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Volume 37, 1904
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Art. II.—Notes on Ancient Polynesian Migrants, or Voyagers, to New Zealand, and Voyage of the “Aratawhao” Canoe to Hawaiki.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 12th September, 1904.]

In regard to the peopling of New Zealand by the Polynesian race, that event is usually referred to the fleet of canoes which arrived on these shores about twenty generations ago, simply because that migration is the only one of which any clear and connected account has been retained by the natives. The reason of this is probably because the people who came on board the “Arawa,” “Tainui,” “Matatua,” “Aotea,” and “Kurahaupo” vessels were of a more vigorous, warlike, and aggressive nature than the old-time people of these isles, a prior migration, or migrations, of Polynesians whom the newcomers found in possession of this country. The latter people intermarried with the original settlers, and, when they acquired strength of numbers, often fought them, and by these two modes of procedure became the dominant people of the land. Judging from information obtained from the descendants of the so-called autochthones, it would appear that the original people were of by no means a warlike nature. Hence, as time passed on, the power and prestige of the latter migration waxed ever greater, while that of the first-comers waned in proportion. Even so, we can acquire but little information as to the origin or whence of the first settlers in these isles; in some cases they have not retained even the name of the vessel by which their ancestors reached these shores. In such plight is the Tuhoe, or Urewera, Tribe, who cannot now give a satisfactory account of the origin of their main line of descent—viz., that through Potiki, from whom this ancient people derive their old-time tribal name, for Tuhoe and Te Urewera are but modern names. This tribe is in part descended from the people who came in the “Horouta,” “Oturereao,” “Rangimatoru,” and “Nukutere” vessels, albeit they can give but a very meagre account of those little-known canoes. The fact is that these original people of the land have been here so long that they have lost any connected or clear account of their origin which they may have retained in past centuries.

I will now give some account of two lines of descent by which the original people of the Bay of Plenty district trace their origin from the two ancient canoes “Te Aratauwhaiti” and “Rangimatoru.”

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Te Aratauwhaiti.”

In an article by Colonel Gudgeon, entitled “Maori Migrations to New Zealand,”* we find this remark: “‘Te Aratauwhaiti,’ said to have been the first canoe that ever came to New Zealand, and that Maku, the ancestor of Toi-kai-rakau, came therein,” &c. It is doubtful whether Maku was an ancestor of Toi, the Wood-eater, but Tiwakawaka, the principal person on board “Te Aratauwhaiti,” certainly was so. Moreover, my informants state that Maku did not come in that vessel, but that he visited New Zealand, arriving at Whakatane, subsequently, and found Tiwakawaka, or his descendants, living at Whakatane. He (Maku) then returned to Hawaiki—that is to say, to the isles of Polynesia.

In White's “Ancient History of the Maori,” vol. i., p. 127, we find this remark: “Ko te Ara-tau-whaiti o Tane, he waka”—but nothing more.

The account given by the descendants of Toi of this old-time vessel is as follows: In times long passed away, when Maru, Haere, Kahukura, and other descendants of Tane quarrelled among themselves, then it was that Tiwakawaka came to this land, to Aotearoa. He came in the canoe “Te Aratauwhaiti” from Mataora. He found a lone land, for Aotearoa had no inhabitants when he arrived here. My informant is very particular to state that Tiwakawaka and Maku came from different lands—the former from Mataora, the latter from Hawaiki. He says, “In regard to the first people of this land, Tiwakawaka came from Mataora. He did not come from Hawaiki; he came from Mataora, and remained here, settling at Whakatane, which was known as Kakaho-roa to the ancient tribes. (Ko Tiwakawaka, kaore i haere mai i Hawaiki, i haere ke mai ia i Mataora, i te kainga o ona tipuna, o Tane ma, o Tu, o Tangaroa, o Rongo, o Tawhirimatea, o Tangotango.) Tiwakawaka was the first ancestor to dwell in this land. He was a grandson of Maui. He was the original ancestor of all the ancient tribes who dwelt here. The following tribes all sprang from him:—

Ngati-Ngainui

Te Tuoi

Te Tini o Te Makahua

Te Tini o Te Marangaranga

Te Rarauhe-turukiruki

Te Rarauhe-maemae

Te Tawa-rarau-ririki

Te Tururu-mauku

Te Tini o Te Kokomuka-tu-tarawhare

Te Tini o Te Kawerau

Te Raupo-ngaueue

Te Tira-maaka

Te Patupaiarehe.

