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Volume 31, 1898
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Art. XXXVIII.—Notes on New Zealand Musci, and Descriptions of New Species.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury; 2nd November, 1898.]

Plates XXXVIII. (in part) and XXXIX.–XLIV.

Genus Mielichoferia, Nees and Hornsch.

Miclichoferia is a genus of mosses having pyriform capsules, peristome single or gymnostomous, rarely being double, and calyptra cucullate. It has a close affinity with the genus Bryum in its habit and principal generic characters. In New

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Zealand the genus is a small one. The first species of it discovered is recorded in the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” at page 437, as M. longiseta, which is a South American species. It was subsequently found on examination by Mr. Mitten that it differed from that plant. He has described it and named it M. tenuiseta at page 750 of the Handbook.

I have seen no specimens of the above-mentioned plant, nor of the one recorded as M. eckloni in a paper read by Mr: Beckett, and published in the “Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute,” vol. xxix., page 443. I have carefully compared the descriptions of M. tenuiseta and M. eckloni with the new species of this paper, and find the latter quite distinct from either of the above-named species. In the figures of M. buchanani the plant is one-half the magnification of the capsule and leaves.

M. buchanani, sp. nov. Plate XXXIX., fig. 10.

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Plants monœcious, growing in dense patches ½ in.–1 in. high, yellowish-green above, brown below. Stem 3/15 in., radiculose, apex gemmiform, with a few scale-like leaves below; innovations fertile and barren, the fertile short, gemmiform, 1/16 in., several of these preceding the barren ones; barren innovations slender, ¼ in.–½ in. long, with a few scale-like leaves below, above closely imbricating, fastigiate. Stem leaves few, small, closely imbricating, incurving at the apex; upper ones linear-lanceolate, acute; middle ones broader, concave; margins flat, with a few minute teeth at the apex; nerve disappearing below the apex. Leaves of barren innovations one-third longer than the fertile ones, linear-lanceolate, acute. Areola narrow-linear to the base; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves : Inner narrowest, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk flexuous, ¾ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule clavate, pyriform, symmetrically inclined. Operculum small, conic. Peristome single. Teeth 16, irregurlar in outline, membranous, hyaline, united near the base. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Damp banks, Mount Torlesse; January, 1886. Selwyn Gorge; February, 1898. Collected by R. B.

Named in memory of the late John Buchanan.

Genus Leptobryum, Wils.

This is a small genus of annual mosses, having the same generic characters as the genus Bryum, their annual habit being the principal distinction. Two species of this genus occur in New Zealand—L. pyriforme, Wils., Plate XXXVIII., fig. 11, which is found in most countries, and L. harriottii, of this paper, which is a smaller plant than L. pyriforme, but quite

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distinct, the capsule being smaller, and not so contracted at the apophysis. I have given figures of both species of the same magnification.

L. harriottii, sp. nov. Plate XXXVIII., fig. 12.

Plants diœcious, annual, growing loosely in small patches ¼ in. high, yellowish-green. Leaves loosely imbricating round the stem, erecto-patent, subfalcate or flexuous, linear-setaceous, semi-convolute; margins entire; nerve disappearing near the apex. Areola long and narrow, scarcely altered when dry; acrocarpous. Perichætial leaves small, setaceous, flexuous. Fruitstalk slender, ¼ in. ¾ in. long, flexuous, slightly curved at the apex, pale-red. Capsule small, pendulous, shortly pyriform, not constricted at the middle, mouth small. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base, linear-lanceolate; inner united below to the middle;, upper half divided into 16 teeth with intermediate cilia; membranous, hyaline. Operculum and calyptra not found.

Hab. In damp places, West Coast. Collected by R. B. Pine Hill, Dunedin; W. Bell.

Genus Bryum, Linn.

This is the largest genus of all the New Zealand acrocarpous mosses, and is composed of perennial plants, having a pendulous or inclined pyriform capsule; a double peristome, the outer one having 16 teeth, free to the base, the inner one a membrane divided to the middle into 16 keeled segments with or without intermediate cilia; calyptra cucullate.

It is also the most difficult to comprehend, through the close approximation of a large number of the species to each other in the form and size of their leaves, which are small and triangular in their outlines, and are only distinguished from each other with difficulty by variation in their length or breadth and other microscopic characters. The capsules, although more differentiated than the leaves in a number of them, Closely approach Others in form, thereby making the genus a very difficult one, and to determine the species without the aid of named specimens is almost impossible. Sir J. Hooker appears to have realised this difficulty, for he remarks in a note on the position of this genus, at page 437 of the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” that many of the New Zealand species are provisional only, and most of them require to be re-examined with more and better specimens. Their characters are often very obscure, and a reference to the figures of the species given in the first and second sections into which they have been divided in this paper will make the above remarks evident.

Since the publication of the Handbook several additions

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have been made, to the New Zealand Bryums, notably by Dr. V. F. Brotherus, of Helsingfors, who has described five new species in a paper read by him, and published in the Ofversigt af Finska Vet.-Soc. Förh.; bd. lv., Helsingfors, 1898—namely, B. Iævigatulum, B. austrobimum, B. austro-pallescens, B. kirkii, and B. appressifolia. The first of the above species has been identified and described in the Handbook as the European B. Iævigatum, and the second B. bimum, also European; but on being re-examined by Dr. Brotherus he has found them to differ from the European ones of that name, and has renamed them as above. He has kindly sent me his paper in which the new species are described. I regret very much that I cannot include them in this paper, through being unable to obtain authentic specimens of them, and there is also the possibility that they may be already in it.

In this paper the species are arranged in four groups, in order to facilitate their identification—Section 1, plants with small capsules and small leaves; section 2, capsules large and leaves small; section 3, leaves long and narrow; section 4, leaves broad.

All the figures of the species are of the same magnification.

Key to the Species.

