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Volume 30, 1897
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Art. XXI.—Synopsis of the Hemiptera of New Zealand which have been described previous to 1896.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th July, 1897.]

The Hemiptera, or Rhynchota, are easily distinguished from other insects by having the mouth produced into a long, straight sucking-tube, or rostrum, bent under the body. Usually they have four wings, but some are apterous. There is no true pupa stage, the young, or larva, passing into the adult or imago, which, however, can almost always be recognised by possessing wings and ocelli, while the larva never has either.

They are divided into three sub-orders, as follows: Heteroptera—Tarsi three-jointed; wings horizontal, the anterior pair overlapping each other; rostrum springing from the front. Homoptera—Tarsi three-jointed; wings inclined, the anterior pair not overlapping each other; rostrum springing from the chin. Phytophthiria—Tarsi one- or two-jointed. The last sub-order contains a number of small insects of which the New Zealand species have been described by Mr. W. M. Maskell. They are therefore omitted in this synopsis, which includes the Heteroptera and Homoptera only.

In the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” vol. vi., p. 169, I published a list of the New Zealand Hemiptera which had been described previously to 1870. In 1871–73 Mr. Walker's “Catalogue of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera in the British Museum” appeared, which contained a few more. In 1874 Mr. A. G. Butler gave a new list in the “Zoology of the Voyage of the ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror’ ”; but the most important addition to our knowledge of the order was made by Mr. F. Buchanan White, who published a list, with descriptions of many new species, in the “Entomologists' Monthly Magazine,” vols. xiv. to xvi. (1878–79). Since then very little has been done except the rectification of the nomenclature of the Cicadidæ, by Mr. W. F. Kirby, in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” vol. xxviii., p. 454.

In the present synopsis the keys are adapted to the New Zealand genera only, and are merely intended to help the collector in naming his captures. It will generally be necessary to refer to the original descriptions before deciding that he has got something new.

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Sub-order Heteroptera.

These insects include what are known as the bugs. The fore-wings are called elytra, or hemelytra, and are generally coriaceous and opaque at the base, membranous and transparent at the apex. The basal portion consists of two pieces—the corium on the outsid and the clavus on the inside, the line between them being called the claval suture. In the Capsidœ and the Anthocoridœ the corium is produced into a triangular piece called the cunetcs, which is joined to the corium by a flexible suture. The apical portion of the elytron is called the membrane: sometimes it is not developed. The posterior wings are entirely membranous when present, but often they are wanting.

Key to the Families.
  A. Antenœ prominent; the posterior legs like the others, for walking.
1. Scucellum covering the whole inner margin of the elytra Scutelleridœ.
2. Scutellum not reaching much beyond the base of the membrane of the elytra; body broadly oval.
   a. Tibiœ unarmed.
    a1. Abdomen with a spine projecting for wards Acanthosomatidæ.
      b1. Abdomen without any spine.
        a2. Basal joint of rostrum not in a groove Asopidœ.
        b2. Basal joint of rostrum in a groove.
          a3. Abdomen with a longitudinal furrow Halytidœ.
          b3. Abdomen without a longitudinal furrow.
            a4. Head flat, slightly foliaceous Sciocoridœ.
            b4. Head not foliaceous Pentatomidœ.
   b. Tibiæ armed with spines Cydnidœ.
3. Scutellum not reaohing the membrane of the elytra; body narrowly oval or elongate (except Saldidœ).
   c. Elytra without a cuneus.
    c1. Kostrum not entirely free; antennæ shorter than the body.
      c2. Rostrum not in a groove.
        c3. Antennæ inserted on upper side of the head Berytidœ.
        d3. Antennæ inserted on lower side of the head.
            c4. Membrane of elytra with a cross-vein Lygœidœ.
            d4. Membrane with longitudinal veins only Pachymeridœ.
      d2. Rostrum in a groove.
            e4. Fore-legs raptorial Phymatidœ.
            f4. Fore-legs like the others Aradidœ.
    d1. Rostrum entirely free; antennæ longer than the body.
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      e2. Head with a neck behind the eyes.
        e3. Fore coxæ short Reduviidœ.
        f3. Fore coxæ very long Emesidœ.
      f2. Head without a distinct neck behind the eyes Saldidœ.
   d. Elytra with a cuneus.
    g1. Cuneus on the outer margin of the corium Anthocoridæ.
    h1. Cuneus at the apex of the corium Capsidœ.
B. Antennœ hidden.; the posterior legs elevated and ciliated for swimming.
   e. Rostrum exposed; anterior tarsi two-jointed Notonectidœ.
   f. Rostrum hidden; anterior tarsi one-jointed Corixidœ.

Family Scutelieridæ.

