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Volume 31, 1898
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Art. VII.—Revision of the New Zealand Pleurotomidæ, with Descriptions of Six New Species.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 2nd November, 1898.]

Plate III.

The diagnosis of the family is given by Tryon* as follows: “Shell fusiform, with a more or less produced anterior canal, and a slit or sinus of the outer margin of the aperture near the suture. Operculum (not always present) corneous, annular, the nucleus apical, or subcentral, or nearly marginal. The dentition is usually 1—0—1, but in some groups there is a rhachidian tooth, and in others there are two laterals. No jaws.”

With regard to making a satisfactory classification, it may not be out of place to quote a few of Tryon's remarks on the subject : “In no other group of Mollusca is it so difficult to make a satisfactory classification. Many species are very variable in their characters, whilst the material for the recognition of most of those described is generally scanty. The many generic and subgeneric groups that have been made only increase the confusion, for so great is the variability of all the characters that nearly allied species have been constantly separated into different groups.”

As the dentition and operculum of most of the New Zealand species are unknown, the present classification rests on the characters of the shells alone, and is therefore open to amendment.

The deep-sea species hardly form part of the New Zealand fauna, but I include them here, as some of them may be found inhabiting our shores in lesser depths.

[Footnote] * Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. vi., p. 151.

[Footnote] † l.c., pp. 151, 152.

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Sub-family Pleurotominæ.

Operculum oval, with terminal nucleus.

Genus Pleurotoma, Lamarck (1799).

Shell turriculated, fusiform; spire long, sharp; aperture ovate, columellar margin smooth, the outer lip with a narrow profound sinus situated rather distantly from the suture; canal long and narrow, straight, open. Dentition, 1—0—1.

Pleurotoma ischna, Watson.

Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xv., p. 403 (1881); “Challenger” Exp. Rep., pt. 42, vol. xv., p. 208, pi. xxii., fig. 2 (1886).

Shell high, conical, blunt; with a contracted base and longish snout, little sculpture, strongish, yellowish-grey, porcelaneous. Lines of growth rising into tubercles on the upper whorls. Whorls 7, faintly keeled by a more prominent spiral thread; another similar close above the suture. Upper whorls reticulated. Mouth club-shaped. Sinus rather deep, open-mouthed.

Length, 8.5mm.; breadth, 2.3mm.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. In 700 fathoms, off East Cape (Stat. 169, Chall. Exp.).

Genus Genotia, H. and A. Adams, em. 1853 (Genota).

Shell narrowly obconic, cancellated; body-whorl gradually tapering to a but slightly developed canal; lip-sinus wide and shallow; aperture long and narrow, with subparallel margins. Operculum unguiculate.

Genotia engonia, Watson.

Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xv., p. 405 (1881); “Challenger” Exp. Rep., pt. 42, vol. xv., p. 300, pl. xx., fig. 7 (1886)

Shell fusiform, biconical, with a rounded keel angulating the whorls, and a broad lop-sided snout. Lines of growth crossed by close-set spiral threads, somewhat granular below the keel. Colour porcelaneous-white. Whorls 8, with a slightly concave shoulder. Suture slightly canaliculated. Mouth rhomboidally pear-shaped, with a broad open anterior canal.

Length, 32 mm.; breadth, 13.2 mm.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. In 700 fathoms, off East Cape (Stat. 169, Chall. Exp.); one specimen. Obtained also off Inosima, Japan, in 345 fathoms.

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Genus Drillia, Gray (1838).

Shell turriculated, with longitudinal ribs and usually revolving striæ; last whorl usually short; spire elevated; columella with a posterior callus; outer lip thick, but not varicose nor dentate within, flexuous, with a well-marked posterior sinus near (but not reaching) the suture, and an anterior constriction or sinuosity; canal short, curved, usually narrow.

Key to Species.

