Art. XVII.—The Grasshoppers and Loccusts of New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st September, 1897.]
No part of the insect fauna of New Zealand has been more neglected than the grasshoppers. Up to 1881 only four species had been described, and two of these are, I believe, identical. In 1884 H. de Saussure added another to the list, and there it has remained up to the present time.
Thirty years ago, when I came to New Zealand, the Acrididœ were in myriads all over the open country, but now they require looking for in almost all the cultivated districts where introduced birds are common, while in the neighbourhood of the large towns they are practically extinct; and, if any record is to be made of them before they vanish, it is quite time that some one should take it in hand. For our grasshoppers do not take to the introduced plants, and they avoid cultivated fields, but keep almost entirely to the native vegetation, on land that has not been disturbed by the plough. During the last seven years I have obtained as many specimens as I could from all parts of New Zealand. My own opportunities for collecting are now very few, and I have had to trust largely to others; especially I have to thank Mr. G. V. Hudson for sending me several very interesting insects from the Districts of Nelson, Marlborough, and Wellington, and Mr. Herbert Clarke for presenting his collection of Orthoptera to the Museum.
In the present paper twelve species are added to the list, thus bringing the total number up to sixteen; and I have also included the single species which has been described from the Kermadec Islands, for these now form part of New Zealand.
It is a remarkable fact that there are no grasshoppers in the Chatham Islands. Mr. Fougère informs me that about twelve years ago he saw one of a smoky-brown colour and
able to fly: probably it was a specimen of Pachytylus migratoroides.
I do not feel certain that I have correctly determined Brunner's genera Phaulacridium and Trigoniza, for not only has he neither described nor indicated any species belonging to them, but he has never even given full generic descriptions. However, I think it better to use these names provisionally than to make new ones.
Tarsi four-jointed; antennæ long and setaceous; ovipositor of the female generally elongated.
Family Locustid æ.
Tarsi depressed; anterior tibiæ with auditory pits.
|Fastigium narrow, low, divided by a transverse groove||Cœdicia.|
|Fastigium broad, rounded, ascending||Xiphidium.|
|Fastigium forming a spine between the antennæ||Agrœcia.|
First and second joints of the tarsi rounded on the sides.
Genus Cædicia, Stål. (1874.)
Fastigium of the vertex more or less separated from the frontal costa. Pronotum flat above. Fore coxæ spined; knee-lobes of the femora bidentate; anterior tibiæ with both auditory pits open. Subgenital plate of the male large, bilobed, the cerci long and incurved. Ovipositor of the female short, compressed, curved upwards.
Distribution.—Australia, Amboina, Tongatabu, and West Africa.
Cædicia olivacea, Brunner, Mon. der Phaneropteriden, p. 193 (1878). Xiphidium maoricum, Hudson, Man. Entomology of N.Z., p. 114, pl. xvii., fig. 1 (1892), not of Walker.
Green when alive, generally turning brown when dry. Disc of the pronotum with parallel sides, its side lobes rounded, deepest in the middle. Anterior radial vein of the elytra branched a little before the middle. Lobes of the meso-and meta-sterna triangular. Hind femora armed below with six small spines on the inner margin and seven or eight on the outer. Fore tibiæ sulcate above, armed below with five spines on the outer (anterior) margin and three on the inner (poserior) margin, in addition to the apical spines; unarmed above. Middle tibiæ armed below with eight or nine spines on the outer (anterior) and six on the inner (posterior) margin; above with one spine behind the middle. Subgenital plate in the female rounded, emarginate.
Length of the body, 19–20 mm.; of the pronotum, 5–6 mm.; of the elytra, ♂ 33 mm., ♀ 26 mm.; of the hind femora, 18–19 mm.; of the ovipositor, 3 mm. Greatest breadth of the elytron, 7·5 mm.
Localities.—Auckland and Nelson. Found also in New South Wales and Queensland.
In our insects the elytra are narrow, as in C. porrecta, while the lobes of the pronotum and the ovipositor resemble those of C. olivacea; nevertheless, I think it has been introduced into New Zealand, for, although it is a very conspicuous species, none of the earlier collectors sent specimens to the British Museum. Probably it was introduced into Nelson in the early days of the gold-diggings, and taken from there to Auckland.
Fastigium free, prominent; fore tibiæ not grooved on the sides; first and second joints of the tarsi grooved on the sides.
Genus Xiphidium, Serville. (1839.)
