsophanes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 11.
Diptychophora chrysochyta, Meyr.
D. chrysochyta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 12.
Diptychophora interruptus, Feld.
Crambus interruptus, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxv., fig. 15. Diptychophora astrosema, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 13. D. interrupta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 130.
Diptychophora lepidella, Walk.
Eromene lepidella, Walk., xxxv., p. 1761; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 558. Crambus gracilis, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 26. Diptychophora lepidella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 14.
Diptychophora leucoxantha, Meyr.
D. leucoxantha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 15.
Diptychophora metallifera, Butl.
Eromene metallifera, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 401, pl. xliii., fig. 11. Diptychophora metallifera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 15.
Diptychophora auriscriptella, Walk.
Eromene auriscriptella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 976; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 401, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 559. Diptychophora auriscriptella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 16.
Diptychophora helioctypa, Meyr.
D. helioctypa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 17.
Diptychophora elaina, Meyr.
D. elaina, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 17, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 132.
Diptychophora selenæa, Meyr.
D. selenœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 131.
Diptychophora holanthes, Meyr.
D. holanthes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 131.
Diptychophora bipunctella, Walk.
Eromene bipunctella, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1761; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. Diptychophora bipunctella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 132.
Diptychophora epiphæa, Meyr.
D. epiphœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 132.
Diptychophora harmonica, Meyr.
D. harmonica, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 71.
Orocrambus melampetrus, Meyr.
O. melampetrus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 133.
Orocrambus catacaustus, Meyr.
O. catacaustus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 67. Crambus catacaustus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 134.
Orocrambus tritonellus, Meyr.
O. tritonellus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 67. Crambus tritonellus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 134.
Orocrambus mylites, Meyr.
O. mylites, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 67.
Thinasotia claviferella, Walk.
Aquita claviferella, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1765. Aphomia strigosa, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 398, pl. xliii., fig. 10. Crambus strigosus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 31. Thinasotia claviferella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 69.
Tauroscopa gorgopis, Meyr.
T. gorgopis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p, 69.
Crambus æthonellus, Meyr.
C. œthonellus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 19.
Crambus corrupta, Butl.
Hypochalcia corrupta, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 399, pl. xliii., fig. 9. Crambus corruptus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 20.
Crambus ramosellus, Doubl.
C. ramosellus, Doubl., Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” vol. ii., p. 288; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18, and Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 400; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 21. C. rangona, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 25. Chilo leucanialis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 401.
Crambus angustipennis, Z.
Chilo angustipennis, Z., Hor. Ross., 1877, 15, pl. i., fig. 3. Crambus angustipennis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 22.
Crambus dicrenellus, Meyr.
C. dicrenellus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 22.
Crambus haplotomus, Meyr.
C. haplotomus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 22.
Crambus callirrhoüs, Meyr.
C. callirrhoüs, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 22.
Crambus simplex, Butl.
Chilo simplex, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 400, pl. xliii., fig. 12; Cist. Ent., ii., p. 558. Crambus simplex, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 24.
Crambus siriellus, Meyr.
C. siriellus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 25.
Crambus apicellus, Z.
C. apicellus, Z., Mon. Cr., 31, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 26.
Crambus vitellus, Doubl.
C. vitellus, Doubl., l.c., p. 289; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 27. C. nexalis, Walk., l.c., xxvii., p. 178; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18. C. transcissalis, Walk., l.c., xxvii., p. 178; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. C. sublicellus, Z., Mon. Cr., 31. C. bisectellus, ib., 32. C. incrassatellus, ib., 32. C. vapidus, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 399.
Crambus flexuosellus, Doubl.
C. flexuosellus, Doubl., l.c., p. 289; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 18, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 399, and Cist. Ent., ii., pp. 358 and 509; Feld., l.c., cxxxvii., fig. 32; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 28.
Crambus tuhualis, Feld.
C. tuhualis, Feld., l.c., cxxxvii., fig. 18; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 28. C. vulgaris, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 400, pl. xliii., fig. 7, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 558.
Crambus cyclopicus, Meyr.
C. cyclopicus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 29.
Crambus harpophorus, Meyr.
C. harpophorus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 30.
Crambus xanthogrammus, Meyr.
C. xanthogrammus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 32.
Crambus ephorus, Meyr.
