Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 34, 1901


Art. X.—On the New Zealand Lamprey.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 6th November, 1901.]

The lamprey has been found in New Zealand in three well-marked stages of growth—the Ammocœtes, the larval form, very similar to the corresponding stage in the European lamprey; the adult Geotria, with a well-developed gular pouch; and the Velasia, a form intermediate between the other two, with no gular pouch. Little is known of its life-history or habits; but in October the Velasia come up some of the rivers in shoals, and are caught by the Maoris for food, and the Maoris say that they come down again in December with gular pouches. Very few specimens of any stage have hitherto been preserved, but recently a large number of Velasia were sent to us alive from the Mataura River, up which they were making their annual migration, and as regards this stage we were able to work from the fresh material.

Both the Velasia stage and the adult Geotria were first described by Gray in 1851, and were classified by him as distinct genera (Geotria and Velasia) of the family Petromy-zonidœ. Gunther, in 1870, ranks the two forms as separate species of the genus Geotria; the pouched form he calls Geotria australis, and the Velasia he calls Geotria chilensis, since Geotria in the Velasia stage was first discovered in Chili. Recently Ogilby, in reclassifying the Australian lampreys, reverts to Gray's system of classification, and places the two forms in different genera.

Before minutely examining the animals themselves it had occurred to us that possibly, since the larval Ammocœtes was formerly regarded as a separate genus, a similar mistake had been made in the case of the Velasia, which might be only an intermediate form (since it was only found in New Zealand, Australia, and Chili, where the Geotria was also found), and that, if Velasia and Geotria actually were distinct species, it

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was impossible to account for some forms which have been found intermediate between the Velasia stage and the adult. Günther himself, in speaking of one such form, suggests that Velasia may possibly develope a gular pouch later in life, in which case the distinction between the two forms would be doubtful. Ogilby, however, as already noted, actually reverts to the idea of a generic difference between the two. The distinctions upon which the old classifications were based are merely external ones—the shape and size of the oral disc, the position of the teeth, the presence or absence of a gular pouch, and the shape and position of the fins.

In the Velasia stage the head is small, the oral disc is round and small, and the teeth are closely packed together in rows, whilst in the adult Geotria the head region is enormously developed, the oral disc being very large and flattened on the lower margin, owing to the growth of the gular pouch below it; and the teeth, which, as we have ascertained by careful examination, correspond in number and position to the teeth of the Velasia form, are some distance apart, owing to the growth of the disc between them. The gular pouch is, of course, only fully developed in the adult Geotria, but intermediate forms have been found possessing a slight gular pouch.

There is no very great difference between the fins of the Velasia and the adult. They are larger and situated relatively farther forward in the Velasia, but they change gradually with the growth of the animal, and we have a series of four specimens which exhibit the different conditions of the fins at different stages in life.

Fourteen specimens of the Velasia which were dissected were found to be sexually immature, males and females, whilst the only two pouched forms which we have dissected are sexually mature, or nearly so. None of the former observers appear to have examined the internal anatomy at all, but have drawn their conclusions from the external differences, probably because of the scarcity of material at their disposal.

In other respects the Velasia closely resembles the adult, but is longer and thinner. We could not compare the living forms, as we have not yet been able to obtain a fully grown Geotria alive, and we find by experiment that spirit-preserved specimens undergo considerable shortening.

As the two generic names Velasia and Geotria have been applied to the same animal, we have had to decide which to retain, and, following Gunther's nomenclature, we propose to call the adult form Geotria australis, and to use the term “Velasia” to distinguish the intermediate form, just as the term “Ammocœtes” is still used to distinguish the larva.

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Thus it appears that, whereas the northern lampreys of the genus Petromyzon undergo only one metamorphosis—namely, from the Ammocœates to the adult—the southern form (Geotria) undergoes two well-marked changes, from the Ammocœtes to the Velasia, and then from the Velasia to the adult, which latter represents a further stage in development never reached by the northern forms.

Art. XI.—Note on an Entire Egg of a Moa, now in the Museum of the University of Otago.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 11th June, 1901.]

Plate VII.

Fragments of moa eggshell and more or less complete eggs have long been known, but the acquisition of an absolutely uninjured egg is of some interest, both on its own account and on account of the manner in which it was obtained. As far as I am aware, no entire egg is on exhibition in any museum. The specimen obtained at Kaikoura was injured by the pick in excavation.

The egg which forms the subject of this note was secured by a dredge-hand on the Earnscleugh gold-dredge, working on the River Molyneux, Otago.

The bank of the river is composed of very fine river-silt, and was formerly cultivated as a farm. It is so fine that when dug and dried it soon becomes reduced to fine powder, and is blown away in impalpable dust. The river, especially when in flood, scours the bank considerably, and it was after such a scouring, and when, fortunately, the dredge was not actually at work, that the egg was set free from the silt, and, floating in the river, drifted into the “well” between the two pontoons of the dredge. Luckily it was observed floating here and secured by one of the men, who also noted the hollow in the bank left by its removal, at about 14 ft. below the surface of the ground.

The egg was acquired for the Otago Museum through the kind services of Mr. Alexander Black, of Dunedin, who obtained it from the dredge-hand for £50, towards which Mr. Black himself and the Otago Institute contributed £5 each, while the balance was paid by the University.

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It is not my intention to enter into a detail account of the structure of the eggshell, but I append references to literature in which these details will be found.

The present egg has the usual pale-buff colour. The surface is more or less worn or dissolved away by the action probably of the water passing through the soil; and, in comparison with various fragments of eggs from elsewhere, the surface is not shiny, though worn smooth, but over two areas at opposite ends of the equator the surface is fairly perfect. It is here marked by numerous small pits and short linear furrows of various lengths and depths (vide Hutton), but averaging 1 mm. in length. They are irregularly arranged, but always disposed lengthwise. There are about twenty such furrows to the square centimeter, and about as many pits; but the relative numbers vary in different parts, for by comparing this complete specimen with other less perfect eggs, in which the surface is not weathered, it appears that the pits are rather more numerous towards the poles and the linear furrows round the equator. In shape this moa's egg is relatively longer and narrower than that of an ostrich, and in this particular specimen one pole is slightly larger than the other; but in this matter there appears to be some variability in moas' eggs. I have seen others in which the two poles are precisely alike. The following measurements were taken: Length between vertical uprights, 195 mm. (7 ¾); breadth between vertical uprights, 135 mm. (5 ¼ in.); greatest circumference, 522 mm. (20 ½ in.); lesser circumference (equatorial), 428 mm. (16 ⅞ in.); weight, 286.5 grammes.

I had an opportunity of examining a second entire egg, which was obtained some months later by the same man about a hundred yards below the spot at which our specimen was taken. The egg had been dipped in shellac (?), and was in a very dirty condition when it was brought to the Museum in order that the taxidermist might clean it before its transmission to London for sale. He refused, however, to undertake the responsibility. I took the following measurements, from which it will appear that this second egg was rather larger than our specimen; the two ends were similar, so that the egg was a perfect ovoid: length, 201 mm.; breadth, 138 mm.; greater circumference, 540 mm.; lesser circumference, 440 mm. I did not weigh it.

Both these eggs, as well as two or three other more or less damaged specimens that have been through my hands, appear to belong to the same species of moa, if we may judge from their agreement in dimensions. As the commonest genus in Otago was Euryapteryx, we may safely regard some species of this genus as the parent. It would be dangerous, however, to attempt to indicate the species, for size of egg is no guide to

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size of bird, as we know from the extraordinary disproportion between the great egg and the small body of the kiwi; but I think we may go so far as to say that this egg was laid by either E. ponderosus or E. elephantopus.


Enys, J. D.: Trans. N.Z. Inst., iv., 1871, p. 403. (Discovery of the Kaikoura egg.)

Hector, Sir J.: Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 991; Trans. N.Z. Inst., iv., 1871, p. 110, also p. 363, pl. iv. (Egg with remains of embryo.)

Hutton, F. W.: Trans. N.Z. Inst., iv., p. 166. (Microscopical structure.)

Liversidge: Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiii., p. 225. (Analysis.)

Nathusius: Zeit. f. Wiss. Zool., 1871.

Newman: Zoologist, 1886, p. 34. (Account of the Kaikoura egg.)

Owen: Extinct Birds of N.Z., vol. i., p. 317.

Rowley: Ornithol. Miscell., iii., 240.

Explanation of Plate VII.
Photograph of moa's egg (reduced).

Art. XII.—An Account of the External Anatomy of a Baby Rorqual (Balænoptera rostrata).

[Read before the Otago Institute, 11th June, 1901.]

On Monday, 6th August, 1900, I was informed that a “young whale, about 12 ft. long, had been cast ashore on the beach outside the Otago Heads.” It was offered to me for a sum of money, and I arranged to purchase it. It turned out to be a young rorqual, about 10 ft. long overall, in excellent condition, the skin being damaged here and there, partly from being handled no doubt, partly from being cast ashore. On Tuesday I had photographs taken of it in various positions, and, with the help of Mr. Hamilton, made measurements and observations on its outer anatomy. On Wednesday I had a mould taken of it, and was able to commence dissection on

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that afternoon while the cast was being made. The cast is now exhibited in the University Museum.

Colour: In its general colouration it agrees pretty closely with the description given by Von Haast (Trans., xiii.). The upper surface of head and back is dark-grey—practically black, including dorsal fin and dorsal surface of the caudal fluke. The belly is pure snow-white (which after exposure to rain and air during twenty-four hours became a bluish-white). The lower jaw is very dark-grey, fading rapidly to white a few inches below the gape. Behind the angle of the mouth the colour is paler grey. The pectoral limb dorsally is grey, deepening to black along the posterior margin; but the tint gets lighter towards the anterior margin, which is white. The line of junction between grey and white is about on a level with the mouth, the base of the pectoral limb, and the caudal fluke. But the tone of the grey varies: Above the base of the pectoral are wavy lines of dark and light grey, obliquely vertical, with the upper ends directed backwards, one of which is particularly noticeable, starting from the axilla upwards and backwards; a second, more or less parallel to this, lies above the base of the pectoral. About midway along the body the darker tint is more extensive, invading the generally lighter grey, so as to form an irregularly oval darker patch about midway between pectoral and dorsal fins.

Mouth: The roof of the mouth is bright-pink; the baleen, which forms but a narrow band on each side—only about 1 ¾ in. broad at its broadest—is purplish-pink for about half its depth, the free ends—that is, about lower half—being pink. But during the day these colours changed to pink and almost white respectively. The base of the baleen is yellowish.

The tongue is pink; the back of mouth pink, with a few black pigment spots. The tongue itself is margined laterally along the region that is free (which is 8 in. in length) with thin fleshy folds, irregular in shape and size, vertically disposed, overlapping one another; soft, flexible, and no doubt an aid in capturing food.

Hair: There are about fifteen hairs on each side of the face, and evidence, in the presence of follicles, of five or six more. On the chin, or anterior rounded extremity of the lower jaw, are two vertical rows of hair-follicles, from most of which a single short white hair protruded. Each pit is very distinctly marked, owing to the very dark-grey colour round its margin. The two rows, one of which presented seven the other eight follicular pits, are about ¼ in. apart, though the upper pair of pits are distinctly more widely separated. There is a space of about ¼ in. between each pit of a vertical row. The bristles, of which I counted six on the right and four on the left side, issuing from the upper pits of

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each row, are about ⅛ in. long. Along the upper and lower jaws is a horizontal series of similar white hairs of larger size. Along the upper jaw is a row of four bristles, and two or three black hairless follicular pits anteriorly. The first hair is 8 ¾ in. from anterior end of the snout, the last 15 ¾ in., and the series lies about 1 ½ in. above the lower margin of jaw. The hairs on the lower jaw constitute a row of five bristles, the first of which is 10 in. from the anterior end, the last 15 ½ in. The row slopes downward posteriorly, so that, while the first hair is 1 ½ in. below the upper margin, the last is 5 ½ in. below. The hair is ½ in. in length. This line follows, more or less accurately, the line of junction between grey and white. The spaces between bristles, starting from anterior end of series, are: 1 ¾ in., 2 ¾ in., 1 ½ in., 1 ½ in.

The baleen is coloured as above. Each row forms an elegant curve close to the outer margin of the roof of the mouth. The right and left rows nearly meet anteriorly, where each is very narrow and the baleen short. The rows then diverge, following the outline of the jaw, but behind the angle of the gape curve inwards for a short distance. The total length of the row, measured in a straight line, is 1 ft. 9 in. The greatest distance separating the rows is 6 ¼ in. This, then, is maximum width of palate. The greatest length of baleen is 4 ¼ in., and this is not the outermost margins; the breadth is 1 ¾ in., which is retained for greater part of course.

The animal was a young female, and had not long been born, as the navel was a slit-like depression 2 in. long and about ½ in. deep, with vascular walls; it is situated 5 ft. 4 in. from tip of lower jaw. On each side the skin shows a pink patch a short distance above the navel. The navel is situated in an oval or diamond-shaped area with rounded angles, limited by a shallow furrow, and from the posterior angle a distinct furrow passes backwards to the urino-genital depression, or vulva, which lies 1 ft. 5 in. behind it.

This vulva is slit-like, the lips being close together; but this slit, which is 6 ½ in. long, bifurcates posteriorly, leaving a small triangular area, which is the base of a ridge which can be traced forwards into the vestibule. On pressing apart the lips a deep depression is visible, the bottom of which is surrounded by a folded wall. The depression is funnel-shaped, but compressed laterally, and along the anterior and posterior sloping wall a ridge passes downwards towards the bottom. The anterior ridge terminates in a freely projecting subconical clitoris, overhanging the urinary aperture, which is transversely extended and has soft plicated lips.

The clitoris is separated from the ridge by a transverse curved furrow. The posterior ridge is at its base more prominent, but gradually diminishes towards the bottom of

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the pit; it terminates at the hinder margin of an irregularly rounded vaginal aperture, the lateral margins of which are folded in the usual way.

The mammary clefts are situated on either side of the hinder region of the vulva, and about 1 ½ in. from it. Each slit is about 1 in. in length, and is the opening of a pit 1 indeep, from the bottom of which a small rounded nipple rises upwards. Above each mammary cleft, about 1 in. from it, is a shallow furrow parallel with it, marking out with it a slightly rounded area.

The anus, which lies a short distance behind the vulva, is 2 ft. 5 in. from the middle cleft of caudal fin.

The characteristic gular furrows extend from about 4 in from anterior end of jaw for a distance of 4 ft. 8 in., terminating behind the level of the flipper. There are forty-five furrows between the two flippers, while further forward the number is increased, and at the angle of the mouth eight additional short furrows exist, on each side, dorsal of the longer ones. Each ridge which separates two furrows is ½ in. wide. These ridges are not produced by mere folding of the skin, but are delimited by straight grooves, ½ in. deep, into which the epidermis, of course, dips. But in transverse section of the skin it is evident that the blubber does not share in the folding, for its inner surface is plane, and consequently it is of less thickness below the furrows than below the ridges, where it measures 1 ¼ in. The middle series of furrows are rather shorter than the more laterally placed ones, whose length is given above; the ventral rugæ being 4 ft. 2 ½ in., and beginning 8 ½ in. from chin.

Measurements of External Features.
Ft. in.
Total length from tip of snout to end of fluke, measured over back 10 5
Length of body—i.e., to notch in fluke 10 1
" " (in straight line) 9
Length of upper jaw, tip to angle of gape 1 10
" lower jaw 1 11
Tip of snout to anterior base of pectoral limb 3 2
" axilla 3 9
" base of dorsal fin 6 9
Length of base of dorsal fin 0 8
Height (greatest) of dorsal fin 0 4
Distance from posterior margin of dorsal fin to tip of body—i.e., median notch of fluke 2 8
Distance of vulva from anterior end 7 6
Greatest circumference of body, at a distance of 5 ft. 7 in. from snout 5
Circumference at axilla 4 11½
" middle of dorsal fin (but, of course, excluding it) 3 6
" immediately anterior to root of fluke 1

Weight, about 12 owt. (estimated).

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Measurements of Head.
Ft. in.
Gape 1 10
Tip of snout to anterior corner of eye 1 11
  Length 0
  Height 0
  Distance from posterior angle of eye 0 5
  Length of auditory cleft 0 5
Nostrils (blowholes)—
  Tip of snout to anterior end 1 4
  Length of nostril 0
  Distance between anterior ends 0 2 ¾
  " posterior ends 0
Length of median internasal furrow 0
Pectoral fin—
  Distance from snout 3 2
  Breadth of base 0 7
  Length along preaxial margin 1 8
  " postaxial margin 1 8
  Breadth (greatest) 0 5
Caudal fluke—
  Breadth (greatest) at end 2 4
  Length, from root* 1 5
  Length, behind end of body* 0
Breadth of body at base of c.f. 0

[After this article was set up I received from Sir William Turner his account of “The Lesser Rorqual in Scottish Seas,” in Proc. R.S. Edin., 1892, xix., p. 36, in which he gives full details of external anatomy of several specimens. I regret that I cannot make use of the facts for comparison.]

Art. XIII.—Notes on Gogia breviceps, the Lesser Sperm Whale.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 8th October, 1901.]

On the 30th August, 1900, I heard from Mr. Stronach, of Dunedin, that a small whale had been beached at Purakanui, and at once arranged to go down next day with the taxidermist, Mr. E. Jennings, to inspect it. On our arrival we ascertained that the whale had been driven ashore on the preceding Friday—just a week before. We obtained the services of Mr. Ewart, the fisherman living at the entrance of the bay, who rowed us across to the sandy spit that projects

[Footnote] * Measured three days after death. The sides had curved somewhat. The length is too great.

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from the north side of the bay, and showed us the whale. We found the carcase just above high-water mark, nearly imbedded in sand, which had thus preserved the animal from decay, so that it appeared quite fresh. On removing the sand we discovered that the animal had been a good deal cut about—the head had been disarticulated from the vertebral column, and lay near at hand; the lower jaw, however, had been removed, and the top of the head had been injured by the removal of the little spermaceti contained there. The dorsal wall of the body had, likewise, been cut away for the blubber, and with it the dorsal fin. The tail-flukes were also missing, and the abdomen had been opened by a cut through the right sternal ribs, and the viscera lay outside the body.

Owing to the damage done I was unable to trace the true outlines of the body, or to locate the dorsal fin. This is the more to be regretted since specimens of this whale are rare; but fortunately Von Haast was able to give some further details of his specimen. Through the kind offices of Mr. Ewart I was, however, able to obtain the flukes from the Maori who had first discovered the whale, and who had cut away the blubber, &c.; and at a later period I obtained the lower jaw from a fisherman, who had retained and cleaned the bone as a “curio.” Thus I obtained the entire skeleton—not a bone was missing.* The carcase was conveyed to Dunedin, together with some of the viscera—the stomach, larynx, generative organs—an account of which I have forwarded to the Zoological Society of London.

The “short-headed sperm whale” has been described from our seas in the Transactions by Dr. Von Haast under the name of Euphysetes pottsn, but cetaceologists are now agreed that the various whales described as various species—Euphysetes simus, Owen, from India; Euph. grayii, Wall, and Euph. macleayi, Krefft, from the Australian seas; K. floweri, Gill, from the American coast of the North Pacific; and our New Zealand form—are all members of one and the same species—viz., Kogia breviceps, originally described by De Blainville from a specimen from the Cape of Good Hope.

The various differences relied upon by these authors as of specific value are merely such as are due either to differences of sex or of age, or individual variations in the various specimens taken in various localities.

The specimen under consideration was a male, not quite

[Footnote] * With the possible exception of the pelvic bone.

[Footnote] † See my papers—(1) “On the Larynx of certain Whales,” P.Z.S., 1901, vol. i., p. 278; (2) “On the Anatomy of Cogia breviceps,” 1901, vol. ii., p. 107.

[Footnote] ‡ So spelt by Gray; but Flower, in his text-book on mammalia, spells it “Cogia.”

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fully grown, measuring 8 ft. 9 in. from tip of the snout to the bottom of the notch in the fluke; Von Haast's was a young female, the length of which was only 7 ft. 2 in.* I took no measurements of girth, as the animal was too much injured for such measurements to have any value.

The flipper, or pectoral limb, measured 14 in. in a straight line from base to tip, or 15 in. along the slightly curved anterior margin. Its breadth was 5½ in. across the widest part, and 5 in. across the base. The form of the flipper is shown in the figure. The anterior margin has a regular, slightly convex curve; the posterior margin is angulated, the angle being rounded, and enclosed by a shorter proximal limb of 4 in. and a longer distal concave limb of 8 in. in length.

The tail-flukes measured 2 ft. 3 in. across their ends; each fluke is 12 in. across (parallel to the axis of the body) in its widest part; the median notch between the two flukes is 5½ in. deep, measured from a line joining the two tips of the flukes.

The head measured 1 ft. 4 in.—in other words, is rather less than one-sixth the total length of the body, in which it is contained six and a half times.

One of the most interesting of the anatomical features is the asymmetry of the blowhole and of the structures related to “spouting.” The single blowhole, or left nostril, lies on the upper surface of the head; is crescentic, with the convenity forwards and outwards, and therein differing from the usual form in Odontocetes. The distance between the horns of the crescent is 2½ in.; the inner (mesial) horn being rather further forward (1½ in.) than the outer one, and about 12 in. from the tip of the snout (measured after the blubber had been removed). Von Haast states that the “slit was 2 in. long, of which 1½ in. was on the left side and½ in. on the right side.” In my own specimen it appeared to be wholly on the left of the middle line.

Without going into details, which I have published elsewhere, I may briefly describe the apparatus connected with the blowhole. The crescent leads into a wide, shallow pit or vestibule, closed by a fleshy valve, on raising which the two nostrils are seen. The left one is a wide crescentic aperture leading into a wide circular and simple canal, which passes directly downwards through the skull to open into the naso-palatine canal which communicates with the mouth by the posterior nares. The right nostril is, however, very small and slit-like, situated at extreme right corner of the vestibule, and the canal into which it leads passes obliquely forwards and down-

[Footnote] * This is precisely the length given by Mr. Elliott, who supplied Professor Owen with the material on which his paper is founded. (See Trans. Zool. Soc., vi., p. 172.)

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wards to open into a large chamber, 5in. by 3 in. in diameter; thence a short canal passes into a second chamber of less dimensions, the hinder wall of which rests against the roof of the skull. The anterior wall is fleshy, and evidently capable of considerable movement in contraction and expansion. This lower chamber is somewhat pear-shaped, with the narrow end downwards, and thence a very narrow short canal opens into the naso-palatine canal.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Owing to the removal of the lower jaw I am unable to describe the form, size, or position of the mouth, which is described by other zoologists as small, and situated some distance from the tip of the snout. The lower jaw is provided on each side with thirteen conical, pointed, and slightly curved teeth; each tooth fits into a pit in the gum of the upper jaw. In the upper jaw are only two teeth, situated far forward, and carried by the premaxillary bones. On the right side the tooth projected from the gum for 3/16 in., but the left tooth had only just “cut” the gum, so that only the extreme tip projected.

The alimentary canal had been torn out of the body, but the stomach was preserved and the intestines and contents examined. The length of the intestine is about 32 yards, of which the small intestine measured 30 yards; then it dilated to form a great sac a yard or so in length and 10 in. across, filled with dark-brown, almost black, fluid of considerable consistency, which consists of “sepia,” or contents of the ink-sacs of the cuttlefishes upon which the whale had fed. The stomach contained great quantities of squid-beaks, lenses of squids' eyes, and pens of squids. Von Haast's suggestion that the whale feeds on “smaller hydroid zoophytes” is an error, due partly to the absence of beaks in the stomach of his specimen. Van Beneden and Gervais suggest, from the form of the teeth, that Cogia probably feeds on fishes (p. 354) rather than cuttles. I found no trace of fish.

The Skeleton.

As I have above indicated, I was able to obtain a complete skeleton.* There is one bone which, however, may have been present—the pelvic bone. But I carefully examined the region in which it should lie, and, moreover, removed and dissected the penis, of which an illustrated account appears in another journal.

[Footnote] * This skeleton has been purchased by the Cambridge University Zoological Museum; and an illustrated account of certain bones has been laid before the Zoological Society by me, and will be published in a forthcoming volume of the Proceedings of the Society.

[Footnote] † P.Z.S., 1901, vol. ii., p. 107.

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Now, as is known, certain structures—the corpora cavernosa—are attached to the pelvis in mammals, and in some whales the bone is almost imbedded in this structure; but in Cogia I was unable to find it. On the other hand, Wall describes and figures the pelvis as consisting of four bones in a transverse row, an inner and outer, more or less quadrangular plates, on each side. I feel certain that no such bones existed in my specimen, for I looked specially for them. We may, I think, conclude that the pelvis is absent, and in this respect Cogia differs from the sperm whale.

The length of the vertebral column when the cleaned bones were set in position touching one another is 6 ft. 8 in., which, with the skull, measuring 1 ft. 3½ in., gives a total of 7 ft. 11½ in. for the axial skeleton. To this must be added several inches for the intravertebral discs. The epiphyses are separate.

The seven cervicals are in this genus entirely fused; and the usual evidences of the individual vertebræ, such as neural arches, spines, and transverse processes, are almost entirely obliterated. The atlas has its outlines distinct enough, and the neural arch and transverse process of the second vertebra are evident, while the seventh is also well marked out, but the intervening four vertebræ are so fused that it is practically impossible to distinguish their boundaries:—

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Cervical Vertebral Mass.
Greatest Length. Greatest Height. Height. Breadth.
Anterior. Posterior. Anterior. Posterior.
45 mm. 107 mm. 30 mm. 38 mm. 126 mm. 57 mm.

In this case the total length is measured along the ventral mid-line; the height, from the ventral mid-line to tip of the neural spine, which projects backwards from the hinder end of the mass, which is, really, the height of the 7th cervical vertebra. The anterior central breadth is across the facets from the occipital condyles.

This cervical mass is followed by forty-six free vertebræ, giving a total of fifty-three vertebræ, of which thirteen are thoracic, bearing ribs,* nine are lumbar, and twenty-three are caudal, of which the first thirteen bear chevrons. Von Haast's

[Footnote] * The 13th thoracic has on left side a small articular surface at the end of the transverse process, but on the right side this is absent.