Section 1. Capsules small, leaves small.
A. Margins entire, plain, nerve excurrent.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate 3. B. thomasii.
Leaves subdeltoid, acute 4. B. waikariense.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate 5. B. otahapaense.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate 6. B. gibsonii.
Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate 7. B. ovatothecium.
Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanoeolate, acute 8. B. webbii.
Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute 9. B. calcareum.
Leaves oblong - lanceolate, acuminate, toothed at apex 14. B. ovatocarpum.
Leaves ovate-acute or acuminate, nerve subexcurrent 15. B. Ovalicarpum.
B. Margins entire, recurved, nerve excurrent.
Leaves lanceolate, acuminate 12. B. buchanani.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate 16. B. webbianum.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate 17. B. cylindrothecium.
C. Margins plain, entire, nerve disappearing below the apex.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute 1. B. oamaruense.
Leaves ovate or oblong, acuminate 10. B. argenteum.
D. Margins entire, nerve ending at the apex.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate 2. B. oamaruanum.
Leaves deltoid, acute or acuminate 11. B. petriei.
Leaves triangular, acute 13. B. triangularifolium.
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Section 2. Capsules large, leaves small.
A. Margins entire, nerve excurrent.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, acute 19. B. gracilithecium.
Leaves subulate or linear-lanceolate, acute 20. B. linearifolium.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, aoute 22. B. kirkii.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute 23. B. bellianum.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate 24. B. macrocarpum.
B. Margins entire, nerve ending at the apex.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute 21. B. ventricosum.
C. Nerve ending below apex, margins entire.
Leaves deltoid, acute 18. B. harriottii.
Leaves deltoid, obtuse 25. B. hapukaense.
Section 3. Leaves long, narrow.
A. Margins entire, nerve excurrent.
Leaves subulate-lanceolate, acuminate, margins entire, recurved 27. B. tenuifolium.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, margins recurved, toothed at the apex 29. B. evei.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, margins plain, toothed at apex. 31. B. bealeyense.
B. Nerve continued to the apex.
Leaves subulate, acuminate, margins entire 26. B. cockaynei.
Leaves subulate, acuminate, margins toothed at the apex 30. B. walkerii.
C. Nerve ending below the apex.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, margins serrated from the middle upwards 28. B. binnsii.
Section 4. Leaves broad.
A. Margins plain, nerve excurrent.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute 36. B. searlii.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute 37. B. obesothecium.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate 44. B. campylothecium.
Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acute 40. B. huttonii.
B. Margins recurved, nerve excurrent.
Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate 34. B. torlessense.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate 35. B. cuneatum.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute 38. B. maudii.
Leaves ovate-oblong, subacute, serrated at the apex 42. B. billardierii.
Leaves oblong-obovate or subspathulate, acuminate, toothed 43. B. rufescens.
Leaves oblong-obovate, acuminate, toothed at the apex 45. B. truncorum.
Leaves oblong, rounded at the apex, acute, minutely toothed 46. B. gracilicarpum.
C. Margins plain, nerve ending at the apex.
Leaves: Upper, oblong-acute; middle, ovate-acute 33. B. heterofolium.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, subacute 39. B. traillii.
Leaves oblong-obtuse, nerve extremely slender at the apex 47. B. blandum.
D. Nerve ending below the apex.
Leaves ovate lanceolate, minutely serrated at the apex 32. B. crudum.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, minutely toothed at the apex. 41. B. eximium.
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Section 1.

Capsules small, leaves small.

1. B. oamaruense, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 13.

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Plants small, monœcious, growing in small dense tufts about ⅛ in. high, dark-green; innovations short, 1/32 in., from 2 to 4. Leaves small, imbricating round the stem, middle and lower ones erecto-patent, upper erect, shortly ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, slightly concave; nerve vanishing below the apex; margins entire, plain. Branch leaves smaller, but otherwise similar to the stem ones. Areola subrotund, quadrangular near the base; dark-brown and twisted when dry. Perichætial leaves longer, the upper ones erect, oblong-lanceolate, acute, nerve vanishing below the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk very short, arched at the apex. Capsule small, subpyriform, tapering into the fruitstalk and to the narrow mouth. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 teeth, hyaline. Operculum sharply conic. Calyptra cucullate.

Hab. On limestone rocks, near Oamaru; November, 1897. Collected by R. B.

2. B. oamaruanum, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 14.

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Plants very small, growing in small loose patches 1/16 in. high, pale-green; innovations few, extremely short. Leaves small, nearly erect, closely imbricating, shortly oblong-lanceolate, acute in the lower and acuminate in the upper ones, concave; margins entire, plain, nerved to the apex. Areola; Upper, trapezoid; lower, quadrate; when dry erect. Perichætial leaves smaller than the upper ones, lanceolate, acute; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk inclined, slender, 3/16 in. long, scarcely curved at the apex. Capsule horizontal, small, ovate, contracted at the mouth. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, narrow-lanceolate, free to the base; inner shorter than the outer, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 cilia, alternating with the outer. Operculum narrow, small, mamillate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Limestone rocks, near Oamaru; November, 1897. Collected by R. B.

3. B. thomasii, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 15.

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Plants growing in small patches ⅓ in.–3/16 in. high. Stem 1/16 in., gemmiform; innovations 3/16 in., fastigiate. Leaves small, imbricating round the stem, erecto - patent, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent, aristate. Areola : Upper, trapezoid; lower, oblong. Innovation leaves small, subulate. Perichætial leaves smaller than the upper ones, linear-lanceolate, acute, nerved to the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ½ in. long, curved at the apex.

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Capsule small, pendulous, pyriform, narrowed into the fruitstalk, and very contracted at the mouth. Peristome double, outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided into 16 processes to the middle. Operculum very small, convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Styx Marsh, on wet ground; October, 1898. Collected by R. B.

Named after Dr. Thomas, late President of Philosophical Institute of Canterbury.

4. B. waikariense, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 16.

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Plants extremely small, growing in small gregarious patches 3/32 in. high. Stem ⅓2 in.; innovations 1/16 in., pale-green, barren. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating, small, subdeltoid, acute; margins entire, plain, nerved to the apex. Innovation leaves small, lanceolate, acuminate; nerve excurrent; margins entire. Areola small, subtrapezoid, quadrate at the base; when dry erect and adpressed. Perichæstial leaves one-half smaller than the upper ones, deltoid, nerved to the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk flexuous, 3/16 in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule small, oval. Operculum convex, minutely apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks; April, 1882. Collected by R. B.

5. B. otahapaense. Plate XL., fig. 17.

Plants slender, diœcious, growing in small patches about ¼ in. high, dark-green. Stem ⅛ in.–¼ in., slender; innovations erect, 2 or 3, slender. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem; upper ones oblong-lanceolate, long-acuminate; middle, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent, toothed at the apex. Areola : Upper, trapezoid; lower, quadrate; leaves erect when dry. Perichæstial leaves smaller, ovate, acuminate; nerved to the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ½ in.–¾ in. long, inclined shortly, curved at the apex. Capsule small, oval. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 teeth, alternate with the outer. Operculum conic.

Hab. On damp banks, near Otahape, North Island; March, 1895. Collected by R. B.