Key to the Genera.
Second joint of the antennæ much shorter than third Calliphara.
Second joint of the antennæ much longer than third Peltophora.

Calliphara imperialis, Fab., E.S., iv., 81, 6 (Cimex). Callidea imperialis, Dallas, B.M. Cat. Hemiptera, p. 24.

Pronotum and scutellum red; abdomen blue, margined with crimson.

Hab. An Australian species, a specimen of which in the British Museum is said to have come from New Zealand.

Peltophora pedicellata, Kirby, Introduction, iii., p. 517. Scutiphora picta, Gué., Voy. “Coquille,” Zool., ii., p. 165, pl. xi., fig. 7.

Greenish-blue, with the margins of the pronotum and two spots on the scutellum ochraceous. Length, 15 mm.

Hab. An Australian species, said to have been captured in Auckland by the “Novara” Expedition.

Family Asopidæ.

Key to the Genera.
Lateral angles of the thorax with sharp spines œchalia.
Lateral angles of the thorax with blunt spines Cermatulus.

œchalia schellembergii, Gué., Voy. “Coquille,” Zool., ii., p. 168, pl. xi., fig. 9. Pentatoma consodalis, Boisd., Voy. de l'Astrol., ii., p. 630; Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 7, fig. 2. Rhaphigaster perfectus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., 8vo, part 2, p. 371.

Brownish-yellow, with black punctures; scutellum with a dark band beyond the middle and a pale-yellow apex. Length, 11 mm.

Hab. An Australian species, found also at Auckland, and in the Philippine Islands.

Walker described his R. perfectus as having the third joint of the antennæ longer than the second or the fourth; in other

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respects his description agrees with that of P. consocialis, Boisduval.

Cermatulus nasalis, Hope, Cat., p. 32; Dallas, B.M. Cat., p. 106, pl. 2, fig. 3; Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 4; Hudson, Man. N.Z. Entomology, pl. 20, fig. 3. Asopus nummularis, Erichson, Arch, für Naturg., viii., p. 276. Rhaphigaster pentatomoides, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., p. 370.

Dull-red, with brown punctures. Pronotum with a slight transverse impression which is irregularly bordered with black. Scutellum with a pale tip. Elytra with a black spot beyond the middle. Length, 10 mm.

Hab. Throughout New Zealand, from Auckland to Otago. Found also in Australia and Tasmania; generally on trees.

Family Sciocoridæ.

Key to the Genera.
Membrane of elytra with reticulated veins Dictyotus.
Membrane of elytra with longitudinal veins Sciocris.

Dictyotus polysticticus (White), Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 26, pi. 7, fig. 5. Pentatoma vilis, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., p. 309.

Brownish-red, with brown punctures. Scutellum with a small black spot on each angle. Margins of the abdomen spotted. Length, 8–9 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Otago. Found also in Tasmania.

If White's figure without description does not count, then Walker's name will have to be taken.

Sciocoris helferi, Fieb. Rhynchotogr., p. 449.

Greyish-yellow, punctured with brown; pronotum with yellowish sides. Corium longer than the scutellum; the membrane with brownish spots. Abdomen with a row of black spots. Length, 6 mm.

Hab. A South European species, said to have been collected in Auckland by the “Novara” Expedition.

Family Pentatomidæ.

In this family the middle lobe of the head is sometimes the longest in the larva, but in the imago the side-lobes project beyond it.

Nezara amoyti (White), Dallas, B.M. Cat., p. 278 (Rhaphigaster).

Abdomen not keeled. Green or greenish-brown, densely punctured. Pronotum, elytra, and abdomen margined with paler. Length, 15–17 mm.

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Hab. Auckland and Canterbury. Found also in Australia.

Nezara prasina, Linn., S.N., i. (Cimex). Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., p. 354.

Abdomen keeled. Yellow, with green spots on the pronotum and scutellum, and a large subapical green spot on each of the elytra. Length, 13–16 mm.

Hab. Specimens are in the British Museum from New Zealand. The species is widely distributed over the greater part of the world.

Family Halydidæ

Body broad, flat above, membrane generally rudimentary .. Platycoris.

Platycoris immarginatus, Dallas, Cat. Hemip. B.M., p. 154.

Black, sprinkled with small whitish warts. Anterior angles of prothorax and outer margin at the base of elytra yellowish. Legs yellowish - orange and black. Length, 8–9 mm.

Hab. There is in the British Museum one specimen from New Zealand and another from Australia.

Family Acanthosomatidæ.

Key to the Genera.
Abdominal spine small Rhopalimorpha.
Abdominal spine large Anubis.

Rhopalimorpha obscura (White), Dallas, Cat. Hem. B.M., p. 293; Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 8. Rhopalimorpha similis, Mayr, Reise,” Novara,” Hemiptera, taf. 2, fig. 14.