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specimen contained only fifty vertebræ, which are made up of seven cervical, twelve thoracic, eleven lumbar, and twenty caudal, with only eight chevrons. Wall's Australian specimen contains fifty-one vertebræ—seven cervical, fourteen thoracic, nine lumbar, and twenty-one caudal—with thirteen chevrons; Krefft's, fifty-five vertebræ—seven cervical, thirteen thoracic, nine lumbar, and twenty-six caudal—with ten chevrons. In Wall's specimen the 14th rib is represented in the figure as quite a small nodule, entirely unconnected with the vertebral column, and is only 11½ in. in length, in contrast to the 13th rib, measuring 11½ in. In Krefft's specimen, too, the last (13th) rib is much smaller (4 in.) than the 12th (12 in.) on the left side.

In addition to the twelve pairs of long ribs, the measurements of which are given below, I found amongst the débris of the macerating-pan, which had been carefully preserved by the taxidermist (Mr. Jennings, who took a very great deal of trouble to preserve every piece of bone and cartilage), a small bone, measuring 1½ in. in length (i.e., 35 mm.) by about ⅜ in. (9 mm.) in greatest breadth: this appears to be a 13th rib of the left side. One end of this small bone is broader than the other, and appears to be the lower end. One surface of this bone is flat, the other strongly convex, and the general form agrees precisely with the shape of the 12th rib just below its curved region. Moreover, we found a long piece of cartilage, 4 in. long, broader at one end and pointed at the other, flattened and curved, which I believe to be the unossified distal portion of the rib. The proximal cartilage which may have connected this rib to the 13th thoracic vertebra is, unfortunately, missing; possibly the connection was ligamentous. We found no corresponding bone for the right side, but a short piece of cartilage, about 1 in. in length, corresponding to the upper end of the aforementioned cartilage, indicating the possible existence of a 13th rib on right side. There can be no doubt but that, except in a very carefully macerated skeleton, this last rib would be overlooked, and in skeletons found on shore there is little likelihood of its being preserved.

The figure given by Wall (who only found the ribs of right side and the 1st left rib) is wrong, in that he places this 14th rib in line with the lower end of the preceding one; it should be in line with the upper end, just where the curve commences to descend.

Van Beneden and Gervais, in the brief account (p. 515) given of an incomplete skeleton from Japan, find thirteen thoracic vertebræ, recognisable by articular facets for ribs, but add “there may have been fourteen pairs of ribs, the last being free.”

– 161 –
Measurement of Vertebræ
Centrum. Hypapophysis.
Vertebra. Length. Height. Breadth. Transverse Diameter. Vertical Diameter.
Anterior Face. Posterior Face. Anterior Face. Posterior Face. Anterior Face. Posterior Face.
Mm. Mm. Mm. Mm. Mm. Mm. Mm. Mm. Mm.
Thoracic 1 25 87 106 43 47 38
" 2 31 123 112 44 44 38
" 3 35 135 111 42 43 39
" 4 40 143 108 40 45 40
" 5 40 149 106 42 44 38
" 6 42 148 100 43 47 38
" 7 44 150 105 43 46 38 41
" 8 47 154 114 45 46 40 43
" 9 50 157 130 47 49 42
" 10 51 161 142 50 51 45
" 11 53 165 157 50 53 44 47
" 12 55 170 164 54 55 47 49
" 13 56 172 182 54 55 48 50 2
Lumbar 1 57 183 181 57 48 52 13
" 2 58 184 184 58 57 57 53 15 12
" 3 59 189 185 59 57 53 19 20
" 4 61 191 185 58 59 53 55 21 20
" 5 60 192 183 59 57 54 56 21 21
" 6 69 189 181 58 58 54 57 22 25
" 7 59 182 177 59 58 55 57 25 25
" 8 59 177 173 58 58 54 57 23 20
" 9 59 163 165 60 60 56 56 20 17
Caudal 1 58 145 154 60 55 58 12
" 2 57 122 145 60 57 58
" 3 55 112 128 58 56 57
" 4 53 102 108 57 9 55
" 5 50 96 92 56 55 54 53
" 6 48 92 80 55 54 52 53
" 7 46 84 70 54 51 52 50
" 8 44 73 58 52 49 50 49
" 9 41 70 54 50 49 49 46
" 10 40 65 50 50 45 49 45
" 11 37 57 42 46 45 45 46
" 12 32 50 38 43 41 43 41
" 13 26 40 41 40 36 35 36
" 14 21 33 36 32 26 30 29
" 15 19 29 34 30 24 26 20
" 16 18 24 32 26 22 23 18
" 17 16 24 31 24 20 20 16
" 18 14 20 27 21 22 18 18
" 19 13 18 25
" 20 13 15 22
" 21 12 11 19
" 22 12 11 15
" 23 10 8 11
– 162 –

The foregoing table gives the principal measurements of the vertebrae: these are in millimeters, and taken with calipers. The length of the vertebra is the length of centrum measured from the centres of the epiphyses. The height is the greatest distance from the ventral surface of the centrum to tip of the neural spine. The breadth is taken from tip to tip of the tranverse processes where they exist, or across the widest part of centrum where the transverse processes are absent. The diameters of the centrum, or body of the vertebrae, are taken at the anterior and posterior extremities of the body itself.

It will be noted that the bodies of the vertebrae increase in size up to the middle of the lumbar series, and then decrease. This increase is quite gradual, but in the case of the decrease in height there is a sudden drop at the end of the lumbar series, owing to the sudden diminution of the neural spine. The bodies of the vertebrae are much larger in the middle of the vertebral column, the greater number of caudals having larger centres than the thoracics, which are relatively slender.

The hinder caudals, as in other whales, are incompletely formed—i.e., the neural arch is imperfectly closed above; the 11th caudal has no neural spine, though the right and left neural laminae meet, but in the 12th they do not meet, and by the 14th they are practically non-existent, so that the 15th et seq. consist of centrum only. The lumbar vertebrae exhibit a peculiarity, which appears to be characteristic, in the presence of the anterior and posterior prominences on the ventral surface of the centra, in the mid-line.

I have not thought it necessary to reproduce my detailed notes as to the form of the individual vertebrae. They are, on the whole, closely similar to those of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) as described by Flower; while the general appearance of the entire skeleton has been figured—more or less imperfectly, it is true—by Owen, Wall, Van Beneden and Gervais, and Von Haast.

The Chevrons.—The usual form of these bones is Y-shaped—i.e., each consists of a right and left lamina meeting at an acute angle, and the fused plate so formed is produced down-wards to form a keel. But there are variations of this type. The 1st chevron is U-shaped, each lamina having an outer face which is very convex; and, further, they only meet over a comparatively short area, so that there is no keel. The 7th, again, is V-shaped, the keel being practically absent; while the 12th is a short half-cylinder of bone with a shallow groove on its upper surface. It will be noticed that the 3rd chevron is the largest of the series.

– 163 –
Chevron Bonds.
Vertical Diameter (Height). Antero-posterior Diameter (Length). Transverse Diameter (Breadth).
Mm. Mm. Mm.
1st 39 28 30
2nd 61 26 35
3rd 70 33 36
4th 65 29 35
5th 57 27 37
6th 50 26 34
7th 41 25 32
8th 32 25 29
9th 28 25 28
10th 24 23 26
11th 20 21 24
12th 17 17 22
13th 10 12 20

The Ribs.—of the thirteen ribs four are connected to the sternum by sternal ribs. The first vertebral rib, as in other cases, is much stouter and shorter than the following. It is broad, compressed antero-posteriorly and expanded distally. It has a distinctly marked “angle” near the proximal extremity, below which it curves suddenly downwards and inwards to meet its sternal rib. The proximal extremity bears distinct capitulum and tuberculum, as Von Haast noted, and herein our New Zealand specimens appear to differ from Wall's specimen; while in Physeter, which is its nearest ally, Flower states that these are not separate and distinct.

The two articular facets are nearly of equal size, though the capitulum is slightly the smaller. They are separated by a small “neck” measuring 14 mm. in length. This capitulum articulates with a conspicuous facet at the side of the hinder end of the cervical mass—i.e., of the 7th cervical vertebra. The tuberculum, of course, articulates with the transverse process of the first thoracic.

The 2nd rib is much longer, but less stout; it is flattened and broad, however, like the first.

The capitulum and tuberculum are separated by a distance of 20 mm., the former being rather the larger facet of the two. The angle is well marked, but less acute than in the first rib, and the curvature is more gradual.

In this and the following four ribs the capitulum articulates with the posterior end of the preceding vertebra only, and not with its own vertebra.

The 3rd to 6th ribs are practically similar, but the curvature is different, for in the first place the angle is less

– 164 –

marked in all the ribs following the 2nd, and the curvature is more gentle and regular. The upper region, instead of being horizontal, is inclined downwards, and this general form is retained by the rest; but the convexity of the curve decreases. so that the ribs, as traced backwards, tend to become straighter.

In the 7th and following ribs the capitulum ceases to articulate with any vertebra; it is bluntly pointed, and probably connected by ligament to the column.

The 13th rib has been described.

There is no important difference between the ribs of the right and left sides. I add a table of measurements. The length of the rib is measured in a straight line from the inner margin of its articular extremity to the inner margin of the distal extremity. The “curvature” is really the distance of the most remote point on the inner margin from the line joining the two extremities of the ribs.

Ribs. Length. Curvature.
Mm. Mm.
1st 168 72
2nd 277 100
3rd 330 115
4th 352 115
5th 355 115
6th 353 105
7th 365 93
8th 343 73
9th 312 61
10th 285 55
11th 260 46
12th 215 33
13th 35*

The sternum has not, as far as I am aware, received a detailed description by any previous author, for it was only partially recovered for Wall's specimen, and Von Haast makes no mention of it. In the present specimen it and the sternal ribs are complete. It consists of three sternebrae, the first and second formed of a single bone, the last of a pair of small bones imbedded in cartilage. There are four pairs of sternal ribs, measuring respectively 90 mm., 75 mm., 60 mm., and 30 mm.

The total length of sternum, including the cartilage at each extremity, is 260 mm.; the greatest breadth, measured just behind the articulation of the first sternal rib, is 155 mm.;

[Footnote] * Together with cartilage above and below.

– 165 –

and the least breadth, measured across last sternebra, is 45 mm.

The cartilage of this and other parts of the skeleton has been treated by the glycerine-gelatine method, and retains its true form and relations; but, since the cartilage is not likely to be present in all skeletons, I give the measurements of the bony parts as well:—

First bony sternebra— Mm.
   Length (lower surface) 90
   Breadth (anterior end) 100
   Breadth (posterior end) 60
   Thickness (dorso-ventral) in middle 10
Second bony sternebra—
   Length 76
   Breadth (anterior end) 54
   Breadth (middle) 43
   Breadth (posterior end) 51
   Thickness 12
Third bony sternebra—
   Right ossicle—Length 31
   Breadth 20
   Left ossicle—Length 32
   Breadth 20
   Thickness 13

The anterior end of the sternum is slightly bent upwards, but otherwise the bones are flat, with rounded lateral margins. The 1st sternebra is thinner at anterior than at posterior end. The thickness increases from the anterior end of sternum (where it is 8 mm.) to hinder end (13 mm.). The margin of the last sternebra—or, rather, of each of the two constituent ossicles—is not rounded, but slopes away from the dorsal surface outwards and downwards, so that the lower surface is wider than the upper (43 mm.).

The hyoid bone is very briefly referred to by Wall, and is rather more fully described by Van Beneden and Gervais, who figure it. In the Purakanui specimen it was complete, the bones and cartilages being uninjured.

The basi-hyal is a flat irregularly semicircular bone, at the anterior margin of which is a pair of cartilages, which evidently correspond to the bony apex of the basi-hyal of Physeter, but which in Cogia do not appear to ossify. The thyro-hyal bones are circular discs imbedded in a large cartilaginous plate.

The anterior cornu consists of two segments, a proximal short, curved, subcylindrical cartilage (cerato-hyal) and a longer distal region, in the middle of which is a cylindrical bone (the stylo-hyal).

– 166 –

The two anterior cornua arise close to one another from the cartilages referred to as joining the anterior end of the basi-hyal.

Basi-hyal: Greatest breadth, 84 mm.;. greatest length, 66 mm.; thickness, 5 mm.; length of cartilaginous cap, 18 mm.; breadth, 20 mm.; length of ossification in thyro-hyal, 55 mm.; breadth, 46 mm.; length of each half of basi- and thyro-hyal from anterior end of cap to posterior end of cornu, 156 mm.; greatest width across external margins of posterior cornua, 188 mm.

Anterior cornu: Total length, 220mm.; cerato-hyal cartilage (along middle line), 37 mm.; stylo-hyal, 175 mm.; length of bone (along middle line), 65 mm.; thickness, 15 mm.; greatest length along hinder margin, 75 mm.

Skeleton of Fore Limb.—This has been but indistinctly figured by Von Haast, whose specimen was imperfect, and by Wall, but more accurately by Krefft. The scapula is a nearly equilateral triangle, the upper border being curved. The greater part of the outer surface (post-axial fossa) is feebly concave. The inner surface is nearly flat, but as the anterior border is slightly everted so as to form a low rounded but depressed ridge, extending nearly across the bone, and as the superior border is also somewhat everted, the inner face is slightly convex.

The spine is but feebly developed, but the acromion is a large compressed squarish process, obliquely truncated distally. It bears on its upper margin a shorter process.

The coracoid process is large and well marked, nearly as long as the acromion, but narrower. The glenoid cup is oval.

Measurements of Scapula, in Millimetres.
Greatest height (measured from highest point of superior border to anterior margin of glenoid facet) 164
Length of posterior border 107
Length of anterior border 159
From antero-posterior angle to origin of acromion 76
Breadth, greatest (from anterior to posterior angle of superior border) 184
Breadth immediately above acromion 83
Breadth from posterior margin of glenoid to tip of acromion 101
Acromion: Length 48
Acromion: Vertical height, near root 35
From posterior margin of glenoid to end of coracoid 84
From anterior margin of glenoid to end of coracoid 47
Coracoid: Height at root 22
Glenoid facet: Length 46
Glenoid facet: Width 31
– 167 –

The humerus is provided with a small deltoid crest 15 mm. long and 5 mm. in height. The head and tubercle are firmly united to the end of the shaft, as is also the distal epiphysis; but the epiphyses of the radius and ulna are not as yet united to these bones. Each of these epiphyses is still imbedded in a great mass of cartilage and is invisible in the preserved specimen; the bone can, however, be felt by probing the cartilage with a needle. The proximal epiphysial cartilage of the ulna is prolonged downwards to form a spur on the post-axial side of the limb, which in Physeter is represented by a bony olecranon. Possibly this becomes ossified in a fully matured animal, though it is not shown in Von Haast's drawings; but the photograph accompanying the second edition of Wall's paper and the woodcut in Krefft's just indicate a small process here.

The carpal bones are five in number, three in the proximal row and two in the distal. Each is an irregular circular disc of bone imbedded in cartilage, with vertical sides. The pisiform is cartilaginous. There is, too, a curious prolongation of the distal epiphysial cartilage of the radius, which extends outside the pre-axial carpal and touches the 1st meta-carpal.

In the fingers each phalanx is provided with its own epiphysial cartilage, but with no bony epiphysis, and the neighbouring cartilages are distinct, not fused as in Mystacocetes. The metacarpals are short, not much longer than the phalanges.

The 1st digit consists of a rounded metacarpal resembling a carpal. This is followed by a long phalanx and a shorter one. In the 2nd the metacarpal is broader than that of the other digits, but not so long as in the 3rd. This is followed by ten phalanges, of which the terminal is very small, and the three sub-terminals are circular. The 3rd has seven phalanges, the 4th six phalanges, and the 5th three phalanges, which are all nearly circular, as are the terminals of the other digits. On the left hand the 1st has two phalanges, rather larger than in the right; the 2nd has nine, the 3rd seven, the 4th six, and the 5th two only.

The lengths of the digits in ascending order are—I. shortest, V., IV., III., II. The following are the lengths of the digits: Right hand—The 1st measures 55 mm. along pre-axial border, and including cartilage; 2nd, 183 mm.; 3rd, 148 mm.; 4th, 102 mm.; 5th, 68 mm. The terminal cartilages are missing in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits. Left hand—The 1st measures 52 mm.; 2nd, 185 mm.; 3rd, 158 mm.; 4th, 114 mm.; 5th, 52 mm.

The total length of limb from head of humerus-to tip of 2nd digit is 372 mm.

– 168 –

Humerus: Length (including cartilage), 95 mm.; bone only, 65 mm. Transverse diameter of bone—Upper end, 45 mm.; lower end, 50 mm. Thickness, 24 mm.

Radius: Length along pre-axial side, 75 mm.; post-axial, 60 mm. Length of bone only (along its middle), 60 mm. Least breadth (along its middle), 30 mm. Thickness, 12 mm.

Ulna: Total length along post-axial, 63 mm.; pre-axial, 60 mm. Total length bone (in middle), 55 mm. Least breadth, 26 mm. Thickness, 10 mm. Olecranon, 25 mm.

Total breadth at distal end of R.U. (including cartilage), 80 mm.

In the 2nd edition of Wall's paper a photograph of the right limb is given, which appears to agree well with the limb of the present specimen, although the bones of the former had to be pieced together, and were not found in situ, so that the cartilaginous parts do not exhibit that characteristic feature above referred to. Wall describes “seven” carpal bones, but it is pretty evident that the “two linear transverse bones” are the distal epiphyses of the radius and ulna, at the ends of which he locates them. The remaining five are accurately shown in the photograph and described in the text. It is a more accurate representation of affairs than the woodcut illustrating Krefft's paper. The figure also seems to show the peculiar prolongation of the cartilage from the radial epiphysis towards the metacarpal of the first digit. The pisiform, however, is not shown.


1. Van Beneden and Gervais. “Ostéographie des Cétacés,’ 1880, pp. 349 and 515, pls. 20 and 61.

2. Gray. Zoology of “Erebus” and “Terror,” 1846.

3. Von Haast. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi., 1873, p. 97.

4. Krefft. P.Z.S., 1865, p. 708.

5. Owen. Trans. Zool. Soc., vi., 1865, pp. 30 and 171.

6. Wall. “Skeleton of New Sperm Whale (Euph. grayi).” Australian Museum, 1887 (2nd ed.).

– 169 –

Art. XIV.—On a Small Collection of Diptera from the Southern Islands of New Zealand.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd July, 1901.]

This collection was made by myself last January, when, at the invitation of His Excellency the Earl of Ranfurly, I visited the islands in the Government steamer “Hinemoa.” The time for collecting was short. I landed once on the Snares, five times on Auckland Islands, once on Camp-bell Island, and once on Antipodes Island. From what I saw I am convinced that there are many more species to be obtained. I saw spiders on all the islands, and a millepede on Auckland Islands; but, unfortunately, my foot slipped just as I was going to put it in a bottle and I could not find it again. The common house-fly (Musca domestica) was common on the steamer, but I did not find it on any of the islands. This may be due to the fact of there being no horses on the islands. Also, Calliphora quadrimaculata came freely on board while we were lying at the Auckland Islands, but all left before we got to Camp-bell Island, only a few hours' steaming, and I did not find the species there at all. These facts show that flies are not so easily spread by steamers as is commonly supposed.

Simulium vexans.

S. vexans, Mik, Verh. d. zool.-bot. Gesell. in Wien, vol. xxxi., p. 201 (1881).

“Fern.—Nigro-fuscum, polline cinerascenti obtectum, fronte thoracisque dorso orichalceo-pilosulis; halteribus pallidis, pedibus fuscis, geniculis metatarsique posticis pallidis. Alarum venis posterioribus sat crassis. Long. corp. 3 mm., long. alar. 3.3 mm.” (Mik).

Hab. Auckland Islands. Not very abundant.

This species differs from S. australiense in being larger, in the absence of yellow spots from the shoulders, and in the femora and tibiæ being dark; also, the fifth and sixth longitudinal veins are stronger.

There are ten joints in the antennæ.

Beris micans.

B. micans, Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxiii., p. 6 (1901). Hab. The Snares.

A single specimen. The antennæ are very dark-brown.

– 170 –

Empis, sp. ind.

There is in the collection a specimen from the Auckland Islands belonging to this genus, but it is not in a sufficiently good state to allow of description.

Helophilus campbellicus, sp. nov.

Female.—Vertex blackish olivaceous, with black hairs; face, including a band above the antennæ, fulvous, shining. Antennæ black, the third joint fulvous margined with black. Proboscis black; a few white hairs on the cheeks. Thorax blackish olivaceous, with four broad grey bands and a median narrow grey line. Scutellum tawny, pale at the tip. Abdomen metallic bronzy-green, with a few scattered white hairs, especially at the sides and below. Legs fuscous; the tibiæ inside and the tarsi fulvous. Halteres fuscous, tipped with red. Alulæ white. Wings tinged with brown, the veins black, passing into brown at their insertions. Length, 11 mm.; wing, 10½ mm.

Hab. Campbell Island. A single specimen.

This species differs from H. chathamensis and from H. latifrons in the colour of the abdomen and in the white hairs with which it is partially clothed. In general appearance it closely resembles Calliphora eudypti, but I do not suppose that this is caused by mimicry.

Calliphora quadrimaculata.

Length, 10–11 mm.; wing, 9 mm.

Hab. Auckland Islands. Very common.

Calliphora icela.

Length, 8 mm.; wing, 7½ mm.

Hab. Auckland Islands. A single specimen.

Calliphora eudypti, sp. nov.

Frontal band of the head blackish-brown, the sides and cheeks brownish-yellow in some lights, brown in others, some-times yellow, with a brown transverse band. Eyes bare. Antennæ with the first and second joints brown, the third black, sometimes rufous at the base. Proboscis black. Palpi orange or tawny. Thorax bluish-black, with hoary pollen, and three longitudinal black stripes. An oval orange spot on each side of the prothorax, and another on each side of the metathorax. Scutellum bluish-black. Abdomen metallic bronzy-green, with scattered black hairs. Legs tawny or rufous; the fore femora for nearly the whole length, the middle and hind tibiæ on the basal half, black. Halteres rufous-orange. Alulæ brownish, margined with fulvous. Wings colourless; the first posterior cell open, the apical transverse

– 171 –

vein only slightly curved backwards near the bend; posterior transverse vein slightly sinuated. Veins black, becoming bright-rufous at their insertions. Length, 8–10 mm.; wing, 7–8 mm.

Hab. Snares, Auckland Islands, and Campbell Island. Especially abundant at the penguin rookeries on the Snares. The Campbell Island specimens have the legs darker, and more black on the femora.

This and the following species are very different from those of New Zealand in the colour of the abdomen, and approach more to the species from Tasmania. Perhaps C. tibialis is the nearest ally of C. eudypti; but in that species the abdomen is tessellated with yellow on an olive ground, and the antennæ are fulvous.

Calliphora antipodea, sp. nov.

Head black, with a narrow white band on each side of the face below the insertion of the antennæ. Antennæ black. Thorax and scutellum blackish-blue. Abdomen metallic bronzy-green, with scattered black hairs. Legs black. Halteres rufous-orange. Wings colourless; like those of C. eudypti, except that the apical transverse vein is nearly straight. Length, 7½ mm.; wing, 7½ mm.

Hab. Antipodes Island.

This species, perhaps, comes nearest to C. clausa, of Australia; but there is no grey on the face, the third joint of the antennæ is black, there are no blue reflections on the abdomen, and the first posterior cell is not closed.

Tricophthicus villosus, sp. nov.

Vertex jet-black, face yellowish-white; antennæ and proboscis black. Third joint of the antennæ about one and a half times the length of the second; arista minutely pubescent. Eyes hairy. Palpi long and narrow. Head hairy. Thorax brownish-grey, with three obscure longitudinal black bands, generally broken; a number of short black hairs among the longer ones. Abdomen grey; the second to fourth segments with a pair of triangular black spots, the fifth segment with a central black line. Legs brown; the tibiæ lighter than the femora, which are almost black. Halteres fulvous. Alulæ brownish-white, margined with brown. Wings slightly tinged with brown; the veins dark-brown, almost black. Auxiliary vein distinct from the first longitudinal; the posterior cross-vein nearly straight. Length, 9 mm.; wing, 8 mm.

Hab. Auckland Islands.

This species differs from T. dolosus in being darker in

– 172 –

colour and more hairy. The abdomen of the male is especially hairy.

Homalomyia fraxinea, Hutton.

Hab. Auckland Islands and the Antipodes.

Homalomyia fuliginosa, Hutton.

Hab. The Snares.

Limnophora aucklandica, sp. nov.

Eyes wide apart; vertex dark-brown, face yellow. Antennæ dark-brown, the third joint about one and a half times the length of the second; arista pubescent. Eyes naked. Ocellar and vertical cephalic bristles. Thorax reddish-brown, with three obscure black lines. Abdomen brown, with grey spots on each side of the segments. Legs dark-brown; the tibiæ testaceous, the femora with grey pollen. Halteres fulvous. Alulæ white, unequal. Wings without spots; the veins black, passing into fulvous at the insertions. Distance between the cross-veins about one and a half times the length of the posterior cross-vein. The sixth and seventh longitudinals well marked, the seventh rather the longer. Length, 7 mm.; wing, 7 mm.

Hab. Auckland Islands.

Cœlopa littoralis, Hutton.

Legs rather lighter in colour than in New Zealand specimens.

Hab. Auckland Islands and Campbell Island.

In this species and the next there are no oral vibrissæ, and perhaps they would be better placed in Actora. But there are no costal bristles either.

Cœlopa curvipes, sp. nov.

Vertex reddish-brown, the ocellar triangle and sides of the face grey; a spot between the antennæ rufous, dusted with grey. Antennæ piceous, the arista pubescent. Proboscis and palpi piceous. Thorax and abdomen brown, the former dusted with grey, especially on the sides. Legs fulvous; the tibiæ clouded with fuscous, but very variable. Hind legs elongated, the tibiæ much curved inwards. Halteres pale - brown. Wings colourless, unspotted, the veins brown; no bristles on the costa. Chief cross-vein short; the first posterior cell broadest opposite to the posterior cross-vein. Length, ♂ 4½ mm., ♀ 5½—6½ mm.; wing, ♂ 4 mm., ♀ 7 mm.

Hab. Auckland Island. On the sea-shore.

