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Volume 38, 1905
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Art. XXXIV.—Results of Dredging on the Continental Shelf of New Zealand.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 4th October, 1905.]


This article is a sequel to Mr. Hedley's paper under the same heading and in this volume. All the shells here enumerated were obtained together with those described by Mr. Hedley and the Rev. W. H. Webster.

1. Philine constricta, n. sp. Plate XXI, fig. 1.

Shell small, thin, convolute, imperforate, spirally grooved, auriform, slightly contracted above. Sculpture consists of shallow fine spiral grooves, leaving broader bands between them, crossed by irregularly arranged incremental lines. Colour white. Spire concave. Protoconch minute, smooth. Whorls 1½, very rapidly increasing, the last very large, contracted below the vertex. Aperture elongately oval, acuminate above. Outer lip sharp, lowly convex, microscopically transversely striated inside; lower lip regularly rounded. Inner lip forming a broadly spread callosity upon the body, narrow on the concave oblique and twisted columella. Altitude, 5 mm.; diameter, 3 mm.

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Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs Two dead shells were obtained. By its distinct spiral oranamentation, the elongate form, and small size it is well characterized.

2. Philine umbilicata, n. sp. Plate XXI, fig. 2.

Shell small, oval, truncate above, umbilicated. Sculpture inconspicuous, distant very fine microscopial lines are crossed by irregular curved and very fine growth-lines. Colour white. Spire slightly immersed. Protoconch minute, smooth. Whorls 2, very rapidly increasing, the last truncated above, rounded at the base, narrowed and flatly convex above. Aperture elongated-oval, slightly excavated above by the body-whorl, broad and open toward the base. Outer lip thin, sharp, almost straight for the upper two-thirds, then forming a regular arch with the convex basal lip. Inner lip forming a rather broad but very thin callosity upon the body, inconspicuous on the columella, which descends with a rather sharp margin, but slightly excavated, to the basal lip. Umbilicus patulous, distinct. Altitude, 3·5 mm.; diameter, 2·25 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. Four dead shells. This species is distinguished by the almost total absence of spiral sculpture and the presence of a distinct umbilicus, which is an exception in this genus.

3. Cylichna pygmæa, A. Adams.

Bulla (Cylichna) pygmœa, A. Adams, Thes. Conch., vol. ii, p. 595, pl. cxxv, fig. 150, 1850; Man. Conch. (1), vol. xv, p. 319, pl. lix, fig. 9. Cylichna atkinsoni, T.-Woods, P.R.S. Tasm., 1876, p. 156.

One dead shell only, which agrees with specimens from Tasmania and South Australia.

4. Cylichna thetidis, Hedley.

Memoirs Austral. Mus., iv, part 6, pp. 395–96, fig. 111 in text, 1903.

One dead shell turned up; the specimen was identified by Mr. Hedley, who informed us that two more from New Zealand dredgings were in his possession.

5. Cylichna simplex, n. sp. Plate XXI, figs. 3, 4.

Shell small, subcylindrical, involute, imperforate, thin and glossy. The sculpture consists of exceedingly fine growth-striæ, with here and there faintly marked growth-periods; the axial

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striæ are crossed by equally fine microscopic spiral lines, in places scarcely perceptible. Colour white. Spire sunken, concave, broad and deep, with a minute dome-shaped projection arising from and closing the axial perforation. Protoconch showing as a minute globular central point. Aperture as long as the shell, narrow above, expanded and slighty effuse below. Outer lip almost straight, sharp, rounded at both ends. Inner lip spread as a thin callus over the inner wall, thickening upon the columella, which is uniformly curved and has a slightly reflected rounded margin; the fold imperceptible. Altitude, 4·38 mm.; diameter, 2·21 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A fair number of dead shells were found. In dimensions and contour this species is near to C. striata, Hutt., but the very different form of the columella at once distinguishes it.

6. Tornatina pachys, Watson.

Utriculus (Tornatina) pachys, Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xvii, p. 331, 1883; “Challenger” Reports, vol. xv, p. 660, pl. xlix, fig. 8.

A young shell, measuring 3·2 mm. by 1·6 mm., was found, which may be Watson's species, but differing from it in the slightly raised top and more distinct spiral striation. In all other characters the specimen agrees with Watson's diagnosis and figure. The differences may be due and peculiar to the neanic stage of the species.

7. Ringicula delecta, n. sp. Plate XXI, fig.5.

Shell small, oval-globular, imperforate, with a relatively short conoidal spire, somewhat thin. The sculpture consists of fine slightly variable spirals which somewhat strengthen upon the base, and are a little wider than the grooves; there are eight to ten upon the penultimate whorl, and thirty to forty upon the last, nine to twelve in front of the aperture. These spirals are crossed by close irregular incremental striæ, which in places cut the spirals into minute gemmules, and when prominent produce a lightly costate appearance. Colour white, fresh specimens vitreous. Spire shorter than the aperture, acute, terminating in a sharp apex. Protoconch of about two whorls, the nucleus minute, slightly raised, smooth, the second turn microscopically decussate. Whorls 5, rounded, the last proportionately large, globular, and with convex base. Suture impressed, not channelled. Aperture vertical, semi-lunar, angled above, sinuated and with a very short open canal, notched at the base. Outer lip convex, straightened at the periphery,

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regularly arched below, sharp. Inner lip forming a well-defined callus on the body, with one or two low tubercles; columella short, vertical, stoutly callused and with two strong rounded folds, the lower of which is largest, and forms with the end of the columella a prominent rounded point. Altitude, 4·35 mm; diameter, 2·9 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. This pretty little species was represented by a fair number of dead shells amongst our dredgings. It is very distinct and rather more thin than usual in this genus. This is the first species of Ringicula recorded from New Zealand waters.

8. Solidula alba, Hutton.

Buccinulus albus, Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N.Z., p. 51, 1873.

A few young and imperfect dead shells, which are exceedingly friable.

9. Actæon craticulatus, n. sp. Plate XXI, fig. 6.

Shell small, oval, whitish, subperforate, cancellated, with a basal fold upon the columella. Sculpture consists of well-impressed spiral grooves of rather irregular width, with interstices of nearly the same breadth, though in some specimens they are distinctly broader. This spiral sculpture is very variable. There are subequidistant axial threads cutting up the spiral furrows into oblong squares. Colour of most specimens (all dead shells) white; a few specimens only show purple coloration on the body-whorl, leaving a white band below the suture. Spire conical, acuminate, less than half the length of the shell. Protoconch paucispiral, not distinctly separated from the succeeding whorl, lightly corroded in most specimens, nucleus small. Whorls 5, the last of considerable size, slightly angled above, flatly convex, base narrowed and rounded. Suture deep, distinctly canaliculate. Aperture subvertical, elongated-pyriform, produced at the base. Outer lip sharp, very little convex, nearly straight, minutely denticulate, sharply rounded at the base. Inner lip narrow, thin; columella with a moderately large smooth plait situated at the lower third, slightly excavated above, reaching the effuse basal lip in a light curve. A small umbilical chink opposite the tooth. Altitude, 9 mm.; diameter, 4·5 mm. Aperture: length, 5·5 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. About twenty specimens were obtained. The species is distinguished from A. kirki by the cancellated ornamentation and the smooth columella fold.

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10. Daphnella protensa, Hutton. Plate XXI, figs. 7, 8.