6. B. gibsonii, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 18.

Plants growing in dense patches, green above, dark-brown below, 1 in. high, slender. Stems nearly simple. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem; lower ones distant, shortly ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, slightly concave; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent, entire or slightly toothed. Innovation leaves small, linear-lanceolate, acute. Areola: Upper, trapezoid; lower, hexagonal; leaves slightly

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crisp when dry. Perichætial leaves smaller than the upper, subulate-lanceolate, acuminate; nerve excurrent; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slender, ½ in. long, inclined shortly, curved at the apex. Capsule small, clavate, pyriform, shortly tapering into the fruitstalk, and slightly curved at the base. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 segments with intermediate cilia. Operculum convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks near Kaikoura; January, 1898. Collected by R. B.

Named after Walter Gibson, Kaikoura.

7. B. ovatothecium, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 19.

Plants growing in small yellowish-green patches about ½ in. high. Stem short, ⅜ in.–¼ in.; innovations cæspitose. Leaves erecto-patent, closely imbricating all round the stem, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent, aristate. Innovation leaves shortly ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; nerve excurrent. Areola : Upper, trapezoid quadrate at the base; leaves erect when dry. Perichætial leaves small, subulate-lanceolate acute; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ½ in. long, slightly curved at the apex. Capsule small, ovate, shortly tapering obliquely into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base, linear-lanceolate; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 segments, alternate with the outer. Operculum, small, convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks, Port Lyttelton hills; April, 1882. Collected by R. B.

8. B. webbii, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 20.

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Plants growing in small close patches, yellowish-green, ¼ in.–⅝ in. high. Stem 3/16 in.; innovations slender, 1–4. Leaves small, erecto-patent or nearly erect, imbricating all round, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent, concave. Innovation leaves smaller, ovate-acute. Areola : Upper trapezoid, quadrate at the base; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves slightly smaller, lanceolate-acute; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slender, slightly flexuous, ⅜ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule small, ovate-pyriform, tapering shortly into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, shorter than the outer, and alternate with them. Operculum conic, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks, near River Ashburton, and at Governor's Bay, Port Lyttelton. Collected by R. B.

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9. B. calcareum, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 21.

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Plants growing in. small patches ¼ in. high, yellowish-green. Stems short, ⅛ in.; innovations few, 3/16 in. Leaves small, erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem, lanceolate or shortly oblong-lanceolate, acute, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent. Innovation leaves smaller, shortly oblong-lanceolate, acute. Areola: Upper trapezoid, lower quadrate; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves small, linear-lanceolate, acute; nerve excurrent; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slightly flexuous, ¼ in.–3/8 in., shortly curved at the apex. Capsule small, subpyriform, slightly gibbous on the back, horizontal, shortly tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, one-third shorter than the outer ones, alternating with them. Operculum conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks, Weka Pass. Collected by R. B.

10. B. argenteum, L. Plate XL., fig. 22.

Hab. On damp banks, stones, and old roofs of houses.

11. B. petriei, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 23.

Plants monœcious, growing in dense patches ½ in. high, yellowish-green. Stem ⅛ in.–¼ in.; innovations barren, fastigiate, ⅜ in. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem, upper deltoid-acute or acuminate, middle ones ovate-acuminate, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve ending at the apex. Innovation leaves small, lanceolate, acuminate; nerve excurrent. Areola : Upper trapezoid, lower erect when dry. Perichætial leaves erect, smaller than the upper ones, ovate-acuminate; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ⅜ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule pendulous or horizontal, small, pyriform, constricted towards the base, narrowing at the mouth. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base, lanceolate-acuminate; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternating with the outer ones. Operculum and calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks, West Coast Road.

12. B. buchanani, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 24.

Plants monœcious, growing in loose patches ½ in.–1 in. high, yellowish-green. Stem ¼ in.; innovations barren, fastigiate, radiculose. Leaves erecto-patent, closely imbricating all round upper ones, lanceolate-acuminate, concave; margins entire, recurved to near the apex; nerve excurrent, aristate, middle ones ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Areola : Upper trapezoid, lower quadrate; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves shorter than the upper ones, triangular, nerved to the apex.

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Innovation leaves narrower than the upper ones; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ½ in.–1 in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule broadly pyriform, constricted near the base. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided into 16 processes to the middle. Operculum large, convex, apiculate or mamillate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On banks, in the bed of the River Hapuka, near Kaikoura; January, 1898. Collected by R. B.

Named after the late John Buchanan, F.L.S.

13. B. triangularifolium, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 25.

Plants slender, growing in small patches, green, ½ in. ¾ in. high. Stems ¼ in. ⅝ in.; innovations barren, fastigiate, slender, cuspidate. Leaves imbricating all round, erecto-patent, triangular, acute, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve continued to the apex. Innovation leaves smaller than the upper, ovate, long, acuminate; nerve excurrent. Perichætial leaves small, triangular, acute. Areola: Upper trapezoid, lower quadrangular; leaves flexuous when dry; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slender, ¾ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule small, ovate, annulus persistent. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base, linear-lanceolate, tapering into a slender point; inner, a membrane divided into 16 processes to the middle, alternate with the outer ones. Operculum and calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks, near Otaihape, North Island. Collected by R. B.

14. B. ovatocarpum, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 26.

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Plants monœcious, growing in small dense patches ¼ in. high, yellowish-green. Stem ⅛ in.; innovations barren, fastigiate, 3/16 in. Stem leaves few, erecto-patent, imbricating, small, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent, filiform, entire or minutely toothed at the apex; middle ones smaller. Innovation leaves very small, otherwise similar to the others. Areola: Upper trapezoid, lower quadrate; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves very small, tapering from a broad base to an acute apex; nerve continued to the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ¼ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule pendulous, small, ovate, annulus persistent. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes. Operculum convex, apiculate, or mamillate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Wet places, Governor's Bay, Port Lyttelton; November, 1889. Collected by R. B.

15. B. ovalicarpum, sp. nov. Plate XL., fig. 27.

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Plants monœcious, growing in large dense patches ½ in.–¾ in. high, bright-green above, black below. Stems 3/16 in.–¼ in.;

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innovations ⅜ in. long, fastigiate. Leaves small, spreading, loosely imbricating all round the stem, short, ovate-acute or acuminate; margins entire, plain, very concave; nerve sub-excurrent. Innovation leaves lanceolate, acute. Areola: Upper trapezoid, quadrate at the base; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves, innermost smallest, outer broadly ovate-acute; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk erect, ½ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule small, oval, pendulous. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, linear-lanceolate; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, shorter than the outer. Operculum small, conic. Calyptra cucullate.

Hab. Wet places, Christchurch; August, 1898.