Easily distinguished by its elongated and curved hind legs.

– 173 –

Cœlopa rufa, sp. nov.

Vertex dark-brown; the face and two first joints of the antennæ fulvous. Proboscis and palpi piceous. Thorax and abdomen brown, dusted with grey. Legs fulvous, the femora fuscous in the middle for the greater part of their length. Wings colourless; the veins brown, passing into fulvous at their insertions. Length, ♀ 5 mm.; wing, 5 mm.

Hab. The Snares.

Heteromyza laquei, sp. nov.

Fulvous, paler below than above; the thorax with several narrow dark lines; abdomen brown above. Front broad. Antennæ testaceous, the third joint nearly round, considerably longer than the second; arista bare. Oral vibrissæ present, but no bristles on the face. Three bristles in the median dorsal row of the mesonotum, not including those of the scutellum. Middle tibiæ with strong spurs, all of them with a subapical bristle. Wings pale-tawny, the costal border without any long bristles. Distance between the cross-veins about one and three-quarter times the length of the posterior cross-vein. Length, 5 mm.; wings, 5 mm.

Hab. The Snares.

This species is in appearance much like the New Zealand species of Leria, but there are no bristles on the costa.

Lauxania carbonaria, sp. nov.

Entirely black except the eyes, which are red; the abdomen with greenish submetallic reflections. Apices of the tibiæ and tarsi pale-brown. Third joint of the antennæ linear, its length about three times its breadth; the arista bare. There are two pairs of fronto-orbital bristles, none on the front; and no oral vibrissæ. Tibiæ with a preapical bristle Wings yellowish, the veins fulvous. Distance between the cross-veins about one a half times the length of the posterior cross-vein, which is three-quarters of its own length from the margin. Length, 3½ mm.; wing, 4 mm.

Hab. Auckland Islands.

Lonchæa aucklandica, sp. nov.

Front broad, blackish-grey, four fronto-orbital bristles in a row. Face with bristles, one pair of which, near the mouth, are longer than the others. Eyes red. Palpi fulvous. Antennæ short; the third joint oval, truncated, its length less than twice its breadth; the arista bare. Thorax and abdomen black. Femora black, the tibiæ and tarsi brown. No preapical bristle. Halteres fulvous. Wings nearly colourless; the veins black, getting brown near the insertion. Distance between the cross-veins one and a half times the length

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of the posterior cross-vein, which is about three-quarters of its own length from the margin. Length, 31/2mm.; wing, 3 mm.

Hab. Auckland Islands.

Milichia littorea, sp. nov.

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Brown; sides of the face, ocellar triangle, and four stripes on the thorax darker. Eyes round. Antennæ and palpi piceous; third joint of the antennæ round; the arista bare. Mouth large, oval, the anterior margin thin and sharp, with a pair of small vibrissæ. Legs and lower surface dark-brown, dusted with grey. Abdomen short. Mesonotum with bristles in the middle, four in a row. Halteres fulvous. Wings fuscous, with pale spots, three in the submarginal cell, two in the first posterior cell, one in the second posterior, and one in the discal cell. The costal, exterior part of marginal, and first basal cells are clear. There are three distinct basal cells. Veins very dark-brown. No incision on the costa before the tip of the first longitudinal vein. Posterior cross-vein present, situated nearly in the middle of the wing; not much more than its own length from the margin. The distance between the cross-veins is quite twice the length of the posterior cross-vein. Length, 31/2 mm.; wing, 41/2 mm.

Hab. Antipodes Island. On pools between tide-marks.

Ochthiphila australis, sp. nov.

Black, the eyes reddish. Halteres white. Abdomen narrow. Front with long bristles. No oral vibrissæ, but a row of bristles on each side of the mouth. Mesonotum with two rows of five bristles each in the middle. Wings fuscous; basal cells small but distinct. Distance between the crossveins about twice the length of the posterior cross-vein, which is situated rather more than its own length from the margin. Length, 2 mm.; wing, 3 mm.

Hab. Campbell Island.

Drosophila enderbii, sp. nov.

Blackish-brown, the face with yellowish tomentum. A little grey tomentum on the lower surface and the legs. A row of bristles on each side of the face, but none on the mouth. Arista with a row of six bristles. Wings clear, the veins black. Only one basal cell. Distance between the cross-veins about three times the length of the posterior cross-vein, which is situated at about its own length from the margin. Length, 2 mm.; wing, 2 mm.

Hab. Enderby Island, Auckland group.

Smaller and darker than any of the described New Zealand species.

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Asteia levis, sp. nov.

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Head fulvous, the eyes black. Antennæ short, the third joint round; arista slender, bare. Front broad. Thorax and abdomen brown above, pale-fulvous below. Legs pale-fulvous. Wings slightly tinged with yellow, the veins fulvous. No posterior cross-vein. Second longitudinal short, nearly attaining to half the length of the wing. Length, 3 mm.; wing, 31/2 mm.

Hab. Stewart Island.

This species differs from A. amœna in having no hairs on the arista, and in the second longitudinal vein being longer.

Art. XV.—The Beetles of the Auckland Islands.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 6th November, 1901.]

Last January, at the invitation of His Excellency the Earl of Ranfurly, I visited the southern islands of New Zealand in the Government s.s. “Hinemoa,” commanded by Captain Bollans. The chief object of our visit, in addition to examining the provision depots, was to make a collection of birds for the British Museum. But, as I had nothing to do with the collection of the specimens, I devoted all the time I could to the Diptera. No systematic attempt was made to collect Coleoptera, and only five specimens were obtained. These were all new to science, and belong to four new species and one new genus. This is a very good proof that a great deal remains to be done in collecting insects in these islands. Indeed, it is remarkable that after the visits of four scientific expeditions to the Auckland group—two French, one English, and one German—so very little should be known about the insects.

Lyperobius læviusculus was captured on the high land of Adam's Island, when the party were going to the albatros nesting-ground. They were feeding, I believe, on Ligusticum antipodum. Inocatoptes incertus was obtained on the high land at the head of Port Ross, but I do not know on what plant it was feeding. Both specimens of Euthenarus were found under stones in Carnley Harbour, near where the “Grafton” was wrecked.

I also saw on the islands, several times, a moth which appeared to be a Crambus, of which I did not take specimens.;

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also a Myriapod, belonging to the Polydesmida, which I failed to secure. On Antipodes Island the magpie moth (Nyctemera annulata) is common. I also saw spiders on all the islands, but as my bottles were full of Diptera I could not collect them.

The following is a list of the beetles at present known from the Auckland Islands:—

Family Carabidæ.

Calathus rubromarginatus, Blanchard.
Euthenarus cilicollis, Broun.
Euthenarus huttoni, Broun.
Heterodactylus nebrioides, Guerin.
Heterodactylus castaneus, Blanchard.
Pristanclus brevis, Blanchard.
Oopterus clivinoides, Guerin.
Oopterus plicaticollis, Blanchard.

Family Tenebrionid.æ.

Adelium tuberculatum, Guerin.

Family Curculionid.æ.

Inocatoptes incertus, Broun.
Lyperobius laviusculus, Broun.

of these all the species and the genera Heterodactylus, Pristanclus, and Inocatoptes are endemic. Oopterus and Lyperobius are confined to New Zealand and the Auckland Islands. Adelium extends to New Zealand, Australia, Tasmania, New Caledonia, and Chili. Calathus is a northern (Holarctic) genus extending as far south as India and Mexico. There is only one species in New Zealand, C. zealandicus, Redtenbacher, having been erroneously referred to this country (see “Zoological Record, 1891,” Insects, p. 89). It is, however, doubtful whether our southern species really belong to Calathus.

Descriptions by Captain T. Broun, F.E.S.
Group Harpalidæ.

Euthenarus (?) cilicollis, sp. nov.

Body fusco-piceous; elytra with a testaceous streak along the outer posterior margin of each; tibiæ and antennæ red, palpi paler. Head rather short, somewhat uneven. Labrum truncate. Eyes prominent. Thorax one-third broader than long, its base truncate and minutely ciliate; the sides rounded, widest just before the middle, much narrowed

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behind; posterior angles rectangular but not projecting, the anterior slightly prominent but obtuse; disc a little convex, the longitudinal dorsal groove feebly impressed, the simple basal fossæ rather shallow and almost united by a curved transversal impression which is enlarged at the middle; there are some slight linear impressions across the surface. Elytra quite oval, slightly convex, not sinuate posteriorly; humeral angles obsolete; with simple regular striæ; interstices impunctate. Anterior tibia slightly thickened and ciliate at the extremity. Tarsi with brush-like soles, joints 2–4, of the front pair only, dilated and cordiform; the basal articulation longer, slender at base but broad at apex; the fourth joint deeply emarginate and with its inner angle some-what prolonged; the posterior tarsi elongate, their fourth joint excavate above and prolonged underneath, without definite angles but longer externally, and ciliate below. Antenna reaching backwards to the shoulders, their seven terminal joints pubescent; the first is as elongate as the fourth but stouter, the second is one-third shorter than the following one. ♂ Length, 5¼ lines; breadth, 2 ⅜ lines.

Auckland Islands. One mutilated individual has been placed at my disposal by Captain Hutton.

Obs. It was at first intended that this and the following species should be placed with Blanchard's Calathus rubromarginatus, but after studying the structure of the tarsi it became apparent that the present species should not be located in the group Anchomenida. Although Blanchard's species is unknown to me except by description, I have little hesitation in uniting it with those now described as exponents of one genus; but I am not prepared to make a new generic name for them until more specimens can be got for dissection. Under these circumstances, they are placed temporarily with Euthenarus in the group Harpalida.

E. huttoni, sp. nov.

Body rufo-piceous, slightly nitid; legs pitchy-red, antennæ and palpi paler. Head finely rugose, not short. Thorax about as long as broad, widest near the middle, only moderately rounded there; anterior angles slightly prominent, the basal rectangular, and, owing to the large and deep fossæ, appearing as if slightly elevated; the median dorsal groove is distinct. Scutellum short. Elytra oblongoval, rather broad, with fine, regular, impunctate striae; interstices simple. ♂ Length, 5 lines; breadth, 2 ⅛ lines.

Auckland Islands. One specimen only, preserved in the Canterbury Museum. This species has been named in honour of its discoverer.

In this species the eyes are less prominent and more dis-

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tant from the thoracic margin than in E. cilicollis. The thorax is rather longer, and differs in form; its sides are quite obviously marginated, and the basal foveæ are large and deeply impressed. The elytra also differ in contour, owing chiefly to being much less narrowed towards the shoulders.

Group Otiorhynchidæ.
Inocatoptes, gen. nov.

Rostrum moderately short and broad. Scrobe well defined near the apex, but becoming shallow behind. Eyes moderately prominent, distinctly facetted, subtruncate in front Prosternum incurved. Mesosternum with a raised lamina between the coxæ. Abdomen finely setose; basal segment medially emarginate, third and fourth short.

This should be located between Inophlœus and Catoptes. From the latter it differs in the shape of the eyes, in the direction of the scrobes, and in the less-developed ocular lobes From the former it may be at once distinguished by the absence of the double series of ciliæ at the extremity of the posterior tibiæ, by the distinct intercoxal process, and by the absence of the usual nodosities and acuminate apices of the elytra.

Inocatoptes incertus, sp. nov.

Subovate, without nodiform elevations, thinly clothed with decumbent yellowish setæ. Rostrum rather flat, with a fine longitudinal carma, terminating in a fovea between, the eyes. Scape clavate at extremity, extending to back part of the eye. Fumculus sparsely setose; basal two joints almost equally elongate, third slightly longer than fourth. Club finely pubescent, elongate-oval, its three joints of nearly equal length. Thorax transverse, base and apex truncate; uneven above, but without distinct sculpture. Scutellum distinct. Elytra oviform, a little broader at the base than the thorax; each elytron with six discoidal series of moderate punctures, the external two coarser; the four nearest the suture form fine striæ. Legs elongate, femora incrassate near the middle; tibiæ setose, the front pair slightly arcuate externally, some-what thickened and produced at the inner apices. Tarst. normal. Length (rost. included), 8 lines; breadth, 3½ lines.

Colouration has not been, alluded to because the only specimen extant is somewhat immature, and, although it is rufo-castaneous, it may become dark or greyish. The deciduous supplementary mandibles are conspicuous.

Described from one example in the Canterbury Museum. It was found on the main island, Auckland group, by the Hon. H. C. Butler. Type in the Canterbury Museum.

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Group Molytidæ.

Lyperobius læviusculus, sp. nov.

Pitchy-black, sometimes rufo-piceous; hind-body sparingly clothed with depressed, testaceous, setiform scales. Rostrum nearly plane above, medially narrowed, rather finely punctured. Head broader than the rostrum, with a shallow median groove before the eyes and some transversal linear impressions behind. Eyes more rotundate than those of the typical species. Scrobes deep in front, but quite indefinite behind. Scape thickened apically, attaining the back of the eye. Funiculus sparsely pilose, second joint only slightly shorter than the first; joints 3–7 momliform. Club triarticulate, rather elongate, finely pubescent. Thorax somewhat uneven, without central carina, finely punctate. Elytra oblongoval, humeral angles narrowed and rounded, rather acuminate posteriorly; each elytron indistinctly tricostate, suture slightly elevated, interstices nearly smooth, with only feebly impressed series of punctures. Legs rather elongate; femora clavate; tibiæ flexuous, without the usual inner armature just above the extremity; the anterior pair with pale erect setæ along the inside. Underside nearly smooth, almost nude. Prosternum a little emarginate. Length (rost. included), 10–12 lines; breadth, 3½-5 lines.

Auckland Islands. Captain Bollans, of the Government steamer “Hinemoa,” found two specimens on Adam's Island. The larger one has very indefinite elytral costæ. One specimen retained in Captain Broun's collection, the other placed in the Canterbury Museum.

Art. XVI.—Additions to the Diptera Fauna of New Zealand.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 6th November 1901.]

Family Psychodidæ.

Genus Psychodid, Latreille, 1796.

Wings pointed; two simple veins between the forked veins, the second of these two ending at or before the apex. Proboscis compressed, the maxillæ nearly as long.

Psychoda phalænoides, Linnæus.

Dark-brown, with pale-grey hairs on the head and abdomen and brown hairs on the mesonotum. Antennæ

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with black bands. Wings without spots, pellucid, with palegrey hairs on the veins; veins brownish. Halteres white. Legs dark-brown, with pale-grey hairs. Length, 1½ mm.; wing, 2 mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.), common; Auckland (Suter).

Introduced from Europe.

Genus Pericoma, Walker, 1856.

Wings pointed or rounded; two simple veins between the forked veins, the second of these two ending distinctly behind the tip of the wing. Proboscis with broad liplets.

Pericoma funebris, sp. nov.

Head and thorax very dark-brown; thorax nearly bare but some white hairs at the root of the wing. Abdomen paler brown, covered with reddish-brown hairs. Legs brown, with some white hairs near the tips of the tibiæ. Wings broad, rounded at the apex, densely covered with dark-brown hairs, passing into reddish-brown a little below the tip. No spots. The fork of the second longitudinal vein lies rather inside that of the fourth longitudinal. The anterior of the two simple veins reaches the margin a little before the apex of the wing, while the second one is distinctly behind it. Length, 3½ mm.; wing, 4 mm.

Hab. Wellington (G. V. Hudson).

Pericoma variegata, sp. nov.

Head and anterior portion of thorax velvety black, the posterior portion foxy-red. Abdomen brown. Legs brown, the tarsi blackish. Wings broad and rounded at the tip. Dark-brown, with spots and streaks of foxy-red and some white hairs sprinkled through the brown ones. Neuration as in the last species. Length, 4 mm.; wing, 5¼ mm.

Hab. Wellington (G. V. Hudson).

Family Chironomidæ.

Key to the Genera.
Only one basal cell.
  Wings bare.
    Front metatarsi longer than the tibiæ Chironomus.
    Front metatarsi shorter than the tibiæ.
      Posterior branch of the fifth longitudinal vein straight Orthocladius.
      Posterior branch of the fifth longitudinal vein sinuous Camptocladius.
  Wings hairy.
    Front metatarsi longer than the tibiæ Tanytarsus.
Two basal cells Tanypus.
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Genus Chironomus, Meigen, 1803.

“Antennæ 14-jointed in the male, 7-jointed in the female. Thorax usually with three stripes. Wings naked. Costal vein not extending beyond the tip of the third longitudinal. Fore metatarsus longer than, or occasionally as long as, the tibia. Anal joint of the male abdomen longer than broad, the forceps generally filiform or falcate” Skuse).

Key to the Species.
Thorax pale, with dark stripes.
   Wings without spots.
      Tip of submargimal cell acute C. zealandic
      Tip of submarginal cell rounded C. lentus.
   Wings with two small black spots C. opimus.
Thorax blackish.
   Third longitudinal vein slightly curved near the tip C. pavidus.
   Third longitudinal strongly curved near the tip C. ignavus.

Chironomus zealandicus.

C. zealandicus, Hudson, Man. N. Z. Ent., p. 43, pl. iv., fig. 2 (1892).

First joint of the antennæ pale-yellow, the rest brown, with brown plumes in the male. Clypeus and palpi darkbrown. Thorax pale-yellow, with three longitudinal dark bands, either fuscous or dark-fulvous. The lateral bands start near the middle and gradually narrow to the posterior margin, the central one beginning at the collar and ending near the middle, but continued as a narrow pale-brown median line to the posterior margin. Pleuræ with an oval brown spot under the wing. Scutellum pale-yellow. Matanotum brown. Abdomen brown, with long yellow hairs; each segment bordered posteriorly with pale-yellowish, except the second, which is almost entirely brown. Legs pale-yellow, each joint generally minutely tipped with brown; the last joints of the tarsi slightly fuscous. Fore metatarsus about one and a third times the length of the tibia; intermediate tibia less than twice the length of its metatarsus; each joint of the tarsi shorter than the ones before it. Wings hyaline, glabrous; the costa, cross-vein, and internal portion of the fourth longitudinal brown. Auxiliary vein joining the costa some distance outside of the cross-vein. Second longitudinal indistinct and close to the first. Third longitudinal meeting the costa a little before the apex of the wing; submarginal cell acute at the tip. Fourth longitudinal reaching the margin of the wing a little below the apex. Length, 6–8 mm.; wing, 5½ mm.

Hab. Wellington (Hudson); Christchurch (F. W. H.); Auckland (Suter).

This species is allied to C. nepeanensis, Skuse, but

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differs from it in the colour of the bands on the thorax and in the fore tibiæ not being brown at the base. The Christchurch specimens have the thorax much darker and less distinctly marked than those from Wellington and Auckland, and might, perhaps, be distinguished as a distinct species.

Chironomus leutus, sp. nov.

Female.—Antennæ tawny, palpi dark-brown, clypeus black. Thorax tawny, with three brown longitudinal streaks each bearing a series of tawny hairs; of these the lateral streaks curve downwards on the sides of the thorax. and the central stripe is narrow. Scutellum tawny. Metanotum dark-brown. Abdomen brown, with short yellow hairs. Legs pale-tawny, the joints fuscous. Fore metatarsi about one and a half times the length of the tibiæ. Intermediate tibiæ not much longer than the metatarsi; each joint of the tarsi shorter than the one before it. Halteres pale-tawny Wings hyaline, the veins pale-tawny. No spots. Auxiliary vein joining the costa some distance outside the cross-vein. Second longitudinal indistinct, close to the first. Third longitudinal vein meeting the costa at the apex of the wing; submarginal cell rounded at the tip. Fourth longitudinal reaching the margin considerably below the apex. Fork of the fifth longitudinal a little outside the cross-vein Length, 4 mm.; wing, 3¼ mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Chironomus opimus, sp. nov.

Male.—Antennæ pale-brown; clypeus brown. Thorax yellowish-green, with a pair of median dark-brown lines close together, bordered outside with tawny; also on the sides, in front of the wings, a kidney-shaped dark-brown spot bordered above with tawny. Scutellum pale-green. Metanotum tawny, broadly tipped with dark-brown. Abdomen bright-green, with yellow hairs; the sixth and seventh segments slightly fuscous. Legs pale-tawny; the distal end of the fore femora, a band in the middle of the intermediate and hind femora (as well as their apices). a broad band at the proximal ends of the fore tibiæ, and narrow bands in the same place of the intermediate and hind tibiæ, as well as the three last joints of the fore tarsi, brown. The fore metatarsus is nearly one and a half times the length of the tibia. Halteres green. Wings with two small black spots, one on the cross-vein, the other at the apex of the fourth posterior cell. The membrane bare, but short hairs on the fourth longitudinal vein and on the anterior branch of the fifth. Third longitudinal much curved backwards near the tip, reaching the costa at the apex of the wing; the submarginal cell rounded at the tip. Auxiliary vein joining the costa opposite the cross-vein. Fourth longi-

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tudinal reaches the margin not far from the tip of the third longitudinal. Fork of the fifth longitudinal considerably outside the cross-vein. Length, 4 mm.; wing, 3 mm.

Female.—Thorax fulvous, with three rows of yellow hairs and a brown patch on the pleura before the wing. Abdomen and halteres pale-brown. The rest as in the male.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.); Auckland (Suter).

Chironomus pavidus, sp. nov.

Male.—Head blackish-brown; the antennæ brown, and with brown plumes. Thorax blackish-brown, with two longitudinal rows of scattered tawny hairs. Abdomen dark-brown, with yellowish hairs. Legs pale-tawny, the last joint of the tarsi fuscous; the coxæ brown; the fore metatarsi about one and a half times the length of the tibiæ. Halteres pale-yellow. Wings and veins bare; veins almost colourless; the membrane with pale iridescent spots or patches. one in front of the cross-vein, two in the first posterior cell, another in the fork of the fifth longitudinal vein, and another in the second posterior cell. These spots are not seen by transmitted light. The third longitudinal vein meets the costa a little before the tip; it is not much curved; submarginal cell acute at the tip. Fourth longitudinal ends below the tip and inside the third. Fork of the fifth a little outside the cross-vein. Length, 4½ mm.; wing, 3 mm.

Female.—Wings iridescent, but without spots.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

This species differs from C. nubifer, Skuse, in the proportions of the fore metatarsi and tibiæ, and probably in colours also.

Chironomus ignavus, sp. nov.

Male and Female.—Dark-brown, scutellum paler, abdomen with pale hairs. Legs pale-tawny, the tarsi fuscous. Meso- and meta-thorax with a raised central ridge. Fore metatarsus about one and a quarter times the length of the tibia. Intermediate metatarsus nearly as long as the tibia. Halteres pale-brown, with dark tips. Wings with a slight tawny tinge, unspotted; veins pale-tawny. Third longitudinal vein much curved backward, meeting the costa near the apex of the wing; submarginal cell rounded at the tip. Tip of the fourth longitudinal further from the apex of the wing than the third. Fork of the fifth longitudinal slightly outside the cross-vein. Length, 4-4½ mm.; wing, 3-3½ mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Genus Orthocladius, V. d. Wulp, 1874.

“Antennæ 14-jointed in the male, 7-jointed in the female. Thorax with three stripes. Wings naked. Third longi-

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tudinal vein straight or slightly curved, going nearly to the apex of the wing. Costal vein sometimes extending a little beyond the tip of the third longitudinal. Posterior branch of the fifth longitudinal straight or a little bent. Legs unicoloured, or only darker at the articulations. Fore metatarsus considerably shorter than the tibia. Forceps of the male slender” (Skuse).

In the New Zealand species, here described, the thorax is not striped.

Orthocladius publicus, sp. nov.

Male.— Uniform dull-brown, the legs rather paler. The fore tibia not much longer than the metatarsus. Abdomen and legs with distant hairs. Halteres brown. Wings pale-brown, unspotted, the veins brown. The third longitudinal vein nearly straight and joining the costa considerably before the tip of the wing, the costa not produced beyond it. Fork of the fifth longitudinal lies outside the cross-vein. The fourth longitudinal ends at the apex of the wing. First longitudinal ends nearer to the cross-vein than to the tip of the third longitudinal. Length, 1¾ mm.; wing, 2 mm.

Female.—The long hairs on the legs are absent.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Orthocladius cingulatus, sp. nov.

Male.—Dark, shining, brown; the sides of the thorax, distal ends of the coxæ, halteres, and anterior portions of the second, as well as of the fourth and fifth abdominal segments, pale-yellow. Legs pale-brown, with short close hairs. Abdomen with a few distant hairs. Fore tibia rather more than one and a half times the length of the metatarsus. Wings hyaline, the veins brown. The first longitudinal vein reaches the costa about halfway between the cross-vein and the tip of the third longitudinal. The third longitudinal reaches the margin a little before the apex of the wing, and the costa is produced slightly beyond it. The fourth longitudinal ends a little below the apex of the wing. The fork of the fifth longitudinal is nearly on a line with the cross-vein. Length, 3 mm.; wing, 2½ mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Genus Camptocladius, V. d. Wulp, 1874.

Antennæ 14-jointed in the male, 7-jointed in the female. Wings naked. Third longitudinal vein bent upwards, sometimes short and terminating considerably before the apex of the wing, or running for some distance close along the anterior margin; consequently the first posterior cell is very

– 185 –

broad. Posterior branch of the fifth longitudinal sinuated. Legs unicoloured, usually black. Fore metatarsus considerably shorter than the tibia. Anal joint in the male short and broad; the forceps broad, white, or with white hairs.

Camptocladius vernus, sp. nov.

Blackish-brown, the tibiæ and tarsi brown. Fore tibia about twice the length of the metatarsus. Abdomen and legs hairy. Wings pale-greyish, the veins fulvous, except the costa and the first and third longitudinals, which are blackish. Third longitudinal running near the anterior margin of the wing and ending at a considerable distance before the apex, the costa being produced beyond the tip of the third longitudinal. Fourth longitudinal ending at the apex of the wing, or very slightly below it. The fork of the fifth longitudinal lies outside the cross-vein; the posterior branch is sharply bent backwards to a right angle with the margin of the wing. Length, 2½ mm.; wing, 2 mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

A common species, and about the first to appear in spring (October).

Genus Tanytarsus, V. d. Wulp, 1874.

“Antennæ 14-jointed in the male and 7-jointed in the female. Wings hairy. Third longitudinal vein straight, or nearly straight, running to the apex of the wing. Posterior branch of the fifth longitudinal straight, or only slightly bent backwards. Fore metatarsus longer than the tibia. Forceps of the male slender” (Skuse).

