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Volume 30, 1897
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Art. XLVII.—On the Botany of Hikurangi Mountain.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 6th September, 1897.]

Hikurangi is a high mountain on the Raukumara Range. It stands out so well defined on the sky from any open ground that it is a landmark for the East Cape district. The Maoris, impressed by its towering height and the pyramids of bare rock on its summit, called it “Hikurangi” (“The end of the sky”) and “Mahikurangi” (“The land on which the sky rests”). On this mountain it is said that the Maori people took refuge during a flood, and that all would have been drowned but that Hinemakura drank the flood. In the legends published by Sir George Grey it is said to be the first land that Maui drew up from the deep, and thus it was regarded as the holy mountain, as on it fell the first faint light of the eyes of heaven (the sun and moon).

In the Rev. R. Taylor's book on New Zealand he says that there is a native legend that one of the canoes that brought the first Maoris to the Island is still on the top of Hikurangi. This was a very safe statement to make, for even now, with an open sheep country near the base, the mountain has never been ascended by any animal except man.

The directions for ascending the mountain are simple enough: Follow the Mokoiwi Stream to its source and you are on the top of the mountain. In order to reach this stream Mr. Petrie and I, having landed at Hicks Bay under the guidance of my friend Mr. Lee, followed a fairly good road to Kawakawa, and camped on the Awatere River.

At Hicks Bay we found Senecio perdicioides, Carmichœlia williamsii, and a great variety of plants; but near the mouth of the Awatere was a far better botanical hunting-ground. The Calceolaria sinclairii was abundant, and Danthonia cun-

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ninghamii covered the sides of the cliffs. There was some rare plant at almost every step, and for this reason we expected that the whole road to the mountain would be equally interesting. But in this we were disappointed, for Maraehara and the banks of the Mata, near Mr. Lee's house, were the only places with any variety of plants. This scarcity is owing to constant burning, that is required to keep the country open and well grassed for sheep. There were even blazing logs not many yards from the spot where the packhorses were unloaded on the banks of the Mokoiwi, where the swagging began.

We could now see the mountain rising up before us, and it was only a matter of ascending the creek. At first the bed was open and rather rough, but after a time the stream was narrowed in, and rushed down over large boulders. There is no fear now of losing the way, as it is up the creek itself; for the underwood on each side is so thick and the ground so rugged that a track along the margin is impossible. The ascent of the stream is also rather steep, so that the mode of travelling is to wade a few feet, then scramble up a high boulder, then step from boulder to boulder for some yards, when the rocks become so steep and the water at the base so deep that a way must be forced along the side of the stream; but here the work is so great in forcing a way through underwood and over boulders that one is glad to get back to the bed of the stream, that is at least open. After this scrambling and fording there will sometimes succeed a patch of shingle, with the stream foaming along at one side and the trees bending so gracefully over still water at the other side that all the roughness of the road is forgotten, and nothing but a pleasant open road for the rest of the way is expected. But a few steps further on brings one to the boulders that must be climbed, the deep water that has to be forded, and the dead trees that have to be “Blondinized” over. I suppose without swags it is possible to get up the creek and to the foot of the mountain in five hours, but loaded as our Maoris were it took twelve hours for actual walking, and a night that we camped on the boulders near the stream.

The vegetation in the creek had nothing very interesting. It is almost entirely composed of tupaki, koromiko, karamu, and toi. The complete list from my note-book is: Coriaria ruscifolia, Fuchsia excorticata, Schefflera digitata, Coprosma robusta, Cassinia leptophylla, Brachyglottis repanda, Veronica salicifolia, Arundo conspicua, and young trees of Fagus fusca. This vegetation extends for many yards away from the stream, as in fact the whole country is covered with large sharp-edged boulders. We found this when we camped while making the place under the tent level enough to spread on it the clumps of toi for bedding, because the deep holes had to be bridged

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with sticks. This arrangement of the toi clumps so far above the soil seemed to have disturbed all the insects that find their home among the leaves, and they proved much more troublesome than usual.

There were two plants not so common that were appearing all the way—Cardamine hirsuta and Senecio latifolius. As we approached the foot of the mountain some stragglers from the summit began to appear, such as Veronica lœvis, Aciphylla squarrosa, Cordyline indivisa, and also live trees from the primeval forest of Olea montana and Fagus fusca occasionally lay across the stream.

The forest itself we did not get a glimpse of until we reached the foot of the hill. Then, after climbing about 200 ft. above the bed of the stream, we found large trees of three species of Fagus—viz., Fagus fusca, F. menziesii, F. cliffortioides—a large and lofty Libocedrus doniana, and Cordyline indivisa with tall well-grown stems. And on the edge of the ridge above the shingle slopes were patches of Euphrasia cuneata, Ourisia macrophylla, and Callixene parviflora.