This moss is rarely found in fruit here. Collected by R. B.

16. B. webbianum, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 28.

Plants diœcious, growing in small patches ¼ in. high, yellowish-green. Stem very short, gemmiform; innovations ⅛ in. Leaves nearly erect, ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; margins entire, slightly recurved at middle; nerve excurrent, apiculate, concave. Innovation leaves smaller, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, aristate, hyaline; nerve ex-current. Areola : Upper trapezoid, lower quadrate; flexuous when dry. Perichætial leaves slightly smaller, deltoid-acute; nerve ending at the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slightly flexuous, ⅜ in. long, slightly curved at the apex. Capsule small, clavate, pyriform, shortly tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle, into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp rocks, Waikari; April, 1882. Collected by R. B.

17. B. cylindrothecium, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 29.

Plants growing in small dense patches ½ in. high, yellowish-green. Stems ⅜ in., gemmiform; innovations barren, fastigiate, ¼ in. long. Leaves nearly erect, shortly ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; margins entire, subrecurved; nerve excurrent, aristate, slightly toothed. Innovation leaves small, oblong-acuminate; nerve excurrent, aristate. Areola : Upper trapezoid, lower oblong; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves small and narrow, subulate, subpiliferous; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ½ in.–⅝ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule pendulous, oblong-pyriform, shortly tapering at the base. Peristome double; outer 16 teeth free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes. Operculum convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Damp banks, Waikari; April, 1882. Collected by R. B.

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Section 2.

Capsules large, leaves small.

18. B. harriottii, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 30.

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Plants growing in dense patches ¾ in. high, yellowish-green. Stems ⅛ in.–3/8 in., gemmiform; innovations slender, barren, fastigiate, ⅜ in. Leaves few, small, imbricating round the stem, erecto-patent, deltoid-acute, concave; margins plain, minutely toothed on the apex; nerve disappearing near the apex. Innovation leaves erect, very concave, suhrotund, incurving at the apex; margins entire; nerve disappearing near the apex. Areola: Upper trapezoid, oblong below; unaltered when dry. Perichætial leaves smaller, otherwise similar to the upper; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slightly flexuous, 1 in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule large, horizontal, pyriform, tapering from the middle into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum small, conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On wet banks, near the Weka Pass; April, 1882. Collected by R. B.

19. B. gracilithecium, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 31.

Plants growing in loose patches ¾ in. high. Stem ¼ in.–⅜ in., radiculose; innovations short, subfastigiate, ½ in.–¼ in. Leaves small, nearly erect, closely imbricating all round the stem, linear-lanceolate from a broad base, acute, slightly concave; margins entire, plain; nerve shortly excurrent. Innovation leaves subulate, very small. Areola: Upper trapezoid, lower quadrate; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves smaller than comal ones, otherwise similar; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk inclined, bent near the base, ⅝ in. long, curved, at the apex. Capsule long, narrow, clavato-pyriform, with a contracted mouth and tapering base. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum small, conic, apiculate. Colyptra not found.

Hab. Damp banks, West Coast Road. Collected by R. B.

20. B. linearifolium, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 32.

Plants growing in dense patches ⅞ in. high, pale-green above, dark-brown below. Stems slender, ¼ in.; innovations barren, ⅜ in.–⅝ in. long, slender, fastigiate. Leaves : Upper, subulate or linear-lanceolate, acute; margins entire, plain; nerve stout, excurrent; middle ones smaller. Innovation leaves similar to the stem ones. Areola: Upper trapezoid, lower oblong; erect when dry. Perichætial leaves smaller than the upper ones; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk erect, 1 in.–1 ¾ in. long,

– 454 –

curved at the apex. Capsule large, clavato-pyriform, tapering into the base, horizontal. Peristome, double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum broader than the contracted mouth, conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks, near Kaikoura; January, 1898. Collected by R. B.

21. B. ventricosum, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 33.

Plants slender, growing in small patches ¾ in.–1 in. high, yellowish-green. Stems ¼ in.; innovations slender, ½ in. long, fastigiate. Leaves small, erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem, oblong-lanceolate, acute, slightly incurving at the apex, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve continued to the apex. Innovation leaves very small, otherwise similar to the others. Areola: Upper trapezoid, lower quadrate; leaves flexuous when dry. Perichætial leaves smaller, but similar to the others; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slight, flexuous, ⅞ in., shortly curved at the apex. Capsule large, horizontal, pyriform, ventricose, tapering from the middle into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum very small, subconic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On wet banks, Kaikoura; January, 1898. Collected by R. B.

22. B. kirkii, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 34.

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Plants growing in dense patches ¾ in. high, yellowish-green above, brown below. Stems radiculose, ¼ in.–3/8 in.; innovations subfastigiate, ⅜ in., fertile. Leaves small, erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem, oblong-lanceolate, acute; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent, aristate; middle leaves narrower. Innovation leaves shorter, oblong-lanceolate, acute; nerve excurrent. Areola : Upper trapezoid, lower oblong; erect and twisted when dry. Perichætial leaves small, deltoid-acute, nerved to the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk 1 in.1 ½ in. long, scarcely curved at apex; capsule large, pyriform, slightly ventricose, tapering into a rounded base. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Damp banks, Mount Torlesse; January, 1887. Collected by R. B.

23. B. bellianum, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 35.

Plants growing in dense patches ¾ in. high, yellowish-green above, dark below. Stem ¼ in.; innovations barren, slender, ⅜ in., fastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, closely imbricating

– 455 –

round the stem, oblong-lanceolate, acute, incurving at the apex, slightly concave; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent; middle ones shorter than the upper, otherwise similar. Innovation leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; nerve excurrent. Areola: Upper trapezoid, quadrate below, erect when dry. Perichætial leaves small, subulate-acute; nerve excurrent; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slender, 1 in. long, slightly curved at the apex, pyriform, ventricose, subrotund at the base. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided into 16 processes, nearly free to the base, alternate with the outer. Operculum conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Wet banks, Waikari; April, 1882. Collected by R. B.

24. B. macrocarpum, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 36.

Plants growing in dense patches 1 in.–1 ¼ in. high, bright-green above, brown below. Stem ¼ in., gemmiform; innovations fertile, ¼ in.–⅜ in., fastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, closely imbricating all round, small, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, slightly concave; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent, aristate. Innovation leaves long, acicular. Areola: Upper trapezoid, quadrate towards the base. Perichætial leaves shorter than upper ones, otherwise similar; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slightly flexuous, 1 ½ in. long, scarcely curved at the apex. Capsule very large, horizontal or pendulous, clavato-pyriform, tapering from the middle into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, keeled, perforated, alternate with the outer. Operculum conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Damp banks, near Oamaru; November, 1897. Collected by R. B.