Tanytarsus vespertinus, sp. nov.

Male.—Head black, antennæ and palpi brown. Thorax tawny, with three dark-brown stripes. Scutellum and metathorax brown. Abdomen greenish-brown. Legs tawny; the fore metatarsus nearly one and a half times the tibia. Halteres yellowish-white. Wings with fine hairs, unspotted. The third longitudinal joins the costa at a very acute angle some distance before the apex of the wing, and the costa is not prolonged beyond it. The fourth longitudinal ends very slightly below the apex of the wing. The fork of the fifth longitudinal lies slightly outside the cross-vein. Length, 4 mm.; wing, 3 mm.

Female.—Yellowish-green, the bands on the thorax brownish-yellow. Legs pale-yellowish. The rest like the male.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

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Genus Tanypus, Meigen, 1803.

“Antennæ 15-jointed. Wings pubescent. Marginal crossvein and second longitudinal distinct. Fork of the fifth longitudinal situated at the base of the posterior cross-vein” (Skuse).

Key to the Species
Legsunicoloured, except at the articulations.
   Metanotum dark-brown T. languidus.
   Metanotum fulvous T. debilis.
Tibiæ and metatarstsi wi h a dark band in the middle T. malus.

Tanypus languidus, sp. nov.

Male.—Antennæ pale-brown, with brown plumes; eyes and face dark-brown. Thorax pale-yellowish, with a double central brown stripe reaching halfway, and a lateral stripe on each side, commencing a little before the end of the median pair; posterior margin of the mesonotum, and a median line from the posterior margin towards the central stripes dark-brown; scutellum pale-yellow; metanotum dark-brown. Abdomen brown, each segment with a square pale-yellow spot on each side, except on the last two segments. Femora pale-yellow, broadly tipped with brown; tibiæ and tarsi tawny. Fore metatarsus about one-half the length of the tibia. Halteres white. Wings hairy, yellowish, with brown spots on all three cross-veins, at the tips of the longitudinal veins, and two each in the first posterior and anal cells; veins yellow. Auxiliary vein rather indistinct, not reaching the costa. Third longitudinal much curved, meeting the costa at the apex of the wing. Posterior branch of the fifth longitudinal meeting the margin of the wing at right angles. Marginal cross-vein joining the costa. Length, 5 mm.; wing, 4 mm.

Female.—Abdomen brown, the anterior portion of each segment pale. Legs pale yellowish-tawny, the tips of the joints brown. Wings broader than in the male, and the marginal cross-vein joining the tip of the first longitudinal-Length, 4½ mm.; wing, 4 mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Tanypus debilis, sp. nov.

Male.— Head and antennæ pale-tawny. Thorax pale greenish-yellow, with a double central brown stripe ending-halfway, and a brown spot on each side opposite the termination of the stripe. Scutellum pale-green; metanotum pale-tawny, with four brown spots. Abdomen green, the anterior half of each segment darker than the posterior half; the hairs white. Legs pale-tawny, the articulations brown. Fore metatarsus about two-thirds the length of the tibia. Wings hairy; the anal angle white, the rest brownish, with bluish iridescent spots (in reflected light) in the first, second,

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and third posterior cells and in the anal cell, these spots bein more or less bordered with brown; a dark-brown mark on the cross-veins. Auxiliary vein indistinct. Third longitudinal considerably curved near the tip, meeting the costa a little before the apex of the wing. Marginal cross-vein joining the first longitudinal below its tip. Both branches of the fifth longitudinal strong, the posterior meeting the margin of the wing at right angles. Length, 3 mm.; wing, 4½ mm.

Female.—Abdomen greenish-brown. Wings without iridescent spots. Brown spots on the cross-veins, at the tips of the longitudinals, and near the apices of the first posterior and anal cells.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Tanypus malus, sp. nov.

Male.—Head brown; the antennæ tawny, with pale-brown plumes. Thorax tawny, with two brown median stripes, and a spot on each side, the median bands nearly broken by a tawny curved streak. Scutellum dark-tawny. Metanotum dark-brown. First five segments of the abdomen white, with brown marks on the anterior portion; the rest brown. Legs-almost white, with dark articulations and dark median bands on the tibiæ and metatarsi. Fore metatarsus about two-thirds the length of the tibia. Halteres white. Wings hairy, white, with many small dark spots Third longitudinal not much curved, joining the costa considerably before the apex of the wing. Marginal cross-vein very short, joining the costa, Fourth longitudinal rather weak. Posterior branch of the fifth longitudinal meeting the margin of the wing at right angles. Length, 4 mm.; wing, 3 mm.

Female.—Abdomen brown, banded dark and pale. Length, 3mm.; wing, 4 mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Family Tipulidæ (brevipalpi).

Genus Rhypholophus, Kolenati, 1863.

“Two submarginal cells; four posterior cells; discal cell present or absent. Wings pubescent on the whole surface. The second longitudinal vein originates at a more or less acute angle before the middle of the anterior margin; the subcostal cross-vein is at a considerable distance (two or three lengths of the great cross-vein) anterior to the tip of the auxiliary vein. Antennæ 16-jointed. Tibiæ without spurs at the tip; ungues smooth on the under-side; empodia distinct” (Osten-Sacken).

This genus differs from Molophilus and Erioptera in having hairs all over the surface of the wing, instead of on the veins-only.

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Rhypholophus insulsus, sp. nov.

Pale-tawny, the joints of the antennæ dark-brown at their bases. Palpi brown. An irregular brown dorsal stripe on the abdomen. The last three or four joints of the tarsi fuscous. Halteres pale-tawny. Wings tinged with tawny, the veins darker; all the cross-veins slightly bordered with brown, and a small brown spot at the origin of the second longitudinal vein. No discal cell. Submarginal cross-vein opposite the tip of the auxiliary vein. Third posterior cell with a short petiole. Seventh longitudinal sinuated. Forceps of the male double; the outer pair tawny; the inner pair slender and dark-brown. Length, ♂ 7 mm., ♀ 5–6 mm.; of antennæ, ♂ 9 mm., ♀ 3½ mm.; wing, ♂ 9 mm., ♀ 8 mm.

Hab. Wellington (G. V. Hudson).

Rhypholophus fatuus, sp. nov.

Female.—Dark-brown, the legs nearly black, with, two pale rings on the femora, one at the tip the other beyond the middle. Wings rather smoky, darker towards the tips; a dark fascia from the tip of the auxiliary vein to the chief cross-vein; a dark spot on the upper margin of the first basal cell and another at the apex of the second basal cell. Neuration as in the last species.

Hab. Wellington (G. V. Hudson).

I have only one specimen, the antennæ of which have sixteen joints, those of the flagellum with whorls of short hairs.

Genus Opifex, gen. nov.

Two submarginal cells, of which the second is nearly twice as long as the first; four posterior cells; no discal cell. Wings hairy along the veins only. Second longitudinal originates at a very acute angle before the middle of the anterior margin. No subcostal nor marginal cross-veins. Anterior branch of the fourth longitudinal forked, the posterior branch simple. Seventh longitudinal short, straight, not reaching the margin. Tibiæ without spurs at their tips; empodia indistinct or absent. Antennæ 16-jointed. Rostrum short. Proboscis elongated, much longer than the head, cylindrical, rather swollen at the apex. Palpi long, but shorter than the proboscis. Legs short.

This genus differs from Erioptera not only in the long proboscis and short legs, but also in the absence of a marginal cross-vein, and in fourth posterior cell being pointed at its base.

Opifex fuscus, sp. nov.

Uniform brown; proboscis, palpi, antennæ, and legs lighter than the body. Wings brown. Second posterior cell

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with a long petiole; the posterior cross-vein not in a line with the chief cross-vein. Proboscis about four times the length of the head; palpi about two and a half times its length; the last joint swollen, shorter than the penultimate. Antennæ rather shorter than the proboscis. Length, 5 mm.; wing, 5 mm.

Hab. Wellington (G. V. Hudson).

The short legs, long proboscis, and hairy veins make this species look very like a mosquito.

Genus Trochobola, Osten-Sacken, 1868.
Trochobola dohrni.

T. dohrni, Osten-Sacken, Berlin, ent. Zeitschr., xxxix., p. 264 (1894). T. ampla, Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxii., p. 36 (1900). T. fumipennis, Hudson, Man. N.Z. Ent., p. 48 (1892), no description.

I unfortunately overlooked this species and the next when writing my paper on the Tipulida. The following is Osten-Sacken's description:—

“Head, rostrum, palpi, and antennæ brown, the latter sometimes reddish on the second joint. The proximal part of the flagellum is almost moniliform, the joints 1 to 4 somewhat urn-shaped, with a little brush of microscopic hairs on one side and some scattered longer hairs on the other; the rest of the flagellum has more elongate joints, with scattered short hairs. Thorax brown or reddish-brown, with four dark-brown stripes and a covering of yellowish sericeous pollen. Abdomen reddish-brown, with somewhat darker lateral margins. Legs rather long, yellowish-brown, with a distinct dark-brown space just before the tip of the femora, and a narrower yellow ring immediately proximal of the brown; knees paler. Halteres with a brown knob. Wings nearly the same as in annulata and argus, but the proximal two-thirds of the second basal cell are filled out, or nearly so, with brown. There is a large brown spot in the region of the stigma, between the third vein and the costa; within it there is a small yellowish spot on the costa, a little beyond the tip of the auxiliary vein, and a round hyaline spot in the proximal end of the submarginal cell; along the apex the distal end of the submarginal and first posterior cells has a dark-brown irregular margin. Male forceps (very much shrunken in drying) has apparently the same structure as that of the European T. annulata. Length, from 12 mm. to 16 mm.; length of the wing, from 13 mm. to 23 mm.

“Hab. Five males and one female from Professor Hutton, in Christchurch, and Helms, in Greymouth. The first speci-

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men I received was from Dr. C. A. Dohrn, and I believe it came from the North Island.”

Trochobola venusta.

T. venusta, Osten-Sacken, Berlin, ent. Zeitschr., xxxiv., p. 265 (1894).

“Body brownish; the usual thoracic stripes brown, coalescent, leaving only a paler space in the humeral region; antennæ brownish-yellow, scapus brown; halteres with a brown knob. Femora brownish-yellow, with a brown ring before the tip; tibiæ and tarsi yellowish-brown. Wings: The ocellar spots which distinguish the other Trochobolœ exist here too, but are rendered less distinct by the numerous brown irregular spots which fill their intervals. The basal portion of the wing is densely filled with little brown spots, assuming a more or less irregularly ocellar shape, with still smaller brown spots in their centre; the very distinct cross-vein between the sixth and seventh longitudinal veins is clouded with brown; in the middle of the wing a kind of cross-band is formed by larger and darker brown spots, one on the anterior margin, surrounding the origin of the prefurca, the other on the posterior margin, near the end of the sixth vein; the space between the larger spots is filled with irregular smaller ones; upon this dark cross-band follows a subhyaline one, within which the brown spots are more scarce; the distal third of the wing is darker again, containing three large brown spots mottled with paler dots, and leaving an irregular, subtri-angular, subhyaline space between them. Length, 9 mm.; wing, 11 mm.”

Hab. Greymouth (Helms).

“Easily recognisable by the colouration of the wings.” It is evidently related to my T. picta, but I think that it is a distinct species, especially as no mention is made of the irregularly shaped discal cell which distinguishes T. picta. Baron Osten-Sacken speaks of the wings in both these species as being ocellated, while in my paper I say that they are not ocellated. The explanation of the difference is that I confine the term “ocellated” to a distinct dark ring with a spot in the centre, while Osten-Sacken gives it a wider meaning. In the figure of the wing of T. picta* I do not recognise my own drawing.

Limnophila skusei, sp. nov.

Pale yellowish-brown. Proboscis dark-brown; each joint of the antennæ dark-brown near its base. A fuscous stripe on each side of the abdomen. Femora rather darker than the

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxii., pl. iii., fig. 2A.

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tibiæ, with an indistinct paler band beyond the middle. Tibial spurs moderately long. Empodia large. Wings pale-yellowish, with five brown spots along the anterior border. of these the second and third are somewhat horse-shoe-shaped. The fourth is the largest and occupies the stigmatic region. The fifth is close to the tip of the wing. The cross-veins are slightly bordered with brown. The second longitudinal vein is oblique and gently curved at its origin. The subcostal cross-vein is close to the tip of the auxiliary. The first submarginal cell is more than three-fourths of the length of the second. There are five posterior cells. The posterior cross-vein is nearly straight, and arises near the inner edge of the discal cell. Female: Length, 15–16 mm.; wing, 14 mm.

Hab. Wellington (Hudson).

This species comes nearest to L. sinistra, but is easily distinguished by the markings on the wings. I have named it after the late Mr. F. A. Skuse, who did so much good work towards getting the Australian Tipulidœ into order.

Family Rhyphidæ.

Genus Rhyphus, Latreille, 1802.

One marginal and five posterior cells; a discal cell. Antennæ 16-jointed. Legs slender, moderately long; hind tibiæ with small apical spurs. Eyes contiguous in the male, separated in the female.

Rhyphus notatus, sp. nov.

Reddish-tawny, the flagellum of the antennæ dark-brown. Thorax with five brown stripes, the middle one shorter than the lateral pair; scutellum and metanotum brown. Tips of the femora and tibiæ brown. Halteres pale-yellowish. Wings pale brownish; the pterostigma and the tip, from the discal cell outwards, darkish-brown. A distinct round white spot in the submarginal cell, and another, touching it, in the first posterior cell. A brown spot in the anterior basal cell, and another on the chief cross-vein. Posterior cross-vein bordered with brown. Veins brown. Length, 6 mm.; wing, 6 mm.

Hab. Auckland (H. Suter); Wellington (G. V. Hudson): Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Easily distinguished from R. novœ-zealandiœ by the round white spot in the submarginal cell. The thorax and abdomen are lighter in the female than in the male.

Family Mycetophilidæ.
Sub-family Sciarinæ.

Genus Sciara, Meigen, 1803.

Antennæ 16-jointed, longer in the male than in the female; the joints of the scapus cyathiform, almost bare;

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those of the flagellum cylindrical, pubescent, sessile or subsessile; the last joint elliptical or elongate. Legs slender, the coxæ moderately elongated; tibiaE with small spurs. Wings large, microscopically hairy. Chief cross-vein in a line with the second section of the third longitudinal. Eurcations of the fifth and sixth veins near the base of the wing.

Sciara marcilla, sp. nov.

Male.—Antennæ rather longer than the head and thorax; the first and second joints pale, the others brown, the joints sessile; eyes not contiguous; palpi dark-brown. Head and thorax dark-brown, the latter with a few black hairs. Abdomen nearly black, with short black hairs. Middle and hind coxæ yellow, the rest of the legs tawny. Halteres brown, with a yellow stalk. Wings colourless, the veins almost black, and bordered with fuscous. The first longitudinal vein joining the costa inside the base of the fork of the fourth longitudinal. Tips of the third longitudinal and posterior branch of the fourth at nearly equal distances from the apex of the wing. Costa continued some distance beyond the tip of the third longitudinal; origin of the third longitudinal situated very slightly beyond the middle of the first longitudinal. Length, 1¾ mm.; wing, 2½ mm.

Female.—Head, thorax, and abdomen pitchy-black; the legs tawny. Wings colourless; the veins tawny. Length, 3 mm.; wing, 2½ mm. The rest as in the male.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

This species belongs to the same section as S. finitima, Skuse, but the eyes are not contiguous above, the abdomen is darker, and the legs are lighter. S. rufescens, Hutton, from Dunedin, belongs to the section in which the first longitudinal vein joins the costa outside the base of the fork of the fourth longitudinal.

Genus Trichosia, Winnertz, 1867.

Characters the same as Sciara, but the surface of the wings distinctly hairy.

Trichosia remota, sp. nov.

Female.—Uniform reddish-brown, the middle and hind coxæ lighter. Joints of the flagellum subsessile, about one and a half times as long as broad. Fore tarsi longer than the tibiæ; hind tibiæ only with short spurs. First longitudinal vein short, joining the costa at less than half the length of the wing, its tip lying inside the fork of the fourth longitudinal. Origin of the third longitudinal oblique; the chief cross-vein about the same length as the first section of the third longitudinal. The anterior branch of the fourth

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longitudinal ends at the apex of the wing; the third longitudinal ends inside the tip of the posterior branch of the fourth. Anterior branch of the fifth is nearly straight; the posterior branch runs near the anterior for some distance and then turns abruptly down to meet the posterior margin. Length, 2 mm.; wing, 2½ mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Family Bibionidæ.

Genus Dilophus, Meigen, 1803.

Two basal cells; the third longitudinal vein simple; no discoidal cell. Head almost entirely occupied by the eyes in the male, very small and inclined in the female. Palpi 5-jointed; the third joint dilated. Antennæ cylindrical, inserted beneath the eyes; 11-jointed; the third joint a little larger than the others; the last four hardly distinct from each other. Eyes hairy in the male. Prothorax elevated, with two series of spines. Legs hairy; the fore femora thick and grooved; the tibiæ spined in front and terminated by a coronet of eight spines; tarsi with three pulvilli.

Dilophus nigrostigma.

Bibio nigrostigma, Walker, Cat. Dipt. in Brit. Mus., p. 121 (1848). Dilophus spectabilis, Nowicki, Mem. der Krakauer k.-k. Akad. d. Wissen., band 2, p. 10 (1875).

Male.—Black, shining, thinly clothed with black hairs.

Wings brown, stigma and anterior veins black; the others tawny. Length, 6½—7½ mm.; wing, 6 mm.

Female.—Thorax variegated with red and black; the fore coxæ and all the femora red; the latter with black tips. The rest as in the male. Length, 9 mm.; wing, 9 mm.

Hab. Auckland; Ashburton.

The legs are hairy in both sexes.

Variety zealandicus, Walker, Trans. Ent. Soc. of London, 1858, p. 235 (Bibio), differs only in the abdomen of the female being ferruginous beneath.

Hab. Auckland; Wellington; Chatham Islands.

If it should be proved that the variety zealandicus is of any importance, and not merely individual, we must then consider this species as dimorphic, for it is impossible, I think, to distinguish the males.

Dilophus insolitus, sp. nov.

Male.—Black, the legs brown and the eyes red; wings clear, with a brown stigma. Fore and middle femora inflated; the hind legs elongated, with the femora and tibiæ

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clavate, metatarsus and second joint much swollen, the other joints vasiform. Neuration of the wing the same as in D. nigrostigma. Length, 5mm.; wing, 5 mm.

Female.—Head and antennæ dark-brown, the rostrum brown below. Thorax fulvous. Abdomen brown. Legs fulvous, except the last three joints of the tarsi, which are brown. Wings slightly tinted with yellowish, iridescent, the stigma brown. Legs slender, the joints of the hind tarsi cylindrical. Length, 5 mm.; wing, 5 mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

This species and the next belong to the same section as D. varipes, Skuse (Pro. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. v., p. 636), but the colours are different.

Dilophus segnis, sp. nov.

Male.—Black, the femora and tibiæ piceous; eyes brown. Hind legs elongated, the femora nearly black; femur and tibia clavate, the metatarsus and second joint swollen. Fore femora slightly inflated; middle femora not inflated. Halteres black, with white stalks. Wings hyaline, the stigma blackish-brown. Length, 5 mm.; wing, 4 mm.

Female.—Head and eyes black; thorax, abdomen, and legs dark-brown. Hind legs rather elongated; the femur and tibia clavate, but the metatarsus not inflated. Wings tinged with brown, iridescent; the stigma blackish-brown. Length, 5 mm.; wing, 5 mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

The legs in both this species and the last are nearly smooth.

Genus Scatopse, Geoffroy, 1764.

One basal cell; third longitudinal vein simple; three posterior cells, the second of which is petiolated. Antennæ cylindrical, 11-jointed, the last four hardly distinct; palpi concealed, of one distinct joint. Eyes reniform. Hind metatarsi shorter than the remaining joints together.

Scatopse carbonaria, sp. nov.

Entirely black, the veins of the wing fuscous. The first longitudinal vein rather more than half the length of the second. The third longitudinal about two-thirds of the length of the wing. The costa extends round the apex of the wing to the posterior branch of the fourth longitudinal. Fork of the fourth longitudinal situated inside the tip of the third longitudinal. Fifth longitudinal not reaching the border of the wing. The wing-fold, between the fourth, and fifth veins, forked. Length, 2½ mm.; wing, 2 mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

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Scatopse notata, Linnæus (Tipula).

S. longipennis, Skuse, Pro. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. iii., p. 1383, and vol. v., p. 638.

Black, with a white or yellowish mark on each side of the thorax behind the origin of the wing. First longitudinal less than one-third the length of the wing. The third longitudinal more than two-thirds the length of the wing.

Hab. In a letter to Mr. Skuse Baron Von Osten-Sacken says that he has received numerous specimens from New Zealand. No doubt it has been introduced from Europe.

Family Asilidæ.

Saropogon fascipes, sp. nov.

General colour blackish-brown. Head and face yellow; antennæ brown, proboscis black. Bristles of the epistome yellow. Thorax with golden spots on the shoulders and on the sides of the metanotum. Scutellum golden. Legs dark-brown; the bases of the femora, knee-joints, the whole of the fore and middle tibiæ, and the basal half of the hind tibiæ brownish - yellow. Halteres pale - yellowish. Wings very pale-brownish, the tips clouded with fuscous. Male: Length, 14mm.; wing, 10 mm.

Hab. Wellington (Hudson).

A very distinct species, easily distinguished from S. antipodus by its darker colour and banded legs.

Family Agromyzidæ.

Milichia picata, sp. nov.

Head silvery; the eyes large, black, nearly round. Second joint of the antennæ broadly oval, reddish-brown, broadly margined with white. Arista minutely pubescent. Bristles on the vertex and front as far as the antennæ. Oral vibrissæ present. Thorax black, with some irregular white marks on the sides; the dorsum with four rows of short setæ, two of which are on the pleuræ and two on the sides of the dorsum. Scutellum yellow, with two black setæ at the end. Abdomen velvety black, the fourth and fifth segments margined posteriorly with white, which is interrupted in the middle on the fifth; the sixth with white marks on the sides. Femora black, the knees tawny; the tibiæ yellow, with two black bands; tarsi pale brownish-yellow. The middle and hind tibiæ with a strong subapical bristle. Halteres white, the stalk pale-yellow. Wings pale-yellowish, with numerous dark-brown spots. Five spots in the marginal cell, nine or ten in the submarginal, eight in the first posterior, three in the second posterior, one or two in the discal cell. Posterior

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cross-vein margined. Axillary cell entirely brown. Costa tawny; the veins black, but tawny at their bases. No bristles on the costa. Auxiliary vein completely joined to the first longitudinal; the first basal cell short. Distance between the cross-veins about three times the length of the posterior cross-vein. The posterior cross-vein distant about its own length from the margin. Membrane of the wing pubescent. Length, 2½mm.; wing, 3 mm.

Hab. Christchurch (F. W. H.).

Art. XVII.—On a New Fossil Pecten from the Chatham Islands.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 6th November, 1901.]

Plate VIII.

This fine Pecten was brought from the Chatham Islands by Professor A. Dendy, and was given to me to describe.

Pecten dendyi, sp. nov.

Shell equivalve, compressed, inequilateral, the posterior end produced. Ears rather unequal; the anterior larger, with five ribs, the posterior with two ribs. Byssal notch almost obsolete. Valves plicated, eight ridges on the left and nine on the right valve. Ridges narrower than the sinuses on the left valve, broader than the sinuses on the right valve. The whole surface, both ridges and sinuses, covered with fine radiating ribs, crossed by delicate growth-lines, which are almost obsolete on the right valve. Length, 2.6 in.; height, 2.3 in.; greatest thickness, 0.7 in.

Locality.—In a calcareous sandstone, Chatham Island.

This species differs from P. burnetti in being larger, inequilateral, more compressed, and in having more than seven folds. It is probably of Miocene age. The type is in the Canterbury Museum.

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Art. XVIII.—On the Occurrence of Alepisaurus ferox on the Coast of New Zealand.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd July, 1901.]

Plate IX.

Last September three specimens of this fish were found on the beach at Riversdale, sixteen miles south of Castle Point, on the east coast of Wellington. Some time later photographs of two of them were sent to me for determination.* One photograph (Plate IX.) was of a dried head, and is sufficient to settle the genus to which the fish belongs. The other photograph is of a whole fish. It is very inferior to the first, but sufficient can be made out to corroborate the conclusion arrived at from the skull.

The skull closely resembles the figure of the Tasmanian specimen, but differs in the numbers of the large lanceolate teeth in the jaws. In the New Zealand specimen there are two anterior and one median large teeth on each side of the upper jaw. The lower jaw has three pairs of large teeth situated in the middle of the jaw, and opposing the two pairs of anterior teeth of the upper jaw. Also, there is a smaller pair of large teeth near the end of the lower jaw.

Judging from the photograph of the whole fish, I should say that the length of the head was about one-fifth of the whole length, without the caudal, and that the length of the gape was about one-eighth of the length. The dorsal fin is much elevated. The pectorals are long, but terminate at a considerable distance from the ventrals. The caudal lobes are, apparently, equal in length.


Alepisaurus ferox, Lowe. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 395, pl. 59 (1835).

Alepisaurus sp., Richardson. Voy. Ereb. and Terr., Fish, p. 34, pl. 22, figs. 1–4 (1844).

Alepidosaurus ferox, Gunther. Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., vol. 5, p. 421 (1864).

Plagodus ferox, Gunther. “Study of Fishes,” p. 586, fig. 270 (1880).

Plagodus ferox, Gunther. “Challenger Reports,” vol. 22, p. 203, Deep-sea Fishes (1887).

Alepisaurus ferox, Good and Bean. “Oceanic Ichthyology,” p. 117, pl. 38, fig. 142 (1895).

[Footnote] * By Mr. R. Barcham, of Masterton.

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Art. XIX.—On a Marine Galaxias from the Auckland Islands.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 11th February, 1902.]

