Regarding this formation I can say little, having only seen it from a distance. Captain Bollons, however, as mentioned above, climbed up to the open gound above the cliffs of the northern island, bringing back for me a few specimens of the meadow vegetation. The ground is in many places carpeted with Mesembrianthemum australe. Everywhere is Phormium tenax, sometimes in large masses, at other times dotted about. Large tussocks of Arundo conspicua here and there all over the meadow give a distinct character to its physiognomy. Roundish bushes, too, of stunted Metrosideros tomentosa are frequent. The meadow is broken into in many places by greater or smaller pieces of scrub, thanks to the shelter afforded by the Phormium. Whether this scrub is similar to that described above I am not in a position to say. Neither can I bring for-
ward any facts as to the causes determining the presence of meadow or scrub, though doubtless it is largely a matter of degree of exposure to the prevailing winds. Captain Bollons made one most interesting discovery. At the base of the Phormium plants he observed large numbers of the great snail Placostylus hongii, var. novoseelandica, now quite extinct on the mainland, but still occasionally to be found on the small island, Cape Maria van Diemen.