Daphnella protensa, Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii, p. 317, 1885 (from the Pliocene of Petane).

Two specimens turned up, which differ from the type by the predominating spiral sculpture and very feeble axial plications. Typically there are delicate spiral threads, but in our specimens there are distinct chords present, which are crossed by flexuous longitudinal striæ. Only the upper whorls are distinctly decussate. The protoconch, consisting of two smooth whorls, is much larger than in fossil specimens from Petane, more bulbose, and with an oblique nucleus.

This form may constitute a new subspecies, but the material at our disposal is too scanty to decide this point with certainty. A figure of this variety and of the protoconch are here given.

11. Mangilia dictyota, Hutton.

Clathurella dictyota, Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xvii, p. 316, 1885 (from the Pliocene of Wanganui and Petane).

Two dead shells which correspond with Hutton's diagnosis; they have the same dimensions, but the anal sinus is more conspicuous and deeper. Usually recent specimens from shallow water are slightly larger.

12. Drillia buchanani, Hutton, subsp. maorum, E. A. Smith.

Surcula buchanani, subsp. maorum, Suter, Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. vi, No. 4, p. 200, 1905.

A few fairly well preserved dead shells were dredged. They are much smaller than the typical form, having a length of 12mm. only, against 21 mm. Similar small examples were also collected by Mr. A. Hamilton, Director of the Colonial Museum, off Otago Heads.

Harris suggested that P. buchanani should be classed with Surcula, but its proper place seems to be under Drillia.

13. Drillia, sp.

Of this form there are two small examples, but in so poor a condition that we hesitate to describe them. The shells apparently are not adult; the sculpture approaching perhaps nearest to the Pliocene fossil Pleurotoma gemmea, Murdoch.*

[Footnote] * Trans N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxii, p. 217, pl. xx, fig 9, 1900.

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14. Drillia optabilis, n. sp. Plate XXI, fig. 9

Shell small, narrow, turriculate, last whorl shorter than the spire, clathrate, aperture pyriform, canal short. Sculpture: On the spire-whorls three spiral equidistant cords, which are crossed by longitudinal also equidistant threads, forming small beads at the intersections, and squarish interstitial depressions; there are about twenty-one beads on a row; on approaching the base the spirals are getting narrower than the interspace, and the beading less prominent; upon the beak there are small irregular threads crossed obliquely by the plications of the old beaks. Colour greyish-white. Spire turriculate, not very conspicuously shouldered, longer than the last whorl. Protoconch: The outer shelly layer has scaled off and it is impossible to give a description; the nucleus is globular and obliquely tilted. Whorls 7, narrowly angled and excavated above, sides almost straight; base convex and narrowed to a short and anteriorly sinuated beak. Suture bimarginate, above by a minute threadlet, below by a broad and heavy cord which is obliquely irregularly plicated. Aperture pyriform, angled above, with a concave inner wall, ending in a short broad canal, which turns slightly to the left. Outer lip curved, imperfect; the lines of growth would indicate that the sinus is situate in the excavation below the sutural cord, that it is small and moderately deep. Inner lip spread as a thin layer narrowly over the body, broader over the columella, which is first straight and then slightly twisted to the left, ending in a sharp point. Altitude, 10·7 mm.; diameter, 3·93 mm.; angle of spire, about 22°.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A single specimen of this beautifully sculptured shell was collected.

15. Drillia (Crassispira) lævis, Hutton.

Pleurotoma lævis, Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N.Z., p. 12, 1873.

Half a dozen much broken examples of this species occur; they are more strongly and rather less numerously plicated than the typical forms from shallower water. However, fossil specimens from the Wanganui Pliocene make a near approach to them. The angle of the spire is 30°, as in the type.

This species should be assigned to the subgenus Crassispira, Swainson, 1840, distinguished from Drillia, s. str., by the short and wide canal, the deeper sinus, paucispiral protoccnch, &c.

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16. Pleurotoma (Hemipleurotoma) nodilirata, nom. mut. Plate XXII, figs. 10, 11

Pleurotoma tuberculata, T. W. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xiv, p. 409, 1882 (not of Gray); Hutton, Plioc. Moll. N.Z., in Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 50, pl. vi, fig. 29, 1893 (not of Gray).

The species, described from a Pliocene specimen, requires a new name, that proposed by Kirk being preoccupied by Gray, and the above is offered. Kirk's description being rather scanty, the following complement is now given, compiled from recent specimens.

Shell fusiform, biconical, with nodulous keeled whorls, pyriform aperture, and short open canal. Sculpture: Last whorl with about sixteen tubercles on the keel, and a similar number of spiral cords below, the upper six of which are widely spaced and narrower than the interspaces; those upon the base and canal are smaller and crowded. Above the aperture is a single chord, which persists on the whorl above, but disappears in the suture of the next whorl. Monilo-spiral threadlets adorn the sinus area, also the tubercles. All the upper whorls, except the protoconch, have tubercles on the keel, and there is a row of small nodules below the suture. The axial sculpture consists of fine rather irregular incremental lines, which, however, become more prominent on the lower whorls, connecting the small tubercles below the suture with the larger ones on the keel. Colour light-cream. Spire conical, about as long as the body-whorl. Protoconch consisting of one and a half to two whorls, nucleus obtuse, smooth, polished, the succeeding volution with minute spiral striæ. Whorls 7, slowly and regularly increasing, with a strong carina below the middle, excavated above and straight below the keel: base convex, ending in a slightly twisted rather short beak. Suture deep and margined below with a row of small elongate gemmules. Aperture pyriform, rather narrow, angular above, terminating in a short open truncated canal, which has a slight turn to the right. Outer lip sharp, strongly angled, and with a well-pronounced rounded sinus at the keel, contracted towards the base. Inner lip forming a very thin obliquely finely striated layer on the body and columella, the latter nearly straight, slightly sinuated and pointed below. Altitude, 19·6 mm.; diameter, 8·5 mm.; angle of spire, 42°.

Type of P. tuberculata, Kirk, in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. No perfect or live specimens were gathered, only a small number of more or less damaged very fragile shells.

Of this species a smaller form occurs, but similarly sculptured,

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and it seems scarcely worth a varietal name. It is also found in the Wanganui blue clay of Pliocene age. The recent specimens are imperfect in outer lip and spire, but with the aid of fossil individuals the accompanying sketch (fig. 11) is derived. The larger type specimens in the Colonial Museum are from the Petane Pliocene; in these, as also in the smaller form, the tubercles are less strong and more numerous than in recent examples.