1. Shell without distinct spiral lyrae D. lævis.
2. Shell with distinct spiral lyres D. amæena.

Drillia lævis, Hutton.

Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. of N.Z., p. 12 (1873); Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 44 (1880); Pliocene Moll. of N.Z., Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 51, pl. vii., fig. 32 (1893).

Shell fusiform, the spire longer than the body-whorl. Whorls smooth, with longitudinal plications, about fourteen on the last whorl, pale yellow-brown with a central spiral band of pink. Aperture oval; canal short and straight; sinus deep; mouth and columella white, shading off into pink. Animal unknown.

Length, 18 mm.; breadth, 7mm.; angle of spire, 30°.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Hab. Foveaux Strait. Found also in the Pliocene of New Zealand.

Drillia (?) amœna, E. A. Smith.

Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vol. xiv., p. 318 (1884).

Shell fusiform, light flavescent, with a white band encircling the whorls; eight convex volutions, the first two smooth, the others longitudinally costate; 18 ribs on the last whorl, not continuing below the periphery; spirally lyrate, the Lyræ forming nodules on crossing the ribs, 5 to 6 lyræ on the upper whorls, about 15 on the last, few without nodules at the base. Aperture two-fifths of the whole length of the shell; canal narrow, but little produced.

Length, 14 mm.; breadth, 5 mm.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. New Zealand.

Two of the spiral lyrations a little below the suture are finer than the others. The whorls are markedly convex, and the apical ones are large. (E. A. S.)

I have not seen this species.

Genus Spirotropis, Sars (1878).

Shell turriculated, rather thin; apex obtuse; whorls carinated; sinus profound, distant from the suture. Operculum normal. Dentition very distinct; formula, 1—1—1—1—1.

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Spirotropis bulbacea, Watson.

Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xv., p. 418 (1881); “Challenger” Exp. Rep., pt. 42, vol. xv., p. 325, pl. xxv., fig. 9 (1886).

Shell broadish conical, sharply keeled, with a shortish contracted base and a short snout, short narrow ribs, and coarse spiral threads, a bulbous apex; strong, porcelaneous. Ribs slightly tubercled at top. The spirals marginating the suture. Spire short. Whorls 6 ½, short, concavely shouldered. Mouth narrowly oval; sinus blunt, V-shaped. Operculum oval, with hair-like striæ; apex terminal.

Length, 12.7 mm.; breadth, 58 mm.

Type in British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. In 700 fathoms, off East Cape (Stat. 169, Chall. Exp.). Known from no other locality.

This species is near Surcula trailli, Hutton, but the longitudinal ribs are less numerous, the canal much shorter, and the colour different.

Sub-family Clavatulinæ.

Operculum pyriform, with lateral internal nucleus.

Genus Surcula, H. and A. Adams (1853).

Shell turriculated, fusiform; spire long; lip-sinus in the infrasutural depression above the peripheral carina; canal long, slightly bent. Operculum with medio-lateral nucleus. Dentition, 1—0—1.

Key to Species.

1. Whorls spirally ribbed or sulcate.
 a. Usually with 3 strong spiral ribs S. albula.
  aa. Whorls shouldered, grooved S. cheesemani.
  bb. Whorls not shouldered, sometimes without grooves or only a few S. varians.
2. Whorls longitudinally ribbed.
 a. Suture not margined. S. gypsata.
 b. Suture margined.
  aa. Longitudinal plications very numerous S. novæ-zelandiæ.
  bb. About 15 oblique ribs on the last whorl S. trailli.
  cc. About 9 strong tubercles on the last whorl S. verrucosa.

Surcula novæ-zelandiæ, Reeve.

Reeve, Conch. Icon. (Pleurotoma), spec. 143 (1843). Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N.Z., p. 11 (1873); Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 43 (1880). Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. vi., p. 184, pl. xii., figs. 42, 44. P. rosea, Quoy. and Gaimard, Voy. Astrol., Zool., vol. ii., p. 524, pl. xxxv., figs. 10, 11 (not of Sowerby). P. quoyi, Deshayes,

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Lain. Anim. s. Vert., 2nd ed., vol. ix., p. 346 (not of Desmoulins).