In after-times it was Maku who came from Hawaiki and landed at Whakatane, where he lived a while with the people of Tiwakawaka, and then returned to Hawaiki. The saying of Maku

[Footnote] * “Journal of the Polynesian Society,” vol. i., p. 217.

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was this: “Tiwakawaka i te pae tuarua o Aotea-roa.” So Maku returned whence he came, nor did he ever come back to these shores; hence the old-time saying, Maku hokinga tahi. And the descendants of Tiwakawaka dwelt here even unto the time of Toi, who also sprang from Tiwakawaka, and to the time when the new people came from Hawaiki in “Matatua” and other canoes. I say that Tiwakawaka did not dwell in Hawaiki; his home was that of Pani. (Kihai a Tiwakawaka i noho ki tena kainga, ki Hawaiki. No Pani tona kainga.)

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According to various lines of descent, it would appear that the Polynesians have inhabited New Zealand for about nine hundred years, calculating on the basis of twenty-five years to a generation.

I am of opinion that Maku was a voyager who did not remain on these shores, or we should hear of his descendants,* and that he visited New Zealand at a time when the offspring of Tiwaka-waka had increased and multiplied to such an extent as to occupy most of the North Island, if not the South also; for traditions preserved by the Ngatiawa Tribe assert that Maku found the land occupied “from one end to the other.” Ngatiawa say that Maku came to this land of Aotearoa borne by a taniwha (water-demon), which, I take it, is equivalent to the admission that they do not know the name of his canoe.

Te Papa-titi-raumaewa, the mother of Tiwakawaka, married her father's brother, Maui-mua. This is probably the reason why native tradition asserts that incest originated with Maui. Another version has—

Maui mua = Papa-tu-rangi
Tiwakawaka = Haumia-nui

Rangimatoru.”

The “Rangimatoru” canoe was another old-time vessel which reached these shores before the coming of the “Arawa” and sister-vessels, but at a time long subsequent to the arrival of the “Aratauwhaiti.”

The “Rangimatoru” canoe came to land at Ohiwa. The principal man on board is said to have been one Hape, or, to give him his full name, Hape-ki-tu-manui-o-te-rangi, who is said to have wandered down to the South Island, where he died, a tradition which is supported by legendary evidence of the South Island tribes. Te Hoka-o-te-rangi is also said to have come to New Zealand on the “Rangimatoru.” Some assert that this vessel was really the “Kurahaupo” canoe which had been abandoned by her crew as unseaworthy, and which was patched up by others and brought to New Zealand. If the Hapu-oneone Tribe of Te Waimana were descended from “Rangimatoru” migrants, then that canoe must have arrived long before the “Matatua,” which latter vessel brought the original crew (or a portion thereof) of “Kurahaupo” to Whangaparaoa; for the Hapu-oneone were assuredly an ancient people of the Bay of Plenty district. If, however, the genealogies, given by many

[Footnote] * “Ka hoki a Maku ki Hawaiki, tona whakatauki tenei. Hoki ake nei a Maku, to ake te tatau ki te whare. Oti tonu atu ki Hawaiki tera tipuna, kihai i hoki mat.”

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natives, of Te Hapu-oneone and Hape apply to the same man, then it is clear that the “Rangimatoru” must have arrived about the same time as the fleet of “Matatua,” “Te Arawa,” &c., as the following line will show:—

Te Hapu-oneone

Te Po-tu-mai

Te Po-tahuri-ke

Te Po-ka-rapa-ke

Te Rake

Tikitiki

Hape

Rawaho Tamarau

Hapai-ariki

Ngariki

Ariki-kore

Tirama-roa

Te Whakatangata

Tama-a-mutu

Whetu-roa

Te Kapo-o-te-rangi

Te Umu-ki-marau

Te Tapu

Tama-te-karonga

Te Whakautauta

Rukuwai

Te Haurehe

Taonga-uru

Uetahu

Hinekura

Te Wakaunua

Wati

Piripi (five years, 1902).

Tumutara, of Ngatiawa, stated to me that the “Rangimatoru” canoe belonged to Hape and Tikitiki-o-te-rangi, and seemed to imply that some of the “Aratawhao's” crew returned on board her. Another tradition of Ngatiawa contains a singular statement which would seem to mean that the canoes “Rangimatoru” and “Te Paepae-ki-Rarotonga” belonged to these original people of the Bay of Plenty, and that they accompanied “Te Aratawhao” to Hawaiki in quest of the coveted kumara.