C. ephorus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 135.
Crambus crenæus, Meyr.
C. crenœus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 135.
Crambus enchophorus, Meyr.
C. enchophorus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 136.
Crambus diplorrhous, Meyr.
C. diplorrhous, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 136.
Crambus pedias, Meyr.
C. pedias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 137.
Crambus paraxenus, Meyr.
C. paraxenus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 137.
Crambus sophronellus, Meyr.
C. sophronellus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 138.
Crambus oncobolus, Meyr.
C. oncobolus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 138.
Crambus heliotes, Meyr.
C. heliotes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 68.
Crambus isoclytus, Meyr.
C. isoclytus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 68.
Crocydopora cinigerella, Walk.
Nephopteryx cinigerella, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1719. N. stenopterella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1878, p. 200. Crocydopora cinigerella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 72.
Homœosoma vagella (?).
See Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 72.
Achrœa grisella, F.
A. grisella, F.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 73.
Dichelia luciplagana, Walk.
Pedisca luciplagana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 381; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 510. Dichelia luciplagana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 470, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 36.
Capua semiferana, Walk.
Teras semiferana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 306; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. Sciaphila detritana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 356; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 21. Tinea admotella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 485; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22. Grapholita abnegatana, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 991; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22. Capua semiferana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 453, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 37.
Pyrgotis plagiatana, Walk.
Conchylis plagiatana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 370; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22. C. recusana, l.c., xxviii., p. 371; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22. Grapholitha punana, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 43. (?) G. xylinana, ib., 44. Pyrgotis plagiatana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 38.
Pyrgotis zygiana, Meyr.
P. zygiana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 39.
Pyrgotis eudorana, Meyr.
P. eudorana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 143.
Pyrgotis plinthoglypta, Meyr.
P. plinthoglypta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiv., p. 218.
Adoxophyes lotinana, Meyr.
Ā., lotinana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 40.
Adoxophyes conditana, Walk.
Teras conditana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 306; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. Pandemis gavisana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 312; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 20. Conchylis marginana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 371; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22. (?) Rhacodia rureana, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 47. Teras flavescens, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 402. Pyrgotis porphyreana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 443. Capua aoristana, ib, p. 446. Adoxophyes conditana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 40.
Adoxophyes camelina, Meyr.
A. camelina, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 97.
Proselena aspistana, Meyr.
P. aspistana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 42.
Proselena hemionana, Meyr.
P. hemionana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 43.
Proselena siriana, Meyr.
P. siriana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 43.
Proselena elephantina, Meyr.
P. elephantina, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 143.
Proselena eremana, Meyr.
P. eremana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 144.
Proselena loxias, Meyr.
P. loxias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 74.
Proselena eribola, Meyr.
P. eribola, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 156.
Proselena zatrophana, Meyr.
Harmologa zatrophana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 46. Proselena zatrophana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 144.
Harmologa sisyrana, Meyr.
H. sisyrana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 44.
Harmologa oblongana, Walk.
Teras oblongana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 303; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. Cacœcia oblongana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 489. Teras inaptana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 304; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. T. cuneigera, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 559. Harmologa oblongana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 45, and xvii., p. 144.
Harmologa ænea, Butl.
Teras œnea, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 402. Harmologa œnea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 46.
Harmologa amplexana, Z.
Idiographis (?) amplexana, Z., z. b. V., 1875, p. 222. Cacœcia amplexana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 494. C. vilis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 402, pl. xliii., fig. 15; ib., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 559. Harmologa amplexana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 47.
Harmologa latomana, Meyr.
H. latomana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 145.
Harmologa sirea, Meyr.
H. sirea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 145.
Ctenopseustris obliquana, Walk.
Teras obliquana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 302; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. T. spurcatana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 305; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. Cacœcia obliquana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 487. Sciaphila transtrigana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 354; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 21. S. turbulentana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 355; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 21. Teras cuneiferana, Walk., xxxv., p. 1780; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 20. Tortrix ropeana, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 45. T. herana, ib., fig. 52; (?) Teras congestana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 308; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 20. Pœdisca obliquana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 60. Ctenopseustris obliquana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 146.
Cacœcia excessana, Walk.
Teras excessana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 303; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. Cacœcia excessana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 491. Teras biguttana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 305; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. Tortrix taipana, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 46. Cacœcia inana, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 403, pl. xliii., fig. 13. C. excessana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 48.