Our camp near the foot of the hill was 30 ft. above the bed of the creek, but the plants around were those of a deserted clearing—makomako (Aristotelia racemosa), tupaki (Coriaria ruscifolia), and pukapuka. There were, however, a number of prostrate and upright trunks of dead trees that showed how periodic floods rise perhaps to a height of 50 ft., and cause a widespread destruction of the vegetation. The cause of the floods is plain enough. The mountain is composed of stratified beds of sandstone, clay, and limestone, and these dip at a large angle towards the east. The rain that is almost always falling on this mountain sinks into the loose strata, and forms a reservoir in the recesses of the rocks. In course of time this reservoir bursts and sweeps down an immense mass of the mountain to the bottom, where rocks and clay and trees form a dam. Behind this dam the streams from the mountain cause the water to rise higher and higher, and in course of time the enclosed water acquires such force that it sweeps everything before it for some distance, when the débris forms another dam, and the driving of the mass of rocks and trees is continued.

It is on account of these periodic floods that the plants found near the stream, and for some distance above it, are all second growth, and it is from the same cause that the redistribution of boulders has isolated the mountain from the surrounding country. So that neither cow nor horse nor sheep nor pig has ever desecrated the summit of the mountain or disturbed there the designs of nature in the manner of the growth of plants.

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We found by an aneroid barometer that the ascent of the creek itself was about 3,000 ft., but this made little difference in the plants near its bed, for, with the exception of an occasional Aciphylla squarrosa and Veronica lœvis, the plants are the commonest found in the north. We had, however, plenty of time to climb in all directions from our camp at the foot of the mountain, for though we reached the camping-place at midday on Monday there was not a suitable day for ascending the mountain till Thursday. In this way we collected some plants that do not extend higher than the Fagus forest, and some that we found afterwards on the summit of the mountain.

On Tuesday we got specimens from the summit, for my friend Mr. Lee made an ascent of the mountain, in spite of the heavy fog and drizzling rain, and brought down a good collection of plants. The weather, however, got worse. At first it began to blow so that we all feared during the night that the lofty dead trees that stood near the tent would fall and crush us; then the rain poured in such torrents that the creek soon rose, and the roar of the creek soon became louder than that of the wind. It is an awkward place to be caught in bad weather, for in flood the creek cannot be attempted, and in the best weather a way over the mountain has never been tried. Then, when there are five men to feed, a stock of provisions very soon runs low.

The heavy rain continued through the night, and even at 12 o'clock next day there was no sign of better weather. It was then seriously discussed whether the better plan from all points of view was not to pack up the things and make our way down the creek when it had fallen low enough, rather than run the risk of being trapped there, not only without food, but even without the power to leave. However, at 2 p.m. things looked more hopeful, and the next day the weather was all that could be desired.

I know that to many persons it will appear absurd to speak of the difficulties of a climb of 2,000 ft. or 3,000 ft., but it ought to be borne in mind that the way up the mountain is over a landslip, and in some parts along a stream from the summit, and that save in the stream itself the soil is so loose that it makes the ascent difficult and the descent in some places really dangerous. Any one that steps on a projection more treacherous than usual, as I did, may experience the sensation of hanging over a fall of 40 ft. or 50ft. with a certainty of getting to the bottom in a more or less shattered condition unless some brave friend is near to give a helping hand.

After ascending to a height of 4,700 ft. we came out on a much older part of the slip, where there was some genuine

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mountain vegetation—Ranunculus insignis, Coriaria angustissima, Oreomyrrhis colensoi, Aciphylla colensoi, A. squarrosa, Craspedia fimbriata, Veronica salicifolia (var.), Veronica lyallii, Euphrasia cuneata, Danthonia semiannularis (var. alpina), Poa anceps.

The last stage in the ascent is across and up a shingle slip, and then, after a sharp turn through a gate-like opening in the rocks, the mountain-top is seen, covered with thickly-growing Aciphylla, through which there is a genuine thorny road.

From the summit there was a panoramic view of the district to the north and west. On the right bank of the Tapuaewairoa there was open land, numerous rivers, and enclosed and tilled fields; on the left bank a wide undulating area of sombre - hued virgin forest that will no doubt soon disappear before the squatter and his sheep. The mountain itself seems to be rapidly falling away. Large slips appear on all sides of it, ending abruptly in precipices, and the bare pointed rocks on the summit show the fate that awaits the whole mountain.

The special characteristic of the summit from a botanical point of view is that no animal but man has ever been to the top, and thus we find the plants in their natural mode of growth both in position and arrangement. Aciphylla colensoi and A. squarrosa grow everywhere, but most thickly in stony ground. Senecio elœagnifolius and S. bidwillii almost cover the slopes of the saddle, where the older branches are dead from the effect of the snow that lies for four months of the year on the summit of the mountain. Then there are broad patches of Veronica lævis, V. tetragona, and Olearia nummularifolia.