Shell spirally sulcate and longitudinally striate, the suture slightly impressed, marginate and subcrenulate; sinus rather broad and shallow; rose-ash colour, purple-rose within the aperture. Aperture oblong, canal short; body-whorl rather longer than the spire. Animal unknown.

Length, 28 mm.; breadth, 10 mm.; angle of spire, 25°.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. Throughout New Zealand. Specimens kindly given to me by Mr. S. H. Drew were dredged off Wanganui.

Surcula trailli, Hutton.

Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. of N.Z., p. 11 (1873); Man. N.Z. Moil., p. 42 (1880). Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. vi., p. 206, pl. xxxiv., fig. 90. D. maorum, E. A. Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. xix., p. 497 (1877); Hutton, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 44 (1880). P. buchanani, Hutton, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 42 (1880); Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. vi., p. 208 (not P. buchanani, Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll, of N.Z., p. 4 (1873)).

Shell fusiform, turreted, pale rose-colour; whorls 8 ½, the first 1 ½ smooth, spirally lyrated, concavely shouldered; suture margined, with about 16 oblique ribs. Aperture elongated, canal somewhat elongated, narrow; sinus moderate, situated in the excavation. Animal unknown.

Length, 21 mm.; breadth, 7 mm.; angle of spire, 28°.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Hab. Throughout New Zealand. The type was dredged in 24 fathoms, near Stewart Island. Orakei, near Auckland (H. S.). I quite agree with Captain Hutton that this is not the same as Drillia æmula, Angas, as suggested by Tryon (l.c., p. 206, pl. xii., fig. 37), which occurs on the coast of New South Wales.

Surcula albula, Hutton.

Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. of N.Z., p. 12 (1873); Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 43 (1880); Pliocene Moll. of N.Z., Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 49, pl. vi., fig. 22 (1893). S. antipodum, E. A. Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. xix., p. 491 (1877); Hutton, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 43 (1880).

Shell fusiform, white; whorls spirally grooved, with fine growth-lines in the grooves, and a central prominent spiral rib; whorls 7 ½; aperture oblong, contracted below; canal short, recurved. Body-whorl nearly half the entire length of shell. Sinus shallow, above the keel. Animal unknown.

Length, 10mm.; breadth, 4 mm.; angle of spire, 30°. Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

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Hab. Throughout New Zealand. Auckland Harbour (H. S.) Found also in the Pliocene of New Zealand.

Surcula cheesemani, Hutton.

Hutton, Journ. de Conchyliologie (1878), p. 16; Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 44 (1880); Pliocene Moll, of N.Z., Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 49., pl. vi., fig. 24. D. zealandica, E. A. Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. xix., p. 492 (1877); Hutton, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 43.(1880), (not novæ-zelandiæ, Reeve).

Shell ovato-fusiform, the spire gradated, flesh-white, apex brownish; whorls 10, first 2 ½ polished, slightly convex, keeled above, tabulations strongly radiately striated, with 2 to 3 sulci. Body-whorl large, somewhat inflated, contracted towards the base; with about 12 strong sulci, longitudinally striated. Columella darkish, canal short, slightly recurved. Sinus rather broad and sometimes deep, situated below the broad furrow which grooves the upper part of the whorls: Animal unknown.

Length, 23 mm.; breadth, 9 mm. Type in the Canterbury Museum.

Hab. Auckland Harbour. Found also in the Pliocene of New Zealand.

Surcula gypsata, Watson.

Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xv., p. 413 (1881); “Challenger” Exp. Rep., pt. 42, vol. xv., p. 292, pl. xxv., fig. 1 (1886).