Ochraceous, with brown punctures. A narrow smooth pale line down the middle of the pronotum and scutellum. Abdomen black above, margined with yellow. Length, 8–9 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Otago.

R. similis has the second joint of the antennæ longer than the third, and may be distinct.

Anubis vittatus, Fabr., E.S., iv., 96, and S.R., 165, 52 (Cimex). Acanthosoma vittatum, Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, pl. 7, fig. 1.

Greenish-brown, the anterior portion of the pronotum and the margins of the elytra yellowish. Pronotum subspinose on each side. Length, 10 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Otago, common; on bushes, &c.

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Family Cydnidæ

Key to the Genera.
With ocelli Geotomus.
No ocelli Chœrocydnus and Pangœus.

Geotomus leptospermi (White), Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Insects, p. 25(œthus), pl. 7, fig. 3.

Black, with reddish-brown elytra and legs. Length, 5–6 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Canterbury.

Pangœus scotti, Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, 1882, p. 259, pl. 9, fig. 117.

Oval; maroon-brown, the rostrum and antennæ lighter; the tarsi yellow. Head with three and pronotum with seven or eight bristles on each side; front margin of the elytra with five hairy spots. Length, 6¾ mm.; breadth, 3½ mm.

Hab. New Zealand.

Chœnocydnus nigrosignatus, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 14 (1878), p. 275.

Brownish-yellow, remotely punctured with brown; an irregular transverse dark-brown band near the anterior border of the pronotum. Sides of the head, pronotum, and basal half of the front margin of the corium with long reddish-brown bristles. Length, 4–5 mm.; breadth, 3–3½ mm.

Hab. Canterbury and Otago.

Family Berytidæ.

Apical lamina of the head reaching beyond the apex Neides.

Neides wakefieldi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 31.

Pale-red; sides of the head and prostethium with a longitudinal brown line. Elytra only one-fifth of the length of the abdomen. Length, 7–8 mm.; breadth, 1 mm.

Hab. Wellington.

Perhaps an apterous form of a dimorphic species (Buch. White).

Family Lygæidæ.

key to the Genera.
a. First joint of the rostrum longer than the head Lygœus.
b. First joint of the rostrum not longer than the head.
  a1. Fore femora unarmed.
    a2. Third and fourth veins united near the base Arocatus.
    b2. Third and fourth veins parallel Nysius.
  b1. Fore femora with a spine before the apex Paresuris
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Lygæus pacificus, Boisduval, Voy. “Astrolabe,” ii., p. 639, pl. 11, fig. 20.

Black; the head, three stripes on the pronotum, and a spot on the elytra reddish.

Hab. Found in Australia, Tasmania, and India. A specimen in the British Museum is said to have come from New Zealand.

Arocatus ruficollis, Walker, Cat. Hem.–Het. B.M., part 5, p. 64 (Lygœus).

Black; pronotum with an anterior red band; beneath red. Length, 7 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Otago.

Allied to A. rusticus, Stål, an Australian species.

Nysius zealandicus, Dallas, Cat. Hemip. B.M., p. 552; Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 6.

Greyish-brown; below, brown spotted with white. Antennæ black, apex of the third joint yellowish-brown. Length, 6–7 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Otago; common in Auckland, in gardens.

The teeth on the hind margin of the pronotum are often nearly or quite obsolete.

Nysius anceps, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 33.

Brownish-red, variegated with black; a yellowish band through the basal half of the head to the apex of the scutellum. Elytra short, the membrane rudimentary. Length, 5–6 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.

Hab. Canterbury.

Nysius huttoni, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 32.

Greyish-red, variegated with black; membrane of elytra spotted with brown near the base; below black, marked with yellow. Length, 3–4 mm.; breadth, 1¾ mm.

Hab. Canterbury and Otago; common, running on the ground in gardens, &c.

Variable in the intensity of the dark markings.

Paresuris helmsi, Reuter, Rev. Ent. de France, 1890, p. 192.

Reddish-brown, with ochraceous spots. Elytra short, variegated ochraceous and red, with three opaque spots nearly in a line. Length, 3¾ mm.

Hab. Greymouth.

The body is obovate; the head transverse; the second joint of the rostrum reaching the fore coxæ. Antennæ inserted near the eyes. Elytra strongly punctate.

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Family Pachymeridæ.

Key to the Genera.
a. Pronotum contracted in the middle Plociomerus.
b. Pronotum not contracted, the sides keeled.
  a1. Anterior border of pronotum margined Scolopostethus.
  b1. Anterior border of pronotum not margined.
    a2. Pronotum as long as broad Margareta.
    b2. Pronotum broader than long.
      a3. Rostrum passing the middle coxæ Targarema.
      b3. Rostrum not passing the middle coxæ Metagerra.