On the level ground, where no doubt the snow lies longest, there are no plants with woody stems, but a thick sward is formed of Ligusticum aromaticum, Uncinia compacta, Poa australis, P. colensoi, with round masses of Oreobolus pumilio, and here and there the flowers of Gentiana saxosa.

The luxuriant growth of some grasses on parts of the summit is also very striking. The three species of Trisetum—T. antarcticum, T. subspicatum, T. youngii—Danthonia raoulii, D. semiannularis, Hierochloe redolens, H. alpina, and Festuca duriuscula, all grow in great profusion. Then, the effect of the white flowers of Celmisia spectabilis and C. incana, and Helichrysum leontopodium (the New Zealand edelweiss), shining out in the different shades of green, surpassed anything in artificial growing. This effect was heightened by a veil-like covering of Racomitrium moss that softened and blended the colours.

The east side of the hill, looking towards Tologa and

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Gisborne, is carpeted with Celmisia incana, C. spectabilis, Veronica tetragona, Phyllocladus alpina, Oreomyrrhis colensoi, and Schœnus pauciflorus. There were also specimens of Geum urbanum, and the one abundant orchid was Prasophyllum nudum. I also saw Pterostylis banksii and P. puberula.

In the bed of a creek flowing east, where I expected some rich finds, there was nothing on or near the boulders of coarse sandstone. This creek no doubt carries off the water of the snow melted in spring, and is then a genuine mountain torrent.

The trig, station lies at the south end of the mountain-top, and round it tower up some bare pyramidal rocks. At the foot of these rocks the ground is soft with patches of leather-plant (Celmisia spectabilis), vegetable sheep (Raoulia grandiflora), heaths (Pentachondra pumila, Dracophyllum urvilleanum), gentians (Gentiana pleurogynoides, G. saxosa), forget-me-nots (Myosotis spathulata and M. antarctica), and a koromiko like whip-cord (Veronica tetragona).

The only one of the party that climbed to the trig. station was my friend Mr. Lee, and he brought down from the very highest spot on the mountain the following plants: Epilobium rubescens, Oreomyrrhis colensoi, Ligusticum haastii, Helichrysum leontopodium, Hierochloe alpina, Danthonia cunninghamii, D. semiannularis (var. alpina), Trisetum antarcticum; but the plant that held the highest spot of all was not a native, but the common dandelion.

The whole country from Hikurangi to Waipiro shows a rapid disintegration of the land. The landslips on the mountain, and the loose and movable nature of the soil, are characteristic of the whole district. The higher ground on the banks of the Mata and of the Tapuaewairoa is ever on the move, and the fresh landslips near the stream show how insecure is the soil near the bank. A striking example of this movement is given at Waipiro, where all the ground about the hotel, and the hotel itself, is slowly travelling to the sea. The hotel, not many years built, and the grounds, were formerly enclosed by a strong wire fence that has now a very ridiculous appearance. The posts are wildly irregular, and the wire either hangs loose or is stretched at right angles to its original direction. The part of the hotel-grounds near the sea is split up, and apparently folded, while three successive lines of depression show the drains that were successively made in order to carry away the rain-water. The hotel itself, with its loosened floors and its strained and unstable verandah-posts, is in perfect harmony with its surroundings. The cause of all this may be a dyke of igneous rocks, as Sir James Hector has said, that lies beneath the Jurassic formation, and the most striking manifestation that it exists is in the appearance of hot springs

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that lie about six miles from the township of Waipiro. These springs are not on the sea side of the coast range, but on the west side, and they are drained by a stream that flows east into the Waiapu. The site of the springs is well marked by a curious rock formation that at a distance looks like a castle in ruins. The springs lie on all sides of the base of this rock, but more especially on the east and south sides. The rock is carbonate of lime, called travertine, and has stood the weather better than the softer Jurassic formation. The latter has been washed away with such rapidity that the travertine now stands as a mass of rocks through which a hot spring once bubbled; in fact, gas is still issuing through a funnel far above the level of the springs. This gas, being lighted with a match, burns with a low murmur, and is thus used for boiling the “billy” of whatever health - seeker is camped near the springs.

At a lower level than the springs is a small lake of very brackish or salt water. The plants in the neighbourhood are the ordinary ericetal plants of fern-hills, but near the springs and salt lake are genuine seaside plants, such as Cotula coronopifolia, Samolus repens, Chenopodium glaucum, Triglochin triandrum, Scirpus maritimus. I have noticed the same kind of plants near the Te Aroha hot springs, but not to the same extent.

The neighbourhood of the hot springs is at present very desolate; but it is safe to prophesy that it will, in the near future, be one of the great health resorts of the North Island, for, speaking from experience, the effect of a bath in these springs is not to enervate, as is often the case elsewhere, but rather to revive and invigorate. Then, there are many springs with plenty of water, and the temperature varies from very hot to pleasantly warm. We visited them in the middle of summer, when running water near Waipiro had disappeared, and the river-beds were dry roads; but at the springs, though far above the level of the river-beds, there was abundance of water. Another point in favour of their becoming a great health resort is that the locality is protected from the strong sea-breeze by a range of hills 200 ft. or 300 ft. high. There are, however, two serious drawbacks—the want of a supply of good drinking-water and some difficulty in reaching Waipiro, either by land or sea.