17. Pleurotoma (Hemipleurotoma) alticincta, n. sp. Plate XXII, figs. 12, 13.

Shell small, turriculate, subcylindrical, with a long spire, deeply sulcate whorls, an oblong aperture which is slightly shorter than the spire, and a short canal. Sculpture: On the upper spire-whorls a few minute spiral striæ, the next with four distinct cinguli, on the succeeding a minute fifth spiral arises at the suture, which on the penultimate strengthens and about equals the adjoining revolving ribs; the cinguli are strong, rounded and adorned with minute spiral threadlets, absent in the grooves; the latter are deep, somewhat square-cut, and narrower than the ribs; the last whorl with ten ribs and a number of minute threadlets upon the back of the canal, added to which are the oblique lines of old beaks; grooves and ribs about equal, but the former sometimes broader as they proceed anteriorly. The longitudinal growth-striæ are minute, slightly irregular in strength, and giving in places (usually upon the upper whorls of the spire) a slightly clathrate appearance. Colour: There is only one young specimen that has a somewhat fresh appearance, it is light horn-coloured; all the others are greyish-white. Spire long, gradate, turriculate, with an obtuse rounded apex. Protoconch of about two convex turns, slopingly shouldered, with minute spirals the precursors of the adult sculpture; nucleus central, depressed-globular, smooth. Whorls 7, flattened, strongly shouldered at the suture, first slowly then more rapidly increasing, the last a little longer than the spire. Suture deep, margined above on the lower whorls. Aperture elongate, somewhat narrow, slightly contracted in front and forming a short open canal, which is truncated and slightly sinuate at the base, bent backward and a little to the left. Outer lip slightly thickened, descending with a light downward sweep, crenulate on the margin; the sinus indistinct, situated on the uppermost cingulum. Inner lip forming a broad callus through which on the body the three cinguli appear as folds, with a distinct edge, which is slightly raised, connected above with the outer lip; columella excavated in

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the middle, drawn out to a point on approaching the anterior beak. Altitude, 15·7 mm.; diameter, 5·75 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. This species is in its sculpture nearly allied to P. septemlirata and trilirata, Harris, from the Eocene of Australia. Three perfect specimens, one not quite adult, and a number of fragments, were obtained, all dead shells.

18. Pleurotoma (Leucosyrinx) augusta, n. sp. Plate XXII, figs. 14—17.

Shell fusiform, slender, fragile, spire and body-whorl of about the same length, whorls with a spiral keel bearing small nodules, canal long. Sculpture: The whorls are strongly keeled at the periphery and with a row of gemmules set slightly oblique thereon, on the last whorl there is a lower smooth keel present; a few inconspicuous spiral striæ are on the area between the keels and on the anterior extremity. The axial sculpture consists of minute and irregular growth-lines only. Colour pure-white, slightly shining. Spire pagodiform, elongated. Protoconch smooth and shining, consisting of about two turns; the nucleus is slightly tilted, and with a distinctly marked smooth carina, which is much strengthened on the succeeding whorl. Whorls 7, regularly and rather slowly increasing, the last biangulate, concave below the keels and produced into a rather long narrow and truncated beak. Suture deep, minutely bimarginate. Aperture angularly ovate, broadly angled above, contracted below and terminating in a rather long open canal, which is somewhat turned to the left. The outer lip has its margin not quite perfect, which perhaps lends to the scarcely fully adult appearance of the shell; it is biangled and concave above, between, and below the angles; sinus broad and moderately deep, extending almost from the suture to the keel. The inner lip spreads as a very thin narrow callus over the concave body and the columella, which is nearly straight and slightly twisted, ending in a fine point on the left margin of the canal. Altitude, 10·32 mm.; diameter, 3·9 mm.; angle of spire, 28°.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. Only two specimens of this graceful little shell were found. It is allied to Pleurotoma alta, Harris (=pagoda, Hutton, non Reeve)*, from which however, it may be readily distinguished by the gemmules on the keel and the distinct carina on the protoconch, both of which characters are absent in the Tertiary fossil.

[Footnote] * Cat. Tert. Moll. Brit. Muss., Australasia, part i, p. 45.

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19. Pleurotoma (Leucosyrinx) eremita, n. sp. Plate XXII, figs. 18, 19.

Shell small, fusiform, fragile, with shouldered whorls, the body-whorl but slightly shorter than the spire, and a rather short open canal. The sculpture consists of longitudinal and spiral threads and riblets, the former inclined slightly backward; they number about fifteen on the penultimate whorl and are obsolete above the angle, absent upon the greater part of the last whorl. The spirals consist of five minute threads on the slope above the angle; beneath the latter there are four much stronger riblets, forming gemmules at the intersections of the longitudinals; the last whorl with about twenty-three spirals, those upon the base and neck more widely spaced, but equally slender as those on the shoulder. Colour light-cream. Spire turriculate-conical, with a blunt apex. Protoconch slightly bulbose, with about two smooth whorls, nucleus globular. Whorls 5, angled at the periphery, straight above, slightly convex below; base convex, then contracted and ending in a short distally rounded beak. Suture deep. Aperture pyriform, broadly angled above, ending in a rather short almost straight canal, slightly turned to the left. Outer lip imperfect, convex above, contracted near the base; it is evident from the growth-lines that the sinus is broad, rounded, and moderately deep, extending almost from the suture to the keel. Inner lip forming a thin and narrow callosity on the almost straight columella, which is slightly twisted at the base. Altitude, 5·8 mm.; diameter, 2·42 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. Of this species there is but a single and not fully adult example, a dead shell, which appears to be allied to P. ischna, Watson, which was obtained in 700 fathoms north-east from New Zealand. Our species is smaller, less slender, with fewer whorls, and has much more numerous and stronger spiral riblets, especially round the periphery of the whorls. The situation of the sinus seems to be the same in both species.

20. Ancilla mucronta, Sowerby.

Spec. Conch., part i, p. 8, figs. 47, 48, 1830.

Two dead shells with a very distinct mucronate apex.

21. Ancilla [ unclear: ] bicolor, Gray.

Jukes' Voy. “Fly,” vol. ii, p. 357, pl. i, fig. 4, 1847.

A fair number of young specimens, only one of them alive.

22. Fulguraria (Alcithoe) gracilis, Swainson.

Exotic Conch., pl. xlii, 1821.

One very good shell was obtained; altitude, 65 mm.

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23. Fulguraria (Alcithoe) hedleyi, n. sp. Plate XXIII, figs. 20, 21.

Shell elongato-fusiform, spire rather long, acuminate, costate, body-whorl smooth, with fine longitudinal zigzag markings, columella with four plaits. Sculpture: The protoconch has one or two spiral threads, the following whorls of the spire are distantly longitudinally costate, the costæ extending over the lower two-thirds of each whorl, ten on a volution; a few costæ are situated on the body above the aperture, but the remainder is smooth; growth-lines are visible on all the whorls, more distinct and close together on the last whorl. With a lens a number of spiral lines may be distinguished below the shoulder of the whorls. Colour: No live specimens having been obtained, it is only possible to guess the colour of the shell, which is most likely light-fulvous; fine longitudinal brown zigzag lines ornament all the whorls, except the protoconch. The spire is much shorter than the aperture, conical, acuminate but obtuse. Protoconch (fig. 21) consists of two slightly bulbous whorls; the nucleus is slightly lateral, smooth; the second whorl has one or two spiral threads. Whorls 7, shouldered, first slowly then rapidly increasing in height. Suture distinct but not impressed, retrocurrent on reaching the aperture. Aperture long and narrow, slightly canaliculated at the upper angle, very slightly narrowed at the base, where it is broadly truncated and sinuated. Outer lip forming a very light curve, nearly straight, thickened and rounded above, thinner near the base, smooth, not expanded. Inner lip thin, shining, broadly expanded on the body and with a few longitudinal striæ, narrower on the columella, which is very slightly excavated near the middle, with four almost equidistant and very oblique strong plaits, all of nearly equal size; columella narrowed into a sharply rounded beak, which extends beyond the basal margin of the outer lip. Altitude, 61 mm.; diameter, 18 mm. Aperture: length, 39 mm.; breadth, 7 mm. Angle of spire, 32°.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. Two specimens, only one adult, were obtained, and they had evidently been buried in the mud for a considerable time. This species is nearly allied to F. gracilis, which attains about the same length, but is much more ovoid, has more numerous costæ on the whorls, and a much wider aperture. Our species has the body-whorl subcylindrical, the zigzag markings much finer and not crowded.