Cacœcia enoplana, Meyr.
C. enoplana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 49.
Cacœcia alopecana, Meyr.
C. alopecana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 147.
Cacœcia astrologana, Meyr.
C. astrologana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 156.
Tortrix charactana, Meyr.
Cacœcia charactana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 492. Tortrix charactana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 50.
Tortrix demiana, Meyr.
T. demiana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 51.
Tortrix pictoriana, Feld.
Grapholitha pictoriana, Feld., l c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 55. Tortrix pictoriana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 51.
Tortrix philopoana, Meyr.
T. philopoana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 515; ib., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 52.
Tortrix leucaniana, Walk.
Conchylis leucaniana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 370; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22. Tortrix leucaniana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 517, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 53. Gelechia intactella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 652; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z, p. 23. Teras pauculana, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1781; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 20.
Tortrix aërodana, Meyr.
T. aërodana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 22.
Dipterina jactatana, Walk.
Batodes jactatana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 317; Butl. Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 21. Sciaphila flexivittana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 353; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 21. Pœdisca privatana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 382; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22. Grapholitha voluta, Feld., l.c., pl. cxxxvii., fig. 39. Dipterina jactatana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 54.
Dipterina incessana, Walk.
Teras incessana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 304; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 19. Arotrophora incessana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 529. Dipterina incessana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 55.
Dipterina imbriferana, Meyr.
D. imbriferana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 527, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 55.
Eurythecta robusta, Butl.
Zelotherses (?) robusta, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 403, pl. xliii., fig. 17. Steganoptycha (?) negligens, ib., p. 404, pl. xliii., fig. 18. Eurythecta robusta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 56.
Prothelymna nephelotana, Meyr.
P. nephelotana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 57.
Epalxiphora axenana, Meyr.
E. axenana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 648, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 58.
Bactra lanceolana, Hb.
Aphelia lanceolana, Hb., Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 59.
Carpocapsa pomonella, L.
C. pomonella, L.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 61.
Protithona fugitivana, Meyr.
P. fugitivana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 62.
Noteraula straminea, Meyr.
N. straminea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiv., p. 217. Chiloides straminea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 142.
Strepsicrates ejectana, Walk.
Sciaphila ejectana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 350. Strepsiceros ejectana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 681, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 63. (?) Sciaphila absconditana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 351. S. servilisana, ib., p. 356; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 21. S. saxana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 357; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 21. Conchylis ligniferana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 363.
Strepsicrates zopherana, Meyr.
Strepsiceros zopherana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 688, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 64.
Strepsicrates charopa, Meyr.
S. charopa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 73.
Strepsicrates parthenia, Meyr.
S. parthenia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 73.
Hendecasticha æthaliana, Meyr.
H. œthaliana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 692, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 64.
Exoria mochlophorana, Meyr.
E. mochlophorana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 65.
Heterocrossa adreptella, Walk.
Gelechia adreptella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 654; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 23. Paramorpha adreptella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1881, p. 698. Heterocrossa adreptella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 66.
H. gonosemana, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., p. 67.
Heterocrossa cryodana, Meyr.
H. cryodana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 148.
Heterocrossa epomiana, Meyr.
H. epomiana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 149.
Heterocrossa exochana, Meyr.
H. exochana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 76.
Heterocrossa eriphylla, Meyr.
H. eriphylla, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx. p. 76.
Heterocrossa charaxias, Meyr.
H. charaxias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 98.
Isonomeutis amauropa, Meyr.
I. amauropa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 75.
Megacraspedus calamogonus, Meyr.
M. calamogonus, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 163.
Isochasta paradesma, Meyr.
I. paradesma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 163.
Thiotricha tetraphala, Meyr.
T. tetraphala, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 164.
Thiotricha thorybodes, Meyr.
T. thorybodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 164.
Scieropepla typhicola, Meyr.
S. typhicola, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 165.
Gelechia solanella, Boisd.
Bryotropha solanella, Boisd., J. B. Soc. Centr. Hort., 1874; Ragonot, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., v., pp. xxxv., xxxvii.; Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1879, p. 112, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 166. Gelechia terrella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 1024.
Gelechia thyraula, Meyr.
G. thyraula, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 167.
Gelechia brontophora, Meyr.