Of course, no one can botanize in any part of New Zealand, and especially in the East Cape district, without being continually reminded of the work of that eminent botanist the Rev. W. Colenso, who fifty years ago so well explored the whole district, even to the summit of Hikurangi, that he left little for others to do. For this reason, before writing this paper, I thought it a duty to tell him what I intended to do,

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and I hoped to receive from him some account of his ascent of the mountain in those early days that would make this paper somewhat interesting; but I regret to say that at that time he was suffering so severely from an accident that he could not write, nor could he give any account of his ascent of the mountain without consulting his notes, which were not then at hand. It is only by going over the ground that Colenso has trodden, and by studying the work that he has done, that we can estimate the honour that belongs to that highest of all titles “Fellow of the Royal Society,” and we should feel a pride in thinking that there are in New Zealand a few who, by their original research in various branches of science, have already gained this enviable title.

Catalogue of Plants observed (and their Localities noted) by Mr. D. Petrie and Mr. James Adams on Mount Hikurangi and in the East Coast District.

[The plants whose names are marked with an asterisk have not been hitherto observed in the East Cape district, as they are not mentioned in Mr. Kirk's list of East Cape plants, published in the last volume of the Transactions.]


Clematis indivisa, Willd. Hicks Bay.

" hexasepala, DC. Waiapu River.

" fœtida, Raoul. Hiruhama.

" parviflora, A. Cunn. Not uncommon.

Ranunculus insignis, Hook. f. Summit and sides of Hikurangi.

" plebeius, Br. Lowlands.

" macropus, Hook. f. Mokoiwi River.

" rivularis, Banks and Sol. Swampy places.

" acaulis, Banks and Sol. Hicks Bay and Kawakawa.


Drimys axillaris, Forst. Lowlands.


Cardamine hirsuta, L. Mokoiwi to summit of Hikurangi.


Viola filicaulis, Hook. f. Base of Hikurangi.

" cunninghamii, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst. Abundant.

" micranthus, Hook. f. Lowlands.

*Hymenanthera crassifolia, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

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Pittosporum tenuifolium, Banks and Sol. River-banks.

" ralphii, T. Kirk. Woods near the sea.

" eugenioides, A. Cunn. Awatere River.

" cornifolium, A. Cunn. Hicks Bay.

" crassifolium, A. Cunn. Hicks Bay.


Stellaria parviflora, Banks and Sol. Hills near Hiruhama.

*" gracilenta, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

*Colobanthus billardieri, Fenzl. Summit of Hikurangi.


Hypericum japonicum, Thunb. Swamps near Waiapu River.


Plagianthus divaricatus, Forst. Sea-coast.

Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn. Woods in lowlands.


Entelea arborescens, R. Br. Hicks Bay, Taitai.

Aristotelia racemosa, Hook. f. Common.

*" fruticosa, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

Elæocarpus dentatus, Vahl. Common in forests.


Geranium dissectum, L. Puhunga.

" molle, L. Kawakawa.

" microphyllum, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

Pelargonium australe, Willd. Open lands.

Oxalis corniculata, L. Common.

" magellanica, Forst. Puhunga.


Melicope ternata, Forst. Hicks Bay.

" simplex, A. Cunn. River-banks.


Dysoxylum spectabile, Hook. f. Common.


Pennantia corymbosa, Forst. River-banks, Mata.


Pomaderris phylicifolia, Lodd. Dry hills.


Dodonæa viscosa, Jacq. Common.

Alectryon excelsum, DC. Lowlands.

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Corynocarpus lævigata, Forst. Sea-coast.


Coriaria ruscifolia, L. Common.

*" angustissima, Hook. f. Hikurangi.


Carmichælia williamsii, T. Kirk. Hicks Bay.

" flagelliformis, Col. Banks of rivers.

Sophora tetraptera, Ait. Common.


Rubus australis, Forst., var. cissoides, A. Cunn. Both forms common to high elevations.

Geum urbanum, L. Mata River.

" parviflorum, Commerson. Summit of Hikurangi.

Potentilla anserina, L. Common in wet places.

Acæna sanguisorbæ, Vahl. River-banks to the foot of Hikurangi.


Quintinia serrata, A. Cunn. Slopes of Hikurangi.

Ixerba brexioides, A. Cunn. Slopes of Hikurangi.

Carpodetus serratus, Forst. River-banks.

Weinmannia racemosa, Forst. Wooded hills.


Haloragis alata, Jacq. Common.

*" tetragyna, var. ॆ, Labill. Dry hills.

*" depressa, Hook. f. Puhunga.

" micrantha, Br. Dry hills.

*Myriophyllum pedunculatum, Hook. f. River-banks.