Plociomerus inornatus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. B.M., part 5, p. 112. P. nigriceps, Mayr, Reise “Novara,” Zool. band ii., abtbl. i., p. 128 (not of Dallas). P. douglasi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol 13., p. 105.

Reddish; black beneath; hairy. Legs yellow, the femora with more or less black. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Metagerra obscura, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15., p. 34.

Dull chestnut-brown; pronotum and scutellum with whitish-brown marks. A central band on the posterior half of the scutellum, and a streak in the middle of the apical margin of the corium, blackish. Length, 3–4 mm.; breadth, 1½ mm.

Hab. Canterbury.

Targarema electa, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 74.

Dull chestnut-brown, variegated with paler. Corium with a dark streak from the base to near the middle of the claval suture, and another from beyond the middle to the inner apical margin. Also a dark patch near the outer apical angle. Length, 6 mm.; breadth, 2½ mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Targarema ståli, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 73.

Dull chestnut-brown, variegated with paler. Corium with a black streak from the inner apical angle to the middle of the claval suture. Length, 3–4 mm.; breadth, 1¼–1¾ mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Margareta dominica, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol 15, p. 75.

Above dull-brown, variegated with darker; below dark-brown. Posterior half of the pronotum rather coarsely punctured. Length, 6 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

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Scolopostethus putoni, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 75.

Dull reddish-brown, variegated with darker. A black spot in the middle of the scutellum, and one on each of the hind angles of the pronotum. Head and front lobe of pronotum black. Length, 3 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Family Phymatidæ.

Head thick, quadrangular on the sides; the lateral margins of the pronotum produced and serrated Phymata.

Phymata feredayi, Scott, Stett. Ent. Zeit., vol. 31, p. 102 (1876).

Light ochraceous with dark-brown markings; head and pronotum covered with small, white, crowded granulations. Head prolonged anteriorly into two pointed protuberances with a slight bend backwards. Length, 6–7 mm.

Hab. Christchurch.

Phymata conspicua, Scott, Stett. Ent. Zeit., vol. 31, p. 103 (1876).

Like the last, but the head not prolonged anteriorly. Length, 5–6 lines.

Hab. Christchurch.

Family Aradidæ.

Key to the Genera.
a. Body granulated; rostrum longer than the head.
  a1. Body oval Aradus.
  b1. Body elongated Neuroctenus.
b. Body not granulated; rostrum shorter than the head.
  c1. Membrane of elytra with veins; body linear.
    a2. Second joint of antennæ not longer than the first Crimia.
    b2. Second joint of antennæ longer than the first Mezira.
  d1. Membrane of elytra without veins; body long-oval Aneurus.

The insects belonging to this family are usually found under loose bark, or in moss.

Aradus australis, Erichson, Wiegmann's Archiv. f. Nat., viii., band i., p. 281.

Black; thorax with six keels; membrane of the hemelytra hyaline, spotted with fuscous. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Tasmania. This, or an allied species, is found in Otago and Canterbury.

Neuroctenus hochstetteri, Mayr, Reise “Novara,” Zool., ii., Hem., p. 166, pl. 4, fig. 47.

Black, the tarsi brown. Length, 7–8 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

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Crimia attenuata, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vii., p. 22.

Black, the hind borders of the ventral segments red. First three joints of the antennæ about equal. Length, 9 mm.

Hab. There are specimens from New Zealand in the British Museum.

Mezira maorica, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vii., p. 29.

Black. First joint of the antennæ much shorter than the second or third, which are equal. Length, 8 mm.

Hab. There are specimens from New Zealand in the British Museum.

Mr. Butler thinks that this species is the same as the last.

Aneurus brown, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 13, p. 106.

Reddish-brown. First joint of the antennæ pyriform and truncate at the apex; about the same length as the second. Length, 3–4 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Family Capsidæ.

Key to the Geneba.
a. First joint of hind tarsi longer than the second.
  a1. Body linear; first joint of rostrum longer than the head Megalocerœa.
  b1. Body oblong; first joint of rostrum as long as the head.
    a2. First joint of antennæ reaching beyond the head Morna.
    b2. First joint of antennæ not reaching apex of head Reuda.
b. First joint of hind tarsi not longer than the second.
  c1. Pronotum with a collar on the fore border Capsus.
  d1. Pronotum without an anterior collar Leptomerocoris.

These insects run quickly and fly easily; they are fond of fruit.

Megalocerœa reuteriana, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 130.

Pale dull-red, variegated with brown. Middle and hind femora with indistinct pale-brown spots. Length, 5–7 mm.; breadth, 1¾ mm.

Hab. Canterbury.

Morna capsoides, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 131.