Head rather large, the fastigium forming a rounded elevation between the antennæ. Pronotum short. Fore and middle tibiæ very finely spinulose, the hind tibiæ with two rows of fine spines above; auditory pits rimate. Elytra narrow, rounded at the tip, sometimes rudimentary. Subanal plate in the male large and forked, in the female convex and pointed. Ovipositor long, nearly straight.
Distribution.—Widely spread in both hemispheres.
Decticus semivittatus, Walker, Cat. Dermap. Salt, in Brit. Mus., ii., p. 263 (1869). Xiphidium maoricum, Walker, l.c., p. 276 (1869); not Hudson, Man. Ent. of N.Z. Xiphidium antipodum, Scudder, Pro. Bost. Soc. of Nat. Hist., xvii., p. 460 (1875). (?) Xiphidium vittatum, Redtenbacher (part), Verh. zool.-bot. Gesell., Wien., 1891, p. 513. Xiphidium geniculare, Redtenbacher, l.c., p. 527.
Green when alive, brown when dry; a broad reddishbrown median stripe, bordered with pale-yellow, on the vertex. This stripe is sometimes continued on to the pronotum, but more often it divides into two, which pass along each side of the pronotum, and are generally continued as interrupted bands on the sides of the abdomen. Fastigium broad, the lateral margins distinctly diverging. Pronotum with a faint medio-dorsal impressed line. Prosternum with two spines. Elytra and wings generally developed in the male, rudimentary in the female, the elytra with a darkbrown costal stripe. Hind femur fuscous at the apex; the
knee-lobes, on both sides, bidentate; armed below on the outer margin with four or five minute and distant spines. Fore and middle tibiæ with five spines below, on each side, in addition to the apical spines. Subgenital lamina of the male truncated, that of the female emarginate. Ovipositor slender, as long as the abdomen.
Length of the body, ♂ 14–17 mm., ♀ 15–19 mm.; of the pronotum, ♂ 3–3·5 mm., ♀ 3·5–4 mm.; of the elytra, ♂ 21 mm.; of the hind femur, ♂ 17 mm., ♀ 14–17 mm.; of the ovipositor, 11–12 mm.
Localities.—Auckland, Lower Waikato, and Taranaki districts. Perhaps identical with X. bilineatum, Erichson (1842), from Tasmania.
The elytra of the male reach far beyond the end of the abdomen, and the wings are still longer. I have seen no female with well-developed wings, but Walker describes one under the name of X. maoricum. The first joint of the hind tarsi have no lateral appendages, and Walker was therefore wrong in putting this species into Decticus. Redtenbacher gives Aru Island and New Zealand as the localities for his X. vittatum, and Moluccas and New Zealand as the localities for his X. geniculare, which, except in colour and length of elytra, seems to be identical with vittatum. I think that there is only one species in New Zealand, and suspect that there are some errors in his localities.
Genus Agræcia, Serville. (1839.)
Head large, face oblique; fastigium forming a spine between the antennæ. Disc of the pronotum flat, feebly keeled laterally. Prosternum with two spines. Elytra linear, rather longer than the wings; first radial vein forked beyond the middle, its two branches also forked; second radial with one fork. All the femora and tibiæ with many small spines; the posterior tibiæ keeled above and with strong spines. Auditory pits oval. Ovipositor shorter than the abdomen, compressed, strongly curved upwards.
Distribution.—Widely spread in both hemispheres.
Agræcia solida, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. in Brit. Mus., part ii., p. 295 (1869).
Male: Testaceous, stout, nearly cylindrical. Head and prothorax thinly punctured. Head hardly broader than the prothorax; an acute spine between the eyes; front scabrous, piceous; face and labrum black; face pale, testaceous towards the tip. Eyes very prominent. Palpi pale, testaceous; fourth joint of the maxillary palpi much shorter than the third; fifth subclavate, truncate, much longer than the third. Antennæ about twice the length of the body. Prothorax
with two slight curved transverse furrows; hind border slightly elongated, much rounded. Prosternum, mesosternum, and metasternum with a black curved band on each. Prosternum with two spines. Apical appendages of the abdomen consisting of two short obtuse teeth above, of two slender obtuse slightly-curved spines beneath, and with two intermediate thick obtuse slightly-curved spines. Legs stout; fore coxæ with one spine; femora and tibiæ with small black-tipped spines; fore femora with five spines on the outer side and with six on the inner side; middle femora with six spines on the outer side and with two on the inner side; hind femora with a single row of ten spines; fore tibiæ with six spines on each side; middle tibiæ with ten spines on the outer side and with fewer on the inner side; hind tibiæ with four rows of spines, two with twelve or thirteen spines each and two with six or seven. Wings not extending beyond the abdomen. Fore-wings irregularly and very thickly reticulated, unspotted; costa much rounded, except towards the tip. Hind-wings pellucid; veins pale testaceous. Female: Ovipositor piceous, curved, much shorter than the abdomen. Length of the body, 57–63 mm.; of the wings, 88–105 mm. (Walker).