25. B. hapukaense, sp. nov. Plate XLI., fig. 37.

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Plants monœcious, growing in small dense patches ¼ in.–½ in. high. Stem ⅛ in., naked below, gemmiform; innovations barren, 3/16 in., fastigiate. Leaves erect, closely adpressed, imbricating, small, deltoid-obtuse, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve disappearing near the apex; middle ones sub-oval. Innovation leaves oval. Areola : Upper trapezoid; lower quadrate; unaltered when dry. Perichætial leaves smaller than the upper, lanceolate-obtuse; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk flexuous, ¾ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule large, broadly pyriform, ventricose, slightly rounded at the base. Peristome double; outer teeth 16; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum conic, acute. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Wet banks, River Hapoua, tributary of the River Hapuka, near Kaikoura; January, 1898. Collected by R. B.

– 456 –

Section 3.

Leaves long and narrow.

26. B. cockaynei, sp. nov. Plate XLII., fig. 38.

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Plants monœcious, growing in small loose patches ⅛ in.–3/16 in. high, yellowish-green. Stem small, ⅛ in., gemmiform; innovations barren, ⅛ in. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating all round, subulate-acuminate; margins entire, plain, concave; nerve continued to the apex, but indistinct there. Innovation leaves lanceolate, acuminate or ovate-acuminate; nerve subexcurrent. Areola: Trapezoid to the base; leaves erect when dry. Perichætial leaves slightly narrower than the upper, otherwise similar; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk flexuous, 3/16 in.–3/8 in., curved at the apex. Capsule small, pyriform, ventricose, slightly gibbous at the base. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes. Operculum small, conic. Calyptra cucullate.

Hab. limestone rocks, Weka Pass; April, 1882. Collected by R. B.

27. B. tenuifolium, H. f. and W. Plate XLII., fig. 39.

Hab. Wet banks, near Kaikoura; January, 1898. Collected by R. B.

28. B. binnsii, sp. nov. Plate XLII., fig. 40.

Plants monœcious, growing in loose patches ½ in.–2 ½ in. high, pink-coloured. Stem very slender, ¼ in.–¾ in.; innovations very slender, ¼ in.–¾ in., variable in length. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating all round, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, fragile; margins serrated from the middle to the apex; nerve slender, ending below the apex; middle ones smaller, otherwise similar. Innovation leaves small, secund, linear-lanceolate, acuminate. Areola narrow, trapezoid to the base; scarcely altered when dry. Perichætial leaves very small, subulate; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slender, ⅜ in.–¼ in., flexuous, slightly curved at the apex. Capsule small, pyriform, tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided for two-thirds of its length into 16 processes, alternate with outer. Operculum conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Wet banks, Stewart Island : collected by R. B. North-east Valley, Dunedin : W. Bell.

29. B. evei, sp. nov. Plate XLII., fig. 41.

Plants monœcious, growing in dense patches 1 ½ in. -2 ½ in. high, yellowish-green above, brown below. Stems radiculose, ½ in. long; innovations fertile fastigiated, ½ in long. Leaves

– 457 –

imbricating, erecto-patent, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; margins recurved, toothed near the apex; nerve excurrent, aristate; middle ones narrowly ovate-lanceolate, acute, aristate. Areola small, subrotund above, becoming linear below, leaves twisted when dry. Periohætial leaves small, oblong, rounded at the apex; nerve excurrent as a hair-point, as long as the leaves, with a small tooth at the apex on each side of the hair-point; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ¾ in. long, arched at the apex. Capsule long, clavato-pyriform, tapering into the fruitstalk, horizontal. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 filiform processes. Operculum, conic, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On wet banks, Mount Torlesse; January, 1887. Collected by R. B.

30. B. walkerii, sp. nov. Plate XLII., fig. 42.

Plants diœcious, growing in loose patches ¼ in.–½ in. high. Stem slender, nearly simple, ¼ in.–½ in.; innovations very slender, ⅜ in. Leaves imbricating round the stem, spreading, subulate, acuminate; margins flat, toothed at the apex; nerve continued to the apex. Innovation leaves smaller than the stem ones, flexuous. Areola linear to the base; scarcely altered when dry. Perichætial leaves very small, subulate; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk 1 ½ in.–2 in. long, scarcely curved at the apex. Capsule pyriform, tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided, to the middle into 16 processes, perforated. Operculum convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found. Male inflorescence on the apex of a simple plant.

Hab. Damp ground, near Mason's Bay, Stewart Island. Collected by R. B.

31. B. bealeyense, sp. nov. Plate XLII., fig. 43.

Plants monœcious, growing in patches ½ in.–¾ in. high, yellowish-green. Stems ⅜ in., naked below, gemmiform above; innovations arising near the base, ½ in., barren, fastigiate. Leaves nearly erect, imbricating round the stem, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; margins plain or subrecurved at middle, minutely toothed at the apex; nerve excurrent. Areola linear; leaves scarcely altered when dry. Perichætial leaves small, erect, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk bright-red, shining, flexuous, shortly curved at the apex. Capsule clavato-pyriform, tapering from the middle into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

– 458 –

Hab. Marsh, on the hill at the back of the Bealey Hotel; February, 1889. Collected by R. B.

Section 4.

Leaves broad.

32. B. crudum, Schreb. Plate XLII., fig. 44.

Hab. On damp banks, Mount Torlesse. Collected by R. B.

33. B. heterofolium, sp. nov. Plate XLII., fig. 45.

Plants diœcious, growing in small dense patches 1 in. high, light-green above, dark-brown below. Stems ¼ in., gemmiform; innovations ¼ in. -½ in., fastigiate, barren. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating all round; upper ones oblong-acute or elliptic-acute; middle ovate-acute, slightly concave; margins entire, plain, with a border of narrow cells to near the apex; nerve continued to the apex. Innovation leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute; nerve disappearing at the apex. Areola : Upper, trapezoid; lower, oblong; leaves erect when dry. Periohætial leaves very small, erect, subulate, nerved to the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slender, 1 in.–1 ¼ in. long, scarcely curved at the apex. Capsule clavato-pyriform, tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum conic, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp banks, near Otaihape, North Island. Collected by R. B.