This fish was taken out of the mouth of a specimen of Merganser australis during the collecting excursion to the southern islands of New Zealand made in January, 1901, by His Excellency the Earl of Ranfurly. This expedition, which only lasted three weeks, collected twenty-two undescribed species of animals—viz., one bird, one fish, one slug, four beetles (including a new genus), fourteen flies, and one earthworm. In addition, much new information was obtained about the birds and about the development of some of the plants. This shows how much must yet remain to be done.

Galaxias bollansi, sp. nov.

Body elongated, the height being less than one-sixth of the length. Breadth of the head about equal to the height of the body. Length of the head one-fourth that of the body. Diameter of the eye about one-fourth the length of the head, or two-thirds the length of the snout. Lower jaw a little shorter than the upper. Maxillary reaching to the posterior margin of the eye. Length of the pectoral fins two-thirds the distance to the base of the ventral fins. Ventral fins two-thirds of the distance to the anal. The anal fin, when laid back, does not extend to the commencement of the caudal. The least depth of the tail is less than the distance between the end of the dorsal and the end of the tail. Caudal fin rounded. Dark olive-brown, with irregular vertical bands of dark-brown on the tail. A large pale spot on the preoperculum. Fins dark, unspotted.

I have named this fish after Captain John Bollans, of the Government steamer “Hinemoa,” who is an acute observer, and takes a great interest in natural history.

The following are the dimensions of the specimen: Length (without caudal), 3.5 in. Depth of the body, 0.55 in. Least depth of the tail, 0.35 in. Length of the head, 0.88 in.; length of the snout, 0.25 in. Diameter of the eye, 0.18 in. Breadth of the head, 0.6 in. Length of pectoral fin, 0.6 in.; of ventral fin, 0.6 in. Distance from base of pectorals to ventrals, 0.9 in. Distance from base of ventrals to anal, 0.9 in. Distance from dorsal to end of tail, 0.55 in.

This species is most nearly related to G. fasciatus, but differs from that species in its more elongated form, the larger

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maxillary, the short anal fin, and the distance between the dorsal and the caudal, as well as in its markings.

Its eye is, rather larger than usual, but I do not think that it is the young of G. fasciatus, on account of its large maxillary bone and the pale spot on the preoperculum, which is probably very constant in all ages of the fish. Also, G. fasciatus is not known to breed in the sea in New Zealand; the old ones are never caught going down to sea, nor the young ones going up the rivers. The only species of Galaxias in New Zealand which breeds in the sea is G. attenuatus, and the young, known as whitebait, ascend the rivers in spring in a much earlier stage of development than the present fish.

Art. XX.—On Mites attacking Beetles and Moths.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 6th November, 1901.]

The late Mr. Maskell was the, first to record* the occurrence in New Zealand of the parasitic mite (Uropoda vegetans, De Geer) attacking the introduced woodlouse (Porcellio scaber, Latr.). and a native beetle. The beetle mentioned by Maskell is a species of Elater, and generally known as “click-beetles,” from the click-like sound they produce when springing off the ground. The larvæ of several species of Elater have destroyed enormous areas of gorse fences in New Zealand during the last ten years by consuming the roots of the gorse-plants. I have now to record the occurrence of Uropoda vegetans parasitic on eight additional species of beetles and on two species of native moths.

On the 8th September last Mr. Edwin Thomas, of Ashburton, sent me a specimen of Tricosternus antarcticus, a large carnivorous ground-beetle, with many thousands of the minute reddish-brown mites adhering thickly to every part of the beetle's body. When the specimen reached me the mites were so numerous that they completely enveloped its body and legs so as almost to conceal it from view. They were, nearly ¼ in. in depth on its back, while on the legs, especially the thighs and underparts, they were so matted together that it was with difficulty the beetle could walk. An examination of the parasite with the microscope showed it to be attached to

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxv., p. 199.

– 200 –

its prey by an infinitesimally fine thread or cord. I have not seen De Geer's description of U. vegetans, but Maskell has defined its structural characters and its method of attachment to its host. Notwithstanding that I have collected several thousand specimens of Coleoptera in Ashburton County during the last fifteen years, I have not previously observed this mite parasitic on any specimens I have preserved. Captain Hutton, however, informs me that when collecting Coleoptera some years ago he noted it parasitic on several species in the neighbourhood of Christchurch.

Mr. J. H. Lewis, of Ophir, who is an enthusiastic collector and student of New Zealand Coleoptera, has also recently informed me that he has observed U. vegetans parasitic on the undermentioned species: Uloma tenebrionides, Lissotes reticulatus, Thoramus wakefieldi, Pterostichus pracox, Æmona hirta, Coptomma variegatum, and Xilotoles griseus. The three first named are wood-eating species, the fourth is a Carabid, and the three last are Longicorns, which shows that many species of beetles of very different habits are liable to be attacked by the mite. Mr. Lewis mentions having also observed it on a fly (unknown) in the Wellington District.

When on a visit to Ashburton lately Mr. G. W. Howes, F.E.S., informed me that he had twice observed U. vegetans parasitic on two species of native moths (Xanthorrhoe beata and X. rosearia) at Invercargill. They were attached to the sides of the thorax and the thighs of the moths. Although the mite would be of great service to man by destroying the destructive Elater and detestable woodlice, it is regrettable to see it attacking beautiful and useful native insects. The predaceous ground - beetles are invariably beneficial on farms, but are becoming rare in settled districts. Mr. Howes, my son William, and I, lately spent half a day collecting on the flax flat below the town of Ashburton and near the Ashburton River. Instead of finding great numbers of ants' nests, as formerly, under the half-embedded stones, we found their old homes tenanted by swarms of woodlice, some of them being abnormally large and robust, and very variable in colour. In several parts of this district the woodlice have almost displaced the native ants. Although we searched very carefully we were unable to detect the presence of the mite on any woodlice, or under the cool slightly damp undersides of the stones, to which they occasionally cling in groups. The year Mr. Maskell recorded the occurrence of U. vegetans in New Zealand I sent him infested woodlice from Ashburton; but I have not detected them in this neighbourhood since then, until the infested Carabid was received lately from Mr. Thomas. The specimen was found

– 201 –

in a cucumber-frame where woodlice are unpleasantly numerous, but they are apparently free from the mite in the frame.

Some time ago Captain Hutton remarked to me that it would be interesting to know if U. vegetans is indigenous or was introduced with Porcellio. It has only been detected in certain districts within the last few years, which indicates its being an introduced species now rapidly dispersing in New Zealand. The so-called “red-spider” (Tetranychus telarius), so destructive to fruit-trees, is also an introduced mite, common in America, Europe, and Australia.

The habit of some species of beetles and moths of concealing themselves in damp cool places during the day where the mite inhabits would readily enable the latter to attach itself to its host and become parasitic on many species. The milder climate of New Zealand will unquestionably favour its rapid dispersion and increase, as it has done many other both baneful and beneficial species of insects.

Art. XXI.—Notes on Coleoptera.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 5th November, 1901.]

With the exception of moths and butterflies, none of the orders of insects occurring in New Zealand can be considered to be catalogued in even a moderately satisfactory manner. The most extensive order, that of Coleoptera, is in almost as bad a state as any, for although much has been done and a long list of species published, yet the number of coleopterous insects occurring here is so great and the students so few that it will be many generations before all the forms are described. Description, though a dry and tedious process, is a needful preliminary to the elucidation of the problems connected with distribution and variation, which are the most attractive portions of the study of natural history.

As in other orders, so among beetles, the male insect is often different in form from the female. Not sufficient cognisance has been taken of this fact, except where the describer of a species has himself been able to study the insects in their homes, or where he has attached some weight to the observations of the field naturalist who has collected for him. Some results of this are evident in Captain Broun's list, and a few are noted below with other synonyms. The frequent description of identical species in New Zealand and England

– 202 –

will not cause so much trouble, as in most instances the identity is obvious.

It is not for me to attempt to criticize the work of the able naturalist who has for a quarter of a century studied this order, but the reflection suggests itself that the larger genera might very well be tabulated by the only one who is at present in a position to do so. Among the genera most in need of such a tabulation are Bembidium, Cyphon, Acalles, and the Pentarthra. Is it too hazardous to say that when a table cannot be prepared, then the species are not, distinct? I have tabulated some families with much advantage to myself, but I am not anxious to publish my work while Captain Broun is able to do the same thing in a more accurate manner.

Descriptions of three new species are submitted, all from the south.


Mecodema bullatum, n. sp.

Elongate, parallel, coppery-black, shining. Head rugosely sculptured, longitudinally on-clypeus and above eyes, transversely on vertex, which is sometimes almost smooth. Neck closely punctate. Eyes moderately prominent. Thorax quite similar in shape to that of sculpturatum, with strongly crenate margins. The central and basal foveæ are well marked, and the surface has, in addition to moderately distant but conspicuous striæ, a band of punctation along both base and apex. Elytra parallel - sided, rounded behind. Each has eight rows of finely punctured striæ, somewhat obscured by transverse rugosities. The alternate interstices are the widest, and, being interrupted, present each the appearance of being formed of from six to ten oblong flattened tubercles. The lateral sculpture is inconspicuous. The sculpture of the underside is similar to that of sculpturatum, but less pronounced. Length, 25 mm.

Puysegur Point; Mr. F. Sandager.

The species belongs to the sculpturatum group, and is most nearly allied to littoreum, the sculpture of whose wingcases might easily be developed into that of bullatum.

Mecodema infimate, n. sp.

Elongate, parallel, medially narrowed, shining fusconigrous; femora, palpi, and basal joints of the antennæ shining-red. Head with the vertex quite smooth, the occiput punctured, the clypeus and the swollen orbits wrinkled. Thorax elongate, not much narrowed in front but considerably so behind, the situation gentle. Its sculpture consists of the usual basal foveæ and central line. The disc bears wellmarked transverse striæ, and the apical and basal margins

– 203 –

are strongly striated longitudinally. The basal foveæ are punctured. The elytra have each nine striæ almost without punctures. The alternate interstices are twice the width of the intermediate, and, with the exception of some scattered punctures, are without sculpture. The underside of the head (except the gula), the til flaks of the prothorax, and the mesosternum are rugosely sculptured. The abdomen is sparingly punctured. The intermediate tibiæ are strongly punctate, as are the front on the apical half of their inner face. Length, 16 mm.

West Plains, Invercargill; Mr. A. Philpott.

This species may be readily distinguished from the others of small size by the almost simple striæ of the elytra.


Lissotes acmenus, n. sp.

♂ Head and thorax black, shining; abdomen shining-brown Head finely and obscurely punctured, most densely on the vertex; the hind angles prominent. That portion of the side margin that encroaches on the eye is more prominent than in helmsi. Prothorax transverse, wider than the elytra, finely and distantly punctured; not so broad in proportion to its length as in helmsi; with a fine medial line and three punctiform impressions, one in the middle of the medial line, the other two midway between that point and the side margin. Its shape is similar to that of helmsi, but the base is more markedly sinuate. Elytra short and broad, shining, each with four obscure costæ, which are more finely punctate than the intervals between them. The margins of the thorax and elytra and the four hind tibiæ externally are clothed with short golden setæ, indistinct traces of which are sometimes seen on the elytral costæ. The mandibles are exactly similar to those of smaller specimens of helmsi. Length, including mandibles, 20–25 mm.

The female will probably be very similar to the same sex of helmsi.

This fine beetle is very closely allied to both helmsi and œmulus; indeed, Dr. Sharp considers that it is identical with the former species. It is sufficiently easily distinguished by its bright appearance, narrower form, and the smaller size of fully developed individuals. I am indebted to Mr. G. Howes, Invercargill, for a good series of males.

As a first step towards a revision of the catalogue, I would suggest the following synonyms as extremely probable:—

Cicindela dunedinensis, Castelnau = C. wakefieldi, Bates.

Mecodema crenaticolle, Redtenbacher = M. lineatum, Broun.

Dryocora howittii, Pascoli = Adelostella punctatum, Broun.

– 204 –

Parabrontes setiger, Broun = P. picturatus; Sharp.

Dasytes stewarti, Broun = D. nigripes, Broun.

Echinopeplus dilatatus, Broun = Heterodiscus horridus, Sh.

Oreocharis picigularis, Broun, ♂ = O. bicristata, Br., ♀.

Acalles maritimus, Broun, ♂ = A. cryptobius, Br., ♀.

Art. XXII.—On the Land Mollusca of Little Barrier Island.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 7th October, 1901]

In the Christchurch Press of the 21st November, 1892, some notes on Little Barrier Island were published re the visits of Messrs. Henry Wright and Boscawen, of the Lands Department, the notes being probably quoted from the New Zealand Herald. There occurs the following passage: “He (Mr. Boscawen) also found the pupurangi, or New Zealand snail (Helix busbyi), which is about 4 in. or 5 in. long, and lays an egg like that of a bird.” It is curious that Mr. Shakespear, the curator of Little Barrier Island, has never found this large snail, nor has Mr. Cheeseman, on his repeated visits to the island, come across it. Possibly Mr. Boscawen's specimen was “the last of the Mohicans.” Be this as it may, the fact remains that up to the end of the last century nothing else was known about the land molluscan fauna of Little Barrier Island

In January last Mr. J. Adams, of the Thames, was paying a visit to the island, and, knowing him to be a very good collector of land-shells, I asked him to have a good look out for these mostly minute and inconspicuous creatures. On Mr. Adams's return he kindly handed over to me the harvest of his collecting, which enables me now to publish the first list of land-shells from this our native reserve. To Mr. Adams I wish to express my gratitude for the great trouble he has taken to get this nice and interesting collection together. No new species were amongst these shells, which belong to four genera and represent twelve species. There is little doubt but that further collecting will produce many additions to the list.

Fam. Rhytididæ.

(1.)Rhenea coresia, Gray.

Distribution.—North Island only, but more common in the northern part of it. It is not uncommon in the bush near Auckland, and occurs also on Chicken Island.

– 205 –

Fam. Phenacohelicidæ.

(2.) Flammulina (Allodiscus) urquharti, Suter.

Distribution,—This minute brown shell is, no doubt, easily overlooked; and, on the other side, it must be mentioned that all the species of the subgenus Allodiscus are not common shells at all. The type was found on Mount Pirongia, and specimens from the Hunua Range are also in my collection. North Island only.

(3.)Flammulina (Therasia) celinde, Gray.

Distribution.—A fairly common shell in the northern parts of the North Island, but has not been found on it further south than the Urewera country. In the South Island it was found in Happy Valley, Canterbury, where also Phenacharopa novoseelandica, Pfr., occurs.

(4.) Flammulina (Therasia) decidua, Pfeiffer.

Distribution.—Found from Auckland to Otago. This is one of the very few New Zealand snails I have seen leaving its hiding-place after a warm rain and crawling up on shrubs with smooth bark, or devoid of it.

(5.)Flammulina (Suteria) ide, Gray.

Distribution.—Occurs over the entire North Island; in moist situations of the bush, and the northern part of the South Island. Its southernmost limit is, to my knowledge, near Lake Mahinapua, where it was found by Dr. A. Dendy.

(6.) Flammulina (s. str.) pilsbryi, Suter.

Distribution.—Like most minute forms, this species is widely distributed over New Zealand, and is found on both Islands. In the South Island I found it near the Mueller Glacier in some native bush

Fam. Laomidæ.

(7.) Laoma (s. str.) pcecilosticta, Pfeiffer.

Distribution.—This is a North Island shell, not uncommon in the bush near Auckland, but rare in the southern parts. It is one of the few specifically northern species that has reached the South Island as specimens were found in Marlborough.

(8.)Laoma (Phrixgnathus) glabriuscula, Pfeiffer.

Distribution,—Hitherto only known from Auckland Province, Hawke's Bay, and Taranaki, in the North Island, but, like the foregoing species, also from Marlborough.

– 206 –
(9.)Laoma (Phrixgnathus) phrynia, Hutton.

Distribution.—This rather rare species has been found from Whangarei to the Seventy-mile Bush, in the North Island; Marlborough, Nelson, Canterbury, and Hooker Valley, in the South Island; and a variety on Stewart Island.

(10.)Laoma (Phrixgnathus) allochroida, var.lateum bilicata, Suter.

Distribution.—A very minute form, living in mould in the bush, and hitherto only known from Auckland to the Fortymile Bush, in the North Island; also from Chicken Island.

Fam. Patulidæ.

(11.)Endodonta (Charopa) coma, Gray.

Distribution.—This is the only one of our land-shells that can be called common. It is found almost everywhere in the North Island, also on the Great Barrier Island. In the South Island it is, to my knowledge, not found south of the 44th degree of latitude; in the east, towards Banks Peninsula, it is replaced by Endodonta pseudocoma, Sut.

(12.) Endodonta (Charopa) colensol, Suter.

Distribution.—The type is from the Forty-mile Bush, and it has also been found near Auckland, and in Hawke's Bay, Waipawa, and Manawatu. Unknown from the South Island.

Thus it will be seen that most of the shells brought from Little Barrier Island are rather widely distributed in our colony.

With regard to the distribution of the genera, I may just mention that Rhenea, comprising small carnivorous snails, occurs as far as Queensland, New Caledonia, and one species (R. gradata, Gould) on the Tonga Islands. Flammulina is also found in Tasmania, Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and the Carolines; and nearly allied to it are Amphidoxa and Stephanoda, from South America, and Trachycystis, from South Africa. Once the anatomy of these genera is well known, they will most likely prove to form only one genus. Laoma, subgenus Phrixgnathus, is also known from Tasmania and southern Australia, but Laoma (restricted) is only found in New Zealand. To the same family, belongs the genus Puncium, which occurs in North America, Europe, part of Asia, and northern Africa. Endodonta, a Polynesian genus, occurs also in Tasmania, Australia, New Caledonia, the Philippine Islands, and over the Polynesian islands as far as the Hawaiian and Society Islands.

– 207 –

Art. XXIII.—List of the Species described in F. W. Hutton's Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca, with the Corresponding Names used at the Present Time.

[Read before the Auckland Institute 7th October, 1901.]

Since the publication of the Manual in 1880 considerable changes in nomenclature have taken place, and for many species the New Zealand habitat has proved to be erroneous. The writer has thought that it might be useful to students in conchology to publish the present list. The chief work has been done by Captain Hutton himself in his revisions published in the “Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South. Wales,” which, however, are not always available to New Zealand workers in conchology.

In the first column the names are given in order of the Manual:—

  • Page

  • 1. Octopus maorum, Hutt. = O. maorum, Hutt.

  • 2. Pinnoctopus cordiformis, Q. and G. = P. cordiformis, Q. and G.

  • 2. Argonauta tuberculata, Shaw = A. nodosa, Solander.

  • 3. Onychoteuthis bartlingii, Lesueur = O. banksii, Leach

  • 3. Ommastrephes sloanii, Gray = Todarodes sloanii, Gray.

  • 3. Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Fer. = S. lessoniana, Fer.

  • 3. Sepioteuthis bilineata, Q. and G. = S. bilineata, Q. and G.

  • 4. Spirula peronii, Lam. = S. perolii, Lam.

  • 5. Patula chordata, Pfr. = Flammulina (Phenacohelix) chordata, Pfr.

  • 6. Patula iota, Pfr. = Flammulina (Phenacohelix) pilula, Reeve.

  • 6. Patula dimorpha, Pfr. = Flammulina (Allodiscus) dimorpha, Pfr.

  • 6. Patula hypopolia, Pfr. = Flammulina (Phacussa) hypopolia, Pfr.

  • 6. Patula decidua, Pfr. = Flammulina (Therasia) decidua, Pfr.

  • 6. Patula celinde, Gray = Flammulina (Therasia) celinde, Gray.

  • 7. Patula ziczac, Gould = Flammulina (Thalassohelix) ziczac, Gould.

  • 7. Patula kappa, Pfr. = Flammulina (Thalassohelix) ziczac, Gould.

– 208 –
  • Page

  • 7. Patula varicosa, Pfr. = Endodonta (Thaumatodon) varicosa, Pfr.

  • 7. Patula tiara, Mighels, not New Zealand (HawaiianIslands).

  • 8. Patula coma, Gray = Endodonta (Charopa) coma, Gray.

  • 8. Patula tau, Pfr. = Endodonta (Thaumatodon) tau, Pfr

  • 8. Patula gamma, Pfr. = Endodonta (Charopa) buccinella, Reeve.

  • 8. Patula egesta, Gray = Endodonta (Charopa) egesta, Gray.

  • 9. Patula obnubila, Reeve = Flammulina (Thalassohelix) igniflua, Reeve, var. obnubila, Reeve.

  • 9. Patula anguiculus, Reeve = Endodonta (Charopa) anguiculus, Reeve.

  • 9. Patula ide, Gray = Flammulina (Suteria) ide, Gray.

  • 9. Patula eta, Pfr. = Endodonta (Charopa) corniculum, Reeve.

  • 9. Patula zeta, Pfr = Endodonta (Charopa) infecta, Reeve.

  • 10. Patula venulata, Pfr = Flammulina (Allodiscus) venu lata, Pfr.

  • 10. Patula portia, Gray = Flammulina (Thalassohelix) ziczac, Gould.

  • 10. Patula omega, Pfr = Flammulina (s. str.) compressi voluta, Reeve.

  • 11. Patula tullia, Gray = Flammulina (Allodiscus) tullia, Gray.

  • 11. Patula lambda, Pfr. = Flammulina (Thalassohelix) igniflua, Reeve.

  • 11. Patula biconcava, Pfr = Endodonta (Charopa) biconcava, Pfr

  • 12. Vitrina dimidiata, Pfr. = Otoconcha dimidiata, Pfr

  • 12. Vitrina zebra, Le Guillou = Flammulina (s. str.) zebra, Le Guill.

  • 12. Daudebardia novoseelandica, Pfr. = Schizoglossa novoseelandica, Pfr.

  • 12. Hyalina corneo-fulva, Pfr = Vitrea cellaria, Muller (introduced).

  • 13. Hyalina novarse, Pfr. = Xesta novarse, Pfr.

  • 13. Succinea tomentosa, Pfr = Limnsea tomentosa, Pfr.

  • 14. Tornatellina novoseelandica, Pfr. = Tornatellina novoseelandica, Pfr

  • 14. Placostylus bovinus, Brug. = Placostylus hongii, Lesson.

  • 14. Placostylus novoseelandicus, Pfr. = Placostylus hongii, var. novoseelandica, Pfr.

  • 15. Placostylus antipodum, Gray = Cochlostyla fulgetrum, Brod. (introduced).

  • 15. Pupa novoseelandica, Pfr. = Endodonta (Phenacharopa) novoseelandica, Pfr.

– 209 –
  • Page

  • 16. Helix (Rhagada) reinga, Gray, not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 16. Helix (Rhytida) greenwoodi, Gray = Rhytida green-woodi, Gray.

  • 16. Helix (Rhytida) dunniae, Gray = Rhytida dunniae, Gray.

  • 17. Helix (Thalassia) regularis, Pfr. = Laoma (Phrixgnathus) regularis, Pfr.

  • 17. Helix (Thalassia) heldiana, Pfr. = Laoma (Phrixgnathus) erigone, Gray.

  • 17. Helix (Thalassia) conella, Pfr. = Laoma (Phrixgnathus) conella, Pfr

  • 17. Helix (Thalassia) poecilosticta, Pfr. = Laoma (s. str.) poecilosticta, Pfr

  • 18. Helix (Thalassia) erigone, Gray = Laoma (Phrixgnathus) erigone, Gray

  • 18. Helix (Thalassia) alpha, Pfr. = Endodonta (Eschrodomus) stipulata, Reeve.

  • 18. Helix (Thalassia) beta, Pfr. = Endodonta (Eschrodomus) barbatula,Reeve.

  • 18. Helix (Thalassia) Ophelia, Pfr. = Flammulina (Therasia) ophelia, Pfr.

  • 19. Helix (Thalassia) zealandiae, Gray = Flammulina (Thalassohelix) zelandiae, Gray.

  • 19. Helix (Thalassia) fatua, Pfr. = Laoma (Phrixgnathus) fatua, Pfr.

  • 19. Helix (Thalassia) antipoda, H, and J. = Flammulina (Thalassohelix) zelandiae, Gray, var. antipoda, H. and J.

  • 19. Helix (Thalassia) aucklandica, Le Guill. = Flammulina (? Thalassohelix) aucklandica, Le Guill.

  • 19. Helix (Thalassia) sciadium, Pfr = Laoma (Phrixgnathus) sciadium, Pfr

  • 20. Helix (Thalassia) irradiata, Gould = Flammulina (Carthusa) kivi, Gray.

  • 20. Helix(?) kivi, Gray = Flammulina (Carthaea) kivi, Gray

  • 20. Helix granum, Pfr. = Flammulina (Allodiscus) granum,Pfr.

  • 20. Helix guttula, Pfr., not New Zealand.

  • 21. Laoma leimonias, Gray = Laoma (s. str.) leimonias, Gray

  • 21. Paryphanta busbyi, Gray = Paryphanta busbyi, Gray

  • 22. Paryphanta hochstetteri, Pfr = Paryphanta hochstet teri, Pfr

  • 22. Paryphanta urnula,Pfr = Paryphanta urnula, Pfr

  • 22. Paryphanta phlogophora, Pfr. = Flammulina (s. str.) zebra, Le Guill

  • 23. Paryphanta glabriuscula, Pfr. = Laoma (Phrixgnathus) glabriuscula, Pfr.

– 210 –
  • Page

  • 23. Paryphanta epsilon, Pfr. = Endodonta (Charopa) caputspinulse, Reeve.

  • 23. Paryphanta chiron, Gray = Flammulina (s. str.) chiron, Gray.

  • 23. Paryphanta rapida, Pfr., not New Zealand.

  • 24. Paryphanta crebriflammis, Pfr. = Flammulina (s. str.) crebriflammis, Pfr.

  • 24. Paryphanta jeffreysiana, Pfr. = Rhenea jeffreysiana, Pfr.

  • 24. Paryphanta coresia, Gray = Rhenea coresia, Gray.

  • 25. Nanina mariae, Gray = Laoma (Phrixgnathus) mariae, Gray.

  • 25. Limax molestus, Hutt. = Limax agrestis, L (introduced).

  • 26. Milax antipodum, Pfr. = Amalia gagates, Drap. (introduced).

  • 26. Milax emarginatus, Hutt. = Amalia gagates, Drap. (intrduced).

  • 26. Arion incommodus, Hutt. = Arion fuscus, Mull, (introduced).