Sunday Island, Kermadec.
I have seen no specimen of this species.
Tarsi three-jointed, those of the hind legs like the others. Antennæ shorter than the length of the body. Auditory organs (tympana) situated on the sides of the first abdominal segment. Female without an elongated ovipositor.
Prosternum armed with a strong blunt spine. Pronotum generally punctate or rugose, the three transverse sulci usually continuous over the dorsum, the lateral lobes longer than deep, the posterior lateral angles obtuse.
The Maori name for these insects is “mawitiwiti.”
|a. Pronotum rounded above||Pezotettix.|
|b. Pronotum flattened above.|
|a1. External margin of hind tibia with nine or ten spines.|
|a2. Hind femora without an apical tooth||Sigaus.|
|b2. Hind femora with a small apical tooth above||Phaulacridium.|
|b1. External margins of hind tibia with eight spines.|
|c2. Vertex deflexed, fastigium passing into the frontal costa||Paprides.|
|d2. Vertex not deflexed, fastigium distinct from the frontal costa||Trigoniza.|
Genus Sigaus, genus novum.
Head with the fastigium very slightly deflexed, the margins raised and confluent at the apex; face oblique; frontal costa rather narrow, slightly grooved, with parallel sides, indistinct on the lower part of the face; cheek carinæ slightly developed, straight. Antennæ longer than the head and pronotum, flattened, slightly clavate; composed of 24 joints, of which the second is much shorter than the first, the fourth joint the shortest; from the 11th to the 17th they are rather longer than broad, the rest are broader than long. Antennal fossæ very deep. Pronotum flat above, expanding posteriorly, the two anterior transverse sulci obliterated on the back; the posterior sulcus slightly sinuated, bending backward from the median carina, and then forward to the lateral carinæ. Prosternal spine rounded, blunt at the point. Lobes of the metasternum in the female nearly as wide apart as those of the mesosternum, the space between the last broader than long, its sides rather diverging and rounded. Elytra and wings rudimentary, widely separated. Posterior femora passing slightly the end of the abdomen, unarmed at the apex; knee-lobes rather pointed, but not acute. Posterior tibiæ above with nine spines in each row, in addition to the two apical pairs; the apical spines rather short, those of each pair equal. Second joint of the hind tarsi short. Subgenital plate in the female not keeled, obscurely toothed at the end. Male unknown.
Distribution.—New Zealand only, so far as is at present known.
Sigaus piliferus. Plate XIV, figs. 1a–1d.
Ochraceous, the hind legs yellowish; a narrow dark band from the eye along the pronotum, just under the lateral carina; inner surfaces of the hind femora marked with black. Vertex rugose, with a distinct median carina. Pronotum rugose, the posterior margin truncated and sinuated, the median carina very slight. Elytra reaching the middle of the second abdominal segment. Hind tibiæ very hairy.
Length of body, 33 mm.; of pronotum, 8 mm.; of hind femur, 20 mm.
A single female specimen, sent me by Captain Broun.
Genus Phaulacridium, Brunner. (1891.)
Praxilla, Stål. (1878); not of Reichenbach (1853), nor of Malgrem (1865).
Head with the fastigium flattish, slightly deflexed, the margins raised and confluent at the apex; face slightly oblique in the female, more so in the male; the cheek carinæ distinct; frontal costa grooved, continued almost to the
clypeal suture. Antennæ slender, not much flattened, 22-jointed, the third joint longer than the second, the fourth the shortest; from the sixth to the end they are longer than broad. Pronotum nearly smooth, expanding posteriorly, median and lateral carinæ distinct but not strong, all three transverse grooves continuous over the back, the anterior margin straight, the posterior margin rounded. Prosternal tubercle transverse, rapidly tapering to a blunt point, rather short. Lobes of the metasternum closer together than those of the mesosternum (especially in the male), the space between the latter broader than long, and with its sides nearly parallel. Elytra and wings usually rudimentary (in the New Zealand species), but the inner edges of the elytra always touch near their apices; wings (when present) with the areole quadrate, or longer than broad. Hind femora passing the end of the abdomen, their apices armed above with a small tooth; the knee-lobes blunt. Posterior tibiæ with two pairs of apical spurs, of which the inner pair is longer than the outer pair, their external margin with nine or ten (rarely eight) spines in addition to those of the apex. Second joint of the posterior tarsi short. Subgenital plate of the male swollen, rather broader than the abdomen; the supra-anal plate triangular and acute. Subgenital plate of the female keeled, its posterior margin with three teeth, the keel not reaching the median tooth; supra-anal plate triangular, the apex forming a right angle.