The species is named in honour of Mr. Charles Hedley, of the Australian Museum, Sydney, the originator and leader of our dredging expedition.

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24. Vulpecula (Pusia) biconica, n. sp. Plate XXIII, fig. 22.

Shell very small, biconical, imperforate, a row of nodules on the lower whorls, suture margined, aperture narrow, with four columellar plaits. Sculpture: On the third to fifth whorls there are oblique longitudinal costæ, produced into nodules on the angle of the whorls, below the suture a broad rim, under the nodules of the last whorl two very fine spiral threads and several more towards the base. Colour white, with fulvous on the nodules of the first half of the last whorl, continued in broad zigzag lines down to the base on the second half. Spire conoidal, about half the length of the shell, obtuse. Protoconch formed by one and a half whorls only, papillate, smooth, glossy; nucleus slightly excentric, broadly convex. Whorls 5, rather rapidly increasing, shouldered with about fourteen short nodulous ribs, disappearing shortly before reaching the outer lip; base regularly attenuated. Suture distinct, slightly impressed, broadly margined below. Aperture somewhat oblique, narrow, with subparallel sides, slightly channelled above, produced at the base into a very short broad convexly truncated canal. Outer lip damaged in both specimens, thin. Inner lip forming a whiteenamel layer of moderate width on the concave body and on the columella, which is a little oblique and bears four plaits, the first and second nearly horizontal, the following two oblique; they slightly increase in size from the base upwards. Altitude, 5 mm.; diameter, 2·8 mm. Aperture: length, 2·5 mm.; breadth, 0·6 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A small number of this beautiful shell were obtained. It is much smaller than V. rubiginosa and planata, and at once distinguished by its nodulous ornamentation and the colourmarkings, recalling Alcithoe.

25. Marginella fusula, n. sp. Plate XXIII, figs. 23, 24.

Shell small, rather thin, oval-conic, smooth and glossy, and with a much produced spire. Sculpture consisting of low rounded growth-periods, numerous and irregular, usually more marked on the last half-volution. Colour white, or with a faint yellow tinge; occasionally some indistinct brown markings which form two spots on the outer lip, and seem to indicate the presence of two brown spiral bands on the body-whorl in fresh specimens. Spire produced, a little shorter than the aperture, conical, with an obtuse rounded apex. Protoconch paucispiral, smooth, rounded, nucleus depressed. Whorls 4, flatly convex, the last produced and narrowed anteriorly, with a slight but distinct swelling which proceeds as a pad from opposite the posterior

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plait and sweeps out and forwards. Suture distinct, lightly impressed. Aperture elongate, narrow, subchannelled above, broadly rounded at the base. Outer lip very slightly reflected and thickened, smooth inside, a little retrocurrent at its insertion. Inner lip forming a narrow callus upon the oblique almost straight body; the columella subvertical with four evenly spaced rather thin plaits, the superior short and almost transverse, the next sloping, but less oblique than the succeeding two, the lower of which is a little twisted and margins the very short open canal. Altitude, 6·87 mm.; diameter, 3·1 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A few dead and mostly damaged specimens. It is quite different from all the other hitherto known New Zealand species. From the nearly allied M. allporti, T.-Woods, it is distinguished by the larger size and more slender form, as well as by the absence of denticles on the inner margin of the outer lip, but the indication of brown spiral bands connects it with that species.

26. Marginella hebescens, n. sp. Plate XXIII, figs. 25, 26.

Shell small, moderately solid, suboval, smooth and polished. The sculpture consists of irregular minute and smooth growth-periods. Colour white or pale-creamy, pellucid when fresh. Spire elevated and with a blunt apex, about one-third of the total length of the shell. Protoconch paucispiral, smooth, broadly rounded, with a flat small nucleus. Whorls 4, lightly rounded, the last narrowed at the base and with a distinct swelling curving out and forward from the columella, base convex. Suture rather broadly impressed and submargined below. Aperture longitudinal, narrow, margins subparallel, with an indistinct channel above. Outer lip slightly reflected and thickened, inside smooth, a little retrocurrent at its insertion and with a small distinct sinus. Inner lip narrow on the oblique somewhat convex body; columella slightly oblique, nearly straight, with four equidistant stout plaits, the first transverse, the following two oblique, and the last subvertical and margining the short broad and anteriorly rounded canal. Altitude, 3·8 mm.; diameter, 2·07 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A number of dead shells were obtained. This species also is allied to M. allporti, T.-Woods, but is distinguished from it by the shorter spire and longer aperture, the bluntly rounded apex, the stronger columella-plaits, and absence of all colour-markings.

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27. Cryptospira (Gibberula) ficula, n. sp. Plate XXIV, fig. 27.

Shell very small, subpyriform, smooth and polished, with but very slightly raised spire. Sculpture: Some examples show minute growth-periods, more distinct on approaching the lip. Colour whitish, vitreous in fresh shells. Spire very little elevated, broadly rounded. Protoconch of about one and a half whorls, smooth, flattened, the nucleus but slightly raised. Whorls 3 to 3½, those of the spire very low and narrow, the last occupying nearly the whole of the shell, rounded and lightly ventricose above, narrowed toward the base; basal limb large and callous, corresponding to the growth-periods of the notch, bordered by a minute ridge. Suture minute but distinct. Aperture very narrow above, channelled, slightly broader towards the base, where it is deeply notched. Outer lip very little thickened, almost straight, retrocurrent in a half-circle towards the suture, rounded off on the base; in adult specimens the inner margin of the lip minutely transversely denticulate. Inner lip thin and narrow on the lightly convex body, broadening and thickening on the slightly excavated columella, which bears three small but distinct plaits; they are oblique, equidistant, and the last extends to the rounded basal point of the columella; two or three minute denticles are sometimes distinctly visible on the wall of the body, situate above the others. Altitude, 3·45 mm.; diameter, 2·17 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A number of dead shells were collected. Its nearest ally is Marginella strangei, Angas, from Australia and Tasmania, which also belongs to the genus Cryptospira: this species is a little larger (altitude 5 mm.), with the spire considerably more produced and the upper columella-plaits more distinctly exserted.

28. Fusus spiralis, A. Adams.

Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 221, publ. 1856.

A fine beautifully coloured and adult specimen, inhabited by a hermit-crab, was found, which was presented to the Auckland Museum. Besides this, fragments of dead young shells turned up.

29. Murex (Poirieria) zelandicus, Quoy and Gaimard.

Voy. Astrol., Zool., vol. ii, p. 529, pl. xxxvi, figs. 5—7, 1833.

Two yound dead shells.

30. Megalatractus maximus, Tryon. Plate XXIV, fig. 28.

Man. Conch. (1), vol. iii, p. 135, pl. liv, fig. 355, 1881; Hedley

Memoirs Austral. Mus., vol. iv, part 6, p. 374, pl. xxxviii.