G. brontophora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 168.
Gelechia schematica, Meyr.
G. schematica, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 168
Gelechia paraplura, Meyr.
G. paraplura, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 168.
Gelechia pharetria, Meyr.
G. pharetria, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 169.
Gelechia monophragma, Meyr.
G. monophragma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 169.
Gelechia lithodes, Meyr.
G. lithodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 170.
Gelechia achyrota, Meyr.
G. achyrota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 170.
Anisoplaca ptyoptera, Meyr.
A. ptyoptera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 171.
Epiphthora melanombra, Meyr.
E. melanombra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 77.
Phæosaces compsotypa, Meyr.
P. compsotypa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 172.
Phæosaces apocrypta, Meyr.
P. apocrypta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 172.
Phæosaces liochroa, Meyr.
P. liochroa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 98.
Nymphostola galactina, Feld.
Cryptolechia galactina, Feld., l.c., pl. cxl., fig. 34; Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 406, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 511. Nymphostola galactina, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 6.
Proteodes carnifex, Butl.
Cryptolechia carnifex, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 406. Proteodes carnifex, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, p. 493, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 6. Cryptolechia rufosparsa, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 406.
Eulechria zophoëssa, Meyr.
E. zophoëssa, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, p. 515, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 8.
Eulechria photinella, Meyr.
E. photinella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, p. 541, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 9.
Atomotricha ommatias, Meyr.
A. ommatias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 10.
Brachysara sordida, Butl.
œcophora sordida, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 405. Brachysara sordida, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 11.
Phlæopola dinocosma, Meyr.
P. dinocosma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 12.
Trachypepla leucoplanetis, Meyr.
T. leucoplanetis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 14.
Trachypepla euryleucota, Meyr.
T. euryleucota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 14.
Trachypepla conspicuella, Walk.
Gelechia conspicuella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 651; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 23, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 560. G. taongella, Feld., l.c., pl. cxl., fig. 450. Trachypepla conspicuella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 15.
Trachypepla spartodeta, Meyr.
T. spartodeta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 16.
Trachypepla nyctopis, Meyr.
T. nyctopis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 16.
Trachypepla galaxias, Meyr.
T. galaxias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 17.
Trachypepla hieropis, Meyr.
T. hieropis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiv., p. 218.
Trachypepla protochlora, Meyr.
T. protochlora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 18.
Trachypepla aspidephora, Meyr.
T. aspidephora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 19.
Trachypepla anastrella, Meyr.
T. anastrella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 19.
Trachypepla lichenodes, Meyr.
T. lichenodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 20.
Aschleta psychra, Meyr.
A. psychra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 21.
Peltophora amenena, Meyr.
P. amenena, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 78.
Semiocosma mystis, Meyr.
S. mystis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 79.
Semiocosma peroneanella, Walk.
Gelechia peroneanella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 658; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 510. Cryptolechia lichenella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 769; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24. œcophora huttonii, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 511. Semiocosma peroneanella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 22.
Semiocosma picarella, Walk.
œcophora picarella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 699; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 561. Psecadia teras, Feld., l.c., pl. cxl., fig. 28. Semiocosma picarella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 23.
Semiocosma epiphanes, Meyr.
S. epiphanes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 24.
Semiocosma prasophyta, Meyr.
S. prasophyta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 25.
Semiocosma austera, Meyr.
S. austera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 25.
Semiocosma apodoxa, Meyr.
S. apodoxa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 79.
Semiocosma platyptera, Meyr.
S. platyptera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 80.
Semiocosma caustopa, Meyr.
S. caustopa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiv., p. 219.
Semiocosma paraneura, Meyr.
S. paraneura, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiv., p. 219.
Lathicrossa leucocentra, Meyr.
L. leucocentra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 26.
Thamnosara chirista, Meyr.
T. chirista, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 27.
Gymnobathra coarctatella, Walk.
Cryptolechia coarctatella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 768; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24. Gymnobathra coarctatella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 28.
Gymnobathra sarcoxantha, Meyr.
G. sarcoxantha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 29.
Gymnobathra parca, Butl.
œcophora parca, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 405. Gymnobathra parca, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 29.
Gymnobathra tholodella, Meyr.
G. tholodella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 30.
Gymnobathra calliploca, Meyr.
G. calliploca, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 30.
Gymnobathra flavidella, Walk.