34. B. torlessense, sp. nov. Plate XLII., fig. 46.

Plants synœcious, growing in dense tufts ½ in.–¾ in. high. Stem ¼ in., yellowish-green; innovations ¼ in., subfastigiate, fertile ones gemmiform, barren, cuspidate. Leaves nearly erect, imbricating all round, oblong - lanceolate and ovate-lanceolate, with a long acuminate point, concave; margins with a border of long narrow cells, recurved below, and sometimes, toothed at the apex; nerve excurrent, aristate. Innovation leaves barren, very concave, small, oblong-lanceolate, acute; nerve excurrent, aristate. Areola trapezoid above, oblong near the base; erect and twisted when dry. Perihætial leaves small, ovate - acuminate, nerved to apex. Fruitstalk 1 in.–½ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule pendulous, clavato-pyriform, tapering from the middle into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided for a third of the length into 16 cilia, alternate with the outer. Operculum convex, apiculate. Calyptra cucullate.

– 459 –

Hab. On damp ground, Mount Torlesse; January, 1886 and 1887. Collected by R. B.

35. B. cuneatum, sp. nov. Plate XLII., fig. 47.

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Plants growing in patches ½ in. high, green. Stems ¼ in., gemmiform; innovations radiculose, 5/16 in., fastigiate. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, with, a slender acuminate point, concave; margins entire, recurved; nerve excurrent; middle leaves largest. Innovation leaves ovate-acuminate; nerve excurrent. Areola: Upper narrow trapezoid, lower oblong near the base; twisted and erect when dry. Perichætial leaves small, linear-lanceolate, tapering into a long slender point; nerve excurrent; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ½ in.–1 in., bright-red, shortly curved at apex. Capsule pyriform, mouth wide, tapering from near the mouth into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to near the base into 16 fragile processes. Operculum wide, convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Wet banks, River Hapuka, near Kaikoura; January, 1898. Collected by R. B.

36. B. searlii, sp. nov. Plate XLII, fig. 48.

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Plants growing in small dense patches ¼ in. high, dark-green. Stems 1/16 in., gemmiform; innovations 3/16 in., fastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating all round; upper shortly oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate; middle ones larger, ovate-lanceolate, acute; margins entire, plain; nerve excurrent and recurved at apex. Innovation leaves smaller, similar to the stem ones. Areola: Upper, trapezoid; lower, quadrate; leaves twisted and nearly black when dry. Perichætial leaves small, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; nerve excurrent; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ½ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule clavato-pyriform, tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided for two-thirds of its length into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum convex, apiculate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On damp rocks, near Kaikoura; January, 1898. Collected by R. B.

37. B. obesothecium, sp. nov. Plate XLIII., fig. 49.

Plants growing in dense tufts ¾ in.–2 in. high, green above, dark-brown below. Stems ¼ in.–¾ in., radiculose, slender; innovations slender, fastigiate, barren, ¼ in.–¾ in. Leaves loosely imbricating all round, erecto-patent, ovate-lanceolate, acute, slightly concave; margins entire, bordered by long narrow cells; nerve ending at the apex or excurrent. Innovation leaves nearly similar to the stem ones. Areola:

– 460 –

Upper trapezoid, quadrate below; flexuous when dry. Perichætial leaves small, inner deltoid, outer ovate-lanceolate, acute, nerved to the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk 1 in.–1 ½ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule stout, pyriform, curved near the base, tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Calyptra cucullate.

Hab. Swampy ground, Mount Torlesse; January, 1886. Collected by R. B.

38. B. maudii, sp. nov. Plate XLIII., fig. 50.

Plants monœcious, growing in dense patches 1 ½ in. high. Stem 1 in., radiculose; innovations fertile, ¾ in.–1 in. high. Leaves loosely imbricating round the stem, erecto-patent, concave; upper oblong-lanceolate, acute; middle ones ovate-lanceolate; nerve excurrent, aristate; margins entire, recurved, bordered with long harrow cells. Innovation Leaves broadly ovate, acute. Areola: Upper trapezoid, oblong below; twisted when dry. Perichætial leaves small, subulate-lanceolate, acute; margins recurved; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk 2 ½ in. long, curved at the apex, slender. Capsule long, pyriform, tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum conico-rostrate. Calyptra not found. Antheridia terminal on innovations.

Hab. Marshy ground near Lake Manapouri.

39. B. traillii, sp. nov. Plate XLIII., fig. 51.

Plants diœcious, growing in dense tufts 2 in. high, yellowish-green. Stem ¾ in.; innovations fertile, ⅜ in., on the apex of which are developed the archegonia, which is repeated by each succeeding innovation, giving a moniliform appearance to the plants. Leaves imbricating closely round the stem, nearly erect; upper ones ovate-lanceolate or broadly oblong-lanceolate, subacute; middle ones oval or ovate subacute, very concave; margins entire, plain; nerve ending at the apex. Areola subtrapezoid to the base. Perichætial leaves very small, ovate-lanceolate, acute, nerved to the apex; not found in fruit.

Hab. Marshy ground, Waterfall Run, Stewart Island. Collected by R. B.

40. B. huttonii, sp. nov. Plate XLIII., fig. 52.

Plants growing in loose patches 2 ½ in.–3 ½ in. high, pale-green above, brown below. Stems radiculose, 1 ½ in.; innovations fertile, 1 in.–1 ½ in., radiculose, fastigiate. Leaves imbricat-

– 461 –

round the stern, spreading; upper ones ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, very concave, nerved to the apex, excurrent in the uppermost as a slender point; margins entire, having a border with long narrow cells recurved below; middle ones ovate-acute, nerve subexcurrent. Innovation leaves very concave, oblong-lanceolate, subacute or obovate-acute, minutely apiculate, nerved to the apex. Areola : Upper trapezoid, oblong near the base. Perichœtial leaves very small, ovate-acuminate; nerve excurrent; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk 1 ½ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule large, clavato-pyriform, subventricose, tapering into the fruit-stalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum mamillate. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Styx Marsh, near Christchurch, in water; October, 1895. Collected by R. B.

41. B. eximium, Mitt. Plate XLIII., fig. 53.

Plants diœcious, growing in loose patches 1 in.–4 in. high, pale-green above, dark-brown below. Stems 1 in.–2 ¼ in., slender, radiculose; innovations fastigiate, 1 in.–1 ¼ in. Leaves large, spreading, ⅛ in.–¼ in. long, loosely imbricating; upper ones oblong-lanceolate, acute; middle ones subacute, very concave; margins recurved below, bordered with long narrow cells minutely toothed at the apex; nerve disappearing below the apex. Innovation leaves oblong, round at apex; nerve disappearing below the apex. Areola: Upper trapezoid, lower oblong. Perichœtial leaves small, linear-lanceolate, acute, minutely toothed at the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk 2 in.–3 in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule oblong-pyriform, with a short tapering base. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided for two-thirds of its length into 16 processes, shorter than the outer, and alternate with them. Operculum conic. Calyptra cucullate.