Dull reddish-brown, variegated with red; a central band

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through the head, pronotum, and scutellum, generally yellowish-red. Length, 7–8 mm.; breadth, 3–3½ mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Morna scotti, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 131.

Shining reddish - brown, variegated with blackish and whitish; legs black. Indications of a pale longitudinal line through the head, pronotum, and scutellum. Length, 5 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.

Hab. Canterbury and Otago.

Reuda mayri, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 132.

Brownish-red, with irregular brown spots; legs yellowish, with dark-brown rings; tarsi dark-brown. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Capsus laticinctus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vi., p. 127.

Yellowish-brown, with dark longitudinal streaks. First joint of the antennæ half the length of the second. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. There is a specimen from New Zealand in the British Museum.

Capsus ustulatus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vi., p. 128.

Yellowish-brown, with darker longitudinal streaks. First joint of the antennæ twice as long as the second. Length, 5–6 mm.

Hab. There is a specimen from New Zealand in the British Museum.

Probably it is identical with the last species.

Leptomerocoris maoricus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vi., p. 146.

Dull-red or brown, paler beneath. Corium with a red mark on the middle of the exterior border. Length, 3 mm.

Hab. There are specimens from New Zealand in the British Museum.

Family Anthocoridæ.

Head elongate; pronotum with a broad transverse ridge Cardiastethus.

Key to the Species.
a. Third and fourth veins of the membrane coalesce and form a small cell C. brounianus.
b. All the veins of the membrane free.
  a1. Sides of the pronotum straight C. consors.
  b1. Sides of the pronotum rounded C. poweri.
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Cardiastethus brounianus, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 159.

Dark-brown, with long pale hairs; second joint of antennæ and legs brownish-yellow. Transverse depression of the pronotum nearly obsolete. Length, 2–3 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Cardiastethus consors, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 16, p. 143.

Brownish-yellow, with long pale hairs, marked with reddish-brown; external part of the cuneus rosy. Only the outer vein of the membrane is distinct, Length, 3 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Cardiastethus poweri, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 16, p. 143.

Dark reddish-brown, with long grey hairs; marked with paler. All the veins of the membrane are very indistinct. Length, 1–2 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Family Reduvidæ.

Key to the Genera.
Rostrum three-jointed, not extending beyond the fore coxæ Pirates.
Rostrum four-jointed, extending beyond the fore coxæ Nabis.

These insects generally feed on other insects.

Pirates ephippigera, White, in Dieffenbach's “New Zealand,” vol. 2, p. 283; Butler, in Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 7.

Black, with reddish-yellow legs and antennæ and an ochraceous patch on the inner edge of each elytron near the base. Length, 19 mm.

Hab. Specimens from Australia and New Zealand are in the British Museum.

This species belongs to the sub-genus Brachysandalus.

Nabis maoricus, Walker, Cat. Hem.-Het. in B.M., part vii., p. 145.

Pale dull-red, with four black spots on the elytra; legs pale-yellow; scutellum wholly pale. Length, 6 mm.

Hab. There are specimens from New Zealand in the British Museum.

Nabis saundersi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 159.

Yellowish-red, with a black central longitudinal band. Length, 8–9 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Otago.

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Family Emesidæ.

Wingless; fore femora with a tooth at the base Emesodema.

Emesodema huttoni, Scott, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 11 (May, 1874).

Dull-brown. Anterior margin, of pronotum slightly wider than the head, and with a narrow collar. Fore femora with two dense rows of short spines on the under-side, among which, at irregular intervals, are about five long ones. Length, 6 mm.

Hab. Auckland and Wellington.

Family Saldidæ.

Body oval; pronotum with an anterior callosity Salda.

The animals belonging to Salda are found running over the stones and sand on the shores of the ocean and inland waters.

Salda australis, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol., 13, p. 106.

Black, with obscure yellowish-brown spots on the elytra; with dark-greyish pubescence and a few golden hairs. Femora with the base and a broad ring near the apex brownish-yellow. Membrane with four cells, fuscous, a blackish spot near the anterior margin. Length, 4–5 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Salda butleri, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 160.

Black, marked with brownish-yellow on the pronotum and elytra; with black and golden hairs. Membrane large, with four cells, fuscous, spotted with paler in the cells. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Otago: shores of Lake Wakatipu.

Salda lælaps, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 160.

Black, marked with brownish-yellow on the head, pronotum, and elytra; with black and golden hairs. Legs yellowish, a broad band at the middle of the femora and the apices of the tibiæ and tarsi blackish. Membrane small, with four cells, the innermost of which is very short. Length, 4–5 mm.; breadth, 2½–3 mm.

Hab. Canterbury.

Family Notonectidæ.

Antennæ four-jointed, the fourth longer than the third Anisops.

Anisops wakefieldi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 161.