Gelechia flavidella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 655; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 23. œcophora utuella, Feld., l.c., pl. cxl., fig. 46. œ. flavidella, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 560. Gymnobathra flavidella, Meyr., Trans., N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 31.
Gymnobathra hamatella, Walk.
œcophora hamatella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 700; Butl., Cat., Lep. N.Z., p. 24. Gymnobathra hamatella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 31.
Gymnobathra hyetodes, Meyr.
G. hyetodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 32.
Gymnobathra philadelpha, Meyr.
G. philadelpha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 33.
Gymnobathra habropis, Meyr.
G. habropis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 80.
Gymnobathra omphalota, Meyr.
G. omphalota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 81.
œcophora pseudospretella, Stainton.
œ. pseudospretella, Stainton; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 34.
œcophora scholæa, Meyr.
œ. scholœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 35, and xxi., p. 187.
œcophora letharga, Meyr.
œ. letharga, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 35.
œcophora chloritis, Meyr.
œ. chloritis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 36.
œcophora epimylia, Meyr.
œ. epimylia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 36.
œcophora contextella, Walk.
Gelechia contextella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 656; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 23. œcophora contextella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 37.
œcophora hemimochla, Meyr.
œ. hemimochla, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 38.
œcophora griseata, Butl.
œ. griseata, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 405; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 39.
œcophora phegophylla, Meyr.
œ. phegophylla, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 39.
œcophora oporæa, Meyr.
œ. oporœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 40.
œcophora horæa, Meyr.
œ. horœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 40.
œcophora armigerella, Walk.
œ. armigerella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 698; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 41.
œcophora apanthes, Meyr.
œ. apanthes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 41.
œcophora anæma, Meyr.
œ. anœma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 42.
œcophora macarella, Meyr.
œ. macarella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 43.
œcophora homodoxa, Meyr.
œ. homodoxa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 43.
œcophora siderodeta, Meyr.
œ. siderodeta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 43.
œcophora hoplodesma, Meyr.
œ. hoplodesma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 44.
œcophora chrysogramma, Meyr.
œ. chrysogramma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 44.
œcophora politis, Meyr.
œ. politis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 81, and xxi., p. 187.
œcophora nycteris, Meyr.
œ. nycteris, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii., p. 219.
Cremnogenes oxyina, Meyr.
C. oxyina, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 45.
Cremnogenes aphrontis, Meyr.
C. aphrontis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 46.
Cremnogenes siderota, Meyr.
C. siderota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 82.
Heliostibes illita, Feld.
Atychia illita, Feld., l.c., pl. cxl., fig. 32. Heliostibes illita, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 83.
Heliostibes atychioides, Butl.
Tachyptilia atychioides, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 405, pl. xliii., fig. 14. Heliostibes atychioides, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 83.
Heliostibes electrica, Meyr.
H. electrica, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 157.
Simæthis microlitha, Meyr.
S. microlitha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 84.
Simæthis marmarea, Meyr.
S. marmarea, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 85.
Simæthis symbolæa, Meyr.
S. symbolœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 85.
Glyphipteryx zelota, Meyr.
G. zelota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 86.
Glyphipteryx acronoma, Meyr.
G. acronoma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 86.
Glyphipteryx leptosema, Meyr.
G. leptosema, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 87.
Glyphipteryx nephoptera, Meyr.
G. nephoptera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 87.
Phryganostola ataracta, Meyr.
P. ataracta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 88.
Circica cionophora, Meyr.
C. cionophora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 88.
Circica xestobela, Meyr.
C. xestobela, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 89.
Pantosperma holochalca, Meyr.
P. holochalca, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 89.
Protosynæma eratopis, Meyr.
P. eratopis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 174.
Protosynæma steropucha, Meyr.
P. steropucha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 174.
Orthenches chlorocoma, Meyr.
O. chlorocoma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 175.
Orthenches prasinodes, Meyr.
O. prasinodes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 176.
Orthenches porphyritis, Meyr.
O. porphyritis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 176.
Plutella cruciferarum, Z.
P. cruciferarum, Z.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 177.
Plutella sera, Meyr.
P. sera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 178.
Plutella psammochroa, Meyr.
P. psammochroa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 179.
Compsistis bifaciella, Walk.