Two protoconchs of what we take to be this species were obtained. They certainly do not belong to S. dilatata, Q. and G.,

– 292 –

and as M. maximus turned up alive from 30 fathoms near Channel Island, as will be recorded in another paper, there seems to be no reason to doubt the identity of the species. In the specimen from Channel Island, part of the protoconch is preserved, and it is very much like these specimens from 110 fathoms. On the whorl succeeding the protoconch there are ten nodules; the canal is very long, narrow, and bent to the right. As most adult specimens are, as it seems, more or less decollate, we give here a sketch of the more perfect protoconch. It is pupoid, polygyrate, consisting of four convex whorls with spiral riblets, crossed by incremental lines; nucleus central, small, slightly raised. Most of the outer layer has peeled off, and only traces of the sculpture are left.

31. Siphonalia nodosa, Martyn.

Univ. Conch., Buccinum, vol. i, fig. 5, 1784.

A fair number of dead young shells, all very fragile.

32. Columbella choava, Reeve.

Conch. Icon., spec. 239, 1858.

One dead specimen, greyish-white, which is smaller and more slender than typical examples, but otherwise there is nothing to separate it from Reeve's species. Altitude, 3·8 mm.; diameter, 1·6 mm.

33. Turritella pagoda, Reeve.

Conch. Icon., spec. 60, 1849.

A few dead young and imperfect specimens, which agree with examples from the Wanganui Pliocene.

34. Turritella fulminata, Hutton.

Cat. Mar. Moll. N.Z., p. 29, 1873.

A few young dead shells, which have lost the characteristic colour-markings.

35. Turritella carlottæ, Watson.

Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xv, p. 222, 1880 (=vittata, Hutt., non Lamk.).

One partly broken shell only.

36. Diala subcarinata, n. sp. Plate XXIV, fig. 29.

Shell minute, subulate, smooth, narrowly perforate. Sculpture: The longitudinals consist of minute growth-striæ, with here and there irregular marks of growth-periods, subcostate in places. Colour porcellaneous-white. Spire high, slender,

– 293 –

and tapering. Protoconch consists of about two smooth rounded whorls, the second with a slightly swollen aspect, the nucleus oblique. Whorls 7, slightly rounded; the antipenultimate whorl is indistinctly feebly bicarinate; this is better defined upon the next whorl, especially the superior angle which forms the subtabular suturial shelf; upon the last four or five feeble carinæ, three of which are above the aperture, the base rounded. Suture deep. Aperture vertical, subtriangular. Outer lip sharp, regularly curved, effuse and angled at the junction with the basal extension of the columella, producing a small spout-like canal. Inner lip forming a narrow thin callosity on the pillar, which is subvertical and slightly sinuated; a thin callus extends above over the body to the outer lip. Umbilicus very narrow, open. Altitude, 2·9 mm.; diameter, 1·04 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A single dead shell was found, which adds a genus to the New Zealand fauna.

37. Natica zelandica, Quoy and Gaimard.

Voy. Astrol., Zool., vol. ii, p. 237, pl. lxvi, figs. 11, 12, 1832.

A young dead shell which has lost the outer calcareous layer.

38. Natica australis, Hutton.

Journ. de Conch., vol. xxvi, p. 23, 1878.

A good number of specimens were found, all dead shells, white, porcellaneous.

39. Calyptræa scutum, Lesson.

Voy. “Coquille,” Zool., vol. ii, p. 395, 1830.

A few young dead shells.

40. Omalaxis amœna, n. sp. Plate XXIV, figs. 30–32.

Shell small, discoidal, bicarinate, beautifully sculptured, sides straight but oblique, umbilicus wide, carinated, perspective. Sculpture: Upper side with a beaded cord on each side of the suture, the outer one being more prominent; between them are three fine elevated spiral threads, the whole crossed by numerous oblique elevated radiating ridges, with equal interspaces, which continue over the periphery to the basal cord; on the periphery is a third beaded and conspicuous cord, which is buried in the suture; still another marginates the base, and between them are three small spiral ridges. Between the basal and umbilical ribs is a small beaded spiral, the whole reticulated by somewhat irregular distant radiate ribs, interstices having now and again one or more fine ridges; the umbilical rib distinctly beaded. Colour white. Spire flat. Protoconch dextral, smooth, consisting

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of one and a half convex whorls. Whorls 3 ½, flattened, regularly increasing, with the sides almost straight, subquadrate in section, the base somewhat excavated. Suture slightly channelled. Aperture subquadrate. Outer lip sharp, with two angles above and one below. Columella short, concave. Umbilicus large, scalar, with the sides inclined. Operculum unknown. Diameter: maximum, 3 mm.; minimum, 2·5 mm. Altitude, 1 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. One dead shell only. This very interesting addition to our fauna is almost identical with Discohelix retifera, Dall., from the Pliocene of Florida. The operculum of our species being unknown, we place it for the present in the genus Omalaxis, Deshayes. A similar form, O. meridionalis, dredged in Port Stephens, but not so elaborately sculptured, has been described and figured by Mr. C. Hedley in Memoirs Austral. Museum, iv, part 6, 1903, p. 351.

41. Aclis semireticulata, n. sp. Plate XXIV,figs. 33, 34.

Shell small, subulate with a rounded base, subrimate, longitudinally costate and with a spiral thread on the last whorl. Sculpture longitudinal and spiral; the latter consists of some minute striæ upon the base, occasionally extending above the periphery, and usually absent upon the spire. The longitudinals form small rounded costations, obsolete or absent upon the base, and generally very variable, some fairly uniform throughout, others feeble on the last whorl, and others again more or less obsolete on all whorls. Colour light-horny, hyaline. Epidermis very thin, glossy, membranaceous, present on a few specimens only. Spire conical, longer than the body-whorl, with a blunt apex. Protoconch formed by about two smooth rounded and vitreous volutions. Whorls 6, regularly increasing, rounded, and with a convex slightly produced base. Suture deep, margined above by a minute threadlet which strengthens upon the later whorls, and continuing forms a distinct thread below the periphery upon the body-whorl. Aperture broadly ovate. Outer lip regularly rounded, slightly varicose, the varix usually set a little back from the edge. Inner lip forming a small reflected callus upon the body, extending to the outer margin, and upon the excavated columella, which is mostly a little produced below, forming an angulation of the aperture. Umbilical chink very narrow or obsolete. Altitude, 3·3 mm.; diameter, 1·7 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A number of specimens, none with the animal. This

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species may represent the Aclis (Rissopsis) hyalina, Hutton,** the type of which seems to be lost. Hutton's species is unfigured, and the description scarcely sufficiently full to identify it with certainty. In any case Aclis hyalina, Hutt., cannot stand, the name being preoccupied by Watson.

42. Scala zelebori, Dunker.

Verhandl. Zool. Bot. Gesellsch., Wien, vol. xvi, 1866, p. 912.

Two damaged young shells.