" variæfolium, Hook. f. Marshy places.

*Gunnera monoica, Raoul. River-banks.


Leptospermum scoparium, Forst. Common.

" ericoides, A. Rich. Common.

Metrosideros florida, Sm. Kawakawa.

" hypericifolia, A. Cunn. Hicks Bay.

*" colensoi, Hook. f. Tologa.

" robusta, A. Cunn. Not uncommon.

" tomentosa, A. Cunn. Sea-coast.

" scandens, Banks and Sol. Near Tologa.

Myrtus bullata, Banks and Sol. Lowlands.

" obcordata, Hook. f. River-banks.

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Fuchsia excorticata, L. f. From sea to summit of Hikurangi.

Epilobium nummularifolium, A. Cunn. Sea to 3,000 ft.

" pedunculatum, A. Cunn. Not uncommon.

" rotundifolium, G. Forst. Common.

" junceum, Forst. Swamps.

" pubens, A. Rich. Swamps.

" billardierianum, Ser. Swamps.

*" insulare, Haussk. Swamps.

" erubescens, Haussk. Hikurangi.

*" chloræfolium, Haussk. Hikurangi.

*" tenuipes, Hook. Hikurangi.


Passiflora tetrandra, Banks and Sol. Mata River.


Tetragonia expansa, Murray. Kawakawa Bay.


Hydrocotyle elongata, A. Cunn. Not uncommon.

" asiatica, L. Common.

" novœ-zealandiœ, DC. Maraehara.

" moschata, Forst. Waipu River.

*" microphylla, A. Cunn. Awatere River.

Azorella roughii, Hook. f. Hikurangi Mountain.

Apium australe, Thouars. Sea-coast.

Oreomyrrhis colensoi, Hook. f. Hikurangi to summit.

*Crantzia lineata, Nutt. Hicks Bay.

Ligusticum aromaticum, Hook. f. Hikurangi, 4,000 ft. to 6,000 ft.

Aciphylla colensoi, Hook. f. Hikurangi Mountain.

" squarrosa, Forst. Summit of Hikurangi.

Angelica rosæfolia, Hook. f. Hicks Bay, Waipiro Spring.

Daucus brachiatus, Sieber. Hikurangi.


Panax simplex, Forst. Hikurangi Mountain.

" anomalum, Hook. Hikurangi Mountain.

" crassifolium, Hook. f. River-banks.

" lessonii, DC. Hicks Bay.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

" arboreum, Forst. Ascending to 4,000 ft.

Schefflera digitata, Forst. Ascending to 4,000 ft.


Corokia cotoneaster, Raoul. Hicks Bay.

Griselinia lucida, Forst. Hikurangi.

" littoralis, Raoul. Hikurangi.

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Alseuosmia macrophylla, A. Cunn. Maraehara.


Coprosma lucida, Forst. Hikurangi.

" grandifolia, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" baueri, Endlich. Hicks Bay, Tologa.

" robusta, Raoul. Hikurangi.

" densifolia, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" tenuifolia, Cheeseman. Hikurangi.

" spathulata, A. Cunn. Marshy ground.

" rotundifolia, A. Cunn. River-banks.

" tenuicaulis, Hook. f. Lowlands.

" rhamnoides, A. Cunn. River-banks.

*" parviflora, Hook. f. Not common; lowlands.

" fœtidissima, Forst. Hikurangi.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" propinqua, A. Cunn. Waiapu River.

" cuneata, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

" acerosa, Col. Sea-level to 3,000 ft.

*" linariifolia. River-banks.

" areolata, Cheeseman. River-banks.

*" rigida, Cheeseman. River-banks.

*" ramulosa, Petrie. Hikurangi.

*" repens, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

*" banksii, Petrie, n.s. Base of Hikurangi.

Nertera cunninghamii, Hook. f. Awatere River.

Galium tenuicaule, A. Cunn. Maraehara.

" umbrosum, Forst. Waipiro; rare.


Lagenophora forsteri, DC. Bare hills.

*" petiolata, Hook. f. Bare hills.

Olearia colensoi, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

" furfuracea, Hook. f. River-banks.

" nitida, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" ilicifolia, var., Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" cunninghamii, Hook. f. Hicks Bay.

*" nummularifolia, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

" solandri, Hook. f. Tologa Bay.

Celmisia incana, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" spectabilis, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

" longifolia, Cass. Mr. Lee, from Aorangi.

Vittadinia australis, A. Rich. Mata River.

Gnaphalium keriense, A. Cunn. River-banks.

" luteo-album, L. Hikurangi.

" involucratum, Forst. Not common.

" collinum, Labill. Not common.

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*Gnaphalium filicaule, Hook. f. Dry hills.

*Raoulia tenuicaulis, Hook. f. River-banks to 4,500 ft.

*" grandiflora, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

Helichrysum bellidioides, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" leontopodium, Hook. f. Summit of mountain.