Gelechia bifaciella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 657; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24. Compsistis bifaciella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 90.
Mnesarchæa paracosma, Meyr.
M. paracosma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 180.
Mnesarchæa loxoscia, Meyr.
M. loxoscia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 90.
Mnesarchæa hamadelpha, Meyr.
M. hamadelpha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 91.
Palæomicra chalcophanes, Meyr.
P. chalcophanes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 182.
Palæomicra chrysargyra, Meyr.
P. chrysargyra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 182.
Palæomicra zonodoxa, Meyr.
P. zonodoxa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 91.
Palæomicra doroxena, Meyr.
P. doroxena, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 92.
Eutoma caryochroa, Meyr.
E. caryochroa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 158.
Eutoma symmorpha, Meyr.
E. symmorpha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 158.
Dolichernis chloroleuca, Meyr.
D. chloroleuca, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 99.
Ereunetis technica, Meyr.
E. technica, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 92.
Erechthias melanotricha, Meyr.
E. melanotricha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 93.
Erechthias erebistis, Meyr.
E. erebistis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiv., p. 220.
D. monastra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 100.
Endophthora omogramma, Meyr.
E. omogramma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 94.
Endophthora pharotoma, Meyr.
E. pharotoma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 94.
Endophthora mesotypa, Meyr.
E. mesotypa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 94.
Endophthora agriopa, Meyr.
E. agriopa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 95.
Habrophila compseuta, Meyr.
H. compseuta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 161.
Sagephora phortegella, Meyr.
S. phortegella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 96.
Sagephora steropastis, Meyr.
S. steropastis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 100.
Blabophanes ethelella, Newman.
Tinea ethelella, Newm., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., iii. (N.S.), 288. T. rectella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 482; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22, also Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 404, and Cist. Ent., ii., p. 560. Blabophanes namuella, Feld., l.c., pl. cxl., fig. 44. B. ethelella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 97.
Blabophanes ferruginella, Hübn.
B. ferruginella, Hübn.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 97.
Blabophanes ornithias, Meyr.
B. ornithias, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 97.
Tinea tapetiella, L.
T. tapetiella (tapetzella), L. T. palœstrica, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 404. T. tapetiella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 98.
Tinea grammocosma, Meyr.
T. grammocosma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 98.
Tinea belonota, Meyr.
T. belonota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 99.
Tinea certella, Walk.
T. certella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 484; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 22; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 99.
Tinea mochlota, Meyr.
T. mochlota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 100.
Tinea fuscipunctella, Hw.
T. fuscipunctella, Hw.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 100.
Tinea terranea, Butl.
T. terranea, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 510; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 100.
Tineola, H. S.
Tineola biselliella, Hüm.
T. biselliella, Hüm.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 101.
Scoriodyta conisalia, Meyr.
S. conisalia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 102.
Mallobathra cratæa, Meyr.
M. cratœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 102.
Mallobathra metrosema, Meyr.
M. metrosema, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 103.
Mallobathra microphanes, Meyr.
M. microphanes, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 103.
Mallobathra homalopa, Meyr.
M. homalopa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 100.
Titanomis sisyrota, Meyr.
T. sisyrota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 104.
Lysiphragma mixochlora, Meyr.
L. mixochlora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 105.
Lysiphragma epixyla, Meyr.
L. epixyla, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 105.
Archyala paraglypta, Meyr.
A. paraglypta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 159.
Endrosis lacteella, Schiff.
E. lacteella, Schiff. Gelechia subditella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 657; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24. (?) G. adapertella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 653; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 23. Endrosis lacteella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 160.
Butalis epistrota, Meyr.
B. epistrota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 161.
Hofmannia sphenota, Meyr.
H. sphenota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 162.
Circostola copidota, Meyr.
C. copidota, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 163.
Cateristis eustyla, Meyr.
C. eustyla, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 164.
Bedellia somnulentella, Z.
B. somnulentella, Z.; Stainton, Man. Brit. Butt. and Moths, ii., p. 395; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 164.
Bedellia psamminella, Meyr.
B. psamminella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 165.
Family Elachistidæ, St.
Vanicela disjunctella, Walk.
V. disjunctella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 1039; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 166.
Vanicela xenadelpha, Meyr.
V. xenadelpha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 166.
Stathmopoda holochra, Meyr.