Whether Hape was or was not the origin of the Hapu-oneone Tribe, it is certain that those people were some of the ancient inhabitants of the Bay of Plenty district, and were a numerous people when the historical fleet of canoes, “Te Arawa,” “Matatua,” &c., arrived from Hawaiki. They occupied the district from Ohiwa across to Ruatoki.

Oturereao.”

The “Oturereao” canoe is another vessel about which we have very scant information, though the late chief Rakuraku, of Te Waimana, could have thrown some light thereon, inasmuch as he was a person possessed of much knowledge of Maori traditions, and was also a descendant of Tairongo, the chief of

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the “Oturereao” canoe, from whom the Tairongo Tribe of Ohiwa derived their name.

This canoe made the land at Ohiwa, where her crew settled. It is said that she arrived about the time of the historic migration, and that she brought the aute shrub (paper-mulberry) to this land. Colonel Gudgeon states that Taikehu was the chief of the “Oturereao” canoe, and that Tairongo was chief of the people of Ohiwa when the vessel made the port. Hamilton, in his “Maori Art,” gives “Oturereroa” as the name of a vessel which reached these shores from Hawaiki. This is probably a misprint.

I am inclined to think that my Ngatiawa informants are right, and that Tairongo was chief or “Oturereao,” for they say of him, “Tairongo belonged to Hawaiki-nui. He was an important chief of that land, as also was Rongoatau. They lived at Te Whakao, at Hawaiki-nui.”

Nukutere.”

This is another little-known canoe which reached these shores probably about the time of the coming of the “Matatua,” or perhaps before, as the name is not coupled with that of the latter, as it would be if she was a member of the noted fleet.

The descendants of those who came in “Nukutere” are to be found among the Tuhoe Tribe, and those tribes living on the eastern shores of the Bay of Plenty as far as Ngatiporou.

Captain Mair states that Ngatorohaka came in “Nukutere,” and gives a genealogy from him, twenty generations to the present time.*

Ngatiawa state that “Nukutere” made the land at Waiaua, and that among her crew were seven persons bearing the name of Tamatea. Also that one Roau came by that canoe, and brought hither the karaka (tree), the ti (Cordyline), and the taro, the two latter being known as Te Huri a Roau. The name of the ti was Whakaruru-matangi; it was planted at Pokerekere. The karaka was cultivated at Wai-o-weka.

Tamatea-nukuroa appears to have been the chief man of “Nukutere.” His children were Roau, Rangiwaka, and Nga Tai-e-rua. His descendants are among the Whakatane Tribe of Te Waimana, and elsewhere. He appears to have been also known as Tamatea-kai-haumi, Tamatea-mai-tawhiti, and Tama-tea-pokai-whenua. He is said to have lived for some time at Te Wera, but died at Waikato. One Tunamu is also said to have come in “Nukutere” from Hawaiki, but a genealogy given of him by Manihera Maiki does not support the statement.

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxviii., p. 36.

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Whironui is also said to have been a member of the crew of “Nukutere” by some, but my informants maintain that he came in “Horouta.” If so, then he cannot have been identical with that Whiro who is said to have been the elder brother of Toroa of “Matatua,” for “Horouta” probably reached these shores some five or six generations before either “Nukutere” or “Matatua.”

Te Paepae-ki-Rarotonga.”

Of this vessel very little is known, save that Waitaha-ariki-Kore was the chief thereof, and after whom Te Kauae-o-Wai-taha, a place at Rurima, is named. The canoe is said to be lying at Tara-o-muturangi. Ngatiawa expressly state that this vessel arrived before the coming of “Matatua,” and it is said to have been a very tapu craft; hence the place where it lay, or was abandoned, was used as a burial-place.

Waitaha married Hine-te-ariki, of the ancient Tini-o-Tuoi Tribe, and was an ancestor of Tuwhare-toa-i-te-au-pouri, of Kawerau, from whom the present people of Taupo derive their tribal name.

The “Paepae-ki-Rarotonga” landed at Tara-o-muturangi, near Matata, in the Bay of Plenty. According to Colone' Gudgeon the Rarotongan natives have a tradition concerning a canoe called “Te Paepae-o-Rarotonga.”