" glomeratum, Bentham and Hook. f. Valleys.

Cassinia retorta, A. Cunn. Hicks Bay.

" leptophylla, Br. Matahua, Waipiro.

Craspedia fimbriata, DC. Summit of mountain.

Cotula coronopifolia, L. Near sea-coast.

*" squalida, Hook. f. Matahua.

*Centipeda minuta, DC. Wet places.

Erechtites prenanthoides, DC. River-banks.

" quadridentata, DC. Puhunga.

Brachyglottis repanda, Forst. Common.

*Senecio latifolius, Banks and Sol. Common ascending to summit.

" lautus, Forst. Sea-coast.

*" odoratus, Hornemann. Tologa Bay.

" kirkii, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" perdicioides, Hook. f. Hicks Bay.

" elæagnifolius, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" bidwillii, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

Sonchus oleraceus, L. From sea-level to summit.


*Forstera tenella, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

*Phyllachne colensoi, Hook. f. Summit of mountain.


Selliera radicans, Cav. Sea-shore and hot springs.

Pratia angulata, Hook. f. –Sea-level to summit.

Lobelia anceps, Thunb. Sea-shore.

Wahlenbergia gracilis, A. Rich. Lowlands.


Gaultheria antipoda, Forst. Sea-coast to 4,000 ft.

*" rupestris, Br. Summit of mountain.

Cyathodes acerosa, R. Br. Dry hills.

*" empetrifolia, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

*Pentachondra pumila, Br. Summit of mountain.

Leucopogon fraseri, A. Cunn. Dry hills.

" fasciculatum, A. Rich. Dry hills.

Dracophyllum latifolium, A. Cunn. Hikurangi.

*" traversii, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" longifolium, R. Br. Kawakawa.

" urvilleanum, var. scoparium, A. Rich. Summit of mountain.

– 427 –


Samolus repens, Pers. Sea-coast and hot springs.


Myrsine salicina, Heward. Maraehara.

" urvillei, A. DC. River-banks.

*" divaricata, A. Cunn. Hikurangi.


Olea cunninghamii, Hook. f. Waipiro.

" lanceolata, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" montana, Hook. f. Maraehara.


Parsonsia albiflora, Raoul. Hicks Bay.

" rosea, Raoul. Puhunga.


Geniostoma ligustrifolia, A. Cunn. Hikurangi.


Gentiana bellidifolia, Hook. Hikurangi.


*Myosotis antarctica, Hook. f. Summit of mountain.

*" saxosa, Hook. f. Summit of mountain.


Calystegia sepium, L. Mata.

" tuguriorum, Forst. Hicks Bay.

" soldanella, L. Sea-shore.

Dichondra repens, Forst. Waipiro.


Solanum aviculare, Forst. Kawakawa.

" nigrum, L. Kawakawa.


Calceolaria sinclairii, Hook. River-banks to Hikurangi.

Gratiola peruviana, A. Cunn. Marshy ground.

*Limosella aquatica, L. Kawakawa.

Veronica salicifolia, Forst. Common.

" parviflora, Vahl. Kawakawa.

*" lævis, Benth. Summit of Hikurangi.

" tetragona, Hook. Summit of Hikurangi.

" lyallii, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

Ourisia macrophylla, Hook. River-banks to summit.

*" cæspitosa, Hook. f. Summit.

Euphrasia cuneata, Forst. Hikurangi, Tawhiti, Tologa.

– 428 –


Myoporum lætum, Forst. Hicks Bay and near the sea.

Vitex littoralis, A. Cunn. Hicks Bay.


Mentha cunninghamii, Benth. Awatere, Mata.


Plantago spathulata, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

" raoulii, Dec. Common.


Chenopodium glaucum, L. Waipiro Springs.

*Salsola australis, Forst. Waipiro Bay.


Polygonum aviculare, L. Not rare.

" minus, Huds. Wet grounds.

Rumex flexuosus, Forst. Waipiro.

Muhlenbeckia adpressa, Lab. Common.

" complexa, Meisn. Hicks Bay.


Piper excelsum, Forst. Hicks Bay, Mokoiwi.

Peperomia urvilleanum, A. Rich. Hicks Bay.


Laurelia novœ-zealandiœ, A. Cunn. Not rare.

Hedycarya dentata, Forst. Common on low lands.

Beilschmeidia tawa, Benth. and Hook. f. Common.


Knightia excelsa, R. Br. Hicks Bay.


Pimelea longifolia, Banks and Sol. Awatere River.

" buxifolia, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

" arenaria, A. Cunn. Sea-coast.

*" prostrata. Vahl. Hicks Bay to summit of Hikurangi.

*Drapetes dieffenbachii, Hook. Summit.


Loranthus colensoi, Hook. f. Base of Hikurangi.

Tupeia antarctica, Cham. and Schl. Mokoiwi.

– 429 –


Euphorbia glauca, Forst. Kawakawa.