S. holochra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 168.
Stathmopoda phlegra, Meyr.
S. phlegra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 168.
Stathmopoda campylocha, Meyr.
S. campylocha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 168.
Stathmopoda skelloni, Butl.
Boocara skelloni, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 562. Stathmopoda skelloni, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 169.
Stathmopoda epichlora, Meyr.
S. epichlora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 169.
Stathmopoda caminora, Meyr.
S. caminora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx., p. 219.
Calicotis crucifera, Meyr.
C. crucifera, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 170.
Thylacosceles acridomima, Meyr.
T. acridomima, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 171.
Zapyrastra calliphana, Meyr.
Z. calliphana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 172.
Limnœcia phragmitella, Stainton.
Laverna phragmitella, Stt., l.c., ii., p. 397. Limnœcia phragmitella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 173.
Syntomactis deamatella, Walk.
Gelechia deamatella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 654; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 23. Syntomactis deamatella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 173.
Proterocosma apparitella, Walk.
Gelechia apparitella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 1027; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 24. Proterocosma apparitella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 174.
Proterocosma aëllotricha, Meyr.
P. aëllotricha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi., p. 175.
Proterocosma anarithma, Meyr.
P. anarithma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 175.
Elachista melanura, Meyr.
E. melanura, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 177.
Elachista gerasmia, Meyr.
E. gerasmia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 177.
Elachista thallophora, Meyr.
E. thallophora, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 178.
Elachista helonoma, Meyr.
E. helonoma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 178.
Elachista exaula, Meyr.
E. exaula, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 178.
Elachista ombrodoca, Meyr.
E. ombrodoca, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 179.
Elachista archæonoma, Meyr.
E. archœonoma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 179.
Batrachedra eucola, Meyr.
B. eucola, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 180.
Batrachedra arenosella, Walk.
Gracilaria arenosella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 857; Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z., p. 85. Batrachedra arenosella, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 181.
Batrachedra psithyra, Meyr.
B. psithyra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 181.
Gracilaria chrysitis, Feld.
G. chrysitis, Feld., l.c., pl. cxl. G. adelina, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1880, p. 142. G. rutilans, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 561. G. chrysitis, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 183.
Gracilaria chalcodelta, Meyr.
G. chalcodelta, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 183.
Gracilaria linearis, Butl.
G. linearis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 406, pl. xliii., fig. 16; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 183.
Gracilaria leucocyma, Meyr.
G. leucocyma, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 184.
Gracilaria aëllomacha, Meyr.
G. aëllomacha, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 184.
Gracilaria æthalota, Meyr.
G. œthalota, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1880, p. 143, and Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 185.
Coriscium miniellum, Feld.
C. miniellum, Feld., l.c., pl. cxl.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 185. Gracilaria ethela, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1880, p. 152.
Conopomorpha cyanospila, Meyr.
C. cyanospila, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 183.
Nepticula tricentra, Meyr.
N. tricentra, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 187.
Nepticula ogygia, Meyr.
N. ogygia, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 187.
Nepticula propalæa, Meyr.
N. propalœa, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi., p. 187.
Mr. Meyrick, in “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” vol. xvi., p. 108, refers to the following species of Geometrina in these words: “The following have been described or figured as New Zealand species, and are not yet identified; probably most are synonyms of species previously described; a few seem to have been recorded in error; there may, perhaps, be two or three additional species among them”:—
Ennomos ustaria, Walk.
Ischalis thermochromata, Walk.
Panagra hypenaria, Guén.
Panagra promelanaria, Walk.
Panagra venipunctata, Walk.
Aspilates euboliaria, Walk.
Larentia subductata, Walk.
Larentia infusata, Walk.
Larentia lucidata, Walk.
Larentia (?) quadristrigata, Walk.; Larentia interclusa, Walk.
Coremia robustaria, Walk.
Coremia plurimata, Walk.
Coremia (?) inductata, Walk.
Camptogramma correlata, Walk.
Phibalapteryx suppressaria, Walk.
Scotosia denotata, Walk.; Scotosia humerata, Walk.; Phibalapteryx parvulata, Walk.
Scotosia subobscurata, Walk.
Scotosia subitata, Walk.
Cidaria (?) rudisata, Walk.
Chalastra pellurgata, Walk.
Cidaria ascotata, Feld.
Cidaria adonata, Feld.
