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Volume 39, 1906
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Art. XXXV.—On the Vegetation of the Westport District.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 3rd October, 1906.]

Plates XIV and XIVa.

In presenting this catalogue of the plants of Westport and its surrounding district I feel sorry that I could not stay long enough there to make it more complete, as I had expected to spend at least another year, working up the distribution and altitudinal range of my various specimens, and in verifying the notes taken during my botanical wanderings. However, I'found that to be impossible, and consequently the descriptive portion of the catalogue is deficient in some respects.

A few years before the late Thomas Kirk's death I collected many specimens for him in a desultory sort of way, and he frequently asked me to take the matter up more earnestly and to prepare a list of the plants of the district. However, as I was engaged in a business which demanded close attention and in which I had little leisure, I could not see my way to accede to his request, but subsequently I was advised to reconsider the matter by Mr. Cheeseman, and I yielded, and for the last few years have devoted most of my spare time and my vacations to the work which it entailed.

All my specimens were sent up to Auckland for Mr. Cheeseman's inspection, and were carefully studied and identified by him, and proved of service in the preparation of the “Manual of the New Zealand Flora.” I only claim to have collected the plants, all the technical work being done by Mr. Cheeseman, who was ever ready with kindly encouragement, and gave me much useful advice as to the prosecution of my work.

I have never regretted consenting to prepare this list, although I had no conception that it would prove to be such a big under-taking, for thousands of miles had to be walked, over hill country and plain, in fair weather and foul, and numerous difficulties had to be surmounted. But in looking back upon these years of wandering, when all my senses were on the alert, and my thews and sinews were strung to stand the strain of the longest day's tramp—when the book of nature was no more a sealed book for me, and the trees, plants, and birds became my familiar friends—they were undoubtedly the happiest years of my life.

I do not for a moment imagine that I have collected all the plants which are to be obtained in the area covered, for some of the localities were remote and not very accessible, and only admitted of a flying visit at one season of the year. The

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mountains forming part of the watershed of the Buller River—viz., Mounts Owen, Murchison, and Mantell—I only had the opportunity of exploring once; and, considering their many spurs and massive proportions, they would require at least a dozen such visits to anything like exhaust their store of floral novelties. Then, again, justice cannot possibly be done to a locality by a summer visit only, as the spring-time has much tribute to offer, and the autumn amongst the subalpine meadows is the season par excellence for a profusion of flowers. From Westport the most accessible mountain is Mount Rochfort, and consequently I have climbed it nearly a score of times at various seasons of the year, and on every occasion, with one exception, have come home with some new acquisition, met with for the first time through a change of route, or perhaps overlooked or missed on a previous search. The whole surface must be covered before one can say with any certainty that a particular plant does not grow in the district. For example, I chanced on a narrow shingle-slide on the eastern side of the peak of Mount Buckland, and there discovered Ranunculus lyallii blooming; and, so far as I know, that is the only locality in the Westport district where it can be found. On Caroline Terrace I came upon a small patch of Pelargonium australe, and never met with it subsequently. On a rocky spur of Mount Lyell I gathered a peculiar variety of Aciphylla lyallii, and on no other part of the mountain could I afterwards meet with it. Again, in a small patch of pakihi forest I discovered Corysanthes cheesemanii growing amongst the Fagus roots, and on the margin of the same forest Pterostylis puberula flourished under shelter of the fern; and, search as I would, I never found them elsewhere. Many plants are so local in their distribution, and others so easily missed, that I consider it safer to say that I have not found them than that they do not grow in the district.

In a botanical sense the Westport district was almost a terra incognita, as no systematic botanical work had ever been under-taken in it. Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, when working up his “Flora of the Nelson District,” explored the Upper Buller Valley and Lake Rotoiti, but approached the coast no closer than Longford, near Murchison. The Rev. F. H. Spencer climbed Mount Rochfort and discovered a new species of gentian, named by Mr. Kirk Gentiana spenceri, and he also collected some plants at Mokihinui. Dr. Gaze some years ago made a small collection of plants in the district around Westport, but made no additions to the West Coast flora. Thus it will be seen that I had a large area of virgin country to explore, with every opportunity for making discoveries of interest, both in regard to finding novelties and of determining the range of known species. How far my efforts were crowned

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with success the subjoined catalogue will show, but I feel sure that a diligent search would yield many more interesting discoveries to an intelligent and persevering collector.

In a mountainous district there is so much more surface to travel over than where the country is flat, and to do anything approaching justice to the botany of the district I found it necessary to examine the slopes and summits of sixteen mountains. Of those forming the chains overlooking the sea-coast I only managed to botanize the sea-face and the tops, as on the inland side some of them are clothed from base to crown with dense forest through which no tracks exist, as several of the highest peaks have not yet been surveyed. This part of the work was always to me the most interesting, as in the subalpine regions not only was there the constant expectation of making some fresh discovery, but there is a fascination, a bracing-up and exhilaration in the higher altitudes unknown to the flats. When exploring the Lyell Mountains I was accompanied by my friend Mr. Boswell, of the Westport State School, who is an enthusiastic naturalist and an accomplished artist, and we set up our camp at an elevation of 3,000 ft., under the brow of Boundary Peak, and from that base we worked our way for many miles along the Brunner Range. At the end of ten days we broke camp, and with the aid of a pack-horse transported our belongings by way of Lyell Creek to a deserted roadman's tent under the lee of Mount Lyell, which, although at a lower elevation than our former camp, gave us ready access to the mountain.