Distribution.—Australia, New Zealand, and Lord Howe's Island. Of 218 specimens captured in South Canterbury last April only two had the elytra and wings developed, but I do not know whether this proportion always holds good; it may vary with hot and cold seasons.
|A broad pale band on each side of the pronotum||P. marginale.|
|No broad pale band on each side of the pronotum||P. luteum.|
Phaulacridium marginale. Plate XIV., figs. 2a—2d.
Caloptenus marginalis, Walker, Cat. Dermap. Salt. in Brit. Mus., part iv., p. 710 (1870); Hutton, Cat. Orthoptera of N.Z., p. 92, Wellington, 1881.
Varying from fuscous to yellowish - brown or greenish, paler below. A broad pale-yellow band passes along each of the lateral keels of the pronotum backwards on to the elytra and forwards on to the head as far as the eyes, by which they are interrupted, but appear again on each side of the vertex and unite at its apex; occasionally they may be traced on the upper part of the eyes. On the pronotum these yellow streaks are bordered on both sides with velvety black (except in var. ॆ). Abdomen usually with a broad dark-brown band on each side. Hind femora rather longer than the abdomen in
the female, considerably longer in the male; generally with two angular transverse black spots above, one near the base the other before the middle, sometimes with a yellow longitudinal band along the upper outer keel. Hind tibiæ usually bright-red, sometimes fulvous or olivaceous. Pronotum with the prescutum about as long as broad, the post-scutellum about equal to the three anterior parts, its length generally equal to its greatest breadth. Elytra almost always rudimentary, reaching to the fifth abdominal segment; the wings not reaching the third segment.
Length of body, ♂ 12–13 mm., ♀ 14–16 mm.; of pronotum, ♂ 3 mm., ♀ 4 mm.; of hind femur, ♂ 8 mm., ♀ 10 mm.; elytron, when fully developed, 16 mm.
Var. ॆT. The inner black bands on the pronotum absent.
Localities.—Throughout New Zealand; abundant in places.
The females are about twice as numerous as the males. I have a single winged female from Otago. The discoidal area of the elytron is pale-brown with a few short darker transverse streaks; the marginal and axillary areas are transparent. The humeral vein divides into two equally strong branches, of which the upper is simple and the lower is once forked.
Phaulacridium luteum. Plate XIV., fig. 3.
Caloptenus marginalis, Hudson, Man. Entomol. of N.Z., p. 116, pl. xvii., fig. 4, not of Walker.
Reddish or yellowish brown, occasionally olivaceous green, obscurely marbled with fuscous; usually without any longitudinal bands on the pronotum. Hind femora rather longer than the abdomen in the female, considerably longer in the male, sometimes with two black angular spots above, as in the last species. Hind tibiæ usually bright-red, sometimes olivaceous. Pronotum with the prescutum generally broader than long in the female; length of the post-scutellum less than its greatest breadth. Elytra and wings usually rudimentary, reaching to the fourth abdominal segment.
Length of body, ♂ 13–15 mm., ♀ 15–17 mm.; of pronotum, ♂ 3 mm., ♀ 4 mm.; of hind femur, ♂ 8–10 mm., ♀ 10–11 mm.; elytron, when fully developed, 10 mm.
Var. ॆT. Pronotum with a black velvety band on each side of the anterior lobe, just below the lateral keels; lateral keels occasionally pale.
Localities. — Throughout New Zealand; abundant in places.
I have not seen any specimens of the var. ॆT from north of Lake Taupo. The females are about twice as numerous as the males. I have a typical winged female from South Canterbury, and three winged females belonging to var. ॆT, two of which are from Wellington and one from South Canterbury.
In all the whole of the elytron is dark-brown. In the type the humeral vein splits into three equally strong branches, of which the anterior is simple, the intermediate singly forked, and the posterior is simple on the left side and doubly forked on the right side. In var. ॆT the specimens from Wellington also have the humeral vein divided into three equally strong branches, of which the anterior is simple, the intermediate is doubly forked, and the posterior is singly forked on the left side and simple or once forked on the right side. In the specimen from South Canterbury the humeral vein divides into only two equally strong branches, of which the anterior is simple and the posterior (= intermediate) is once forked. The venation, therefore, is variable.