Shining yellowish-white; scutellum generally black, mar-

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gined with yellowish-white; abdomen blackish, spotted above with yellow. Fore tarsi twice the length of the claws. Length, 9 mrn.; breadth, 2¾ mm.

Hab. Canterbury and Otago; in ponds.

The scutellum is sometimes entirely pale. The male and female are of the same size.

Anisops assimilis, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 161.

Shining yellowish-white; the scutellum slightly marked with black; abdomen yellow, marked with black. Fore tarsi four times the length of the claws. Length, ♂ 6–7½ mm., ♀ 7½–8 mm; breadth, ♂ 1¾–2 mm., ♀ 2 mm.

Hab. Otago.

Female specimens are scarcely distinguishable from those of the last species, except by their smaller size and paler scutellum. The labrum, however, seems to be longer in assimilis, reaching nearly to the middle of the third joint of the rostrum, while in wakefieldi it scarcely extends beyond the base.

Family Corixidæ.

Antennæ four-jointed; scutellum covered Corixa.

Corixa arguta, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 161. C. zealandicus, Hudson, Man. N.Z. Entomology, pl. 20, fig. 5.

Pronotum with about ten yellow - and - black transverse lines; elytra with undulating yellow-and-black lines. Length, 7–8 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Otago; abundant in stagnant water.

Rather variable in size, but constant in the markings.

In the female the palæ are narrowly cultrate. In the male they are cultrate, rounded on the back, a little produced at the base below; frontal fovea oval, passing a little beyond the lower angle of the eyes; venter fuscous in the middle; strigil circular, furnished with eight more or less shortened rows of teeth.

Sub-order Homoptera.

In this sub-order the anterior wings are called the tegmina. They are either altogether membranous, as in the Cicadas (Cicadidœ), or altogether coriaceous, as in the leaf-hoppers (Cercopidœ). They have a small basal area, followed by a long radial area. These are followed by a transverse row of six ulnar areas, and these by a row of eight apical areas, the area next the outer margin being, in each case,

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considered as the first of each row. The posterior wings are smaller.

The Maori name for Cicada is tatarakihi.

Key to the Families.
a. Antennæ six-jointed; ocelli three Cicadidæ.
b. Antennæ three- or two-jointed; ocelli two or none.
  a1. Ocelli placed on the crown Cercopidœ.
  b1. Ocelli placed between the eyes Jassidœ.
  c1. Ocelli placed below the eyes Fulgoridœ.

Family Cicadidæ.

Tympana uncovered; ulnar veins of tegmina united at their origin Melampsalta.
Key to the Species.
a1. Apex of fifth ulnar area acute M. scutellaris.
b1. Apex of fifth ulnar area obtuse.
  a2. General colour reddiah, greenish, or yellowish.
    a3. Abdominal segments not black on the sides.
      a4. Tegmina greenish near the base M. muta.
      b4. Tegmina colourless M. cutora.
    b3. Abdominal segments black on the sides.
c4. Black marks on the lower surface of abdomen.
        a5. Base of the wings red M. cincta.
        b5. Base of the wings colourless.
          a6. Three or four black stripes on the mesonotum M. cruentata.
          b6. Two black stripes on the mesonotum M. angusta.
    d4. No black marks on the lower surface of abdomen M. iolanthe.
  b2. General colour blackish. M. cingulata.
    c3. Tegmina with fuscous marks near the apex M. mangu.
    d3. Tegmina without any fuscous marks.
      e4. Larger, very hairy.
        With reddish markings M. mangu.
        Without red markings M. cassiope.
      f4. Smaller, less hairy, with reddish markings M. nervosa.

Melampsalta scutellaris, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 150 (Cicada). Cicada arche, Walker, l.c., p. 195. Cicada tristis, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiii., p. 52.

Dull bronzy-greenish, with silvery pubescence; mesonotum with four obconical black marks, more or less vermiculated with reddish; abdomen with a broad central longitudinal dark band below. Tegmina rather narrow, tinged with brown or greenish, the costa tawny and the post-costal area fuscous; wings with the anal vein infuscated; fourth apical area does not project between the second and third ulnar areas. Length, 15–20 mm.; expanse, 45–63 mm.

Hab. Wellington.

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Melampsalta cingulata, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 680, 9 (Tettigonia); Hudson, Man. N.Z. Entomology, pl. 20, fig. 1; Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 50. Cicada zealandica, Boisduval, Voy. “Astrolabe,” Ent., pl. 10, fig. 6. Cicada indivulsa, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., suppl., p. 33.

Head and thorax ochraceous or greenish, with black markings. A large black spot on the mesonotum just in front of the cruciform elevation, and a smaller black spot on each side of it. Abdomen dull-black, with reddish marks on the last segment. Tegmina with fuscous marks on the transverse veins at the bases of the second and third apical areas. Wings with a dark spot on the margin, at the anal angle, and another near the base. Length, 20–22 mm.; expanse, 67 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Southland.