43. Scala levifoliata, n. sp. Plate XXV,figs. 35, 36.

Shell small, turreted, imperforate, many-whorled, longitudinally laminated, with a few spiral ribs and small suborbicular aperture. Sculpture: Spire-whorls bicarinate, the slope uniform from the suture to the upper carina, situate on the lower half of the whorls; the lower carina is less conspicuous and close to the suture; the last whorl is tricarinate with the basal keel microscopically granulate, and below this is a well-marked furrow bounded by a small concentric rib, which margins the columella; on the lower part of the shoulder two indistinct spiral threads, more obscure on the upper whorls. The longitudinal ornamentation consists of obliquely advancing, close, delicate, undulating, and sharp laminations, extending over the suture, and terminating at the basal carina. Colour greyish-white. Spire elongate, turreted, sharply pointed. Protoconch consisting of about two small rounded whorls, the nucleus with the initial half-turn smooth, the other half longitudinally delicately ribbed, which is followed on the second whorl by the sharp laminations of the ephebic stage. Whorls 10, regularly increasing, with straight sides above the keel, slightly concave between the encircling ribs. Suture deep and channelled, which character is hidden to a great extent by the longitudinal laminations extending over it. Aperture ovato-orbicular, angled above. Outer and basal lip rounded, slightly effuse, sharp, and with flexuous projections corresponding to the spiral keels; columella concave, very little callous, terminating at the base in a minute sharp point. Altitude, 5·7 mm.; diameter, 1·62 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A most graceful little shell, of which there are but two dead specimens, one not full-grown. We are informed by Mr. C. Hedley that he is describing a nearly allied form from Australian waters.

[Footnote] * New Zeal. Journ. Sci., vol. ii, 1884, p. 173; Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. ix, 1885, p. 935.

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44. Odostomia (s. str.)marginata, n. sp. Plate XXV,fig. 37.

Shell small, ovate, white and shining, almost smooth, with a margined suture and angled body-whorl. Sculpture consists of distinct flexuous growth-lines, irregularly spaced, and with much finer incremental striæ between them; with a magnifying-power of about thirty diameters distant fine spiral striation can be made out. Colour white, shining, porcellaneous. Spire elevated, conical, about the same length as the last whorl. Protoconch consisting of about two smooth whorls, the nucleus heterostrophe, tilted. Whorls 6, flatly convex, the last angled at the periphery; base convex. Suture impressed, distinctly margined below. Aperture vertical, pyriform, angled above, rounded and slightly effuse below; peritreme discontinuous. Outer lip sharp, flatly convex, sharply rounded at the base. Columella with a very distinct tooth just below the junction with the body-whorl, concave below. Umbilicus represented by a distinct chink. Operculum unknown. Altitude, 4·5 mm.; diameter, 2·3 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. One adult and a few young shells, all dead. From our nearly allied O. angasi, proxima, and vestalis it may at once be distinguished by the distinct margination of the suture and the angled last whorl.

45. Eulimella levilirata, n. sp. Plate XXV, fig. 38.

Shell small, subulate, imperforate, many-whorled. Sculpture consisting of microscopic fine close and linear spiral grooves, crossed by very fine unequally spaced growth-lines. Colour white, glossy. Spire long and subulate. Protoconch smooth, with a heterostrophe, minute rounded and lateral nucleus. Whorls 7, slowly and regularly increasing; sides flatly convex, base rounded. Suture well impressed and distinct. Aperture in our only specimen imperfect, very likely subquadrate, broadly angled above. Outer lip partly broken off, sharp, convex. Inner lip forming a thin layer on the body, more callous on the straight rounded columella; basal part of peritreme broken off. Altitude, 6 mm.; diameter, 1·4 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. One dead shell only. Distinguished from the other two New Zealand species, deplexa and cœna, by the presence of spiral sculpture.

46. Pyramidella (Syrnola) tenuiplicata, n. sp. Plate XXV, fig. 39.

Shell minute, subulate, imperforate, white and porcellaneous, with a long spire and pointed apex. Sculpture consists of some

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microscopic irregular spiral striæ. Colour white, shining. Spire much longer than the body-whorl, slender and tapering. Protoconch consists of about two smooth rounded whorls, with the nucleus heterostrophe. Whorls 7, regularly increasing, lightly convex, body-whorl with a minute thread-like carina only noticeable in front of the aperture; base rounded. Suture channelled. Aperture ovato-quadrate, vertical. Outer lip sharp, curved. Inner lip spread over the straight stoutish columella, which is reflected; the columellar twist producing an indistinct fold; anteriorly the lip is sharp, produced, and somewhat flattened. Altitude, 3·21 mm.; diameter, 0·82 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A single dead specimen, not in very good condition. It is the first record of the genus for New Zealand, Pyramidella rosea, Hutton, having been transferred to the genus Columbella.

47. Eulima vegrandis, n. sp. Plate XXV, figs. 40, 41.

Shell small, subulate, imperforate, straight, smooth and glossy. Sculpture absent, except an occasional interrupted varix. Colour white, porcellaneous. Spire straight, many-whorled, narrowly elevated, terminating in a sharp and slender apex. Protoconch of about two smooth whorls, very slightly curved from the axis of the shell, nucleus minute, rounded. Whorls 11, with straight sides, the last less than half the total length, indistinctly angled at the periphery; base convex. Suture linear, on the lower whorls with a minutely submarginate appearance. Aperture pyriform, angled above, slightly oblique, rounded and a little effuse at the base. Outer lip lightly curved and thickened, feebly sinuated below the insertion. Inner lip spread narrowly as a distinct callus from the outer lip over the body and the slightly excavated columella, reflected and united with the effuse lower lip. Altitude, 6·9 mm.; diameter, 1·9 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. Only one dead shell.

48. Eulima infrapatula, n. sp. Plate XXV, fig. 42.

Shell small, subulate, imperforate, broadened at the base which is distinctly angulate, tapering to a sharp slender apex which is slightly curved; thin, smooth, and glossy. Sculpture consists of minute spiral incisions, scarcely noticeable or absent except upon the last whorl. Colour white, glossy. Spire narrowly conical, tapering rapidly to a subacicular apex which is oblique and somewhat distorted. Protoconch formed by a few smooth convex whorls, nucleus minute, rounded.

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Whorls 9, lightly convex and contracted at the suture, the first four whorls more rounded than the others; varices few, interrupted, irregularly disposed and not well marked; base rounded. Suture very distinct, impressed. Aperture subvertical, rather large, obliquely quadrate, broadly angled above, flatly expanded at the base. Outer lip not much strengthened, but slightly curved and forming a broad rounded angle at the junction with the basal lip. Inner lip forming a very thin narrow callus on the body, more prominent on the stout columella, which is nearly straight, rounded on joining the basal lip, both being distinctly everted. Altitude, 5·04 mm.; diameter, 2·11 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. One dead shell only. This species is allied to E. munita, Hedley,* from which it may be distinguished by its smaller size, fewer whorls, the less prominent varices, and more feeble sculpture.

49. Eulima (Mucronalia) bulbula, n. sp. Plate XXV, figs. 43, 44.

Shell small, subulate, imperforate, white, smooth, polished Sculpture consists solely of the mostly discontinuous slightly marked varices on some of the whorls. Colour white, shining, porcellaneous. Spire long, subulate, straight. Protoconch mucronate, the nucleus small, rounded, the second whorl relatively much enlarged, bulbous; all smooth. Whorls 10, straight, regularly increasing, the last much higher in proportion and slightly angled round the centre. Suture distinct, not impressed, irregularly indented on the lower part of the shell. Aperture small, vertical, pyriform, regularly arched below. Outer lip sharp, very slightly convex. Inner lip forming a light callosity on the oblique columella and body, rounded off at the base toward the outer lip. Altitude, 13 mm.; diameter, 3 mm. Aperture: length, 3 mm.; breadth, 1·5 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. Two dead shells were obtained, one only adult. Mr. C. Hedley says that the mucronate tip of this species somewhat recalls E. coxi, Pilsbry.