Shell strong, fusiform, biconical, scalar; shortly, sharply, and obliquely ribbed, keeled, constricted at the suture, with a long and rather inflated body-whorl and a largish snout. Sinus broad, deep, and rounded.

Length, 44.5mm.; breadth, 19mm. Aperture: Length, 24–4 mm.; breadth, 12 mm.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. In 700 fathoms, off East Cape (Stat. 169, Chall. Exp.); two specimens (dead shells).

Surcula varians, Hutton.

Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii., p. 314, pl. xvii., fig. 2 (1885); Pliocene Moll. of N.Z., Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 44, pl. vi., fig. 16 (1893).

Shell oblong, the spire prominent and acute. Whorls 7, flattened, spirally grooved. Grooves variable, sometimes only one on the anterior half of the whorl, sometimes several are equally distributed all over; generally there is a smooth band without grooves on each whorl; sometimes the spire-whorls are quite smooth, or with one or two grooves only. Suture

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deep. Aperture less than half the length of the shell, oval, with the right lip flattened; the posterior canal well marked; columella smooth and rounded; the anterior canal very short; right lip toothed within.

Length, 10 mm.; breadth, 4 mm.

Type in the Canterbury Museum.

Hab. Dunedin Harbour (A. Hamilton). Foveaux Strait.

This species, described from Pliocene fossil shells, and classed under Columbella. has been obtained by dredging in Dunedin Harbour and Foveaux Strait, and careful examination of a series of fossil and recent specimens has convinced me that it really belongs to the Pleurotomidæ, and I think its proper place is in the genus Surcula, although operculum and dentition are unknown. There is a distinct posterior sinus below the suture, shallow and rounded.

Surcula verrucosa, n. sp. Plate III., figs. 1, la.

Shell fusiform, turriculated, spire longer than the body-whorl, yellowish-brown. Whorls 7, spirally striated, keeled by a row of tubercles; 2 to 3 spiral striæ run across the nodules, a rather broad one is situated below the suture; there are about 9 tubercles on the last whorl, and 6 to 7 strong cinguli below them. Protoconch smooth, mammillary, consisting of 1 ½ volutions. Suture impressed, margined. Aperture oval; outer lip thin, sharp, with a broad shallow posterior sinus in front and above the nodules; columella arched, but slightly callous; anterior canal short, almost straight. Animal unknown.

Length, 9.5 mm.; breadth, 4 mm.; height of aperture, 4 mm. Type in my collection.

Hab. Foveaux Strait (A. Hamilton).

This species resembles somewhat Drillia angasi, Crosse, from Australia and Tasmania, which, however, is larger, with a broader spire and very fine close spiral striæ, the suture not margined, and the posterior lip-sinus deeper and narrower. From the Pliocene S. tuberculata, Kirk, which it also approaches somewhat, it may at once be distinguished by the large much less numerous tubercles on the whorls and the shorter anterior canal.

Sub-family Mangiliinæ.

No operculum.

Genus Manguilia (Leach, M.S.), Risso, em., 1826 (Mangelia). (= Bela, Leach, M.S.), Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1847, p. 134.)

Shell fusiform, imperforate; aperture oval-elongated, usually narrow, terminating in a rather short truncated canal; lip-sinus near the suture. Dentition, 1—0—:1.

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Key to Species.

1. Whorls cancellated.
 a. Spire as long as the body-whorl, about 15 ribs on the last whorl M. ula.
 b. Spire longer than the body-whorl, about 11 ribs on the last whorl M. dictyota.
2. Whorls not cancellated, longitudinal ribs predominant.
 a. Spire about the length of the body-whorl, about 18 straight ribs on the body-whorl M. subaustralis.
 b. Spire longer than the body-whorl.
  aa. Ribs continuous over the whorls, about 10 on the last whorl, with spiral rows of red dots M. goodingi.
  bb. Shell minute, about 16 flexuous ribs on the last whorl M. flexicostata.