It is only after some hesitation that I have determined to make this form into a distinct species. My reason for doing so is that the connecting-links between the two forms are comparatively few in number. Of 190 individuals now before me, sixty belong to the typical marginale, and thirteen to marginale, var. ॆT. No less than eighty-six belong to the typical luteum, and twenty-eight to luteum, var. ॆT, leaving only three individuals which might be considered as intermediate, and all these three approach more nearly to luteum, var. ॆT, than to marginale, var. ॆT. It seemed to me, there-fore, that to make the form luteum into a variety of marginale would either obscure the relations between them by omitting to indicate the intermediate forms or else. I should have to make the intermediate forms into sub-varieties, which would have been a cumbrous and inconvenient device.
Genus Pezotettix, Burmeister. (1840.)
Head with the fastigium deflexed, its margins slightly raised, and passing into those of the frontal costa, which is more or less grooved. Face slightly oblique in both sexes. Antennæ thick and rather flattened, 23-jointed, the joints at the distal end indistinct, the fourth, shortest, the third as short or shorter than the second; from the fourth to the seventh broader than long. Pronotum rather short and scarcely expanding posteriorly, rounded on the dorsum, the lateral keels absent and the median one but slightly developed; all three transverse; sulci continuous over the dorsum; front margin truncated, the posterior margin slightly produced and emarginate. Prosternal tubercle large, transverse at the base, rounded at the tip. Metasternal lobes nearly as far apart as those of the mesosternum in the female, but nearer together in the male; space between the mesosternal lobes slightly transverse, and with its sides nearly parallel. Elytra rudimentary, widely separated on the back; wings absent. Hind, femora barely passing the tip of the abdomen, their apices armed above with a small tooth; the knee-lobes short and
rounded. Posterior tibiæ with two pairs of apical spines, of which the inner pair are considerably longer than the outer pair; their external margins with seven or eight spines in addition to the apical pair. Second joint of the hind tarsi short. Subgenital plate of the male not swollen, narrower than the abdomen; that of the female not keeled.
Distribution.—Widely distributed in both hemispheres.
The foregoing generic characters are drawn up from New Zealand specimens, for I am by no means sure that they really belong to Pezotettix. On the other hand, in the absence of northern specimens for comparison, I do not feel justified in making a new genus for their reception, as they closely resemble Pezotettix, both in form and in habits.
|Large; sternal shield not broader than long.|
|Subgenital plate in the female not toothed at the end||P. nivalis.|
|Subgenital plate in the female toothed at the end||P. collina.|
|Small; sternal shield broader than long.|
|Subgenital plate in the female concave at the end||P. petricola.|
|Subgenital plate in the female rounded at the end||P. terrestris.|
Fuscous brown; the hind tibiæ and lower surfaces of the hind femora bright-red, apical halves of the spines on the hind tibiæ black. Head nearly smooth, no median keel on vertex; cheek carinæ distinct, undulating, reaching the clypeal suture. Pronotum slightly rugulose, the median keel indistinct. Sternal shield as long as broad. Elytra just reaching the third abdominal segment. Segments of the abdomen smooth, or nearly so. Hind tibiæ with seven spines on the outer margin in addition to the apical pair. Supra-anal plate in the male not notched on the sides, that of the female triangular with the apex rounded. Subgenital plate of the female not toothed at the end. The male is much more hairy than the female.
Length of the body, ♂ 18–19 mm., ♀ 27–28 mm.; of the pronotum, ♂ 5 mm., ♀ 6 mm.; of the hind femur, ♂ 10 mm., ♀ 15–16 mm.
Localities.—Mount Cook, at high altitudes (G. E. Mannering); Mueller Glacier (H. Suter).
Pezottetix collina. Plate XIV., figs. 4a–4c.
Colours as in the last species. Head slightly roughened, the median keel of the vertex slightly indicated; cheek carinæ notum very rudulating, reaching to the clypeal suture. Pronotum very rugulose, the median keel indistinct. Sternal shield as long as broad. Elytra reaching rather beyond the end of the second segment. First three abdominal segments roughened on the back. Hind tibiæ with eight spines on the outer margin in addition to the apical pair. Supra-anal plate
of the male with a slight notch on each side, that of the female lanceolate. Subgenital plate of the female with three strong teeth on the posterior margin.
Length of the body, ♂ 23–24 mm., ♀ 30–31 mm.; of the pronotum, ♂ 5.5 mm., ♀ 7 mm.; of the hind femur, ♂ 15 mm., ♀ 18 mm.