Tuwhenua.”

The “Tuwhenua” canoe is not generally known in this district (Bay of Plenty), but some of Ngatiira, of Opotiki, state that Tamatea came from Hawaiki in that vessel, and that he found a tribe of aborigines living at Motu on his arrival.

Tahu-upoko.”

This has been given to me as the name of a canoe which one Kupe came in, but nothing appears to be known of it. The people of these parts confuse the ancient voyager Kupe with Kupe of the Takitumu people, albeit the latter flourished at a much later period.

Horouta.”

I shall have but little to say concerning this vessel, inasmuch as the traditions connected with her have already been published. “Horouta” seems to have arrived here some five or six generations before the fleet (“Te Arawa,” “Tainui,” “Matatua,” &c.). Some of her crew remained here, and their descendants may be found among the Ngatiporou, Tuhoe, Ngatihau, and other tribes. Among the crew are said to have been Whiro-nui, Te Poutama, Iri-a-rangi, Te Kahu-takiri; Te Rakaupango, Te Kotore-o-hua, and one Whiro-tipua. On this

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vessel, it is said, came a number of black-skinned men, who spake a different language to that of the Maori people. These black people were known as Ngai-Tamawhiro among the Maori, and are said to have been the tribe or descendants of one Whiro, but whether Whiro-nui or Whiro-tupua is meant is not clear. These people were probably Mclanesians of Fiji. They lived near Matata, but gradually became extinct, or lost to view, probably through intermarriage with the Maori.

In addition to the crews of the above canoes, there are also traditions of other old-time voyagers who visited these shores in times long passed away, but whose names only are retained. Of these, the most widely known is Ngahue, who visited New Zealand prior to the coming of the historic fleet. He is said to have seen the moa here. Another was Tama-i-waho, also known as Puhao-rangi, who came to New Zealand in the time of Toi (see genealogy). His descendants here are well known. One Irakewa also appears to have reached the Bay of Plenty, just prior to the arrival of the fleet, in some unrecorded manner. A huge rock on the summit of Maunga-pohatu is known as Te Tapapatanga o Irakewa. Irakewa is said to have returned to Hawaiki, and from his descriptions and directions the crew of “Matatua” were enabled to reach Whakatane. There is much mystery concerning Irakewa and his movements. Some of Ngatiawa say that he was a descendant of Toi:—

This Toroa was the chief of the “Matatua” canoe which reached New Zealand with the historic fleet about eighteen or twenty generations ago. Irakewa may have been a descendant of Toi of New Zealand, but, if so, he must have gone to Hawaiki about the time that “Te Aratawhao” made her famous voyage to Polynesia. Awa-morchurehu is said to have been a member of the crew of that canoe. Our most learned man among Tuhoe states that Awa-morehurchu was the father of Irakewa, which would be much more credible.

Taneatua was another old-time wanderer who reached this land somewhere about the time of the arrival of “Matatua,”

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but who is never given as a member of the crew of that vessel. His descendants are numerous among the Tuhoe Tribe.

Another old-time voyager was Pou-rangahua, of Turanga, Poverty Bay, he who married Kanioro, a sister of Taukata, of whom more anon. Puketapu, of Waikare-moana, states that Pou came in “Horouta,” but that is not credible if he was a contemporary of Taukata and Hoaki. Pou was a chief of the ancient people of Turanga, and he went to Hawaiki—that is to say, to the isles of the north—in order to obtain the kumara. It is not known how Kanioro reached New Zealand. She may have come with her brothers, who brought the knowledge of the kumara to the Toi tribes of Whakatane, though Puketapu maintains that she came with Pou on “Horouta.” The singular legend of Pou-rangahua and his adventurous trip hither from. Hawaiki on “Rua-kapanga” I have recorded elsewhere. It may also be found in that most modern classic tome, “Maori Lore,” the production of one Izett, who inserted it, without acknowledgment and wofully garbled, in that eccentric and ridiculous work.

Tamarau-apu was another voyager to New Zealand from the isles of Polynesia in times long passed away, but of whom little is known at the present time:—

This Mahoihoi was a contemporary of Waitaha-ariki-kore of the “Paepac-ki-Rarotonga” canoe.

Poutini is said to have been one of the earliest visitors to New Zealand, but his name and doings are so surrounded by myth that no clear account concerning him can be given. He is sometimes said to have been the discoverer of the greenstone, while many speak of him as being the personification of that prized stone.