Var. obscura, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 51.

Smaller and duller in colour.

Hab. Kaikoura Mountains, in river-beds.

Melampsalta muta, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 681, 17 (Tettigonia). Cicada muta, Hudson, Man. N.Z. Ent., pl. xx., fig. 2. Cicada muta, var. sub-alpina, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 52.

Green or ochraceous. Mesonotum with two black spots on the disc in front of the cruciform elevation, and a black mark on each side. Abdomen with a silvery band, which is usually margined with black; no dark markings below. Tegmina and wings tinged with green near the base. Tarsi black. Length, 20 mm; expanse, 53 mm.

Hab. Nelson, in sub-alpine localities, and Southland.

Melampsalta cutora, Walker, Cat. Homop. B.M., p. 172 (Cicada). Cicada ochrina, Walker, l.c., suppl., p. 34. Cicada aprilina, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 53.

Like the last, but the tegmina and wings are colourless, arid the legs rarely have dark markings. Length, 15–21 mm.; expanse, 42–58 mm.

Probably a variety of M. muta.

Hab. Auckland, Lake Taupo, and Canterbury.

Melampsalta cruentata, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 680, 10 (Tettigonia). Cicada rosea, Walker, Cat. Homop. B.M., p. 220. Cicada bilinea, Walker, Cat. Homop. B.M., suppl., p. 34. Cicada muta, var. rufescens, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 52.

Reddish, ochraceous, cr greenish, with black markings. Head thickly covered with hairs. Posterior margin of pronotum rosy red. Abdominal segments black above, with

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posterior red borders; below, they are reddish, with a black spot in the middle of each. Costa rosy or brown. Length, 20 mm.; expanse, 49 mm.

Hab. Nelson to Southland, and the Chatham Islands.

Var. sericea, Walker, l.c., p. 172.

Costa green, black towards the tip.

Hab. Auckland.

Var. flavescens, Hudson, l.c., p. 52.

Bright-yellow.

Hab. Mountains of Nelson.

Melampsalta angusta, Walker, Cat. Homop. B.M., p. 174 (Cicada). Cicada muta, var. cinerascens, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 52.

Yellowish-brown, with black markings. Mesonotum with only two broad obconical dark streaks. Abdomen as in M. cruentata, but the dark spots down the centre of the lower surface are broader and often confluent into a band. Length, 17 mm.; expanse, 47 mm.

Hab. Wellington and Canterbury.

Melampsalta cincta, Walker, Cat. Homop., in B.M., p. 204 (Cicada). Cicada muta, var. minor, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 52.

Tawny or reddish, with black markings; abdominal segments black, margined posteriorly with red above, and red with a black spot in the middle of each below. Tegmina rather broad, the basal area red; wings with the anal veins broadly margined with red. Length, 16–17 mm.; expanse, 35–37 mm.

Hab. Lake Taupo to Wellington.

Melampsalta iolanthe, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 53 (Cicada). Cicada iolanthe, Man. of N.Z. Entomology, pl 20, fig. 3.

Greenish or ochraceous, with black markings; the abdominal segments black, bordered posteriorly with red; below they are red. Tegmina rather broad, the costa green or brown. Length, 14 mm.; expanse, 34 mm.

Hab. Lake Taupo, Nelson, and Canterbury.

Melampsalta nervosa, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 213 (Cicada).

Black, with reddish stripes on the thorax; hind margins of the abdominal segments green. Legs yellow, marked with black. Length, 15 mm.; expanse, 36 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

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Melampsalta mangn, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 214.

Black, with obsolete reddish markings on the thorax; long black-and-grey hairs and pale pubescence. Hind borders of the abdominal segments sometimes reddish or yellowish; lower surface pale-rosy. Legs pale-rosy, with black marks. Length, 17–20 mm.; expanse, 32–40 mm.

Hab. Mountains of Canterbury.

Melampsalta cassiope, Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii., p. 54 (Cicada).

Black; the female with whitish hairs. Length, 19–21 mm.; expanse, 41–47 mm.

Hab. Mountains of Nelson and Marlborough.

Perhaps a variety of the last, but with longer wings.

Family Cercopidæ.

Key to the Genera.
Ocelli approximated Aphrophora.
Ocelli wide apart Philœnus.

These insects are known as leaf-hoppers.

Aphrophora jactator, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 214.

Fuscous brown, with a greyish-green tinge. Tegmina with two pale blotches on the front margin, and a brown triangular blotch between them. Length, 10–12 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Philænus fingens, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 718 (Ptyelus).