Mangilia goodingi, E. A. Smith.

Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vol. xiv., p. 320 (1884).

Shell acuminately ovate, turriculate, white, ornamented with series of red dots on the ribs, one above the periphery, another near the base of the whorls; there are 7 volutions, the first two convex, the following slightly shouldered, almost flat; ribs continuous; 9 to 10 prominent plicate ribs on the last whorl, continuing to its base; the whole shell with minute close spiral striæ; the body-whorl with a third series of red dots towards the base. Aperture narrow, less than half the length of the shell; outer lip thickened, slightly sinuated; canal narrow, short.

Length, 7.5 mm.; breadth, 2.7 mm.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hob. New Zealand. Foveaux Strait (A. Hamilton).

The five prominent plicate ribs, which in the single specimen before me are continuous up the spire, and the spiral row of reddish, dots on the ribs, two on the upper whorls and three on the last, are the principal distinctive characters of this very elegant species (E. A. S.).

Mangilia ula, Watson.

Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xv., p. 420 (1881); “Challenger” Exp. Rep., pt. 42, vol. xv., p. 312, pl. xxii., fig. 1 (1886).

Shell rather short, fusiform, biconical, scalar, angulated, obsoletely ribbed and with rather strong spiral threads. Snout rather short, broadish and lop-sided. In the shoulder a shallow, open, rounded sinus.

Length, 6 mm.; breadth, 3mm. Aperture: Length, 3 mm.; breadth, 1.5 mm.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hob. In 700 fathoms, off East Cape (Stat. 169, Chall. Exp.); one specimen. Obtained at no other locality.

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Mangilia dictyota, Hutton.

Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii., p. 316, pl. xviii., fig. 8 (1885); Pliocene Moll, of N.Z., Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 53, pl. vii., fig. 37 (1893).

Shell minute, elongato-fusiform, the whorls slightly angled and cancellated. Longitudinal ribs narrow and distant, about 11 in a whorl. Spire-whorls with 3 strong distant spiral ribs, the interstices finely spirally striated; body-whorl with about 9 spiral ribs, the posterior three larger and alternating with a small rib as well as the spiral striæ. Aperture oval, nearly half the length of the shell; posterior sinus broad and shallow; anterior canal moderate.

Length, 6 mm.; breadth, 3 mm.

Described from a fossil shell of the Pliocene.

Colour of shell white, sometimes light-brown. In some specimens a brown band appears on the base of the penultimate whorl, and is continued on the body-whorl. Columellar lip mostly dark-violet or brown, especially the lower part of it. The spiral sculpture is variable in its conspicuity. Animal unknown.

Type in the Canterbury Museum.

Hab. Auckland Harbour (H. S.). Lyall Bay (A. Hamilton). Foveaux Strait. Chatham Islands.

This species is no doubt nearly allied to M. connectens, Sow., and M. cuspis, Sow., from South Australia.

Mangilia subaustralis, n. sp. Plate III., figs. 2, 2a.

Shell fusiform, white, spire as long as the body-whorl. Whorls 6 ½, shouldered, longitudinally plicate and spirally striate; the plicæ, about 18 on the last whorl, are smooth, between them equidistant cinguli, which are much closer together from below the upper suture to the keel. Suture impressed, submargined. Protoconch consisting of two minute acute and smooth whorls. Aperture elongately oval, angled above; outer lip thin, sharp, sinuated, with a shallow posterior sinus near the suture, above the keel; columella slightly concave, with a very thin callus; canal short, straight. Animal unknown.

Length, 11.5 mm.; breadth, 4.5 mm.; height of aperture, 6 mm.

Type in my collection.

Hab. New Zealand; exact locality unknown. One specimen only.

This shell is very closely allied to M. australis, Ad. and Aug., from Australia and Tasmania, which, however, is usually larger; the whorls are but indistinctly shouldered, the aperture not angled above, and the anterior canal broader.