Locality.—Mount Arthur, near Nelson, at elevations above 4,500ft. (G. V. Hudson).
The male is not so hairy as in P. nivalis.
Dark fuscous, slightly speckled with yellowish-brown; hind femora reddish below, hind tibiæ and spines dark fuscous. Head rugulose, without median keel on the vertex, the cheek carinæ indistinct. Pronotum rugulose, the median keel very slightly developed, not reaching the anterior border, posterior margin emarginate, the postero-lateral margins slightly concave, the two anterior transverse; sulci obscure. Sternal shield much broader than long. Abdomen rugulose. Elytra reaching the second abdominal segment. Hind femora barely reaching the end of the abdomen; the superior carina but slightly developed. Subgenital plate of the female concave at the tip.
Length, ♀ 16 mm.; of pronotum, 3 mm.; of hind femur, 9 mm. Male unknown.
Locality.—Marlborough, among stones in the river-beds (G. V. Hudson).
Reddish-brown, paler below; hind femora lighter on the proximal half, outside greenish, below bright-red; upper surfaces of the hind tibiæ and the bases of the spines on them pale. Head smooth, without any median keel on the vertex; lateral carinse indistinct. Pronotum nearly smooth, the median keel very slightly developed, not reaching the anterior border, posterior margin emarginate, postero-lateral margins slightly concave, the two anterior transverse sulci obscure. Sternal shield much broader than long. Abdomen smooth. Elytra reaching the second abdominal segment. Hind femora barely reaching the tip of the abdomen, the superior carina slightly developed. Subgenital plate of the female rounded at the tip.
Length of the body, ♀ 17 mm.; of the pronotum, 3 mm.; of the hind femur, 9 mm. Male unknown.
Locality.—Wellington (G. V. Hudson).
Genus Paprides, genus novum.
Head with the fastigium deflexed or subhorizontal, slightly margined; frontal costa continuing almost to the clypeal suture, slightly expanding downwards, distinctly grooved;
cheek carinæ well marked, slightly sinuated at the antennæ Antennæ rather thick and slightly flattened, 23- or 24-jointed third joint as long as or longer than the second, the fourth the shortest; from the ninth to the sixteenth longer than broad the rest broader than long. Pronotum slightly expanding posteriorly, the posterior margin emarginate, flat on the dorsum, the median and lateral keels distinct, the three transverse sulci continuous over the dorsum; scutum and scutellum about equal in length. Prosternal spine transverse at the base; lobes of the metasternum in the female considerably closer than those of the mesosternum; the space between the last broader than long, and with parallel sides. Elytra rudimentary, widely separated; wings rudimentary or absent. Hind femora in the female barely passing the tip of the abdomen, their apices armed above with a small tooth; the knee-lobes rounded and blunt. Hind tibiæ terete, with two pairs of apical spines, of which the inner pair are rather longer than the outer pair, their external margins armed with eight spines, regularly placed, in addition to the apical pair. Second joint of the hind tarsi short. Subgenital plate of the female variable, usually with two or three sharp teeth. Supra-anal plate rounded at the apex.
Distribution.—New Zealand only, so far as at present known.
|Prosternal tubercle truncate at the end||P. nitidus.|
|Prosternal tubercle rounded at the end||P. australis.|
Paprides nitidus. Plate XIV., figs. 5a–5d.
Bright-green when alive, brownish when dry, the hind tibiss bright-red. On each side a pale-yellow band, bordered externally with fuscous, runs from the eye along the lateral carinae of the pronotum, and are continued along the inner side of the elytra; The abdomen with a broad fuscous band on each side and a more obscure one along the keel of the dorsum. Hind femora obliquely banded with fuscous and with fuscous spots. Head with the vertex rugulose and without any median keel, the fastigium much deflexed, the genæ-smooth. Pronotum sometimes with one or both of the anterior sulci obliterated; the posterior sulcus straight. Prosternal tubercle truncated at the end. Elytra reaching to thecentre of the second abdominal segment; wings rudimentary Subgenital plate of the female variable.
Length of the body, ♀ 22–23 mm.; of pronotum, 5 mm.; of hind femur, 13–14 mm. Male unknown.
Localities.—North Canterbury, on the hills; Mount Cook district (H. Suter); Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, in the Collingwood district (G. V. Hudson).
After death this species loses all trace of its green colour.
The colours, after being in alcohol, are ochraceous, with a more or less interrupted dark band on each side. The fastigium is less deflexed than in the last species, and there is a slight median keel on the vertex. The three transverse sulci of the prouotum are continuous over the dorsum, and the posterior one is distinctly sinuated. The prosternal tubercle is tapering and rounded at the tip. The elytra reach to the middle of the second abdominal segment; the wings are absent. The subgenital plate of the female is 3-toothed at the apex.