Microdes toriata, Feld.
Cidaria semilineata, Feld.
Larentia (?) falcata, Butl.
Coremia heliacaria, Guén.
Melanthia arida, Butl.
Coremia casta, Butl.
But in vol. xvii., pp. 66 and 67, he identifies—
91 with Lyrcea alectoraria, Walk.
95 with Larentia psamathodes, Meyr.
96 with Aspilates subocharia, Walk.
99 and 102 with Larentia psamathodes, Meyr.
103, 106, and 108 with Pasiphila bilineolata, Walk.
107 with Larentia petropola, Meyr.
110 with Azelina streptophora, Meyr.
117 with Cidaria chaotica, Meyr.
And he notes as distinct species the following—
97. Larentia subductata, Walk.
100. Larentia quadristrigata, Walk. = Larentia interclusa, Walk.
105. Phibalapteryx suppressaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1721.
115. Larentia falcata, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., p. 501.
The following have been recorded as New Zealand species, but Mr. Meyrick has been unable to identify them as such:—
Pielus hyalinatus, Herr. Schœff.
Politeia junctilinea, Walk., l.c., xxxii., p. 643.
Alysia specifica, Guén., Ent. Mo. Mag., v., p. 3.
|Nitocris limbosa, Guén.|
|Nitocris exundans, Guén.||idem, p. 5.|
|Notocris nuna, Guén.|
|Notocris epiplecta, Guén.||idem, p. 6.|
Xylocampa inceptura, Walk., l.c., xv., p. 1736
Xylina canescens, Walk., l.c., xxiii., p. 757.
Hymenia recurvalis, Fabr.
Ischnurges illustralis, Ld., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii., pl. 15, fig. 12.
Mecyna polygonalis, Treits.
Scoparia minualis, Walk., l.c., xxxiv., p. 1504.
Panagra hypenaria, Guén., Phal., ii., pp. 128, 1125.
Panagra promelanaria, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1666.
Larentia infusata, Walk., l.c., xxiv., p. 1199.
Scoparia objurgalis, Guén., 425, pl. x., fig. 10.
Scoparia australialis, Guén., 426.
Eupithecia inexpiata, Walk., l.c., xxvi., p. 1708.
Coremia robustaria, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1320.
Camptogramma correlata, Walk., l.c., xxv., p. 1330.
Nephopteryx subditella, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1720.
Teras punctilineana, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1780.
Teras (?) abjectana, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1781.
Teras contractana, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1782.
Teras servana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 306.
Teras priscana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 3.
Teras antiquana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 3.
Teras (?) maoriana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 308.
Teras (?) accensana, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 983.
Tortrix innotatana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 333.
Sciaphila fusiferana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 355.
Sciaphila spoliatana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 356.
Sciaphila infimana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 357.
Olindia (?) vetustana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 358.
Pedisca morosana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 382.
Argua scabra, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 448.
Simæthis combinatana, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 456.
Simæthis (?) abstitella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 997.
Tinea flavifrontella, L.
Endosis fenestrella, (?).
Tinea tapetzella, L.
Tinea contactella, Walk., l.c., xxxv., p. 1813.
Tinea plagiatella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 485.
Tinea derogatella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 485.
Tinea bisignella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 1007.
Tinea pusilella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 1008.
Tinea maoriella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 1008.
Incurvaria basella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 492.
Sabatica incongruella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 511.
Cerostoma terminella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 548.
Cerostoma fulguritella, Walk., l.c., xxviii., p. 548.
Gelechia innotella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 652.
Gelechia monospilella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 653.
Gelechia sublitella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 654.
Gelechia collitella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 655.
Gelechia convulsella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 656.
Gelechia contextella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 656.
Gelechia contritella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 657.
Gelechia copiosella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 1028.
œcophora apertella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 698.
œcophora ademptella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 698.
Cryptolechia colligatella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 768.
Izatha attractella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 787.
Tingena bifaciella, Walk., l.c., xxix., p. 810.
Glyphypteryx externella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 841.
Glyphypteryx scintelella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 841.
Argyresthia transversella, Walk., l.c., xxx., 849.
Argyresthia stibella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 849.
Gracilaria frontella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 856.
Elachista subpavonella, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 898.
Pterophorus deprivatalis, Walk., l.c., xxx., p. 946.