So much time is generally lost in travelling to and from the foot of the mountains in these remote regions that that fact accounts to a large extent for our small knowledge of the upper slopes and peaks, and it was at once evident to me that if I was to do work of any value I must establish myself in the back country, and this was accordingly done. I also spent a couple of weeks in the neighbourhood of Murchison, and made an ascent of Mount Owen from the Buller side, Mount Murchison also from the Buller Valley, and Mount Mantell from the Matakitaki, returning from each one of these expeditions laden with spoils.

The Paparoas, which extend in a serried chain from the south bank of the Buller River down almost to Greymouth, stand guard over the coast-line in a series of rugged peaks, and their outline, seen from the Brunner Range, reminded me of the unevenly cut teeth of a Yankee cross-cut saw. Five of these mountains I have scaled, two of them on several occasions, and on their spurs some rarities have been gathered. The highest peak in the range, which was formerly included amongst the Buckland Peaks, I had permission from the Surveyor-General to give a distinctive name to, and I named it Mount Kelvin;

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for, as its neighbour on the one hand was named Mount Buckland, and on the other Mount Faraday, a uniformity was maintained by naming this peak after the distinguished scientist, Lord Kelvin. Mount Bovis in this chain was the point farthest south of Westport which I reached, whilst a mountain at Kara-mea, locally known as Mount Stormy, was the limit north; and I will endeavour to describe as well as I can some of the physical features of the country lying between these two points.

An outline of the general geological formation of the explored area may prove of interest, and I cannot do better than quote from Mr. A. McKay's “Report on the Geology of the South-west Part of Nelson and the Northern Part of Westland.” As many of the mountains which I shall describe form a part of the Buller's watershed, my best plan will be to briefly trace that river's course from its rise in the back ranges, through the gorge, so famous for its scenery, to where it reaches the sea at Westport. In a beautiful lake lying to the east of Mount Murchison, and named Lake Rotoiti, at an elevation of 1,800 ft. above sea-level, the Buller River takes its rise. After receiving the waters of the Hope River it is joined by the River Gowan, which drains another lake called Lake Rotoroa, lying at an elevation of 1,600 ft., and becomes quite an imposing stream. Its next tributary is the River Owen, which drains the granite and limestone spurs of Mount Owen. Below Murchison its volume is greatly increased by its union with the Matakitaki, and again at Fern Flat, where the Maruia joins it, both of which streams take their rise in the Spenser Mountains. Between these two rivers, some miles from where they junction with the Buller, rises the great bulk of Mount Mantell, which belongs to the Cretaceo-tertiary formation. At Lyell the creek of that name joins the main stream, taking its rise amongst the granite and auriferous slate ranges amongst which the dominant peak is Mount Lyell. Boundary Peak and the Lyell end of the Brunner Range also contribute streams, these mountains stretching along the west side of the Maruia Valley to the Buller Gorge, above the Lyell Township. “They consist mostly of gneissic schist and granitic rocks, crossed by bands of mica-schist, which in places is largely developed; and on the western slope, from Rainy Creek to the Buller, quartz-drifts are developed.” Most of the important streams taking their rise in this range flow into the Inangahua River, which joins the Buller at the Inangahua Junction, some twenty-two miles from Westport. Roughly, the river from its rise in Lake Rotoiti to its estuary runs a course of about a hundred miles. Below the junction, at a point known as White Cliffs, the river has cut its way through the Cretaceous limestone, leaving high cliffs on both sides of the stream.

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The shingle of the river-bed and terraced banks is mainly composed of granitic detritus brought down from the ranges by tributary streams, or due to falls of granite rock from the precipitous mountain-faces overlooking the gorge. “There are alluvial flats in many parts of the river's course which, though generally above high-flood mark, must nevertheless be regarded as having been deposited by the river during the modern period, and were formed when the river was running at a higher level than it does at the present time.” From this point to the mouth of the gorge, six miles away from Westport, the river bends and turns in a succession of noisy rapids and still pools, at the head of the falls gliding with an unrippled and glassy sweep over the gently inclined shingle-bed, until, reaching the constricted channel where the unyielding granite rocks contract its bed, it frets and froths in a turmoil of broken water. Lovely vistas through overarching tree-tops; sunny reaches of blue water rippling over glittering shingle-beds; frowning precipices and crags, moss and fern clad from base to summit, captivate the eye at every turn of the road.