Paratrophis microphyllus, Blume. Waipiro, Tologa, Cook's Cave.

Urtica incisa, Poiret. Spurs of Hikurangi.


Fagus menziesii, Hook. f. Spurs of Hikurangi.

" fusca, Hook. f. Spurs of Hikurangi.

" cliffortioides, Hook. f. Spurs of Hikurangi.


Libocedrus bidwillii, Hook. f. Spurs of Hikurangi.

*Phyllocladus glauca, Carr. Spurs of Hikurangi.

" trichomanoides, Don. Puhunga.

" alpina, Hook. f. Sides and summit of Hikurangi.

Dacrydium cupressinum, Sol. Hicks Bay.

" bidwillii, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

Podocarpus nivalis, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.

" totara, A. Cunn. River-sides, Hikurangi.

" ferruginea, Don. Common.

" spicata, R. Br. Not rare.

" dacrydioides, A. Rich. Maraehara.

" hallii, Kirk. Spurs of Hikurangi.


Earina autumnalis, Hook. f. Common.

" mucronata, Lindl. Mokoiwi.

Dendrobium cunninghamii, Lindl. Maraehara.

*Gastrodia sesamoides, Br. Awatere River.

Acianthus sinclairii, Hook. f. Puhunga.

*Cyrtostylis oblonga, Hook. f. Puhunga.

Corysanthes triloba, Hook. f. Puhunga.

*" rotundifolia, Hook. f. Awatere River.

*" macrantha, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

Microtis porrifolia, Spreng. Puhunga.

Pterostylis banksii, R. Br. River-banks to summit.

" trullifolia, Hook. f. Mata River.

Thelymitra longifolia, Forst. River-banks to summit.

*Prasophyllum nudum, Hook. f. Summit.

*Orthoceras solandri, Lindl. Puhunga.


Libertia ixioides, Spreng. Hicks Bay.

" micrantha, A. Cunn. Hikurangi.

– 430 –


Freycinetia banksii, A. Cunn. River-banks.


Typha angustifolia, L. Awatere River.


Lemna minor, L. Manutahi Swamp.

Potamogeton cheesemanii, A. Benn. Awatere River.

*Ruppia maritima, Linn. Waipiro Springs.


Rhipogonum scandens, Forst. Common.

*Callixene parviflora, Hook. f. Hikurangi.

Cordyline australis, Hook. f. Common.

" banksii, Hook. f. Awatere River.

" indivisa, Kunth. Hikurangi, near summit.

Dianella intermedia, Endl. Hicks Bay.

Astelia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Not uncommon.

*" solandri, A. Cunn. Common.

*" banksii, A. Cunn. Hicks Bay.

*" trinervia, Kirk. Hikurangi.

Arthropodium cirrhatum, Br. Hicks Bay.

" candidum, Raoul. Puhunga.

Phormium tenax, Forst. Maraehara; not common.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Common.


Areca sapida, Sol. Hicks Bay.


Juncus maritimus, Lam. Coast.

" communis, E. Meyer. Common.

" planifolius, R. Br. Swampy ground.

" bufonius, L. Not uncommon.

*" novœ-zealandiœ, Hook. f. Awatere River.

*" tenuis, Willd. Maraehara.

*" cæspiticius, Br. Kawakawa.

Luzula campestris, var. picta, DC. Awatere River.

*" oldfieldii, Hook. f. Summit of Hikurangi.


Leptocarpus simplex, A. Rich. Hicks Bay, Tologa Bay.


Cyperus ustulatus, A. Rich. Common.

Eleocharis acuta, R. Br. Common.

" multicaulis, Smith. Waiapu River.

– 431 –

Scirpus nodosus, Rottb. Common near the sea.

*" inundatus, Poir. Not uncommon.

*" riparius, Br. Seaside, Waipiro Springs.

" pungens, Vahl. Tologa Bay.

" maritimus, L. Hicks Bay, Waipiro Springs.

" lacustris, L. Tologa, Waiapu River.

Desmoschœnus spiralis, Hook. f. Hicks Bay, Kawakawa.

*Schœnus pauciflorus, Hook. f. Summit of mountain.

*Carpha alpina, Br. Summit of mountain.

*Cladium teretifolium, Br. Hicks Bay.

*" junceum, Hook. f. Not common.

" sinclairii, Hook. f. Awatere River.

Gahnia hectori, Kirk. Not rare.

" lacera, Steudel. Summit of Hikurangi.

*" setifolia, Hook. f. Maraehara.

*Uncinia compacta, Br., var. divaricata, Boott. Summit of mountain.

" australis, Persoon. Common.

*" banksii, Boott. Hikurangi.

*Carex acicularis, Boott. Summit of mountain.

*" inversa, Br. Lowlands.

*" paniculata, Linn. Common.

" ternaria (two forms), Forst. Common.

" lucida, Boott. Not uncommon.

*" dipsacea, Bergg. Waiapu River.