Although we have no knowledge of any migrants arriving here since the famous fleet of from eighteen to twenty generations ago, yet Cook's interpreter understood certain Maoris to say that, subsequent to the arrival of their ancestors in New Zealand, some canoes had arrived from an island called Ulimaroa.

The Ngatiporou Tribe have a tradition that some of their ancestors left New Zealand to search for the Hawaikian fatherland, but were never again heard of. Shortland, in his essay published in the first volume of the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” mentions a canoe which left Tauranga in the last century, and sailed boldly forth into the Pacific Ocean in search of Hawaiki.

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Te Aratawhao.”

Voyage of the “Aratawhao” Canoe to Hawaiki in order to obtain the Kumara.

I will now give a short account of the most important event in the history of the Bay of Plenty tribes—viz., the introduction of the kumara, or sweet-potato, whereby the lot of the aboriginal tribes was much improved. Previous to that important event the natives had but one cultivated plant, the hue, or gourd, which was, however, a very poor article of food, and could only be eaten in the early stages of its growth—i.e., in the kotawa state. The vegetable foods of the aboriginal tribes were principally fern-root, mamaku, berries, various plants used as greens, also the young undeveloped leaves of various Cordyline, and the tap roots of at least one variety of Cordyline. Of these, the principal item was the aruhe, or fern-root, which was the great stand-by of the aborigines. Presumably the first settlers in New Zealand did not bring seed sweet-potatoes with them, although they brought seeds of the gourd, and also introduced dogs of the ruarangi breed.

About twenty generations ago the old-time fort Kapu-te-rangi, whose earthen walls still crown the cliffs of Whakatane, was inhabited by the descendants of Toi, among whom one Tama-ki-hikurangi was probably the most important chief. These people were known by the tribal names of Te Hapu-one-one, Te Tini-o-awa, &c. And it fell upon a certain fine morn that one Kura-whakaata, a daughter of Tama-ki-hikurangi, was walking on the beach, or bank of the river, beneath the pa mentioned, when she espied two strange men lying upon a rock hard by the river-side, and also heard them repeating the following invocation in order to cause the sun to shine brightly, and thereby warm their chilled frames, for they had undergone much hardship from exposure in their long canoe voyage from the isles of Polynesia:—

Upoko! Upoko! Whiti te ra
Tenei to wahine te aitia nei
E te aoao nunui, e te aoao roroa
Tu atu te makariri
Haramai te werawera
Haere mai te mahana
Torohei!

The following being a different version of the same:—

Upane! Kaupane! Whiti te ra
Tenei to wahine te aitia nei
E te ngarara nunui, e te ngarara roroa
Upoko! Upoko! Whiti te ra.

These two men were brothers named Taukata and Hoaki, sons of one Rongoatau of far Hawaiki, and they had made the long

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and adventurous voyage to this land in a canoe named “Nga Tai-a-kupe,” which is said to have been a waka pungapunga (pungapunga canoe), whatever that may have been. I should not think that pumice-stone (pungapunga) would make a very seaworthy vessel.

Now, as Taukata was subsequently slain at Whakatane, and his brother Hoaki returned home to Hawaiki on “Te Aratawhao,” it follows that no genealogy from them is now known; but we have various lines from their sister Kanioro, who, as stated above, married Pou-rangahua of Turanga. The four names given were all children of Rongo-a-tau, a chief of a Polynesian people dwelling at a place named Te Whakao, at Ha-waiki-nui:—

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When the strangers had finished their prayers, Te Kura-whakaata asked, “From whence do you come?” They replied, “We come from Hawaiki, from Mataora.” “So came these voyagers to Kakaho-roa, which was the ancient name of Whakatane, the name our ancestors gave it in times long passed away, long before the canoes arrived which brought hither the new people, the Maori who now dwell in Aotearoa.”