  • 27.Janella bitentaculata, Q. and G. = Athoracophorus bitentaculatus, Q. and G.

  • 27. Konophora marmorea, Hutt. = Athoracophorus (Konophora) marmorea, Hutt.

  • 28. Onchidella patelloides, Q. and G. = Oncidiella patelloides, Q. and G.

  • 28. Onchidella nigricans, Q. and G. = Oncidiella nigricans, Q. and G.

  • 28. Onchidella irrorata, Gould = Oncidiella irrorata, Gould.

  • 29. Latia neritoides, Gray = Latia neritoides, Gray.

  • 29. Latia lateralis, Gould = Latia neritoides, var. lateralis, Gould.

  • 29. Physa wilsoni, Tryon, not New Zealand.

  • 30. Physa antipodea, Sow. = Isidora antipodea, Sow.

  • 30. Physa gibbosa, Gould, not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 30. Physa guyonensis, T. Woods = Isidora variabilis, Gray.

  • 30. " novse-zealandiae, Sow. = Isidora variabilis, Gray.

  • 30. " tabulata, Gould = Isidora tabulata, Gould.

  • 31. " variabilis, Gray = Isidora variabilis, Gray

  • 31. " moasta, Adams = Isidora tabulata, Gould.

  • 31. " lirata, T. Woods = Isidora tabulata, Gould.

  • 31. " cumingii Ad., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 32. Planorbis corinna, Gray = Planorbis corinna, Gray.

  • 32. Melampus commodus, Ad., not New Zealand.

  • 32. " zealandicus, Ad., not New Zealand.

  • 33. Tralia costellaris, Ad., not New Zealand.

  • 33. " adamsianus, Pfr., not New Zealand.

  • 34. Ophicardelus australis, Q. and G. = Tralia (Ophicardelus)australis, Q. and G.

  • 34. Marinula filholi, Hutt. = Marinula filholi, Hutt.

– 211 –
  • Page

  • 34. Leuconia obsoleta, Hutt. = Leuconopsis obsoleta, Hutt

  • 35. Amphibola avellana, Chemn. = Amphibola crenata, Martyn.

  • 35. Amphibola quoyana, P. and M., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 36. Siphonaria obliquata, Saw. = Siphonaria obliquata, Sow.

  • 36. Siphonaria sipho, Saw. = Siphonaria zelandica, Q.and G.

  • 36. Siphonaria cancer, Reeve = Siphonaria zelandica, Q. and G.

  • 36. Siphonaria australis, Q. and G. = Siphonaria australis, Q. and G.

  • 36. Siphonaria spinosa, Reeve, not New Zealand (Natal).

  • 36. Siphonaria redimiculum, Reeve = Siphonaria tristensis,Leach.

  • 37. Gadinia nivea, Hutt. = Gadinia nivea, Hutt.

  • 37. Cyclophorus lignarius, Pfr. = Lagochilus lignarius, Pfr.

  • 37. " cytora, Gray = Lagochilus cytora, Gray.

  • 38. Paxillus peregrina, Gould = Paxillus peregrinus Gould.

  • 38. Diplommatina chordata, Pfr. = Palaina chordata, Pfr.

  • 39. Realia hochstetteri, Pfr. = Realia hochstetteri, Pfr.

  • 39. " egea, Gray = Realia egea, Gray.

  • 39. " turriculata, Pfr. = Realia turriculata, Pfr.

  • 39. " carinella, Pfr. = Realia carinella, Pfr.

  • 40. Omphalotropis vestita, Pfr. = Omphalotropis vestita, Pfr.

  • 40. Assiminea purchasi, Pfr. = Hydrocena purchasi, Pfr.

  • 41. Conus zealandicus, Hutt., not New Zealand (Australia) = C. anemone.

  • 42. Acus kirki, Hutt. = Terebra tristis, Desh.

  • 42. Pleurotoma buchanani, Hutt. = Surcula trailli, Hutt.

  • 42. Pleurotoma trailli, Hutt. = Surcula trailli, Hutt.

  • 43. Pleurotoma zealandica, Smith = Surcula cheesemani, Hutt.

  • 43. Pleurotoma antipodum, Smith = Surcula albula, Hutt.

  • 43. Pleurotoma albula, Hutt. = Surcula albula, Hutt.

  • 43. Drillia novae - zealandiae, Reeve = Surcula novae-zea-landiae, Reeve.

  • 44. Drillia laevis, Hutt. = Drillia leavis, Hutt.

  • 44. " maorum, Smith = Surcula trailli, Hutt.

  • 44. " amula, Ang., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 44. " cheesemani, Hutt. = Surcula cheesemani, Hutt.

  • 45. Lachesis sulcata, Hutt. = Columbella sulcata, Hutt.

  • 45. Defranchia luteo-fasciata. Reeve = Clathurella sinclairi, Smith.

  • 45. Daphnella cancellata, Hutt. = Daphnella lymneiformis, Kiener.

  • 46. Cancellaria trailli, Hutt. = Cancellaria trailli, Hutt.

  • 46. " ampullacera, Less., not New Zealand.

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  • 46. Murex zealandicus, Q. and G. = Murex zelandicus, Q. and G.

  • 47. Murex octogonus, Q. and G. = Murex octogous, Q. and G.

  • 47. Murex angasi, Crose = Murex angasi, Grosse.

  • 47. Murex candida, H. and A. Ad. = Trophon ambiguus, Phil.

  • 47. Typhis cleryi, Petit, not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 48. Trophon ambiguus, H. and J. = Trophon ambiguus, Phil.

  • 48. Trophon stangeri, Gray = Trophon stangeri, Gray.

  • 48. Trophon incisus, Gould, not New Zealand (California).

  • 48. Trophon inferus, Hutt. = Trophon inferus, Hutt.

  • 49. Trophon dubius, Hutt. = Taron dubius, Hutt.

  • 49. Trophon paivse, Crosse = Trophon paivae, Crosse.

  • 49. Trophon duodecimus, Gray = Trophon duodecimus, Gray.

  • 49. Trophon spiratum, H. and A. Ad. = Trophon stangeri, Gray.

  • 49. Trophon coronatum, H. and A. Ad., not New Zealand (Japan).

  • 50. Fusus spiralis, Ad. = Fusus spiralis, Ad.

  • 50. Neptunsea zealandica, Q. and G. = Siphonalia mandarina Duclos.

  • 50. Neptunsea caudata, Q. and G. = Siphonalia mandarina, var. caudata, Q. and G.

  • 50. Neptunsea dilatata, Q. and G. = Siphonalia dilatata, Q and G.

  • 50. Neptunsea nodosa, Mart. = Siphonalia nodosa, Mart.

  • 51. Neptunsea traversi, Hutt. = Euthria lineata, var. traversi, Hutt.

  • 51. Euthria lineata, Chemn. = Euthria lineata, Martyn.

  • 51. Euthria vittata, Q. and G. = Euthria vittata, Q. and G.

  • 52. Euthria bicincta, Hutt. = Euthria vittata, Q. and G.

  • 52. Euthria littorinoides, Reeve = Euthria littorinoides, Reeve.

  • 52. Euthria martensiana, Hutt. = Euthria martensiana, Hutt.

  • 52. Euthria antarctica, Reeve = Euthria antarctica, Reeve.

  • 53. Cominella maculata, Mart. = Cominella maculata, Mart.

  • 53. " testudinea, Chemn. = Cominella testudinea, Chemn

  • 53. " nassoides, Reeve = Cominella nassoides, Reeve.

  • 53. " lineolata, Lam. = Cominella virgata, Adams.

  • 54. " lurida, Phil. = Cominella lurida, Phil.

  • 54. " huttoni, Kob. = Cominella huttoni, Kob.

  • 54. " melo, Less. = Cominella maculata, Mart.

  • 54. " funerea, Gould = Cominella lurida, Phil.

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  • 54. Cominella quoyi, Kiener = Cominella virgata, Ad.

  • 54. " lactea, Reeve = Cominella lineolata, Lam.

  • 55. Nassa rutilans, Reeve, not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 55. Nassa nigella, Reeve, not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 55. Nassa novce-zealandice, Reeve, not New Zealand (Philippines).

  • 55. Nassa corticata, Ad., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 56. Purpura haustrum, Mart. = Purpura haustrum, Mart.

  • 56. Polytropa textiliosa, Lam. = Purpura succincta, Lam.

  • 56. Polytropa succincta, Lam. = Purpura succincta, Lam.

  • 56. Polytropa striata, Mart. = Purpura striata, Mart.

  • 56. Polytropa squamata, Hutt. = Purpura striata, var. aqua mata Hutt.

  • 57. Polytropa retiaria, Hutt. = Trophon stangeri, Gray.

  • 57. Polytropa quoyi, Reeve = Trophon stangeri, Gray.

  • 57. Polytropa scobina, Q. and G. = Purpura scobina, Q. and G.

  • 57. Polytropa patens, H. and J. = Trophon patens, H. and J.

  • 57. Polytropa biconica, Hutt. = Purpura scobina, var. albomarginata, Desh.

  • 57. Purpura tesselliata, Less., not again recognised.

  • 58. Ricinula iodostoma, Less., not New Zealand (Polynesia).

  • 58. Ancillaria australis, Sow. = Ancilla australis, Sow.

  • 59. Ancillaria pyramidalis, Reeve = Ancilla pyramidalis, Reeve.

  • 59. Coriocella ophione, Gray = Marsenia ophione, Gray.

  • 60. Latirus decoratus, Ad., not New Zealand (Andaman Islands).

  • 60. Mitra obscura Hutt. = Mitra obscura, Hutt.

  • 60. " rubiginosa, Hutt. = Vulpecula rubiginosa, Hutt.

  • 61. Columbella zebra, Gray, not New Zealand (Polynesia &c.)

  • 61. Columbella choava, Reeve = Columbella choava, Reeve

  • 61. Voluta pacifica, Lam. = Scaphella pacifica, Lam

  • 62. Voluta gracilis, Swains. = Scaphella gracilis, Swains.

  • 62. Voluta kirki, Hutt., not New Zealand (Vol. flavicans, Gmel.)

  • 62. Marginella albescens, Hutt. = Marginella infans, Reeve.

  • 63. " vittata, Hutt., not New Zealand.

  • 63. Erato lactea, Hutt. = Marginella muscaria, Lam.

  • 63. Tritonium australis, Lam = Lotorium nodiferum, Lam.

  • 64. Tritonium spengleri, Chemn. = Lotorium spengleri, (Chemn.) Lam.

  • 64. Tritonium olearium, L. = Lotorium olearium, L.

  • 64. Tritomum fusiformis, Kien., not New Zealand.(Australia).

  • 64. Ranella leucostoma, Lam. = Apollo leucostomus, Lam.

  • 65. " vexillum, Sow. = Apollo argus, Gmel.

  • 65. Dolium variegatum, Lam. = Dolium variegatum, Lam.

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  • 66. Cassis pyrum, Lam, = Semicassis achatina, var. pyrum, Lam

  • 66. Cassis achatina, Lam. = Semicassis achatina, Lam.

  • 66. Cyprcea punctata, L., not New Zealand (Philippines).

  • 67. Trivia australis, Lam. = Trivia australis, Lam,

  • 67. " coccinella, Lam. = Trivia europsea, Montagu.

  • 67. Struthiolaria papulosa, Mart. = Struthiolaria papulosa, Mart.

  • 68. Struthiolaria australis, Gmel. = Struthiolaria vermis, Mart.

  • 68. Struthiolaria inermis, Sow. = Struthiolaria vermis, Mart.

  • 68. Struthiolaria tricarinata, Less. = Struthiolaria tricarinata, Less.

  • 69. Trichotropis inornata, Hutt. = Trichotropis inornata, Hutt.

  • 69. Scalaria zelebori, Frfld. = Scalaria zelebori, Frfld.

  • 70. " lyra, Sow. = Scalaria tenella, Hutt.

  • 70. Philippia lutea, Lam. = Solarium luteum, Lam.

  • 71. Janthina communis, Lam. = Janthina fragilis, Lam.

  • 71. " iricolor, Reeve = Janthina globosa, Swains.

  • 71. " exigua, Lam. = Janthina exigua, Lam.

  • 71. Natica zealandica, Q. and G. = Natica zelandica, Q. and G.

  • 72. Lunatia australis, Hutt. = Natica australis, Hutt.

  • 72. " vitrea, Hutt. = Natica vitrea, Hutt.

  • 72. Obeliscus roseus, Hutt. = Pyramidella rosea, Hutt.

  • 72. Chemnitzia zealandica, Hutt. = Turbonilla zealandica, Hutt.

  • 73. Odostomia lactea, Ang. = Odontostomia angasi, Tryon.

  • 73. Eulima chathamensis, Hutt. = Rissoina rugulosa, Hutt.

  • 74. Cerithidea alternata, Hutt. = Potamides alternatus, Hutt.

  • 74. Cerithidea bicarinata, Gray = Potamides bicarinatus, Gray.

  • 74. Cerithidea nigra, H. and J. = Potamides subcarinatus, Sow.

  • 74. Bittium terebelloides, Mts. = Cerithiopsis terebelloides, Mts.

  • 75. Bittium exilis, Hutt. = Bittium exile, Hutt.

  • 75. Triphoris angasi, Crosse = Triforis angasi, Crosse.

  • 75. Triphoris gemmulatus, Ad. and Reeve = Triforis gemmu latus, Ad. and Reeve.

  • 78. Melanopsis trifasciata, Gray = Melanopsis trifasciata, Gray.

  • 78. Melanopsis strangei, Reeve = Melanopsis trifasciata, Gray.

  • 78. Littorina cincta, Q. and G. = Littorina cincta, Q. and G.

  • 79. " coerulescens, Lam = Littorina mauritiana, Lam.

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  • 79. Littorina luctuosa, Reeve = Littorina cincta, Q. and G.

  • 79. " novce-zealandice, Reeve, not New Zealand.

  • 79. Risella melanostoa, Gmel = Risella melanostoma, Gmel.

  • 79. Fossarina varius, Hutt. = Fossarina varia, Hutt.

  • 80. Rissoina plicata Hutt. = Rissoia rugulosa Hutt.

  • 80. " rugulosa, Hutt. = Rissoia rugulosa, Hutt

  • 80. " purpurea, Hutt = Rissoia subfusca, Hutt.

  • 80. " subfusca, Hutt. = Rissoia subfusca, Hutt.

  • 80. " fasciata, Ad. = Rissoina fasciata, A. Ad,

  • 81. Barleeia flamulata, Hutt. = Phasianella huttoni, Pilsbry.

  • 81. " rosea, Hutt. = Barleeia rosea, Hutt.

  • 81. " nana, Hutt. = Rissoia huttoni, Sut.

  • 81. " impolita. Hutt. = Odontostomia impolita, Hutt.

  • 81. Bythinella antipoda, Gray = Potamopyrgus antipodum, Gray.

  • 81. Bythinella zealandiae, Gray = P. antipodum, var. zealandise, Gray

  • 82. Bythinella egena, Gould = P. antipodum, var. egena,Gould.

  • 82. Bythinella spelsea, Frfld = Potamopyrgus spelseus, Frfld.

  • 82. Bythinella fisheri, Dkr. = Potamopyrgus corolla, Gould.

  • 82. Bythinella badia, Gould = Potamopyrgus corolla, Gould.

  • 82. Bythinella reevei, Frfld. = Potamopyrgus corolla, Gould.

  • 83. Potamopyrgus corolla, Gld. = Potamopyrgus corolla, Gould.

  • 83. Turritella rosea, Q. and G. = Turritella rosea, Q. and G.

  • 84. " vittata, Hutt. = Turritella vittata, Hutt.

  • 84. " fulminata, Hutt. = Turritella fulminata, Hutt.

  • 84. " pagoda, Reeve = Turritella pagoda, Reeve.

  • 84. Eglisia symmetrica, Hutt. = Turritella kanieriensis, Harris.

  • 85. Siphonium lamellosum, Hutt. = Vermicularia lamellosa,Hutt

  • 85. Cladopoda zealandica, Q. and G. = Vermicularia zelandica, Q. and G.

  • 85. Stephopoma roseum, Q. and G. = Vermicularia rosea, Q. and G.

  • 86. Siliquaria australis, Q. and G. = Tenagodes australis, Q. and G.

  • 86. Trochita scutum, Less. = Galyptraea scutum; Less

  • 86. Trochita novae-zelandise, Less. = Calyptraea maculata,Q, and G.

  • 87. Crypta costata, Desh. = Crepidula aculeata, Gmel.

  • 87. " monoxyla, Less. = Crepidula monoxyla, Less.

  • 87. " unguiformis, Lam = Crepidula crepidula L.

  • 88. Hipponyx australis, Lam. = Hipponyx sp.

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  • 88. Acmaea pileopsis, Q. and G. = Acmasa pileopsis, Q. and G.

  • 88. " cantharus, Reeve = Acmsea cantharus, Reeve.

  • 88. " fragilis, Chemn. = Acmsea fragilis, Chemn.

  • 89. " corticata, Hutt. = Acmasa corticata, Hutt.

  • 89. Nerita atrata, Lam. = Nerita nigra, Gray.

  • 90. Neritina zealandica, Recl., not New Zealand (Polynesia).

  • 90. Turbo smaragdus, Mart. = Turbo helicinus, Born.

  • 91. Turbo granosus, Mart. = Turbo granosus, Mart.

  • 91. Turbo shandi, Hutt. = Astralium(?) shandi. Hutt.

  • 91. Turbo lajonkairii, Desh., not New Zealand (Indian Archipelago).

  • 91. Turbo undulatus, Chemn., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 92. Calcar cookii, Lam = Astralium sulcatum, Mart.

  • 92. " davisii, Stowe =A. sulcatum, var. davisii, Stowe.

  • 92. " imperialis, Lam. = Astralium heliotropium, Mart.

  • 92. Rotella zealandica, H. and J. = Ethalia zelandica, H. and J.

  • 93. Anthora tuberculata, Gray. = Trochus viridis, Gmel.

  • 94. Anthora tritonis, A. Ad. = Trochus viridis, Gmel.

  • 94. Anthora viridis, Gmel. = Trochus viridis, Gmel.

  • 94. Anthora chathamensis, Hutt. = Trochus chathamensis, Hutt.

  • 94. Anthora tiarata, Q. and G. = Trochus tiaratus, Q. and G.

  • 95. Clanculus variegatus, Ad., not New Zealand.

  • 95. Euchelus bellus, Hutt. = Euchelus bellus, Hutt.

  • 95. Diloma aethiops, Gmel. = Monodonta aethiops, Gmel.

  • 95. Diloma hectori, Hutt. = Monodonta corrosa, A. Adams.

  • 96. Diloma undulosa, Ad. = M. corrosa, var. undulosa, Ad.

  • 96. Diloma nigerrima, Chemn. = Monodonta coracina, Troschel.

  • 96. Diloma corrosa, Ad. = Monodonta corrosa, A. Adams.

  • 96. Diloma concolor, Ad. = Monodonta aethiops, Gmel.

  • 96. Diloma gaimardi, Phil. = Monodonta lugubris, Gmel.

  • 96. Trochocochlea subrostrata, Gray = Monodonta subrostrata, Gray.

  • 96. Trochocochlea mimetica, Hutt. = Monodonta crinita, Phil.

  • 97. Trochocochlea excavata, Ad. and Ang. = Monodonta excavata, Ad. and Ang.

  • 97. Chlorostoma niger, Chemn., not New Zealand.

  • 97. Thalotia conica, Gray = Cantharidus conicus, Gray.

  • 98. Zizyphinus punctulatus, Mart. = Calliostoma punctulatum, Mart.

  • 98. Zizyphinus granatum, Chemn. = Calliostoma tigris, Mart.

  • 98. Zizyphinus spectabilis, Ad. = Calliostoma spectabilis,Ad.

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  • 98. Zizyphinus scitulus, Ad., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 98. Zizyphinus selectus, Chemn. = Calliostoma selectum, Chemn.

  • 98. Zizyphinus cunninghami, Gray = Calliostoma selectum, Chemn.

  • 99. Cantharidus iris, Gmel. = Cantharidus iris, Gmel.

  • 99. Cantharidus zealandicus, Ad. = Cantharidus iris, Gmel.

  • 99. Cantharidus purpuratus, Mart. = Cantharidus purpuratus, Mart.

  • 99. Cantharidus texturatus, Gld. = C. purpuratus, var. texturata, Gld

  • 100. Cantharidus jucundus, Gld., not New Zealand.

  • 100. Cantharidus pallidus, H and J. = Cantharidus purpuratus, Mart.

  • 100. Cantharidus episcopus, H. and J. = Cantharidus pruninus, Gould.

  • 100. Cantharidus huttoni, Smith = C. tenebrosus, var. huttoni, Smith.

  • 100. Cantharidus pupillus, Hutt. = Cantharidus pupillus, Hutt.

  • 101. Cantharidus tenebrosus, A. Ad = Cantharidus tenebrosus, A. Ad.

  • 101. Cantharidus rufozona, A. Ad. = Cantharidus rufozona, A. Ad.

  • 101. Elenchus dilatatus, Sow. = Cantharidus dilatatus, Sow.

  • 101. Bankivia varians, Beck. = Cantharidus varians, Beck.

  • 102. Monilea egena, Gould = Monilea egena, Gld.

  • 102. Gibbula sanguinea, Gray = Cantharidus sanguineus, Gray.

  • 102. Gibbula simulata, Hutt. = Cantharidus dilatatus, Sow.

  • 102. Gibbula nitida, Ad. and Ang. = Gibbula nitida, Ad. and Ang.

  • 102. Gibbula inconspicua, Hutt. = Gibbula nitida, Ad. and Ang.

  • 102. Gibbula oppressa, Hutt. = Trochus oppressus, Hutt.

  • 103. Margarita antipoda, H. and J. = Gibbula antipoda, H. and J.

  • 103. Margarita fulminata, Hutt. = Gibbula fulminata, Hutt.

  • 103. " rosea, Hutt. = Gibbula rosea, Hutt.

  • 103. " zealandica, Sow. = Monilea egena, Gould.

  • 103. Scissurella mantelli, Woodw. = Scissurella mantelli Woodw.

  • 104. Haliotis iris, Mart. = Haliotis iris, Mart.

  • 104. Haliotis rugoso-plicata, Chemn. = Haliotis rugoso-plicata, Chemn,

  • 104. Haliotis gibba, Phil. = Haliotis virginea, Chemn.

  • 105. Haliotis zealandica, Reeve, not New Zealand(?).

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  • 105. Haliotis cruenta, Reeve = Haliotis rugoso - plicata, Chemn.

  • 105. Haliotis stomatiæformis, Reeve, not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 105. Fissurella squamosa, Hutt. = Fissurella squamosa, Hutt.

  • 106. Lucapina monilifera, Hutt. = Megatebennus moniliferus, Hutt.

  • 106. Emarginula striatula, Q. and G. = Emarginula striatula, Q. and G.

  • 106. Emarginula australis, Q. and G., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 106. Tugalia parmophoidea, Q. and G. = Subemarginula parmophoidea, Q. and G.

  • 106. Parmophorus unguis, L. = Scutum ambiguum, Chemn.

  • 107. Patella magellanica, Mart. = Patella strigilis, H. and J.

  • 107. Patella inconspicua, Gray = P. ornata, var. inconspicua, Gray.

  • 107. Patella redimiculum, Reeve = P. strigilis, var. redimiculum, Reeve.

  • 108. Patella reevei, Hutt. = Patella denticulata, Mart.

  • 108. " argyropsis, Less. = Patella radians, Gmel.

  • 108. " affinis, Reeve = P. radians, var. pholidota, Less.

  • 108. " pholidota, Less. = P. radians, var. pholidota, Less.

  • 108. " radians, Gmel. = Patella radians, Gmel.

  • 109. " denticulata, Mart. = Patella denticulata, Mart.

  • 109. " flava, Hutt. = P. radians, var. flava, Hutt.

  • 109. " antipodum, Smith = Patella tramoserica, Mart.

  • 109. " tramoserica, Mart. = Patella tramoserica, Mart.

  • 109. " stellularia, Q. and G. = Patella stellifera, Chemn.

  • 109. " stellifera, Chemn. = Patella stellifera, Chemn.

  • 110. " stella, Less., not New Zealand.

  • 110. " earlii, Reevè = P. radians, var. earlii, Reeve.

  • 110. " flexuosa, Hutt. = P. radians, var. earlii, Reeve.

  • 110. " rubiginosa, Hutt. = Acmæa lacunosa, Reeve.

  • 111. Chiton pellis-serpentis, Q. and G. = Chiton pellis-serpentis, Q. and G.

  • 111. Chiton sinclairi, Grau = Chiton sinclairi, Gray.

  • 111. Chiton stangeri, Reeve = Chiton stangeri, Reeve.

  • 111. Chiton concentricus, Reeve, not New Zealand (= Ch. jugosus, Gld.).

  • 112. Chiton sulcatus, Q. and G. = Chiton limans, Sykes.

  • 112. Chiton insculptus, A. Ad. = Chiton canaliculatus, Q. and G.

  • 112. Chiton glaucus, Gray = Chiton quoyi, Desh.

  • 112. Chiton æreus, Reeve = Chiton æreus, Reeve.

  • 112. Lepidopleurus canaliculatus, Q. and G. = Chiton canaliculatus, Q. and G.

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  • 113. Lepidopleurus contractus, Reeve, not New Zealand.

  • 113. Lepidopleurus longicymbus, Blainv. = Ischnochiton longicymba, Q. and G.

  • 113. Lepidopleurus circumvallatus, Reeve = Ischnochiton parkeri, Sut.

  • 113. Lepidopleurus empleurus, Hutt. = Callochiton empleurus, Hutt.

  • 113. Lepidopleurus rudis, Hutt., not New Zealand.

  • 114. Tonicia undulata, Q. and G. = Onithoehiton undulatus, Q. and G.

  • 114. Tonicia rubiginosa, Hutt. = Acanthochitus rubiginosus, Hutt.

  • 114. Tonicia lineolata, Fremty = Onithochiton undulatus, Q. and G.

  • 114. Tonicia strata, Sow. = Plaxiphora subatrata, Pilsbry.

  • 115. Acanthopleura cælatus, Reeve = Plaxiphora cælata, Reeve.