Length of the body, ♀ 23 mm.; of pronotum, 5 mm.; of hind femur, 15 mm. Male unknown.
Locality.—Glenorchy, at the head of Lake Wakatipu (C. Chilton).
Genus Trigoniza, Brunner de Wattenwyl. (1891.)
Head with the fastigium triangular, not deflexed, the margins raised and confluent at the apex; face oblique in the female, very oblique in the male; cheek carinæ distinct, extending to the clypeal suture, slightly undulated; frontal' costa constricted above the antennæ, below which it expands and is grooved; lateral ocelli overhung by the vertex. Antennæ short, much flattened, 20-jointed, the third joint about as long as the second, the fourth the shortest, all but the last broader than long. Pronotum flattened dorsally, expanding posteriorly, median and lateral keels distinct, the three transverse sulci usually obsolete on the dorsum, sometimes absent; the posterior margin slightly produced and undulated. Prosternal tubercle large, transverse, slightly rounded at the apex; lobes of the metasternum closer together than those of the mesosternum (especially in the male), the space between the latter broader than long and with its sides nearly parallel. Elytra rudimentary, widely separated; the wings rudimentary or absent. Hind femora unarmed. Hind tibiæ terete, with two pairs of apical spines, of which the inner pair is longer than the outer pair; their exterior margins with eight, or occasionally nine, spines placed regularly. Second joint of the hind tarsi short. The anterior abdominal terga with three keels. Subgenital plate of the male rather swollen, slightly broader than the abdomen; that of the female not keeled, the apex with an acute tooth. Supra-anal plate of the male short, acute, the sides slightly concave; that of the female triangular, blunt at the apex.
Distribution.—New Zealand only, so far as is at present known.
|Dorsum of the pronotum not constricted.|
|Green, without any yellow on the sides of the thorax||T. campestris.|
|Brownish-green, usually with a yellow patch on each side of the thorax||T. directa.|
|Dorsum of the pronotum constricted behind the prescutum.|
|Fuscous brown.||T. rugosa.|
Trigoniza campestris. Plate XIV., figs. 6a–6c.
Bright-green; the lateral keels of the pronotum, the greater part of the dorsal surface of the abdomen, the elytra, and the inferior keel of the hind femora yellow; lower surface of the hind femora and distal ends of the hind tibiæ red. Vertex with a distinct median keel, the fastigium slightly deflexed. Pronotum rugulose, the lateral keels at first nearly parallel, diverging on the post-scutellum. Elytra reaching a little beyond the second abdominal segment; wings absent. Hind femora passing the end of the abdomen.
Length of the body, ♀ 20–33 mm.; of pronotum, 4–5mm.; of hind femur, 13–15 mm. I have seen no fully-developed male.
Locality.–North Canterbury; on the plains.
Occasionally the whole dorsal surface from the vertex to the end of the abdomen is brown, and so makes an approach to the next species.
Trigoniza directa. Plate XIV., figs, 7a, 7b.
Bright-green or reddish-green on the sides and upper surfaces of the hind femora; dorsum, elytra, and lower half of the hind femora reddish-brown; generally a large yellow patch on each side of the pronotum; under-surface of the hind femora and distal ends of the hind tibiæ bright-red. Fastigium not deflexed, otherwise the form and sculpture as in T. campestris.
Length of body, ♂ 14–15 mm.; ♀ 21–25 mm.; of the pronotum, ♂ 3 mm., ♀ 5 mm.; of the hind femur, ♂ 9 mm., ♀ 13 mm.
Localities.—South Canterbury and Otago; on the low lands.
I have only two specimens from South Canterbury; all the others are from near Fortrose, in South Otago. Sometimes the whole insect is brown when dry.
Trigoniza rugosa. Plate XIV., fig. 8.
Fuscous brown, variegated with lighter and darker, the lower surfaces of the hind femora bright-red. Head, pronotum, and the two first abdominal segments rugose. Median keel on the vertex indistinct or absent. Lateral keels of the pronotum slightly converging on the prescutum, rapidly expanding posteriorly, the posterior lateral margins slightly
crenulated. Prosternal tubercle almost truncated. Elytra reaching a little beyond the second abdominal segment; wings rudimentary. Hind femora in the female not passing the tip of the abdomen. Supra-anal plate of the female very short.
Length of the body, ♀ 25 mm.; of the pronotum, 5 mm.; of the hind femur, 13 mm. Male unknown.