Even so, the worn-out voyagers were conducted by Te Kura to Ka-pu-te-rangi, the fortress home of her father, Tama-ki-hikurangi, and his people. As Te Kura entered the ancient fort of Toi, she cried, “He manuhiri kei ahau, Te Hapu-oneone, E!” And the people were disturbed in their minds at this announcement, not knowing what this visit of strangers from a far land might portend. But they turned to prepare food for their guests, the foods of the men of old—fern-root, mamaku, and ti (Cordyline), and roots of the raupo, and earthworms. Then was heard the resounding blows of many mallets as the women crushed the fern-root. Taukata asked, “What is the loud sound we hear?” And Tama replied, “It is Haumia-roa.” (Haumia-roa is a sort of emblematical term for fern-root.) When the prepared food was placed before the voyagers they showed no great appreciation of it. Taukata said, “The prized food of Hawaiki has arrived in Aotearoa.” He demanded that a bowl of water be brought, and he then took from his belt (tatua pupara, the pocket of the old-time Maori) some dried kumara, which he pulverised and stirred into the gourd of water, the result being a sort of mush, which he offered to his hosts, who were delighted with the new article of food. They inquired, “How may this food be obtained?” Taukata replied, “By means of a canoe. You must construct a canoe and visit Hawaiki, where you will obtain the kumara.” Now, the original people of New Zealand at that time seem to have given up the making of large sea-going canoes; anyhow, they put the matter into the hands of their visitors, who were asked to build a canoe for the purpose. This would seem to mean that the vessel by which Hoaki and his brother had come to Aotearoa had either been rendered unseaworthy or was too small for the required purpose. Anyhow, the visitors found a fine totara-tree stranded on the river-bank at Opihi, just across the river, and opposite the present Township of Whakatane. Of this they made a large canoe which was named “Te Ara-tawhao,” so called because it was made from drift timber (ta-whaowhao). The vessel was hewn out with stone tools named Te Manokuha, Te Waiheke, Te Whao-tapu-nui-a-tane, and Wa-rawara-tai-o-tane. Taukata said, “You must go far across the seas to obtain the kumara. You must go to Pari-nui-te-ra

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and to Ngaruru-kai-whatiwhati, where you will obtain the best seed, such as the toroa-mahoe.”

While “Te Aratawhao” was being prepared for her long voyage Pou-rangahua seems to have been present at Wha-katane. He said, “Do not let our canoe sail forth until I have visited my child Kahukura, at Kirikino. When the sun rises he puts out his tongue in that direction; hence I believe that in that direction can be found suitable food for his mother—that is, to cause her to give milk freely.” But when Pou returned from his visit home to Turanga he found that the “Aratawhao” had sailed for Hawaiki without him. Hence he took steps to reach Hawaiki on his own account; but we will leave the relation of his weird adventures on that trip for another time, and follow the fortunes of “Te Aratawhao,” the vessel of Te Hapu-oneone, which crossed the wide seas to the distant isles of Polynesia.

Of those who formed the crew of “Te Aratawhao,” I give below such names as have been preserved. Among them was Hoaki, brother of Taukata, one of the voyagers who brought tidings of the kumara to the Hapu-oneone of Whakatane, or, as it was then called, Kakaho-roa.

Crew of “Te Aratawhao” (Portion only).

Tama-ki-lukurangi (chief person on board)

Hoaki (taken as a pilot)

Tama-rakei-ora

Whata-kiore

Taunga

Te Puka

Te Whatu-iria

Awa-hei-nui

Awa-morehurehu

Tatapuku

Tama-ki-te-ra

Awa-hei-roa

Tahu-o-rehua

Mawake

Te Whatu-potango

Nuku-taria

Tikitiki-o-te-rangi

Ira-te-wehenga

Te Whatu-pouri

Kanae-puku.

Taukata remained at Whakatane, possibly on account of his sisters Kanioro and Tuturi-whatu* having settled in New Zealand, but Hoaki went on the “Aratawhao” to act as a guide for her crew to the far-off isles of Polynesia. Taukata and his brother are said to have supervised the building of “Te Aratawhao.” It is probable that the Hapu-oneone had forgotten the art of building sea-going vessels at that time.

When “Te Aratawhao” was ready for sea, and about to leave Whakatane, Puhi-ariki proposed that Tama-ki-hikurangi be left behind, that they should sail without him, lest disaster befall the voyagers. This fear was perhaps caused by Tama's wellknown

[Footnote] * Or Tuturu-whatu.

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powers of magic, for he was a noted tohunga (priest, warlock, magician, shaman), and was high priest of the famous pouahu, or sacred place, at Whakatane. Tama heard of the above project, and declined to be left behind. He also managed to give his fellow-voyagers a fright. He bored a hole in the bottom of the canoe, and when they had lost sight of land pulled out the plug with which he had stopped the hole. The water flowed in until the crew became alarmed, nor could they find the baler until Tama, who had concealed it, produced it. He had also caused the wind and sea to rise by means of his magic rites (ka hikaia te hau, me te kino o te moana).