  • 115. Chætopleura nobilis, Gray = Eudoxochiton nobilis, Gray.

  • 116. Mopalia ciliata, Sow. = Plaxiphora suteri, Pilsbry.

  • 116. Plaxiphora biramosa, Q. and G. = Plaxiphora biramosa, Q. and G.

  • 116. Plaxiphora terminalis, Smith = Plaxiphora cælata, Reeve.

  • 117. Acanthochites zealandicus, Q. and G. = Acanthochites zelandicus, Q. and G.

  • 117. Acanthochites porphyreticus, Reeve = Acanthochites violacens, Q. and G.

  • 117. Acanthochites ovatus, Hutt. = Plaxiphora ovata, Hutt.

  • 118. Acanthochites violacca, Q. and G. = Acanthochites violaceus, Q. and G.

  • 118. Cryptoconchus porosus, Burrow = Acanthochites porosus, Burrow.

  • 119. Carinaria australis, Q. and G. = Carinaria australis, Q. and G.

  • 119. Buccinulus kirki, Hutt. = Aetæon kirki, Hutt.

  • 119. " albus, Hutt. = Solidula alba, Hutt.

  • 120. Bullina lineata, Wood = Bullinula scabra, Gmel.

  • 120. Cylichna striata, Hutt. = Bullinulla striata, Hutt.

  • 121. Bulla oblonga, Ad. = Bulla autralis (Gray), Q. and G.

  • 121. " quoyi, Gray = Bulla quoyi, Gray.

  • 121. Haminea zealandiæ, Gray = Haminea zelandise, Gray.

  • 121. Haminea obesa, Sow. = Haminea zelandiæ, Gray.

  • 122. Haminea acuticulifera, Smith = Haminea cuticulifera, Smith.

  • 122. Akera tumida, Ad. = Akera tumida, Ad.

  • 123. Philine angasi, Crosse = Philine aperta, L.

  • 123. Aplysia brunnea, Hutt. = Tethys brunnea, Hutt.

  • 123. " venosa, Hutt. = Tethys venosa, Hutt.

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  • 123. Aclesia glauca, Cheesem. = Notarchus glaucus, Ch.

  • 124. Pleurobranchus ornatus, Cheesem. = P. ornatus, Ch.

  • 124. Pleurobranchæa novæ-zealandiæ, Cheesem. = P. novæ-zealandiæ, Ch.

  • 125. Doris punctata, Q. and G. = Doris punctata, Q. and G.

  • 125. " tuberculata, Cuv. = Archidoris tuberculata, Cuv.

  • 126. " granulosa, Abrah. = Doris granulosa, Abrah.

  • 126. " longula, Abrah. = Doris longula, Abrah.

  • 126. " muscula, Abrah. = Doris muscula, Abrah.

  • 127. " lanuginata, Abrah. = Doris lanuginata, Abrah.

  • 127. " wellingtonensis, Abrah. = Doris wellingtonensis, Abrah.

  • 128. " carinata, Q. and G. = Atagena carinata, Q. and G.

  • 128. Acanthodoris mollicella, Abrah. = A. mollicella, Abrah.

  • 128: " globosa, Abrah.

  • 129. Phidiana longicauda, Q. and G. = Facelina longicauda, Q. and G.

  • 130. Dentalium zealandicum, Sow. = Dentalium zelandicum, Sow.

  • 130. Dentalium pacificum, Hutt. = Dentalium zelandicum Sow.

  • 131. Hyalea affinis, d'Orb. = Carolinia tridentata, Forskål.

  • 132. Barnea similis, Gray = Barnea simihs, Gray.

  • 133. Pholadidea spathulata, Sow. = Pholadidea tridens, Gray.

  • 133. " tridens, Gray = Pholadidea tridens, Gray.

  • 133. Teredo antarctica, Hutt. = Nausitora antarctica, Hutt.

  • 134. Saxicava austrahs, Lam. = Saxicava arctica, L.

  • 134. Panopæa zealandica, Q. and G. = Panopea zelandica, Q. and G.

  • 134. Panopæa solandri, Gray = Panopea zelandica, Q. and G.

  • 135. Corbula zealandica, Q. and G. = Corbula zelandica, Q. and G.

  • 135. Corbula erythrodon, Lam: = Corbula erythrodon, Lam.

  • 135. " adusta, Hinds, not New Zealand.

  • 135. " haastiana, Hutt. = Corbula haastiana, Hutt.

  • 136. Anatina tasmanica, Reeve = Cochlodesma angasi, Crosse and Fischer.

  • 136. Lyomia vitrea, Hutt. = Thracia vitrea, Hutt.

  • 137. Neeæra trailli, Hutt. = Cuspidaria trailli, Hutt.

  • 137. Myodora striata, Q. and G. = Myodora striata, Q. and G.

  • 137. " plana, Reeve = Myodora brevis, Sow.

  • 137. " ovata, Reeve = Myodora subrostrata, Smith.

  • 137. " rotunda, Sow. = Myodora rotundata, Sow.

  • 138. Chamostræa albida, Lam. = Chamostrea albida, Lam.

  • 138. Mactra discors, Gray = Mactra discors, Gray.

  • 138. " murchisoni, Desh. = Mactra discors, Gray.

  • 138. " scalpellum, Desh. = Mactra scalpellum, Desh.

  • 139. " æquilateralis, Desh. = Mactra æquilateralis, Desh.

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  • 139. Mactra donaciformis, Gray, not New Zealand.

  • 139. Standella ovata. Gray = Standella ovata. Gray.

  • 139. Standella elongata, Q. and G. = Standella elongata, Q. and G.

  • 149. Standella notata, Hutt. = Standella elongata, Q. and G.

  • 140. Zenatia acinaces, Q. and G. = Zenatia acinaces, Q. and G.

  • 140. Zenatia deshayesi, Reeve = Zenatia acinaces, Q. and G.

  • 140. Vanganella taylori, Gray = Resania lanceolata, Gray.

  • 141. Raeta perspicua, Hutt. = Raeta perspicua, Hutt.

  • 141. Cæcella zelandica, Desh., not New Zealand.

  • 141. Psammobia stangeri, Gray = Psammobia stangeri, Gray.

  • 142. Psammobia lineolata, Gray = Psammobia lineolata, Gray.

  • 142. Psammobia zealandica, Desh. = Psammobia zealandica, Desh.

  • 142. Psammobia affinis, Reeve = Psammobia affinis, Reeve.

  • 142. Soletellina nitida, Gray = Solenotellina nitida, Gray.

  • 143. " siliqua, Reeve = Solenotellina siliqua, Reeve.

  • 143. " incerta, Reeve = Solenotellina incerta, Reeve.

  • 143. " nitens, Tryon = Solenotellina incerta, Reeve.

  • 143. Tellina alba, Q. and G. = Tellina alba, Q. and G.

  • 143. " deltoidalis, Lam. = Tellina lactea, Q. and G.

  • 143. " disculus, Desh. = Tellina disculus, Desh.

  • 144. " subovata, Sow. = Tellina strangei, Desh.

  • 144. " ticaonica, Desh. = Tellina ticaonica, Desh.

  • 144. " strangei, Desh. = Tellina strangei, Desh.

  • 144. " glabrella, Desh. = Tellina glabrella, Desh.

  • 145. " radiata, Desh. = Solenotellina radiata, Desh.

  • 145. Mesodesma novæ-zealandiæ, Chemn. = Mesodesma novæ-zealandiæ, Chemn.

  • 145. Mesodesma ovalis, Desh. = Mesodesma novæ-zealandiæ, Chemn.

  • 145. Mesodesma ventricosa, Gray = Mesodesma ventricosa, Gray.

  • 146. Mesodesma lata, Desh. = Mesodesma ventricosa, Gray.

  • 146. Mesodesma spissa, Reeve = Atactodea subtriangulata, Gray.

  • 147. Venus nodosa, Dkr., not New Zealand (West Africa).

  • 147. " oblonga, Hanley = Venus oblonga, Hanley.

  • 147. " crebra, Hutt. = Venus crebra, Hutt.

  • 147. Chione lamellata, Lam. = Venus lamellata, Lam.

  • 148. " yatei, Gray = Venus yatei, Gray.

  • 148. " stutchburyi, Gray = Venus stutchburyi, Gray.

  • 148. " costata, Q. and G. = Venus costata, Q. and G.

  • 148. " lima, Sow., not New Zealand.

  • 148. " mesodesma, Q. and G. = Venus crassa, Q. and G.

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  • 148. Chione gibbosa, Hutt., found fossil only.

  • 149. " paupercula, Chemn., not New Zealand (India).

  • 149. Callista multistriata, Sow. = Meretrix multistriata, Sow.

  • 149. " disrupta, Sow., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 150. Artemis australis, Gray = Dosinia australis, Gray.

  • 150. " subrosea, Gray = Dosinia subrosea, Gray.

  • 150. " lambata, Gld. = Dosinia lambata, Gld.

  • 150. " carpenteri, Rôm. = Dosinia lambata, Gld.

  • 151. " grayi, Zittel = Dosinia grayi, Zittel.

  • 151. Tapes intermedia, Q. and G. = Tapes intermedia, Q. and G.

  • 151. Tapes fabagella, Desh., not New Zealand.

  • 151. Tapes galactites, Lam., not New Zealand.

  • 152. Venerupis reflexa, Gray = Venerupis reflexa, Gray.

  • 152. " paupercula, Desh. = Venerupis reflexa, Gray.

  • 152. " siliqua, Desh. = Venerupis siliqua, Desh.

  • 152. " elegans, Desh. = Venerupis elegans, Desh.

  • 153. Petricola serrata, Desh., not New Zealand.

  • 153. Cardium striatulum, Sow. = Cardium pulchellum, Gray.

  • 154. Sphærium novæ-zelandiæ, Desh. = Sph. novæ-zelandiæ, Desh.

  • 154. Sphærium lenticula, Dkr. = Sph. novæ-zelandiæ, Desh.

  • 155. Pisidium novæ-zealandiæ, Prime = P. novæ-zealandiæ, Prime.

  • 155. Lucina divaricata, Lam. = Divaricella cumingi, Ad. and Ang.

  • 155. Lucina lactea, A. Ad., not New Zealand (Australia).

  • 156. Diplodonta zealandica, Gray = Diplodonta zealandica, Gray.

  • 156. Diplodonta globularis, Lam. = Diplodonta globularis, Lam.

  • 156. Diplodonta striata, Hutt. = Diplodonta striata, Hutt.

  • 157. Kellia cycladiformis, Desh. = Kellya cycladiformis, Desh.

  • 157. Solemya parkinsoni, Smith = Solenomya parkinsoni, Smith.

  • 158. Crassatella obesa, Ad. = Crassatellites obesa, Ad.

  • 158. " bellula, Ad. = Crassatellites bellula, Ad.

  • 158. Cardita australis, Lam. = Venericardia australis, Lam.

  • 158. Cardita zealandica, P. and M. = Venericardia australis, Lam.

  • 158. Cardita Intea, Hutt. = Venericardia compressa, Reeve.

  • 158. " bimaculata, Desh., not New Zealand (Tasmania).

  • 158. " amabilis, Desh., not New Zealand(?).

  • 159. " difficilis, Desh. = Venericardia difficilis, Desh.

  • 159. " purpurata, Desh. = Venericardia australis, Lam.

  • 160. Mytilicardia excavata, Desh. = Cardita aviculina, Lam.

  • 160. Unio menziesii, Gray = Diplodon menziesii, Gray.

  • 161. " aucklandica, Gray = Diplodon menziesii, Gray.

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  • 161. Unio zelebori, Dkr. = Diplodon zelebori, Dkr.

  • 161. " hochstetteri, Dkr. = D. menziesii, var. hochstetteri, Dkr.

  • 161. " lutulentus, Gld. = Diplodon lutulentus, Gld.

  • 162. Barbatia decussata, Sow. = Area decussata, Sow.

  • 162. " pusilla, Sow. = Area reticulata, Chemn

  • 163. Pectuneulus laticostatus, Q. and G. = Glycymeris laticostata, Q. and G.

  • 163. Pectunculus flammeus, Reeve = Glycymeris laticostata, Q. and G.

  • 163. Pectunculus striatularis, Lam. = Glycymeris striatulare, Lam.

  • 164. Nucula nitidula, A. Ad. = Nucula nitidula, A. Ad.

  • 164. " strangei, A. Ad. = Nucula strangei, A. Ad.

  • 164. " sulcata, A. Ad. = Nucula lacunosa, Hutt.

  • 164. " castanea, A. Ad.., doubtful for New Zealand.

  • 164. " striolata, A. Ad., not New Zealand (China).

  • 165. " grayi, d'Orb., not New Zealand (South America).

  • 165. Leda concinna, A. Ad. = Leda concinna, A. Ad.

  • 165. " fastidiosa, A. Ad., doubtful for New Zealand.

  • 165. " micans A. Ad., doubtful for New Zealand.

  • 166. Solenella australis, Q. and G. = Malletia australis, Q. and G.

  • 166. Mytilus magellanicus, Lam. = Mytilus magellanicus, Lam,

  • 167. Mytilus polyodontes, Q. and G. = Mytilus magellanicus, Lam.

  • 167. Mytilus latus, Chemn. = Mytilus latus, Chemn.

  • 167. " edulis, L. = Mytilus edulis, L.

  • 167. " ater, Frfld. = Volsella ater, Frfld.

  • 168 Crenella impacta, Herm. = Crenella impacta, Herm.

  • 168. Modiola australis, Gray = Volsella australe, Gray.

  • 168. " areolata, Gld. = Volsella australe, Gray.

  • 168. " fluviatilis, Hutt. = Volsella fluviatilis, Hutt.

  • 168. Lithodomus truncatus, Gray = Lithophagus truncatus, Gray.

  • 169. Lithodomus gruneri, Reeve, not New Zealand (West Africa).

  • 169. Pinna zealandiæ, Gray = Pinna zealandiæ, Gray.

  • 169. Avicula glabra, Gld., not New Zealand.

  • 170. " fucata, Gld., not New Zealand.

  • 170. Pecten zealandiæ, Gray = Pecten zelandiæ, Gray.

  • 170. Pecten gemmulatus, Reeve = Pecten zelandiæ, var. gemmulata, Reeve.

  • 171. Pecten multicostatus, Reeve = Pecten zelandiæ, Reeve.

  • 171. " pica, Reeve, not New Zealand.

  • 171. " australis, Sow. = Pecten asperrimus, Lam.

  • 171. " radiatus, Hutt. = Pecten radiatus, Hutt.

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  • 171. Pecten vellicatus, Hutt. = Pecten convexus, Q. and G.

  • 172. Vola laticostatus, Gray = Pecten laticostatus, Gray.

  • 172. Lima zealandica, Sow. = Lima zealandica, Sow.

  • 172. " angulata, Sow. = Lima angulata, Sow.

  • 172. " japonica, A. Ad. = Lima bullata, Born.

  • 173. Plicatula novæ-zealandiæ, Sow., not New Zealand.

  • 173. Anomia stowei, Hutt. = Anomia stowei, Hutt.

  • 173. " alectus, Gray = Anomia alectus, Gray.

  • 174. " cytæum, Gray = Anomia cytæum, Gray.

  • 174. Placunanomia zealandica, Gray = Placunanomia zelandica, Gray.

  • 174. Placunanomia ione, Gray = Placunanomia ione, Gray.

  • 175. Ostrea edulis, L. = Ostrea angasi, Sow.

  • 175. " discoidea, Gld., not New Zealand.

  • 175. " glomeraca, Gld. = Ostrea glomerata, Gld.

  • 175. " reniformis, Sow. = Ostrea reniformis, Sow.


  • 176. Waldheimia lenticularis, Desh. = Magellania lenticularis, Desh.

  • 176. Terebratella cruenta, Dillw. = Terebratella cruenta, Dillw.

  • 177. Terebratella rubicunda, Sol. = Terebratella rubicunda, Sol.

  • 177. Magas evansii, Davidson = young of Terebratella cruents.

  • 177. Waltonia valencienni, Davidson = young of Terebratella rubicunda.

  • 178. Bouchardia cumingi, Davidson, not New Zealand.

  • 178. Kraussia tamarckiana, Davidson, not New Zealand.

  • 178. Rhynchonella nigricans, Sow. = Hemithyris nigricans, Sow.

Art. XXIV.—Notice of an Electric Ray new to the Fauna of New Zealand, belonging to the Genus Astrape.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 12th November, 1901.]

Plates X.–XII.

During the cruise of the “Doto” in the southern coastal waters of New Zealand, in the early part of 1900, a specimen was caught in Foveaux Strait, in the seventy-sixth haul, in shallow water, of a cramp-fish or torpedo ray, which appears to be an addition to the list of our New Zealand fishes. I

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received the specimen from Mr. Ayson, who was in charge of the experimental trawling, on his return to Dunedin. The fish had been placed with other specimens in a jar of strong alcohol, and presented a very shrivelled appearance, the skin being very loose and full of creases and folds. The shape of the body, excluding the short tail, was nearly circular, being 8 in. in each diameter (Plate X.). The total length of the body, including the tail portion, was 10 ¾ in.

In November of the same year I obtained a fresh specimen of this curious fish from a fish-shop in Dunedin, which had been caught the previous night by the steam-trawler some distance outside of the Otago Heads. The general shape and appearance of this specimen was so unlike the other that I thought they must be different species, but on examination I find no material points of difference, except in the general outline, as shown in the plate. The outline figures there given are mechanically reduced from outlines made by passing a pencil round the edges of the fish while it rested on a piece of paper. I am therefore compelled to think that the first specimen must have been much altered in shape by the action of the spirit.

The proper shape of this interesting fish appears to be more of a long oval than a circle, the measurements being 7 in. in greatest diameter and 14½ in. in length.

The very minute, almost invisible, eyes, the single dorsal, and the position of the vent, place it in the genus Astrape of Muller and Henle. In the absence of further specimens (both those obtained being males), and not having the necessary literature, I cannot say that it is absolutely the same as Astrape capensis. I have therefore, as already intimated in my report of the 5th July, 1900, called the New Zealand specimens Astrape aysoni, after their first discoverer.

The British Museum catalogue records Astrape capensis from the Cape and from the coast of Madagascar, and an allied species is recorded from Japan, but I cannot get any description for comparison with the New Zealand specimen, nor any illustrations.

Family Narcobatidæ.

Genus Astrape, Mull, and Henle.

Astrape, Mull, and H.

Tail with a fold on each side. Body entirely naked; upper surface reddish-brown, lower surface white and yellowish-white. One dorsal fin only on the tail, without spine. Caudal well developed. Anterior nasal valves confluent into a broad flap overhanging the mouth. Teeth pointed; dental laminæ scarcely extending beyond the other margin

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of the jaws. Spiracles immediately behind the eyes, which are very minute, and hardly traceable under the skin. An electric apparatus between the head and pectoral fins.

Explanation of Plates X.—XII.

Plate X.

Astrape aysoni, n. sp.

Plate XI.

Astrape aysoni, head.

Plate XII.

Astrape aysoni, under-surface: fig. a from live specimen; fig. b from spirit specimen; fig. c, tail.

Art. XXV.—Embryology of New Zealand Lepidoptera: Part II.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 11th February, 1902.]

Plate XIII. (See also pl. ix., vol. xxxiii.)

Embryology in interest supersedes the pleasures of collecting and preserving specimens in the imago stage, and enhances the scientific value of the Lepidoptera in entomology. Breeding insects is a means towards an end—good specimens to the collector. On the other hand, the desire of the student is to know what can be learnt of structure, habits, and so forth. I know prominent embryologists in England who, after devoting great attention to breeding and hybridizing species, hand over the resulting imagines to some collector friends.

Probably most collectors would at once kill and set a female specimen of any scarce or rare species, if in perfect condition, but an embryological student would almost certainly try and procure ova. Such a case I well remember. A party of several entomologists were at the New Forest, England, and my friend Mr. Arthur Bacot took a freshly emerged female of a scarce species—Peridea trepida, I think—which he decided to keep until night and try to assemble some males. Any other of the party would have killed it at once, on the principle of “a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.” That evening, before sugar commenced, we hung her ladyship like a songster in a cage, from a branch of

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a tree. Later on she caused an assembly of the opposite sex of her species, and as they hurried up we could see their little eyes glow in the darkness quite a distance away. They would fly straight to the cage and crawl all over the gauze sides, and the light from our lantern did not scare them. As they flew up we netted them, until quite a number of males had been taken; and when the flight was over one was let in do the cage, when it immediately copulated and fertile ova resulted. The captured males were handed over to the other entomologists present.

For the purpose of embryology and of classification it is necessary to describe the pattern of the ovum, the structure of the larva and pupa. Although we may not know the why or the wherefore, there must be some functional, constitutional, or environmental reason for such structures. Without further preface I will now offer for your consideration such observations on some species of New Zealand Lepidoptera as my limited time has permitted.

A Contribution to the Life-history of Metacrias (Meyr.)
strategica (Hdsn.).

For my material I am indebted to Mr. George Howes, who recorded the occurrence of this species at Invercargill.* The apterous female of this and of the two congeneric, species raises the interesting problem of the cause of such a condition. The Arctid genus Ocnogyna, of Europe, has females with rudimentary wings, but I know of no others in the group. Laparidæ, which by derivation must have more or less remote affinities with Arctids, have some completely apterous females, some with rudimentary wings. Other groups of Lepidoptera not associated with these exhibit the same phenomena. Such must be considered specialised, and the apterous condition of the female is intimately associated with reproduction. Lessen productivity and the species is nearer extinction. Whether specialisation of the ovum and its chemical contents is the great factor in reduction of productivity can hardly be proved, but I am inclined to think it is so. The organism, after exclusion from the egg, builds up physiologically from matter assimilated as food; but before exclusion from the egg the organism is formed entirely from matter contained within the egg, derived wholly from the female parent (granted seminal stimulus of the male) by the primary unicellular germ using up surrounding cells in the ovary of the parent until the ovum developed. This, at least, is as I understand the process. The quantity of cellular matter absorbed per ovum would affect the quantity of ova resulting; specialisation

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxiii.

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no doubt would cause greater absorption, and consequent reduction, in number of ova. This might be partially counteracted by conversion of energy towards the formation of cellular matter in the ovary at the expense of imaginal structures, until, as in Metacrias, the female becomes a helpless ova-bag.

In his letters Mr. Howes tells me that a male M. strategica copulated with three separate females in the course of perhaps twenty-four hours. It is interesting to get authentic records of such. Many entomologists believe the males among Lepidoptera only pair once I have no doubt male M. strategica would assemble to a virgin female if exposed at the proper time of flight and in a suitable locality.


Deposited, 4th November, 1900; hatched, 27th November, 1900–23 days. Spherical in shape; pale honey-colour; eggshell apparently exceedingly thin, with irregular hexagons over its surface, more distinct than on Nyctemera annulata. It may here be noted that I have examined batches of N. annulata ova which were quite smooth, others having a faint hexagonal pattern. Mr. Howes mentions that the young newly hatched larvæ eat the eggshell. This is done by N. annulata.*

Larva. (Plate XIII., fig. 8; vol. xxxiii., pl. ix., fig. 18.)

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Newly hatched.—Robust; all the segments approximately uniform except head, prothorax, and the two posterior abdominal segments, which are smaller than the others. Tubercles are crowded together and give the larva a rather dark colour, though the skin is yellowish-brown. The head, scutellum, dorsal anal shield, and tubercles are brown; the setæ are black. The setæ are spinulose, and the skin is covered with minute (secondary) hairs. At first the head appears to be larger than prothorax, but, enclosed in its chitinous envelope, it does not grow, and prior to ecdysis the prothorax is larger than the head. The dorsal and lateral multisetiferous tubercles are at first prominent elevations on all the segments, but when the skin is fully distended prior to ecdysis the dorsal tubercles of 9th abdominal segment only appear to be specially prominent. When full fed in first skin the length is 3/16 in., and there is a slight reddish mottling on the skin.

Head: The ocelli are crescentic; the numerous hairs are spinulose.

Prothorax: Dorsal shield has on each side of the median

[Footnote] * Entom., vol. xxxiv., p. 141.

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line three anterior marginal setæ and two posterior setæ. Supraspiracular and prespiracular tubercles each have three setæ. The spiracle is circular in shape, and posterior. A tubercle above the legs has two setæ.

Meso- and post-thoracic segments: Trapezoidal tubercles appear to be coalesced, forming large dorsal tubercles with about six setæ. Supraspiracular has about eight setæ, slightly below which a small posterior (subspiracular) tubercle has a single very fine seta; a larger anterior subspiracular tubercle has a single seta. Tubercles above the legs have two setæ.

The thoracic legs have spinulose hairs, and terminate with a long claw, a rudimentary claw, and a flattened seta, to which Dr. Chapman gives the name “battledore palpus” in describing Arctia caia.*

Abdominal segments (vol. xxxiii., pl. ix., fig. 18): Anterior trapezoidal tubercle has three setæ, posterior, trapezoidal one seta. Supraspiracular tubercle is anterior above the small circular spiracle, and has about seven setæ. One subspiracular tubercle is below the spiracle, but posterior to it, with one seta, and almost beneath this, but a little anterior, is another, with a single seta, and still lower a tubercle-like area without seta. On the base of abdominal feet are one spinulose seta, one smooth seta; on the footless segments 1 and 2 these rise from a subventral tubercle and are both spinulose; the subventral tubercle of segments 7 and 8 have only one seta (spinulose). Segment 9 has a very large dorsal multi-setiferous tubercle, one lateral, one subventral, each with only one seta. Segment 10 has a dorsal multisetiferous tubercle, a lateral spinulose seta, and some setæ on claspers; also on each side of the anal orifice a single smooth seta curved upwards. On all the segments one sefa of each supraspiracular tubercle is about twice the length of any other. Mr. Howes mentions the presence of several long grey hairs from the anal extremity. This is a very striking feature, and persists, I believe, until the larva is full fed. These hairs are actually the post-trapezoidal setæ of abdominal segments 7 and 8, which are about four or five times the normal length, are spinulose throughout, and greyish beyond.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Second Skin.—Length immediately after ecdysis 3/16 in. The tubercles, being more setiferous, are larger, and form very prominent elevations on all segments. The skin is yellowish-brown, the setæ brown and spinulose

Head has spinulose setæ, but not noticeably more numerous than in first stage.