Locality.—North Canterbury; on the lower hills.
Family œdipodid æ.
Prosternum unarmed. Pronotum more or less cristate down the middle, some or all of the transverse sulci obliterated on the dorsum; the scutum nearly smooth; the lateral lobes deeper than long, and with their anterior and posterior margins nearly parallel.
Genus Pachytylus, Fieber. (1853.)
Head without lateral furrows. Pronotum slightly cristate, the crest notched by the posterior sulcus. Elytra shining, sprinkled with grey, the stigmata placed before the middle. Wings hyaline with black veins and densely reticulated with fuscous.
Distribution.—Widely spread over the old hemisphere.
|Pronotum slightly constricted, forming an obtuse angle at the median crest||P. cinerascens.|
|Pronotum strongly constricted, forming an acute angle at the median crest||P. migratoroides.|
Gryllus cinerascens, Fabricius, Ent. Syst., ii., 59 (1775). Pachytylus cinerascens, Fischer, Orthop. Europ., p. 395, pl. 18, fig. 13 (1853); Saussure, “Prodromus œdipodiorum,” p. 120 (1884). œdipoda cinerascens, Hutton, Cat. Orthop. N.Z., p. 93 (1881); Hudson, Man. N.Z. Entomology, p. 115, pl. 17, fig. 3 (1892).
Colours varied, green and brown. Behind each eye a black longitudinal mark, which is continued on the pronotum; on the head it has an orange central stripe. Hind tibiæ reddish. Elytra transparent, some of the transverse veins brown, others pale, forming brown and pale spots; the base yellowish-green, usually unspotted. Pronotum but slightly compressed, the crest nearly straight along its upper margin.
Length of the body, ♂ 33–39 mm., ♀ 34–44 mm.; of elytra, ♂ 34–37 mm., ♀ 42–48 mm.; of hind femur, ♂ 21–23 mm., ♀ 23–27 mm.
Localities.—This species ranges over the warmer parts of Europe and Asia, as well as Africa and Australia, and pene-
trates into Polynesia. In New Zealand it is abundant in the Auckland and Nelson Districts. Formerly it was also found in the north-eastern portion of the South Island as far south as Banks Peninsula, but I have seen no specimens from there for several years.
It varies much in colour and in size, as well as in the shape of the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum. Specimens from New Zealand and Polynesia are rather smaller than those from Europe, and differ slightly in other respects.
œdipoda migratoroides, Reich., in Lefebvre et Galinier Voyage en Abyssinia, iii., p. 430, pl. 18, fig. 12. Pachytylus migratoroides, Saussure, “Prodomus œdipodiorum,” p. 120 (1884).
The pronotum much constricted and rugulose over the entire surface; the central crest slightly arched.
Localities.—This species is found in Abyssinia, India, Philippine Islands, and Australia. In New Zealand it is only known from Auckland, where it appears to be rare.
I have only one New Zealand specimen, a female with the wings not fully developed, and probably immature, although the ocelli are present. In colour it is much darker than P. cinerascens, being of a yellowish-brown, largely covered with dark-brown; the elytra and wings, which only reach half-way down the abdomen, are uniformly brown. The length of its body is 34 mm., and hind femur 18 mm.
The measurements given by De Saussure are : Length of the body, ♂ 42 mm., ♀ 46 mm.; of the elytra, ♂ 46 mm., ♀ 60 mm.
In my specimen the sides of the frontal costa are nearly parallel, and do not widen out below the ocelli, as in the variety capito, from Madagascar.
Explanation of Plate XIV.
Fig. 1. Sigaus piliferus: 1a, bead, and thorax from above; 1b, distal end of hind femur; 1c, hind tarsus; 1d, sternal shield of female.
Fig. 2. Phaulacridum marginale: 2a, head and thorax from above; 2b, hind tarsus; 2c, sternal shield of female; 2d, elytron.
Fig. 3. Phaulacridium luteum: elytron.
Fig. 4. Pezotettx collina: 4a, head and thorax from above; 4b, sternal shield of female; 4c, hind tarsus.
Fig. 5. Paprides nitidus: 5a, head and thorax from above; 5b, head and thorax from the side; 5c, head from the front; 5d, distal end of hind femur.
Fig. 6. Trigoniza campestris: 6a, head and thorax from above; 6b, sternal shield of female; 6c, hind tarsus.
Fig. 7. Trigoniza directa: 7a, head and thorax from the side; 7d, head from the front.
Fig. 8. Trigoniza rugosa: head and thorax from above.