So the famed “Aratawhao” sailed forth from Whakatane upon the sea of Toi, and headed for the far-away isles of Polynesia. And this was the act which caused such an important change in the lives and domestic economy of the old-time people of New Zealand. For by the acquisition of the kumara they became an agricultural people, and by their voyage to Hawaiki they were the cause of the famous historic fleet of “Te Arawa,” “Tainui,” “Matatua,” “Aotea,” &c., coming to New Zealand. Had these people known that ere long they would lose their old-time power and prestige through the coming of a more energetic class of Polynesians, it is probable that Taukata and Hoaki would have met with a different reception than that accorded them, and that the title of “Wood-eaters” would have been applicable to the descendants of Toi for many more years.

But these old Vikings wot not of the buffetings which fate held in store for them, so sailed they across the great ocean to the home of their visitors. Still does the voyage of “Te Arata-whao” live in song and story among the descendants of Toi, the Wood-eater, and still they recite the tales of daring deeds performed by their ancestors in the days of the long ago.

After the long voyage across the Great Ocean of Kiwa, the “Aratawhao,” battered and worn from her long cruise, arrived at Hawaiki, the home of Rongoatau, father of Taukata and Hoaki, who lived at Te Whakao.

On arriving at Hawaiki, Hoaki visited one Maru-tai-ranga-ranga, a chief of those parts, who greeted him with the following song:—

E hika' E hika!
Ka uea koe i runga te ata ura
Ki runga te ata mea
Maku e ki atu, pikitia e koe
I runga te ngaru nui
I runga te ngaru roa
Waerea e koe i tai
Ka pupuke i runga o te Moana nui a Kiwa
E takoto nei

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Hurihanga a ngaru
Ki waho ki te moana
Turua mai e koe
Ki a Tu-hikitia, ki a Tu-hapainga
Aua mai nuku, aua mai rangi
Rukuhia e koe i te ruku i te kawau
Koia te rangi e tu nei—e—i.

As the people gathered round to greet him, Hoaki said to Maru, “Sir, I have a party with me.” “Who are they?” inquired Maru. “They are the descendants of Toi.” “For what purpose have they come?” “They tasted the dried kumara that we took with us, hence they have come to obtain the seed for planting.”

So the voyagers obtained their seed, which was procured at Pari-nui-te-ra and at Ngaruru-kai-whatiwhati.

Below are given some of the incantations and spells used by the crew of the “Aratawhao”:—

Ka kikaia ko te hau.

Hika atu ra taku ahi
Ki te hau e riri mai nei
E rotu mate, rotu mate aio he
Tawaha ana ra
Te hau e riri mai nei
E rotu mate, rotu mate, aio he
He marangai te hau
E riri mai nei
Haere i tua, haere i a moana nui
Haere i a moana roa
Haere i a moana te takiritia
Ki te whai ao, ki te ao marama.

The above spell is termed a rotu; it is recited in order to calm the angry surges, to calm the boisterous winds. The following is termed a tata; it is repeated while a canoe is being baled out when at sea:—

Pa atu hoki taku tata
Ki te riu tapu nui o te waka
E haere nei
Rei kura, rei ora
Rei ora te mahaki
Ka turuturua, ka poupoua
Ki tawhito o te rangi—e.

The following is the awa of “Te Aratawhao.” The awa is an incantation used in order to render the course of a canoe calm and easy to pursue—to smooth the way for her. The word awa bears the meaning of “channel, course of a vessel”:—

Tu mai awa, tu mai awa
Ko koe kai (kei) takahia noatia e au
Ta peau nuku, ta peau rangi
(or tupe au nuku, tupe au rangi)

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Whati ki runga, whati ki raro
Ma uru marara
Pera hoki ra taku manu nui na Tano
Ka tatau atu ki roto nuku ngaere
Mai a whiwhia, mai a rawea
Mai a whakatakaia
Ka taka te huki rawea
Koro i runga, koro i raro
Koro i Tawhirimatea
Ki kona hoki koe tu mai ai
Ka hura te tamatea nunui
Ka hura te tamatea roroa
Te kauwaka nuku, te kauwaka rangi
Te ai a nuku, te ai a rangi
Te kura mai hukihuki
Te kaweau tetere
Kawea a nuku, kawea a tai
Oi! Tumatakokiritia
Hoatu waka ki uta
Hoatu waka ki waho
Ngaru hinga atu, ngaru hinga mai
I runga te tama-wahine
I raro te tama-tane
Huki nawenawe
Tenei te awa ka whakairi
Ko irirangi te waka
Ko irirangi te tangata.