Hab. Styx Marsh, near Christchurch, in water; November, 1897. Collected by R. B.

42. B. billardierii, Scbwægr. Plate XLIII., fig. 54.

43. B. rufescens (?), H. f. and W. Plate XLIII., fig. 55.

Plants growing in dense tufts ½ in. high, pale-green. Stems ⅜ in. high; innovations ⅛ in.–⅝ in. high, fertile, fastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating, oblong-obovate or subspathulate, acuminate; margins with a border of narrow cells minutely toothed at the apex and recurved below the middle; nerve excurrent, aristate, curved, in the middle leaves subexcurrent. Areola: Upper trapezoid, becoming quadrate at the base; leaves twisted when dry. Perichœtial

– 462 –

leaves small; inner, subulate; outer, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, aristate; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk inclined, ¾ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule narrow, clavato - pyriform, shortly tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate with the outer. Operculum conic, acute.

Hab. On rocks or decayed wood, Port Lyttelton hills; November, 1886. Collected by R. B.

44. B. campylothecium, Taylor. Plate XLIII., fig. 56.

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Plants growing in dense patches ½ in. high, green. Stems ⅜ in.; innovations barren, 3/16 in., fastigiate. Leaves erectopatent, imbricating round the stem; upper ones oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; middle ones subspathulate, acuminate; margins entire, with a border of linear cells recurving at the middle; nerve excurrent, as along slender hair-point. Areola: Upper trapezoid, lower quadrate; leaves twisted when dry. Innovation leaves small, broadly subspathulate, apiculate. Perichœtial leaves small, narrow, linear-lanceolate, with a long slender hair-point; nerve excurrent; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ⅝ in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule oblong-pyriform, scarcely tapering into the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, free to the base; inner, a membrane divided into 16 processes, alternate with the outer ones. Operculum and calyptra not found.

Hab. Damp banks, Port Lyttelton hills; 1891.

45. B. truncorum, Bory. Plate XLIV., fig. 57.

46. B. gracilicarpum, sp. nov. Plate XLIV., fig. 58.

Plants growing in loose tufts ¾in. high, green. Stems ¼ in.; innovations fertile, single, arising from the perichætium, ¼in., gemmaceous. Leaves spreading, upper large, imbricating, oblong, rounded at the apex and shortly acute, concave; margins bordered with long narrow cells minutely toothed at the apex, recurved below; nerve excurrent, curved at the apex. Areola : Upper trapezoid, lower oblong; leaves twisted and erect when dry. Perichœtial leaves small, triangular, tapering straight from a broad base, toothed at the apex, nerved to the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk 1 in. long, curved at the apex. Capsule long and narrow, clavatopyriform, tapering from the apex to the fruitstalk, inclined. Peristome double; outer 16 teeth free to the base; inner, a membrane divided to the middle into 16 processes, alternate With the outer. Operculum conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. On rocks, Mount Torlesse; January, 1887. Collected by R. B.

– 463 –

47. B. blandum, H. f. and W. Plate XLIV., fig. 59.

Hab. On stones, near running water; on rocks, in the spray of waterfalls, Mounts Torlesse and Ben More; Kair koura, near the River Hapuka; and on rocks, hear the Sutherland Falls, in the spray. Collected by R. B.

Genus Meesia, Hedwig.

This genus has a great affinity with Bryum, through the pyriform capsules and double peristomes having the same number of teeth. The capsules of Meesia, however, differ from those of Bryum in their being more gibbous on the back, and in the mouth being more oblique. The peristome also differs from that of Bryum in the outer being shorter than the inner.

One species of this genus—M. macrantha (described in the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” page 444)—I regret I Have seen no specimens of. I have carefully compared all the species described in this paper with the description of the above-named plant, and find that, although they all agree with it in being obtuse or round at the apex of the leaves and in the nerve ending below the apex, they all differ from it in other characters.

The five species described in this paper are of an aquatic, habit, having been found growing in shallow running water, but not submerged; they all approach each other in the form of the leaves, the capsules being the principal distinguishing, character.

I regret to have to state that some of the species have become extinct in the habitats given in this paper, their special habits making them very liable to be overgrown by other vegetation. The Mount Torlesse and Port Lyttelton hills habitats have been extinct for several years. The former has been overgrown by other plants; in the latter the plants grew on a flat rock over which water slowly moved, and, as this water was turned aside for domestic purposes, the rock dried and the Meesias on it perished.

The figures of the species are all of the same magnification.

1. M. kirkii, sp. nov. Plate XLIV., fig. 60.

Plants monœcious, growing in patches ½ in. high, pale-green above, nearly black below. Stems ¼ in., radiculose; innovations ¼ in., slender, fastigiate. Leaves nearly erect, imbricating round the stem, small, oblong, round at the apex, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve stout below, ending below the apex. Innovation leaves close, nearly erect, oblong,

– 464 –

round at the apex; nerve ending below the apex. Areola: Upper subquadrate, lower oblong; leaves twisted and erect when dry. Perichœtial leaves erect, slightly broader, otherwise similar to the others; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk ⅝ in. long. Capsule small, erect, pyriform, curved, gibbous on the back, rounded at the base, mouth slightly oblique; apophysis cuneate. Other parts not found.

Hab. Marshy ground near Lake Te Anau. Collected by R. B.

2. M. craigieburnensis, sp. nov. Plate XLIV., fig. 61.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plants monœcious, growing in small dense patches ½ in. high. Stems 3/16 in., gemmiform; innovations ⅛ in.–3/16 in., slender, gemmiform, subfastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating all round, oblong, rounded at the apex, subacute, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve disappearing below the apex. Innovation leaves smaller, otherwise similar to the, upper ones. Areola trapezoid near the apex, oblong below; leaves erect when dry. Perichœtial leaves nearly as large as the upper ones, ligulate; nerve disappearing below the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk erect, ⅜ in.–⅝ in. long. Capsule erect, small, clavato-pyriform, unequal, constricted at the apophysis, which is short, oblong, round at the base; mouth scarcely oblique. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, short, irregular in outline, linear-lanceolate, obtuse; inner, very fragile or imperfect, half the length of the outer, and alternate with them. Operculum conic. Calyptra not found.

Hab. Marshy ground near Broken River; 1887. Collected by R. B.