" pumila, Thunb. Seaside, in sand.

" forsteri, Wahl. Mokoiwi River.

*" neesiana, Endl. Common.

" dissita, Sol. Not rare.

" lambertiana, Boott. Near Tologa.

*" vacillans, Sol. Maraehara; rare.

" comans, Bergg. Maraehara.


Microlæna stipoides, R. Br. Common.

" avenacea, Hook. f. Base of Hikurangi.

Hierochloe redolens, R. Br. Mata River; summit.

*" alpina, Rœm. and Schul. Summit of mountain.

Spinifex hirsutus, Labill. Sea-shore.

Oplismenus setaceus, Beauv. Rare; in lowland bush.

*Isachne australis, Br. Manutahi Swamp.

Zoysia pungens, Willd. Common near the sea.

Echinopogon ovatus, Sol. Common.

Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. Common.

Sporobolus indicus, R. Br. Rare; Kawakawa, Hicks Bay.

*Agrostis dyeri, Petrie. Summit of mountain.

Deyeuxia forsteri, Kunth. Hikurangi; common.

" billardieri, Kunth. Kawakawa.

– 432 –

*Deyeuxia setifolia, Hook. f. Summit; abundant.

" quadriseta, Br. Puhunga.

Arundo conspicua, Forst. Common.

" var. fulvida, Buch. Not rare.

Danthonia cunninghamii, Hook. f.; very like D. bromoides. Ordinary form on Hikurangi.

*" raoulii, Steud. Summit.

*" pilosa, Br. Puhunga.

" semiannularis, R. Br. Kawakawa.

*" " var. alpina. Hikurangi.

Trisetum antarcticum, Trin. Spurs of Hikurangi; a curious series of forms found here.

*" subspicatum, Palisot. Summit of mountain.

*" youngii, Hook. f. Summit of mountain.

*Eragrostis imbecilla, Forst. Hiruhama, Hikurangi.

Poa anceps, Forst. Kawakawa, Hikurangi.

*" australis, Br. Hicks Bay.

*" colensoi, Hook. f. Summit of mountain.

*" pusilla, n.s. Bergg. Matahia, Waiapu River.

Schedonorus littoralis, Palisot. Coast.

*Festuca duriuscula, L.

Triticum multiflorum, Banks and Sol. Up to 3,000 ft.; rare.

*" scabrum, Br. Up to 3,000 ft.

*Gymnostichum gracile, Hook. f. Open bush.


Cyathea medullaris, Swartz. Hicks Bay.

" dealbata, Swartz. Hicks Bay.

Dicksonia squarrosa, Swartz. Kawakawa, Hikurangi.

Hymenophyllum polyanthos, Swartz. Hikurangi.

*" villosum, Col. Summit of mountain.

" demissum, Swartz. Awatere, Hikurangi.

" tunbridgense, Sm. Hikurangi.

" bivalve, Swartz. Hikurangi.

Trichomanes reniforme, Forst. Puhunga.

Adiantum affine, Willd. Hicks Bay, Awatere.

Hypolepis distans, Hook. Hicks Bay.

Pellæa rotundifolia, Hook. Hiruhama.

Pteris tremula, R. Br. Awatere.

" aquilna, L. Common.

" scaberula, A. Rich. Hicks Bay.

" macilenta, A. Rich. Hicks Bay.

" incisa, Thunb. Maraehara.

Lomaria discolor, Willd. Hikurangi.

" lanceolata, Spreng. Hiruhama.

" alpina, Spreng. Summit of mountain.

" procera, Spreng. Mata, Hikurangi.

" fluviatilis, Spreng. Hikurangi.

– 433 –

Lomaria membranacea, Col. Taitai.

Asplenium obtusatum, Forst. Hiruhama.

" falcatum, Laun. Mokoiwi.

" bulbiferum, Forst. Awatere, Hikurangi.

" flaccidum, Forst. Hikurangi.

Aspidium richardi, Hook. Awatere, Hikurangi.

*" cystostegia, Hook. Summit of mountain.

Nephrodium decompositum, R. Br. Mata River.

" glabellum, A. Cunn. Hicks Bay.

" velutinum, Hook. f. Mata River.

" hispidum, Hook. Manutahi Swamp.

Polypodium australe, Mettenius. Hikurangi.

*" crassum, T. Kirk. Summit of mountain.

" tenellum, Forst. Awatere River.

" serpens, Forst. Hikurangi.

" rugulosum, Lab. Hikurangi.

" pustulatum, Forst. Hicks Bay.

" billardieri, Br. Mata, Hikurangi.

Todea hymenophylloides, Rich. Mata, Hikurangi.

*Lycopodium selago, L. Summit.

" varium, Br. Hiruhama.

" densum, Labill. Taitai.

*" cernuum, L. Hiruhama.

" magellanicum. Summit of mountain.

" volubile. Hiruhama.


Azolla rubra, R. Br. Awatere River.