Such was the awa of “Te Aratawhao,” which smoothed her path across the great waters, and sped her on her way.

Here followeth the ruruku of the “Aratawhao,” which is a spell recited in order to “bind” a vessel, to keep her seaworthy, &c.:—

Ka timata te ruruku o te waka, ka rukutia te kei o te waka, me te ihu.

Rukutia
Rukutia te waka c haere nei
Rukutia te kei matapupum
Rukutia te ihu mata pupum o Tane
Hukutia i te kowhao tapu nui o Tane
Rukutia i te mata tapu nui o Tana
Rukutia i te rauawa tapu nm o Tane
O te waka e haere nei
Tumatakokintia
Rei kura, rei ora
Rei ora te mahaki—e
Ka turuturua, ka poupoua
Ki tawhito o te rangi—e
E manawa mai ao—e
Hoatu waka ki uta.

In regard to the return of these voyagers from the shores of Hawaiki, native authorities of the Whakatane district are unanimous in stating that the “Aratawhao” never returned to New Zealand, but that she was abandoned or left at Hawaiki

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with Hoaki. But her crew returned here on the “Matatua” canoe, and, so say some, also on the “Takitumu,” which latter is doubtful. If the “Takitumu” canoe was contemporary with “Horouta,” then she obtained some six generations or so before the time of Tama-ki-hikurangi and “Te Aratawhao.” Ngatiawa state that on the arrival of “Te Aratawhao” at Hawaiki the people there were attracted by the accounts of New Zealand, hence many of them migrated hither, bringing with them the crew of the “Aratawhao.” This migration was the historic one of “Te Arawa,” “Tainui,” “Aotea,” “Matatua,” and other vessels, and took place about the fourteenth century. Some assert that the crew of the “Aratawhao” made a prolonged stay at Hawaiki prior to returning to Whakatane. If Irakewa visited New Zealand before “Matatua” arrived, then he must have come after Taukata arrived, for it was the latter's visit here that caused the excitement about the kumara. The “Matatua” canoe was constructed expressly for the purpose of bringing a number of Polynesian migrants to New Zealand, as also the “Aratawhao” crew. It also brought seed kumara to Whakatane, and this was the undoing of our old friend Taukata; for when the men of Whakatane obtained the seed kumara at the hands of their Hawaikian friends, the latter said to them, “When you arrive home be careful in the storing of your seed, and when it is placed in the store, then conduct our friend Taukata into the storehouse, and there slay him, even that his blood be spilt within, and do you also sprinkle his blood upon the door, kei hoki mai te kura ki Hawaiki, lest the mauri of the kumara return to Hawaiki.” Even so was Taukata, the bold Polynesian voyager, slain as a sacred human sacrifice to the gods of the Maori. And for many years after the skull of Taukata was brought from the cave in which it was kept, in the planting season, and deposited on the edge of the cultivation, and in each eye-socket was placed a seed kumara, while the officiating priest performed certain rites in order to cause the crop to be a plentiful one, and to prevent the mauri—that is to say, the vitality, or vital essence, or fertility—of the kumara from returning to Hawaiki.

Tama-ki hikurangi acted as pilot for the “Matatua” canoe on the voyage from Hawaiki to Whakatane.

Toroa, the commandant of “Matatua,” is said to have married a granddaughter of Rongoatau at Hawaiki, but found another wife when he came to Whakatane.

Rongoatau

Tuturu-whatu

Iri-a-rangi = Toroa = Te Paerere-i-waho.

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But other authorities give—

Now, if, as is stated, Awa-morehurehu was a member of the crew of “Te Aratawhao,” and the above is correct, then that crew must have remained at Hawaiki long enough for Awa to marry and raise children to man's estate. But of the “Matatua” canoe and its story we have but little now to do, and will leave it for a future paper. Sufficient is it for this paper to place on record a most remarkable voyage made by the original people of New Zealand, members of a race of bold sea-rovers who were making voyages of thousands of miles across the Pacific at a time when our forefathers dared not lose sight of land.