50. Minolia textilis, n. sp. Plate XXVI, figs. 45, 46.

Shell small, conoidal, widely umbilicate, fragile, exquisitely sculptured. Sculpture: There are numerous radiate sharp riblets at regular intervals, the interspaces about twice the

[Footnote] * Memoirs Austral. Museum, vol. iv, part 6, 1903, pp. 358–59, fig. 81 in text.

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breadth of the costæ, crossing over broad rounded spiral cords. On the third whorl there are three spirals, which are supplemented on the following whorl by a faint thread below the suture, and one between the first and second cord; on the last whorl there are two rather inconspicuous spiral threads below the suture, followed to the periphery by five strong spiral cords, the last three more prominent than the others; on the base there are five narrow equal and close-set spiral riblets, and the umbilicus is margined by a stout beaded ridge. All the spiral cords are strongly and sharply beaded by the longitudinal sculpture. Colour greyish-white. Spire conoidal, with a rounded apex. Nucleus globular, small, smooth, consisting of one whorl; the succeeding volutions show already distinct radiate riblets and spiral threads. Whorls 4 ½, tabulate above, flatly convex below the angulation of the shoulder; base slightly convex. Suture canaliculate. Aperture subcircular, angled above, white, not nacreous inside. Outer lip sharp, convex, margined by denticles on the outside, produced by the spiral ridges. Inner lip spread as a thin callosity over the penultimate whorl and connecting the margins; columella regularly arched, sharp. Umbilicus wide, scalar, margined by a strong beaded cord followed by two spiral ridges, beaded by longitudinal riblets. Diameter: maximum, 4·3 mm.; minimum, 3·5 mm. Altitude, 3·8 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A few dead shells only. The shell used for description and the figures is no doubt not adult, as was evidenced by fragments of a larger shell of the same species. The genus has not been recorded from New Zealand before.

51. Minolia plicatula, n. sp. Plate XXVI, figs. 47–49.

Shell small, orbicular, widely umbilicate, thin and fragile, whitish with radiate purple streaks, longitudinally plicate above, and spirally ribbed. Sculpture: There are rather distant oblique radiate plications extending on the body-whorl to the periphery only; these as well as the interspaces are very finely longitudinally striate. On approaching the umbilicus equidistant straight broad and flat riblets are formed, slightly beading the revolving cords. The penultimate whorl has two spiral ridges close together, flatly beaded by the radiate plications, and two some distance down towards the suture. On the last whorl are two spiral cords, somewhat removed from the suture, followed by a smooth interstice and three spiral ridges with grooves of their own width between them; five narrower cords follow from the periphery to the umbilicus, the grooves between which are first narrow, then getting broader; there is a double

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beaded ridge margining the umbilicus. Colour whitish with irregular radiate zigzag bands of purple. Spire low, with a blunt apex. Nucleus smooth, rather large, depressed-globular, yellowish, consisting of one whorl. Whorls 3 ½, shouldered, convex at the periphery; base flatly convex. Suture subcanaliculate. Aperture subcircular, very little excavated above, the margins approaching and nearly meeting, slightly nacreous within. Outer lip sharp, convex. Inner lip forming a very thin layer over the penultimate whorl; columella regularly arched, slightly reflexed, produced at the base on joining the carina of the umbilicus. Umbilicus wide, carinate, perspective, with spiral ridges and longitudinal plications on the last whorl. Diameter: maximum, 4·5 mm.; minimum, 3·8 mm. Altitude, 3 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A few dead and mostly young shells. As type we selected a specimen obtained by Captain J. Bollons by dredging in 37 fathoms off Cuvier Island, as it is in better condition than any of those from 110 fathoms. This species is easily separated from the foregoing species by the less elaborate sculpture alone.

52. Monilea egena, Gould.

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iii, 1849, p. 84.

One dead and imperfect shell.

53. Cirsonella granum, n. sp. Plate XXVII, figs. 50, 51.

Shell minute, turbinate, umbilicate, smooth and glossy. Sculpture absent except for the microscopic growth - striæ. Colour white, one young and apparently fresh specimen vitreous. Spire conoidal, small, a little less than the total height. Nucleus consists of one whorl, which is smooth and rounded. Whorls 4, much rounded, the last proportionately large; base convex. Suture deep. Aperture subcircular, broadly angled above, but little excavated by the body. Outer lip sharp, forming a halfcircle with the basal lip. Inner lip spread as a thin layer upon the convex body, more thickened upon the concave and reflected columella. Umbilicus with its area small and with a somewhat sharply defined margin, the perforation narrow. Altitude, 1·75 mm.; diameter, 1·75 mm.

Type in the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

Obs. A few dead shells were gathered. It is a much smaller shell than C. (?) neozelanica, Murdoch,* more globular, with the aperture more ciruclar, and better and differently defined umbilical area.

[Footnote] * Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. III, 1899, p. 320, pl. xvi,figs 2–6.

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54. Cocculina tasmanica,Pilsbry.

Acmæ parva, Angas, var. tasmanica, Pilsbry in “Nautilus,” 1895, p. 128. Nacella tasmanica, Tate and May, Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. xxiv, p. 102, 1900; Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1901, p. 411, pl. xxvii, figs. 89, 90.Cocculina meridionalis, Hedley, Memoirs Austral. Museum, vol. iv, pt. 6, 1903, p. 331,fig. 64 in text.

A single specimen, which was examined by Mr. C. Hedley, who kindly reported on it as follows: “Sculpture worn off, but in size, shape, and general appearance it is just like my C. meridionalis.” Quite recently he informed us that his species was identical with Pilsbry's tasmanica. One of us, who has a syntype of the latter in his collection, compared our shell with it and found it to agree in every respect; the deciduous nucleus is still present, but the epidermis, and with it the sculpture, are lost. The type was dredged by Mr. May in 10 fathoms in Fred. Henry Bay, Tasmania. This is a very interesting addition to our fauna.

55. Genus (?). Plate XXVII, figs. 52–54.

Shell small, flat, oblong-scutiform, sides almost parallel, the posterior end having a broad inward curve; the apex minute, laterally disposed and almost terminal; anterior end imperfect. Sculpture consists of numerous small rounded and irregularly spaced concentric growth-periods, more distant anteriorly, the primary periods scarcely so oblique to the axis as the nucleus. Colour whitish. Protoconch distinctly marked off, smooth, cap-shaped, with a slightly flattened rim-like margin; it consists of about one turn, somewhat oblique to the major axis. The lateral margins slightly laminated and with an upward curve, thus giving the dorsal surface a slightly concave aspect. Interior slightly polished and with shallow incised lines upon the inner slope of the lip, indicating the line of attachment; immediately underneath these lines are right and left small narrow muscular impressions, the left largest and rather more anterior. Length, in broken condition, 7·76 mm.; breadth, 4·66 mm.

Obs. The generic position of this unique specimen is somewhat of a puzzle to us, as we are not acquainted with anything to match it. It may belong to some tectibranchiate genus, perhaps of the family Pleurobranchidæ.

56. (?) Recluzia, sp. Plate XXVII, figs. 55, 56.