[Footnote] * Ento. Record, vol. 4, p. 267.

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Prothorax: Dorsal tubercle very prominent, having about a dozen anterior and two posterior setæ on each side. Supra-spiracular tubercle about three setæ, prespiracular about ten setæ; spiracle posterior; tubercle above leg has about ten setæ.

Meso- and post-thorax: The dorsal tubercles (medio) appear to be coalesced, and are exceedingly setiferous. A subdorsal and two other tubercles are one below another, with about ten to fourteen setæ each; a smaller tubercle, slightly anterior, above the legs bears three or four setæ. Above the subdorsal tubercle is a small posterior tubercle with one seta.

The thoracic legs terminate as in the preceding stage.

Abdominal segments: Anterior trapezoidal about a quarter the size of posterior, and bears three setæ; post trapezoidal bear ten setæ. Supraspiracular is midlateral, bearing about fourteen setæ. The spiracle is immediately anterior to the uppermost seta of the post subspiracular tubercle, which bears about ten setæ. Immediately below this the other subspiracular hears the same number of setæ, and below this a small tubercle bears three setæ. The abdominal feet bear several single setæ.

The numerous setæ render it extremely difficult to make a description which is absolutely accurate. The larva lived until about three-quarter grown, and I did not observe any further structural difference. The setæ throughout were brown, but the subspiracular setæ were lighter brown than the dorsal setæ. Mr. Howes states that the larva, when full fed, is 1 ¼ length.

Pupa. (Plate XIII., figs. 9, 10.)

The pupa is enclosed in an oval cocoon of coarse silk threads interwoven with larval setæ. The cocoon is rather dark-brown in colour, and the enclosed pupa can be seen through it.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Male pupa: Length, about 5/3 in.; at widest, ¼ in. Colour very dark-brown, with paler incisions. Wing-cases extend to the middle of 4th abdominal segment ventrally. Abdominal segments 5 and 6 are free; 7, 8, 9, 10 are consolidated and lessen rapidly, forming a rounded extremity with a rather sharp terminal process. The anal armature consists of about twelve stout bristles, with innumerable sharp points at their clubbed end (fig. 10). The anal armature of Nyctemera annulata (fig. 11) consists of numerous hooks, not straight bristles, and under a high power these are seen to be ball-tipped, resembling closely the anal armature of some Noctuæ (fig. 7, Melanchra mutans). In the position of larval tubercles numerous rudimentary setæ, pale yellowish-brown in

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colour, resemble the longitudinal yellow spots on the pupa of Nyctemera annulata. On dehiscence the wing-cases separate from the ventral juncture and along the sides of the abdominal segments to the suture with thoracic segments, which separate mid-dorsally, and remain attached to either wing-case. The face, antennæ, and leg-cases remain welded together, but separate from the wing-cases almost to the juncture of the 5th abdominal segment.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Female pupa about the same length as male, but extremely robust in comparison. It tapers sharply from the 3rd abdominal segment to head, dorsally and laterally; 4, 5, 6 appear to be wholly free segments, and are the widest—fully 5/16 in.; 7, 8, 9, 10 are consolidated and form on extremity, with armature similar to the male. Small wing-cases extend to the posterior edge of 3rd abdominal segment, and abdominal rudimentary setæ correspond to the male. The head also is covered with numerous similar setæ.

Duration of pupal existence, about twenty days.

[Since my paper was written I received from Mr. George Howes several larvæ of Metacrias strategica, which, after very little feeding, pupated in the usual cocoons amongst moss or grass, and subsequently produced several male and female imagines. I may say, so far as colouration or size is concerned, there appeared to be no difference between the several larvæ such as might be interpreted as an indication of sex. Owing to the fact that the female did not leave its cocoon, I was unaware of it for at least several days, when it appeared to me to be dead, but had already deposited several ova—pale-yellow colour, with distinct hexagonal sculpture. On emergence the female entirely ruptured the pupa-case at every suture, and only remnants remained intact. The female certainly deposits its ova in a normal and proper manner amongst the wool which lines the cocoon. This wool (hair-like scales) acts as an envelope, possibly incubator, for the ova, in the manner observed amongst Psychidæ.* M. strategical however, has wool all over its body; but at the time of my examination this had been almost entirely rubbed off, except from the two or three posterior segments. Probably when the burden of ova has been disposed of the empty female M. strategica crawls out of the cocoon, as is the case with Psychidæ. In my previous remarks I was under the impression that the female M. strategica was entirely apterous. This is not strictly so, as there are rudiments of both fore and hind wings, though so small as to be entirely functionless. The several organs of the caput are better developed than are those of the female (Oeketicus omnivorus, which latter, has,

[Footnote] * Dr. Chapman, Trans. Ent. Soc., Lond., 1900, 403.

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however, a greater capacity for the production of ova as regards quantity. With regard to assembling males of M. strategica, I have received a note to the effect that Mr. Philpott, of Invercargill, was successful in taking a large number by exhibiting virgin females. No doubt similar results would be obtained with other species of this genus.]

A Contribution to the Life-history of Melanchra (Hb.)
mutans (Walk.).
Ovum. (Plate XIII., figs. 1, 2, 3, 4.)

A batch of ova was found on the 14th April, 1901, which hatched on the 19th April, 1901. The parent female had pushed them between a blade and stem of withered grass, where they were effectually hidden. The ova were laid in two parallel rows of six each, three others separate, and two rows of three each were laid on top of the first; total number, twenty-one.

Ova: Dull to the naked eye, shining under the microscope Colour, pale-whitish, upper half irregularly coloured a dirty brown. Shape, a flattened sphere—i.e., wider at equator than in vertical section. Micropyle at top with irregular hexagons, from which strong corrugations diverge towards the equator, converging below. About one in three of the corrugations coalesce with another at the shoulder of the egg, and there is irregularity in this respect: in more than one instance three corrugations coalesce. About twenty-one corrugations meet the micropylar depression. Between the corrugations equidistant finer lines apparently form four-sided figures, but, examined with a higher power, it is found they are really modified hexagons, with strong longitudinal sides. The evolution of parallel ribs on specialised ova from more primitive hexagonal forms is here clearly evidenced.

The contents of a female abdomen were microscopically examined. Within the abdomen the ova are pale-green in colour, placed end on end, pressed flat against each other, so forming continuous rouleaux of ova, from which each ovum is easily separable. This fact is due to the absence of connecting-tissue such as envelopes the ova of Hepiah within the abdomen.

The exact process is, necessarily, not easy to detect, but I was fully satisfied that the rouleaux of ova are bathed lengthwise by a fluid (fat?). So long as this continues the ova are smooth, but as activity decreases and the quantity of fluid diminishes on exposure to the air sculpturing appears on the eggshell. When quite dry the ova have the orthodox sculpture of deposited ova.

That the sculpture is due to the fluid is nearly certain—

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i.e., in the process of drying it forms into natural crystalline shapes. of course, this crystalline formation would occur so rapidly on deposition of the ova that it would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect. It is probable, however, that the bathing of the ova continues until the ovum is excluded from the oviduct.

At the top of the egg-mass, where the incision would be first made, a few ova remained smooth when dry. This detracts nothing from the foregoing, as I conclude that these, being earliest exposed to air, were insufficiently bathed by the necessary sculpture-producing fluid.

The results of this examination justify the conclusions suggested by the experiments of Messrs. Woodhead and Dawson, to which I refer in Part I. of this paper.

Larva. (Plate XIII., figs. 5, 6.)

The first meal consists of the empty eggshell, and, though frequently disturbed so that the larvæ moved away or dropped by a thread, they invariably returned and recommenced feeding on the eggshells.

Newly hatched.—Robust, slightly tapering towards posterior; head large and long, tubercles prominent, setæ long and widened at tip. The first two pairs of abdominal feet are small, that of segment 3 being little more than large tubercles provided with hooks. Neither pair of segments 3 and 4 seems to be used, so the larva in walking progresses in semi-looper manner (fig. 5). Colour, reddish. Skin smooth.

Head: Setæ pointed, mandibles serrate.

Prothorax: Scutellum bears on each side two separate anterior and two posterior setæ. Supraspiracular tubercle bears two setæ; prespiracular two setæ (?); tubercle above legs two setæ. Meso- and post - thorax, three single-seta tubercles, one below the other; one anterior and one posterior lower each with one seta.

Abdominal segments: All the tubercles bear a single seta. Trapezoidals normal. Supraspiracular beneath the anterior trapezoidal and above the round spiracle, immediately posterior to which is one subspiracular tubercle, and below the spiracle is the other. The abdominal feet bear two single-pointed setæ, which are subventral on segments 1 and 2. On segments 7, 8, and 9 there seems to be only one subventral seta each; segment 10 has all pointed setæ. Two subdorsal posterior, curved downward, two posterior, curved upward, and two on each of the claspers.

On the 1st May some of the larvæ had changed to second and some to third skins.

Second Skin.—Colour, pale-green, head pale - brown;

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tubercles, setæ, and spiracles brown; faint pale spiracular line, the skin above being really darker than below. Anterior segments darker than posterior.

Structure: Prothorax (fig. 6) apparently as in first stage. Meso- and post-thorax have an additional tubercle. Careful comparison of first and second stages induces me to think this is not the one immediately above the leg, but the posterior tubercle above it in position. Abdominal segments also have an additional tubercle above the legs in a posterior position. The posterior subspiracular tubercle appears to be rather lower down in relation to the spiracle than in the first stage. The abdominal feet bear three pointed setæ; the first two pairs are larger than in first stage.

In succeeding changes of skin the abdominal feet gradually become normal. This, I think, takes place not earlier than the fourth skin, but I have no note on this point. Adult markings are also gradually assumed. In that skin preceding the last, two larvæ confined in the same pot of grass assumed entirely different plumage as regards colour, one being wholly green, the other brown (this was probably green, more or less, ventrally, but I omitted to note). This striking difference is not unusual amongst Noctuæ larvæ, and appears to be attributable to environmental causes. One at least frequently rested during the day-time on the reddish earthenware pot. In a state of nature they rest on the earth, or on a stem of food near the earth. The exciting cause of the variation may be considered to depend on whether the larva rests habitually on the earth or on the stem. In the former case we might expect them to assume a brown colouration, in the latter green, each being to respective individuals equally protective during the period of rest from feeding.

Immediately preceding pupation the length is about 1 in.; colour above spiracular line reddish-brown, below pale-green (the larva mentioned above lost its green colour at last ecdysis). A rather indistinct medio-dorsal line is marked more distinctly at the incisions as a brown spot. Thin dark sub-dorsal line is edged with lighter, and very distinct dark spiracular spots on all the segments. In preceding stage these were oblique dashes. The clypeus of head is dark-brown, middle of lobes a dark streak, edges dark-brown. Under the microscope the larva-skin is mottled, and the pattern of markings not apparent. No doubt the larva is more inconspicuous to small foes than to our eyes, which take the whole form and markings at one comprehensive glance. Even so, to us the larva seems wonderfully protected by its colouration when at rest.

I omitted to note the exact duration of larval existence.

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Pupa. (Plate XIII., fig. 7.)

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Colour, reddish - brown; length, 9/16 in.; widest at 4th abdominal segment. Wing-cases extend to posterior ridge of 4th abdominal ventrally; hind-wing margins show laterally from post-thorax to anterior edge of 4th abdominal. On dehiscence the headpiece, leg-covers, antennæ, and proboscis-covers remain intact, but separate throughout their length from the wing-cases. Spiracles are transverse and fully developed on 2nd to 8th abdominal segments; on 2nd and 3rd the position is subdorsal, on others normal. Posterior edges of 4th, 5th, and 6th abdominal segments form prominent ridges; the other segments are smooth and taper gradually to the 10th viewed laterally and dorsally, but ventrally the 10th is depressed suddenly from the suture to anal armature.

The anal armature is more especially a dorsal apparatus, though the two strong hooks are terminal processes. On the dorsum there are two pairs of weaker hooks. Somewhere I believe I have seen a statement of Dr. Chapman in which he says that the more he studied the structure of the pupal anal armature the less value it seemed to be. With this species and M. composita (vol. xxxiii., pl. ix., fig. 21) there is decided affinity in the anal armature, which in both consists of six hooks, yet there is abundant specific distinction.

The moths emerged about the 10th September, 1901.

A Contribution to the Life-history of Asaphodes (Meyr.)
megaspilata (Walk.).
Ovum. (Vol. xxxiii, pl. ix., fig. 4.)

Colour, pale-green when laid, partly reddish to the naked eye, but salmon-colour under microscope in two days. Shape is longer then broad, small end rounded, broad end rather fiat, transverse section almost circular. The whole shell is covered with hexagonal cells. The ovum is laid on its side. The larva emerges at the broader end.

Deposited on the 2nd December, 1900; hatched on the 16th December, 1900—fourteen days.

The young larvæ do not eat the empty eggshell.

Larva. (Vol. xxxiii., pl. ix., figs. 5, 6, 7, 8.)

Newly hatched.—Colour, pale yellowish - brown. The thoracic segments have thin red longitudinal lines; the incisions between abdominal segments 1 to 7 are ringed with red all round. The abdominal segments also have yellow spiracular and subspiracular lines running through the red rings.

The larva is robust, with uniform segments, but 7, 8, 9, and 10 are very crowded. The thoracic segments have legs;

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the abdominal feet are midway between the 6th and 7th segments, and 10 has claspers.

The arrangement of the thoracic segments is not quite clear, but appears to agree with the structure in the second skin. The head has pointed hairs.

The abdominal tubercles have single setæ, which are club-tipped. Owing to the robust build of the segments the tubercles are very wide apart. The trapezoidals are normal. Supraspiracular and anterior subspiracular are both anterior to the spiracle and equidistant; post-spiracular moved up close to the spiracle. There are anterior and posterior sub-ventral tubercles. The setæ on the abdominal feet are pointed. The larva-skin appears to be covered with very fine hairs.

Second Skin.—Larva attenuated, tubercles still widely separated. Head yellowish, spotted with red. From prothorax to anal segment yellow and red lines alternate longitudinally.

Head: Anterior hairs are pointed, posterior clubbed.

Prothorax: On each side of the thin median line of scutellum there are two anterior, two posterior, equidistant setæ. The prespiracular tubercle has a single seta. Above the spiracle, close to the scutellum, a very fine seta. The spiracle is posterior. Prespiracular tubercle has a single seta. Tubercle above the legs has two separate setæ.

Meso- and post-thorax: Close to the median line a minute normal tubercle bears a single seta, below this a larger tubercle and another (subdorsal); anterior, and posterior tubercles are equidistant from the subdorsals beneath; the tubercle above legs bears one seta. All the tubercles bear only a single seta.

Abdominal segments have an additional tubercle below the spiracle. The spiracle is level with the posterior subspiracular tubercle. On the abdominal feet there are seven single setæ, and numerous setæ on claspers. Abdominal 9 has all the tubercles on the posterior edge; 10 has, above the anal orifice, two normal setæ, two pointed setæ on each side.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Full fed (30th January, 1901).—Length, 9/16 in., wider at 5th abdominal, from which it tapers to head and to anus.

Colour: Brown, with mediodorsal pale line on the thoracic segments, represented on abdominals 1 to 5 by an inverted V—apex anterior, and line resumed but wider on the posterior subsegments of 6 to 9. The posterior trapezoidal setæ of 6th and 7th abdominals are on elevated humps; segment 8 has pale-coloured humps; 9 also has pale humps, but with a larger hump between them.

Laterally there is no definite marking, the whole skin being finely mottled brown and whitish. The setæ are all very

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dark—black(?). The tubercle arrangement appears to exactly correspond with second skin.

In an earlier stage there is a lateral subspiracular and spiracular line in addition to the dorsal markings. The skin also has numerous white dots.

A slight cocoon is made on the top of earth.

On the 6th February, 1901, all had pupated.

Pupa. (Vol. xxxiii., pl. ix., fig. 22.)

Colour: Reddish; antennæ, leg-covers, &c., pale-brown, eye-covers dark-brown, wing-covers brown.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length, 5/16 in. From tip of head to tip of wing-cases is fully two-thirds total length of pupa, the posterior third constituting abdominal segments 5 to 10. Pupa is thickest; at 1st, 2nd, and 3rd abdominals, and there is sharp irregular tapering from 7 to 10; 9 appears as a large swollen area overlying 10, which fits into it as if it were a cap, and terminates with two lateral, two central, hooks, with which a very firm hold is taken of the silk in the cocoon.

The eye-covers are large and prominent; antennæ extend to tips of wing-cases, enclosing legs and proboscis, which also extends to the tips of wing-cases.

Only the slightest portion of the base of hind-wing cases can be seen at the juncture with post-thorax. Spiracles on 1, 2, and 3 are subdorsal, 4 to 8 lateral. All the segments except 8 to 10 are deeply pitted.

Imagines emerged as follows: On the 25th February, a male; on the 26th February, a male and a female; on the 28th February, a male; on the 2nd March, a male; and on the 4th March, a female.

It is not my intention to discuss imaginal structures; indeed, this would not be in keeping with the title of my paper. What I have to say is rather in the nature of inquiry.

The larval antenna consists of a base, one or two joints, and appendages of a fleshy nature (Plate XIII., fig. 12). The imaginal antenna consists of scape (base), pedicel (2nd segment), and clavola (segments beyond). The scape is the muscular base and the pedicel is the nervous base, these being more or less simple in external structure (fig. 13). The clavola segments of A. megaspilata, male, have paired appendages attached to the shaft ventrally, and on this surface the segments are devoid of scales; dorsally the shaft is thickly protected with scales (figs. 14 and 15). The pectinations have no scales, but numerous fine hairs. The clavola segments act as sense-conductors.

The functions of the larval and imaginal antennæ are no doubt similar, and the homology of their respective parts should prove an interesting study. That such is possible is

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suggested by the experiments of Dr. Chapman* on regeneration of the thoracic legs of Liparis dispar, which prove the homology of the larval and imaginal legs.

The marginal wing-bristles admit of further study (fig. 16). My note on those of Melanippe fluctuata was, I understand, the first publication in England in reference to these. Dr. Chapman has dealt with the same, but I have not yet seen his paper on the subject. Messrs. Furbush and Fernald had previously published observations on these structures in America. They are to be observed at the termination of the nervures, but are not of the nervures, since they occur at the wing-margin between the nervures. Professor Fernald believes they are found on the wings of all Lepidoptera. The function of the marginal wing-bristle is unknown.

Explanation of Plate XIII.

Fig. 1. Melanchra mutans, micropylar area of ovum; x 200.

Fig. 2. " longitudinal ribs of ovum; x 200.

Fig. 3. " ovum; x 50.

Fig. 4. " ova from female abdomen; x 50.

Fig. 5. " larva, first skin, showing the imperfect development of abdominal feet.

Fig. 6. " larva, second skin, thoracic segments; x 200.

Fig. 7. " pupa, terminal armature; x 50.

Fig. 8. Metacrias strategica, larva, first skin, thoracic segments; x 200.

Fig. 9. " pupa, segments 5 to 10; x 50.

Fig. 10. " pupa, anal bristle; x 200.

Fig. 11. Nyctemera annulata, pupa, anal bristle; x 200.

Fig. 12. Asaphodes megaspilata, antenna of larva.

Fig. 13. " antenna of imago, scape, pedicel, first clavola segments; x 200.

Fig. 14. " antenna of imago, terminal clavola segments; x 200.

Fig. 15. " intermediate clavola segments; x 200.

Fig. 16. " marginal wing-bristles; x 200.

[Footnote] * Entom. Record, vol. xii., 141.

[Footnote] † Entom., vol. xxxiv., 47.

[Footnote] ‡ “Some Wing-structures,” Trans. South London Nat. Hist. Society, 1900.

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Art. XXVI.—Notes on New Zealand Fishes.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 11th February, 1902.]

Plates XIV. and XV.

1. Chimæra monstrosa, var. australis.

This remarkable fish is related to the sharks and the rays or skates, but is quite distinct from either of these groups. Only two generic forms are known—(1) Chimæra, which abounds in the Arctic seas; and (2) Callorhynchus, which, so far as known, is confined to the Antarctic seas.

In the northern seas this fish is known as the “king of the herrings,” also as the “rabbit-fish.” Its southern representative is popularly known as the “elephant-fish,” on account of the proboscis-like appendage to its upper jaw. A few specimens of the northern genus Chimæra have been found off the Cape of Good Hope and off the coast of Chile, but so far as I know this is the first New Zealand example of the genus which has been found. It was obtained by the trawl on the Wairau bar, and presented to the Museum by Mr. Fernandos, of this city. The specimen is a female, both oviducts containing eggs in various stages of development. It is somewhat curious that the first specimen obtained in New Zealand should be a female, as the male fish is far more abundantly caught in the Northern Hemisphere than the female. In the case of the southern representative, or the elephant-fish, on the other hand, most of the specimens caught are females, and they are quite common at certain seasons. However, a few days after I obtained the female of the Chimæra a male elephant-fish was brought to the Museum, being the first of the sex I had ever seen. It has wonderful grippers armed with strong teeth on the forehead, and on each side of the body near the ventral fin, and has two extra lateral ventral fins involuted so as to form intromittent organs.

The following are the measurements of the female specimen of Chimæra monstrosa, var. australis:—

Total length 36
Greatest height 4
Snout to eye 2.5
Orbit 1.5
Snout to dorsal spine 6
Height of spine 3
Base of 1st dorsal 3.5
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1st to 2nd dorsal, subcontinuous 3
Base of 2nd dorsal 16
Snout to mouth 2.5
Snout to pectoral 5
Base of pectoral 2
Branchial collar to vent 5.5
Snout to ventral fins 16
Pectoral fin, length 8
" width 4
" width at base of rays 2.5
Ventral fin, length 6
" width at base 2
Caudal fin 5
Filiform appendage 7

There are two genital orifices, one on each side and anterior to the vent, each with a distinct ovarian sac containing twelve to fifteen eggs in various stages of development, varying in size from a small pea to a nut. Each egg is enclosed in an elongated ovid membrane, the largest being on the right side 1.5 in. long.

Colour.—Olive-black above, silvery-white beneath the head, and dark-grey elsewhere. Head with small ocellated spots, and round the base of the dorsal five distinct white spots. As far back as the vent three rows of nine spots in each, and one broad but interrupted line of white. A pseudo-lateral line of forty-three pores marked by golden scales, which latter are also found on other parts. On the tail are thirteen bold white blotches, in continuation of the white lateral line on the body.

2. Auchenopterus aysoni, n. sp.

This elegant little fish is one of the blennies, a family fairly well represented in New Zealand waters, Crysticeps australis and Trypterygium nigripenne being close allies. Only one species of the genus is previously known, from the west coast of South America, but it differs in important respects from the specimen under consideration, which was presented to the Museum by Mr. Ayson, Inspector of Fisheries. Unfortunately, the spirit in which it was sent was too strong, so that the scales and many of the lateral pores were destroyed.

The following is a minute description of the fish:—

Total length, 5 in. 143
Height 30
Length of head 35
Base of 1st dorsal 12
Snout to 1st dorsal 10
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Space of notch in dorsal 8
Continuous dorsal 80
To caudal 15
Extension of caudal rays 21
Snout to pectoral 23
" ventral 21
" vent 48
Length of pectoral 27
" ventral 20
Snout to eye 9
Diameter of eye 4

Fin Formula.—B., 4; D., 3–33; P., 8; V., 3 (but broken and indistinct); A., 10; LL., 22–3–5, interrupted.

Scales very minute.

Body compressed. Height one-quarter of length and one-sixth less than length of head.

Pair of branched tentacles from above the snout, not from the nostril.

Colour uniform light-brown, with four oval translucent spots on the dorsal fin.

Teeth minute on jaws and vorner.

Gill-opening wide.

Tail slightly unsymmetrical, and caudal distinctly separate from both dorsal and anal.

Loc. Bay of Islands; collected by Mr. Stephenson.

Explanation of Plates XIV., XV.

Plate XIV.
  • A. Female of Callorhynchus antarcticus.

  • B. Male of Callorhynchus antarcticus.

  • C. Female of Chimæra colliei.

  • D. Male of Chimæra colliei, L. (after Günther).

Plate XV.
Auchenopterus aysoni.

Art. XXVII.—On a New Polynoid.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 8th October, 1901.]

Polynoe comma, n. sp.

Body slender, long, linear, tapering slightly at the hinder end. Average length 50 mm., and breadth 6 mm. (spirit specimens).

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Segments, 70–90; elytra, 35–45 pairs, borne on segments 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 and all subsequent odd segments.

Anus dorsal.

Prostomium embedded in the peristomium, urn-shaped, broadest between the eyes, slightly longer than broad, produced anteriorly into the bases of the lateral tentacles, between which the base of the median tentacle is wedged.

Eyes, two pairs, quite sessile and quite lateral, situated nearly at the point of greatest diameter. Median tentacle longer than the lateral ones, and longer than the prostomium. Palps about three times as long as the prostomium, stout at the base and tapering continuously to the tips, studded all over with minute spines.

Parapodia stout, conical, almost uniramous; dorsal chætæ few and extremely small, accompanied by a stout aciculum, tapering, serrated on each side, and ending in a fine needle-like tip. Ventral chætæ also few, but longer, fairly stout, and slightly hooked at the tip, which is blunt; provided with two asymmetrical spines on the dorsal surface, followed by two rows of four or five “combs” on each side.

Nephridial papillæ distinct, cylindrical, slightly fluted, beginning at the 10th or 11th segment and continuing to the penultimate segment; rendered conspicuous by segmental pigment patches near their bases.

Elytra subcircular; margin entire; surface smooth, except for a very few small tubercles on the first two or three pairs; pigment in the shape of a broad dark comma on the mediad moiety of the elytron. The first four or five pairs have a patch of russet-brown pigment on the convex shoulder of the comma-shaped mark; the first elytron is colourless but for this russet patch. The elytra of a side do not overlap in the hinder region of the body, but anteriorly they do. Only the first three or four pairs meet across the back. The rest of the back, being uncovered, exhibits dorsal bars of pigment at the back of each segment, which, well marked in front, vanish in the posterior region.

The ventral surface has a median and two lateral bands of dark pigment.

The worm was collected at Moeraki by Dr. Benham, of the Otago Museum, and all the specimens were found to be commensal with a Terebellid.