3. M. buchanani, sp. nov. Plate XLIV., fig 62.

Plants monœcious, growing in very large patches 2 ½ in. high, yellow above, brown below. Stems radiculose, 1 ¾ in.; innovations slender, ½ in.–1 ½ in., fastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem, ovate-lanceolate, round at the apex; middle ones smaller, otherwise similar to the upper, concave; margins entire, plain; nerve stout below, disappearing below the apex. Innovation leaves subulate, round at the apex, nerve disappearing. Areola narrow; leaves twisted and erect when dry. Perichœtial leaves slightly larger, similar to the others; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slender, 1 in. long. Capsule erect, clavato-pyriform, curved, constricted at the apophysis, gibbous at the base. Peristome double : having been destroyed by insects, full description cannot be given of it. Operculum oblique, subconic. Calyptra small, cucullate.

Hab. On wet rocks, Kennedy's Bush, Port Lyttelton hills; January, 1882. Collected by R. B.

– 465 –

4. M. aquatica, sp. nov. Plate XLIV., fig. 63.

Plants monœcious, growing in loose patches 1 in. high, yellowish-green above, brown below. Stems radiculose, ½ in.; innovations barren, slender, ½ in., subfastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem, ovate-lanceolate, round at the apex; margins entire, plain; nerve ending below the apex; middle ones shortly ovate-lanceolate, round at the apex. Innovation leaves narrow ovate-lanceolate, round at apex. Areola : Upper subtrapezoid, longer below; crisp when dry. Perichœtial leaves ovate-lanceolate, round at the apex; nerve ending below the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk slender, 1 ½ in. long. Capsule pyriform, erect, slightly curved, gibbous on the back, slightly constricted at the apophysis, rounded to the fruitstalk. Peristome double; outer 16 short, præmorse; inner 16 slender, membranous, consisting of two rows of cells, keeled. Operculum oblique, conic. Calyptra cucullate.

Hab. In a small marsh near the source of the River Kowai, Mount Torlesse; January, 1887. Collected by R. B.

5. M. aquatilis, sp. nov. Plate XLIV., fig. 64.

Plants monœcious, growing in loose patches 2 ½ in. high, yellowish-green above, nearly black below. Stems 1 ¼ in., flaccid, slender; innovations slender, ⅜ in.–¾ in., fastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, imbricating round the stem, large ovate-lanceolate, round at the apex, nearly flat; margins entire, plain; nerve stout below, disappearing below the apex; middle leaves shorter. Innovation leaves ovate-lanceolate, round at the apex. Areola subquadrate, longer below; leaves crisp when dry. Perichœtial leaves longer, oblong-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, round at the apex; acrocarpous. Fruitstalk erect, 2 in. long. Capsule erect, broadly pyriform; curved, gibbous on the back, constricted at the, apophysis, which is short and round at the base, mouth small, oblique. Peristome double; outer teeth 16, short, free to the base; inner 16 keeled, of two rows of moniliform cells. Operculum very oblique, small. Calyptra cucullate.

Hab. In a strip of marshy ground, near Broken River. Collected by R. B.

Explanation of Plates XXXVIII. (In Part) and XXXIX.–XLIV.

Plate XXXVIII. (In Part).

Fig. 11. Leptobryum pyriforme, Wils.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

– 466 –

Plate XXXVIII. (In Part—continue).

Fig. 12. Leptobryum harriottii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaves.

Plate XXXIX.

Fig. 10. Mielichoferia buchanani, sp. nov.

1.

Plant.

2.

Capsule.

3.

Peristome.

4.

Perichætial leaves.

5.

First leaf outside perichætial.

6.

Upper leaves.

7.

Middle leaf.

Plate XL.

Fig. 13. Bryum oamaruense, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

Upper leaves.

4.

Calyptra.

Fig. 14., B. oamaruanum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule and plant.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

Fig. 15. B. thomasii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 16. B. waikariense, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 17. B. otahapaense, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaves.

6.

Branch leaf.

7.

Peristome.

Fig. 18. B. gibsonii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 19. B. ovatothecium, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

Fig. 20. B. webbii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 21. B. calcareum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

– 467 –

Fig. 22. Bryum argenteum, L.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaves.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 23. B. petriei, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 24. B. buchanani, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 25. B. triangularifolium, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 26. B. ovatocarpum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaves.

Fig. 27. B. ovalicarpum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Plate XLI

Fig. 28. Bryum webbianum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

4.

Upper leaf.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 29. B. cylindrothecium, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule and operculum.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 30. B. harriottii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 31. B. gracilithecium, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaves;

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 32. B. linearifolium, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

– 468 –

Fig. 33. Bryum ventricosum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 34. Bi kirkii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leave's.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 35. B. bellianum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 36. B. macrocarpum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaves.

6.

Branch leaf.

7.

Lower leaf.

Fig. 37. B. hapukaense, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Plate XLII.

Fig. 38. Bryum cockcaynei, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 39. B. tenuifolium, H. f. and W.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside, perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaves.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 40. B. binnsii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 41. B. evei, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

Fig. 42. B. walkerii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside Perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

Fig. 43. B. bealeyense, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichsatial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

– 469 –

Fig. 44. Bryum crudum, Schreb.

1.

Capsule.a

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 45. B. heterofolium, sp. nov.

1.

Capaule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

Fig. 46. B. torlessense, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 47. B. cuneatum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

Fig. 48. B. searlii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Lower leaf.

7.

Branch leaf.

Plate XLIII.

Fig. 49. Bryum obesothecium, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 50. B. maumdii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 51. B. traillii, sp. nov.

1.

Perichætial leaves.

2.

First leaf outside perichætial.

3.

Upper leaves.

4.

Middle leaf.

5.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 52. B. huttonii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

first leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 53. B. eximium, Mitt.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 54. B. billardierii, Schwægr.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichsBtial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

– 470 –

Fig. 55. Bryum rufescens (?), H. f. and W.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

Fig. 56. B. campylothecium, Taylor.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

Plate XLIV.

Fig. 57. Bryum truncorum, Bory.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaves.

5.

Middle leaf.

Fig. 58. B. gracilicarpum, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside periohsefcial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 59. B. blandum, H. f. and W.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 60. Meesia kirkii, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 61. M. craigieburnensis, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 62. M. buchanani, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.

6.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 63. M. aguatica, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Peristome.

3.

PerichsBtiai leaves.

4.

First leaf outside perichætial.

5.

Upper leaf.

6.

Middle-leaf.

7.

Branch leaf.

Fig. 64. M. aquatilis, sp. nov.

1.

Capsule.

2.

Perichætial leaves.

3.

First leaf outside perichætial.

4.

Upper-stem leaf.

5.

Middle leaf.