Yellow. Pronotum with a dark stripe on each side. Tegmina whitish, with an undulating ferruginous stripe through the disc. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Auckland.

Philænus subvirescens (White), Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 9.

Ochraceous; elytra pale greenish-red. Length, 7 mm. Hab. Auckland.

Philænus trimaculatus (White), Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” pl. 7, fig. 10.

Dull-red or greenish, with a black spot on each side of the pronotum. Tegmina darker in the centre, with a large pale patch on the margin near the apex, and a curved pale subbasal streak. Length, 7 mm.

Hab. Auckland to Otago, and the Chatham Islands. Common.

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Family Jassidœ.

Key to the Genera.
Head produced Dorydium.
Head not produced; elytra not bordered Athysanus.

Dorydium westwoodi, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 215.

Pale ochraceous. Head and thorax finely punctate. Tegmina coarsely punctate. Length, 14 mm.; length of the head, 4 mm.

Hab. Christchurch.

Athysanus negatus, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 215.

Pale rufous-brown, with some indistinct darker spots on the pronotum. Back of the abdomen black in the male and pale-brown in the female. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Otago.

Family Fulgoridæ

Key to the Genera.
a. Wings broad, horizontal in repose Ricania.
b. Wings inclined in repose.
  a1. Antennæ rather long; second joint longer than the first Cona.
  b1. Antennæ short; second joint globular.
    a2. Hind tibiæ unarmed; head narrower than the pronotum.
      a3. Veins of the tegmina without dark marks Cixitis.
      b3. Veins of the tegmina with dark spots or dots Oliarus.
      c3. Veins of the tegmina with dark rings Aka.
    b2. Hind tibiæ spined or toothed.
      d3. Head narrower than the pronotum Agandecca.
      e3. Head rather broader than the pronotum Semo.
Key to the Species of Cixius.
a. Tegmina with a transverse mark on the disc C. interior.
b. Tegmina without any discal mark; veins black at the tips.
  a1. Veins yellow G. punctimargo.
  b1. Veins reddish.
    a2. Stigma with a black dot C. rufifrons.
    b2. Stigma whitish, at the base C. aspilus.

Cixius interior, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 82.

Dull-red; abdomen pale-brown; posterior margins of the segments whitish. Veins pale-red, black towards the tips; stigma whitish. Length, 4 mm.

Hab. Specimens from New Zealand are in the British Museum.

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Cixius punctimargo, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 81.

Pale-yellow. Tegmina with black transverse veins and a black mark at the tip of each apical vein. Length, 3 mm.

Hab. Specimens from New Zealand are in the British Museum.

Cixius rufifrons, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 83.

Pale-brown, the face red. Veins dull-red, with black points towards their tips. Length, 4 mm.

Hab. Specimens from New Zealand are in the British Museum.

Cixius aspilus, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 83.

Pale-reddish. Veins pale-reddish, black towards the tips. Length, 4 mm.

Hab. Specimens from New Zealand are in the British Museum.

Oliarus oppositus, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 345 (Cixius).

Black; crown of the head with a tawny ridge; pronotum margined with tawny. Mesonotum red, with fine bands. Hind borders of the abdominal segments yellow. Tegmina rather tawny, the stigma yellow and brown. Veins yellow, with dark spots. Length, 3–4 mm.

Hab. Bay of Islands.

Oliarus marginalis, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 82 (Cixius).

Black; the head and thorax bordered with reddish; hind borders of the abdominal segments reddish on each side. Tegmina colourless; stigma black, with a white dot at its inner end. Veins reddish, with black dots. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Canterbury.

Aka finitima, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., supplement, p. 81 (Cixius).

Pale-yellowish or reddish, the face brown; thorax sometimes black; abdomen blackish above; legs with black bands. Tegmina greyish; the veins pale-reddish, with black rings. Length, 4 mm.

Hab. Canterbury.

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Semo clypeatus, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 217.

Pale ochreous-brown, marked with darker on the head, scutellum, and abdomen. Length, 4–5 mm.

Hab. Otago.

Agandecca annectens, Buchanan White, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 218.

Reddish. Tegmina yellowish, the veins marked with whitish; commissure of clavus, from the middle to the apex, piceous. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Otago.

Ricania australis, Walker, Cat. Homop. in B.M., p. 430 (Pochazia).

Ferruginous. Tegmina slightly tawny, the fore border near the base testaceous, margin and two imperfect bands brown; wings margined with brown. Length, 5 mm.

Hab. Auckland, probably introduced from Australia.

Cona cælata, Buchanan White, Ent Mo. Mag., vol. 15, p. 218.

Pale-brown, variegated with darker; keels of the head, pronotum, and scutellum generally red. Tegmina hyaline, more or less clouded with brown. Length, 4–6 mm.

Hab. Auckland.