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Mangilia flexicostata, n. sp. Plate III., figs. 3, 3a.

Shell minute, oval-elongated, spire longer than the body-whorl, white, semi-transparent. Whorls 5, narrowly shouldered, with flexuous plicæ, about 16 on the last whorl, microscopically spirally striate. Protoconch 1 ½ whorls, smooth, minute. Suture deep. Aperture oval, angled above, outer lip somewhat thickened, sinuous, with ax broad shallow sinus just below the suture. Columella arcuate, slightly callous; anterior canal short, rather oblique, truncated. Animal unknown.

Length, 2.25 mm.; breadth, 1.25 mm.

Type in my collection:

Hob. Foveaux Strait (A. Hamilton).

Genus Clathurella, Carpenter (1857).

(=Defrancia, Millet, 1826.)

Apex mammillary; sinus varicose, sutural; columella tuberculated posteriorly, rugose in front; canal slightly curved.

Differs principally from Mangilia in its whorls being more rounded and cancellate.

Key to Species.

1. With nodulous spiral ribs C. nodicincta.
2. Spirally striate, longitudinal ribs predominant.
 a. Suture margined C. subabnormis.
 b. Suture not margined C. sinclairi.

Clathurella sinclairi, E. A. Smith.

Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vol. xiv., p. 320 (1884).

Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. vi., p. 283, pl. xxxiv., fig. 91 (1884). D. letourneuxiana, Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. of N.Z., p. 12 (1873), (not of Crosse). D. luteo-fasoiata, Hutton, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 45 (1880), (not of Reeve).

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Shell ovate, subturriculated, light-flavescent, with two reddish intercostal bands at the sutures; whorls 8, convex, the first ones flattish, with rounded rather low ribs, 16 on the last whorl, continuing nearly to the base; whorls spirally more or less distinctly lyrate, the lyræ unequal and continuous between and across the ribs. Aperture small, fasciated within with fuscous, length 5/11 of the total length of the shell; outer lip sharp, with a shallow sinus a little below the suture; snout fuscous; columella with a very small callus; canal very short, oblique. Animal unknown.

Length, 11 mm.; breadth, 4–5 mm. Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. Throughout New Zealand. Chatham Islands. Found also in the Pliocene of New Zealand.

This is a very variable shell with regard to size and number

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of longitudinal ribs. In specimens before me they vary from 10 to 16 on the last whorl. The reddish-brown bands are sometimes absent, the anterior canal only being of a brown or reddish colour.

Clathurella subabnormis, n. sp. Plate III., figs. 4, 4a.

Shell small, ovate-fusiform, body-whorl shorter than the spire, white, with irregular light-brown dashes below the suture on the two last whorls only, and a broad brown band below the termination of the riblets on the body-whorl; sometimes the whole shell is uniformly light-brown. Whorls 6, rounded, longitudinally plicate and spirally striate; about 14 oblique riblets on the body-whorl, which are crossed by distinct spiral striæ, about 8 on the penultimate whorl. Proto-conch formed by two smooth mammillary whorls. Suture impressed, margined. Aperture oval-elongated, outer lip somewhat callous, sometimes with 2 or 3 small tubercles within, slightly sinuous, posterior sinus but faintly indicated; columella regularly arched, with a slight callosity; anterior canal very short, broad, truncated. Animal unknown.

Length, 5.5 mm.; breadth, 2.5 mm.; height of aperture, 2 mm.

Type in my collection.

Hab. Lyall Bay (A. Hamilton).

This species is nearest to the Pliocene C. abnormis, Hutton, in which, however, the whorls are angled, the costæ less numerous, the spiral striæ but a few, none above the keel, the sinus is well marked, and the aperture much narrower.

Clathurella nodicineta, n. sp. Plate III., figs. 5, 5a.