Shell small, turbinate, imperforate, thin and fragile, smooth, with a squarish mouth. Sculpture consists of minute growthstriæ perceptible only here and there; near the outer lip several

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small, close, and more distinct growth-periods mark the position of successive lip-margins. Colour yellowish-horn, white underneath the epidermis, which is very thin, microscopically delicately roughened, which obliterates almost all trace of gloss. Spire conoidal, with a blunt apex. Protoconch rounded, obtuse, but its character is obscured by foreign growth upon it. Whorls 4, rapidly increasing, slightly convex, the last comparatively large, with a few longitudinal light swellings. Suture impressed, not deep. Aperture oblique, large, squarish. Outer lip sharp, inflexed above and strongly angled at the periphery, reaching the pillar in a slight curve and at a right angle to it. Inner lip forming a narrow rounded callosity over the but-little-excavated columella, which ends in a point at the base and forms a small but distinct notch with the outer lip, which is slightly thickened in the proximity. Altitude, 3·83 mm.; diameter, 3·29 mm.

Obs. One empty specimen of this curious shell was obtained. Mr. Hedley thinks it the greatest puzzle of the whole collection, and he offers two suggestions—(1) that it is a larval shell; (2) that, if adult, it may represent a new genus near Ianthina. We are more inclined to consider it as a larval shell. The colour and presence of an epidermis remove it form Ianthina, but they would not exclude it from Recluzia. However, the distinct angle of the outer lip and the but slightly convex whorls are somewhat inconsistent with that genus, of which the young forms are unknown to us. Unfortunately we do not know the animal. We publish description and figures in the hope that some scientist may give us a clue to the true generic position.

57. Ancilla, sp.

A number of specimens of an apparently new species were obtained, but none of them is perfect, and it is impossible to describe them. The species is very small; length, about 5 mm.

58. Typhis, sp.

A very poor specimen turned up. It may be T. yatei, C. and F., but it is much smaller than that species, and in too bad condition for identification. It certainly is not T. zealandica, Hutt.

59. Solarium, sp.

A fragment only.

60. Siphonalia, sp.

A number of small dead shells, but they seem too young to deal with.

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61. Cerithiopsis, sp.

One dead imperfect shell, no doubt a new species, but not good enough to give a figure and description of it.

62. Scala, sp.

One dead shell, imperfect, about 6 mm. long, distinctly spirally lyrate and with quite irregular longitudinal folds.

63. Eulima, sp.

One small decollated dead specimen. Mr. C. Hedley reports on it, “There are several species like this, and I would not describe it unless a good series were available for study.”

64. Dentalium nanum, Hutton.

A number of dead shells, some of them perfect, were dredged.

65. Dentalium (Fissidentalium) zelandicum, Sowerby.

A few nearly perfect shells and a number of fragments were got—all dead shells.

66. Dentalium (Fissidentalium) huttoni, Kirk.

Two small dead shells.

67. Cadulus, sp.

One nearly adult and a few very small dead shells, insufficient for description.


The following species, mentioned in our paper, have been dredged by Captain J. Bollons, of the Government steamer “Hinemoa,” in 37 fathoms, off Cuvier Island, north by west: Pleurotoma (Hemipleurotoma) nodilirata, M. and S.; Vulpecula (Pusia) biconica, M. and S.; Omalaxis amæna, M. and S.; Aclis semireticulata, M. and S.; Minolia plicatula, M. and S.

Explanation Of Plates XXI-XXVII.
Plate XXI.

  • Fig. 1. Philineconstricta, M. and S. 5 mm. by 3 mm. Suter del.

  • Fig. 2. " umbilicata, M. and S. 3·5 mm. by 2·25 mm. Suter del.

  • Fig. 3. Cylichnasimplex, M. and S. 4·4 mm. by 2·2 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 4. " View of apex. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 5. Ringicula delecta, M. and S. 4·4 mm. by 2·9 mm. Murdoch del

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  • Fig. 6. Actæon craticulatus, M. and S. 9 mm. by 4·5 mm. Suter del.

  • Fig. 7. Daphnella protensa, Hutt. 8 mm. by 3·2 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 8. " Protoconch. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 9. Drillia optabilis, M. and S. 10·7 mm. by 3·9 mm. Murdoch del.

Plate XXII.

  • Fig. 10. Pleurotoma nodilirata, M. and S. 19·6 mm. by 8·5 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 11. Pleurotoma nodilirata, M. and S. From the Pliocene. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 12. Pleurotoma alticincta, M. and S. 15·7 mm. by 5·75 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 13. Pleurotomaalticincta, M. and S. Protoconch. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 14. " augusta, M. and S. 10·3 mm. by 3·9 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 15. Pleurotoma augusta, M. and S. Showing sinus. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 16. " Protoconch in profile. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 17. Pleurotoma augusta, M. and S. Protoconch from above. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 18. Pleurotoma eremita, M. and S. 5·8 mm. by 2·4 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 19. Pleurotoma eremita, M. and S. Protoconch. Murdoch del.

Plate XXIII.

  • Fig. 20. Fulguraria hedleyi, M. and S. 61 mm. by 18 mm. Suter del.

  • Fig. 21. " Protoconch. Suter del.

  • Fig. 22. Vulpecula biconica, M. and S. 5 mm. by 2·8 mm. Suter del.

  • Fig. 23.Marginella fusula, M. and S. 6·9 mm. by 3·1 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 24."

  • Fig. 25.Marginella hebescens, M. and S. 3·8 mm. by 2·1 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 26."

Plate XXIV.

  • Fig. 27. Cryptospira ficula, M. and S. 3·5 mm. by 2·2 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 28. Megalatractus maximus, Tryon. Protoconch. Suter del.

  • Fig. 29. Diala subcarinata, M. and S. 2·9 mm. by 1 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 30. Omalaxis amæna, M. and S. 3 mm. by 1 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 31."

  • Fig. 32."

  • Fig. 33. Aclis semireticulata, M. and S. 3·3 mm. by 1·7 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 34."

Plate XXV.

  • Fig. 35. Scala levifoliata, M. and S.5·7 mm. by 1·6 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 36. " Protoconch. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 37. Odostomia marginata, M. and S. 4·5 mm. by 2·3 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 38. Eulimella levilirata, M. and S. 6 mm. by 1·4 mm. Suter del.

  • Fig. 39. Pyramidella tenuiplicata, M. and S. 3·2 mm. by 0·8 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 40. Eulima vegrandis, M. and S.6·9 mm. by 1·9 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 41. " Side view of body-whorl. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 42. Eulima infrapatula, M. and S. 5 mm. by 2 mm. Murdoch del.

  • Fig. 43. "bulbula, M. and S.13 mm. by 3 mm. Suter del.

  • Fig. 44. ""Protoconch. Suter del.

– 305 –
Plate XXVI.
Plate XXVII.
  • fig. 50. Cirsonella granum, M. and S. 1·75 mm. by 1·75 mm. Murdoch del.

  • fig. 51."

  • fig. 52. Genus (?). Dorsal surface. 7·7 mm. by 4·6 mm. Murdoch del.

  • fig. 53. " Ventral surface. Murdoch del.

  • fig. 54. " Nucleus, greatly magnified. Murdoch del.

  • fig. 55.(?) Recluzia sp. 3·8 mm. by 3·3 mm. Murdoch del.

  • fig. 56."