Shell fusiform, turreted, body-whorl shorter than the spire, cream-coloured, clathrate. Whorls 6 ½, with strong elevated cinguli, 3 on the upper whorls, 8 on the body-whorl, crossed by longitudinal straight riblets, producing nodules on the crossing-points; between the riblets numerous fine incremental striæ. In most of my specimens the cinguli are predominant, the longitudinal costæ recognisable only by the presence of the nodules on the cinguli. Protoconch smooth, mammillary, consisting of 2 whorls. Suture impressed, margined by a fine thread above. Aperture oval, outer lip thickened, somewhat straight in the middle, with 2 small denticles within; posterior sinus below the suture broad and very shallow, sometimes absent; columella concave, but little callous. Anterior canal short, broad, truncated. Animal unknown.

Length, 6.5mm.; breadth, 2.75 mm.; height of aperture, 2.5 mm

Type in my collection.

Hab. Lyall Bay (A. Hamilton).

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Genus Daphnella, Hinds (1844).

Shell thin, fragile, oval-fusiform; whorls convex; body-whorl elongated, surface finely cancellated; aperture oval; lip simple, not varicose, arcuated; canal very short.

Type: Pleurotoma lymneiformis, Kiener.

Key to Species.

1. Spire shorter than the body-whorl.
 a. Surface finely but distinctly and regularly can cellated or only nodulous spiral striæ on the body-whorl D. lymneiformis.
 b. Surface microscopically, rather irregularly can-cellated.
  aa. Whorls rounded D. membranacea.
  bb. Whorls shouldered D. xanthias.
2. Spire longer than the body-whorl.
 a. Surface with longitudinal fine ribs D. protensa.
 b. Surface only spirally finely striated D. substriata.
3. Spire about the same length as body-whorl, spirally ribbed, minute D. lacunosa.

Daphnella lymneiformis, Kiener.

Kiener, Icon. Pleurotoma, p. 62, pl. xxii., fig. 3; Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. vi., p. 300, pl. xxv., fig. 60, pl. xxvi., fig. 93 (1884). D. cancellata, Hutton, Journ. de Conch, 1878, p. 18; Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 45 (1880). D. decorata, C. B. Adams, Conch. Contr., p. 62. D. patula, Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 113. (The two latter synonyms are given on the authority of Tryon.)

Shell fusiform, thin, spire acute; whorls with narrow, close, revolving ridges, the earlier ones with longitudinal ribs; white, irregularly maculated with chestnut, often forming longitudinal zigzag markings. Aperture oblong, slightly channelled in front, and with a slight posterior sinus. Animal unknown.

Length, 12.7 mm.; breadth, 5 mm. Type in the Musée de Paris (?).

Hab. Auckland Harbour. Cape Maria van Diemen. Found also in the Pliocene of New Zealand.

Daphnella lacunosa, Hutton.

Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii., p. 317 (1885); Pliocene Moll. of N.Z., Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 52, pl. vii., fig. 34 (1893).

Shell minute, fusiform. Whorls 5, the first two smooth, the others with strong spiral ribs at equal distances. Spire-whorls with 3, body-whorl with 10 or 12 of these ribs; the grooves rather broader than the ribs, and smooth. Aperture ovate, about half the length of the shell; the sinus obsolete; canal short, outer lip thin.

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Length, 5 mm.

Described from a fossil shell of the Pliocene.

The shell is white, semi-transparent. The animal is unknown. Specimens before me from Foveaux Strait and Chatham Islands are much smaller than the fossil forms.

Length, 3 mm.; breadth, 1.5 mm.

Type in the Canterbury Museum.

Hab. Foveaux Strait (A. Hamilton). Chatham Islands.

Daphnella substriata, n. sp. Plate III., figs. 6, 6a.

Shell thin and fragile, small, oval-fusiform, spire longer than the body-whorl, white, apex light-violet, finely spirally striated throughout, except the protoconch. Whorls 6, rounded, with delicate equal and numerous fine spiral striæ. Protoconch mammillary, rounded, smooth, light-violet. Suture superficial, submargined. Aperture elongated oval, outer lip simple, sharp, slightly sinuous, posterior sinus but faintly indicated. Columella concave, with a thin shining callus; anterior canal short, broad, truncated, slightly recurved. Animal unknown.

Length, 5.5 mm.; breadth, 2.25 mm.; height of aperture, 2.25 mm.

Type in my collection.

Hab. Foveaux Strait (A. Hamilton).

Very closely allied to D. striata, Hutton, of the New Zealand Pliocene, but this species is of much larger size (length up to 30 mm.), the protoconch is keeled, and the following whorls are slightly shouldered; the spiral striæ are unequal, broader ones alternating with smaller ones; the incremental striæ are much more conspicuous, and the anterior canal is mostly longer and narrower.

Section Raphitoma, Bellardi (1847).

Shell small, fusiform or turriculated, with longitudinal sculpture; lip sinuous behind, but without well-defined sinus.

Daphnella protensa, Hutton.

Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii., p. 317 (1885); Pliocene Moll. of N.Z., Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 49, pl. vi., fig. 25 (1893). P. awamoaensis, Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xv., p. 131 (1883); Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. vi., p. 208, pl. xii., fig. 25. (Not P. awamoaensis, Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll. of N.Z., P. 4.)

Shell small, thin, turreted, yellowish-white; whorls 8 ½, the first ones smooth and convex, afterwards slightly carinated; longitudinally finely ribbed, 15 to 20 ribs on the last whorl, and spirally lyrate; upper part of the whorls not concave;

– 77 –

canal moderate, aperture elongately oval, posterior sinus very slight. Animal unknown.

Length, 9 to 13 mm.; breadth, 3 to 4.3 mm.

Type in the Canterbury Museum.

Hab. Waiwera, near Auckland. Found also in the Pliocene of New Zealand.

Section Thesbia, Jeffreys (1867).

Shell thin, rather smooth, somewhat tumid, with a short spire and irregularly contorted apex; aperture slightly expanded, the outer lip thin, with distinct sinus; canal short; columella simple.

Daphnella membranacea, Watson.

Watson, “Challenger” Exp. Rep., pt. 42, vol. xv., p. 333, pl. xxvi., fig. 9 (1886).

Shell singularly unlike a Pleurotoma, being broad, short, tumid, and membranaceously thin; spire short; whorls with fine, irregular, hair-like lines of growth; crossed by very slight, remote, irregular spirals. Colour white. Base long, gradually contracted; snout broad, lop-sided; sinus close to the suture, deep, wide.

Length, 22 mm.; breadth, 13.5mm.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. In 1,100 fathoms, off Cape Turnagain (Stat. 168, Chall. Exp.). Obtained at no other locality.

Daphnella xanthias, Watson.

Watson, “Challenger” Exp. Rep., pt. 42, vol. xv., p. 334, pl. xxvi., fig. 10 (1886).

Shell oval, biconical, a little tumid; spire high and conical, base long and pointed. Surface smooth, feebly spiralled, spirals flat threads, absent above the shoulder; fine hair-like lines of growth. Whorls shouldered; sinus at the suture, deep, broad.

Length, 19.5 mm.; breadth, 10 mm.

Type in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Hab. In 1,100 fathoms, off Cape Turnagain (Stat. 168, Chall. Exp.). Obtained at no other locality.

Explanation of Plate III.

  • Fig. 1. Surcula verrucosa, Suter; × 3.

  • Fig. 2. Mangilia subaustralis, Suter; × 3.

  • Fig. 3. Mangilia flexicostata, Suter; × 10.

  • Fig. 4. Clathurella subabnormis, Suter; × 4.

  • Fig. 5. Clathurella nodicincta, Suter; × 4.

  • Fig. 6. Daphnella substriata, Suter; × 6.