“Below the junction with the Ohika River the gorge is cut through granite mountains which dip down to the water's edge. At Hawk's Crag the breccias are met with, which extend for some miles up the Blackwater and constitute between that stream and the Little Ohika the most rugged and inaccessible country of the whole Paparoa district. The same rocks form very rugged country east of the Mount William Ridge to Hawk's Crag. The Buller then breaks through the Paparoa-Papahua chain of mountains, where the outer slopes of the ranges are granite, until passing Mount Rochfort the steep slope west from the plateau shows coal-measures tilted to high angles, and resting on the granite. Along the foot of the range high-level terraces extend from the mouth of the gorge to Fairdown, and below these, gradually sloping to the coast-line, are the pakihis—swampy plains which are partly due to the action of the river, but principally littoral marine formation.” From the gorgemouth to where the river enters the sea it runs over a winding bed of shingle, and there is always a strong current. “The Maitai slates appear in the gorge of the Waimangaroa River, and east of the granite belt are developed throughout the watershed as the fundamental rock on which rest the Cretaceo-tertiary or Cretaceous coal-measures.” Mount William and Mount Frederic also belong to the Cretaceo-tertiary coal-bearing formation. Further north slates again appear in the Mokihinui River bed, and as far as I recollect granites and slate formed the chief rocks on Mount Glasgow.

“South of the Buller, in the Paparoa Range, the rocks in

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the higher regions, extending from the gorge to Bullock Creek, are gneissic schists, passing sometimes into granites, and at others into mica-schists.” High terraces flank the mountain, varying in height from 300 ft. to 600 ft. near the Four-mile, and in parts they are two miles wide. “From Cape Foulwind the bulk of the rock is porphyritic granitoid gneiss, and often a simple gneiss,” and together with limestone these rocks have been quarried for the construction of the Westport Breakwater. “Near the cape, towards the mouth of the Nile River, the coast is bold, being formed of gneissic granite followed inland by coal-bearing rocks, and at Charleston the rocks are composed of gneiss and mica-schist.” From the coast-line to the base of the granite mountains is a distance of seven miles, and the intervening area is composed of pakihis and a succession of terraces. “Blue fossiliferous sands and marl clays underlie the black-sand beds and gravel deposits which form these terraces, and at Cape Foulwind they show in section, and exhibit strata in some places abounding in fossils. A range of limestone hills commences near the mouth of the Totara River, and sweeps inland in a semicircle from this point to Brighton.” Fox's River has cut part of its course through this limestone range, forming one of the most beautiful gorges imaginable, for it is but a stone's throw from cliff to cliff, yet they tower up mantled with ferns and creepers for hundreds of feet. At the mouth of this river stands a remarkable pyramidal rock composed of breccia conglomerate, which is tunnelled through with lofty caves, in the floor of which I found a deposit a couple of feet deep of shells and refuse from Maori middens. “Away from the vicinity of the mouths of the larger rivers, and from a precipitous coast-line, the shingle passes into sands on the low-sloping beaches.” North of the Buller River, beyond Fairdown, the shingly type of beach again makes its appearance, and continues past Mokihinui to the Little Wanganui River. From the mouth of that river to Karamea there is a sandy beach, and where the sea has cut into the bank numerous Maori ovens and shell-heaps are exposed.

“The pakihis, which take up such a large area of the flat lands of that part of the coast, are open swampy plains formed mostly by the action of the sea, and having an impervious substratum of cemented gravel where the rain-water accumulates and is held as in a sponge, encouraging the growth of semiaquatic plants.” In places where the ironsand has oxidized a hard cement is formed, which is crushed in batteries for the sake of the fine gold which much of it contains. Where the surface is comparatively dry, low undulating sandy ridges and mounds appear. These lands are quite unfitted for settlement,

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and, to show their extent, there are 1,000 acres north of Westport and about 4,000 acres to the south, on which a few cattle wade about picking up a precarious living. Patches of forest are scattered over their surface, and a fringe of forest of varying depth forms a line of demarcation between the pakihis and the sea-beach. Rivers and creeks intersect their surface, and water-races form quite a network between the numerous dams.

I made no meteorological observations in Westport, but, situated as it is within the influence of the westerly rainfalls, it has a large proportion of wet days. The highest temperature which I remember was 81° in the shade, and in winter-time there is seldom more than two or three degrees of frost. The prevailing winds are south-west and north-west, and during the summer months a cool south-westerly breeze generally springs up before noon, pleasantly tempering the midday heat.

Starting from Westport, and taking a northerly direction, there is good travelling for six miles on a firm sandy beach, except at high water, when the sands are impracticable. This beach extends to Fairdown, but beyond that point it is shingled up, and makes very bad walking. The pakihis commence at Serjeant's Hill, extending past Fairdown, almost reaching to Waimangaroa, six miles away, and in parts they have a width of several miles. On these wet plains walking is difficult, except in very dry weather, as there are considerable areas of swampy ground where Typha flourishes, associated with Carex paniculata, C. virgata, C. gaudichaudiana, and Leptocarpus simplex. The creeks and rivers traversing the pakihis have their banks fringed with bushes, conspicuous amongst which are Coprosma lucida, C. grandiflora, and C. parviflora, with Veronica salicifolia, V. gracillima, and Ascarina lucida. On the drier portions where slight elevations exist, Leptospermum scoparium and L. ericoides flourish, whilst Pteris aquilina and Gleichenia circinata are the prevailing representatives of the Filices. The railway crosses these pakihis, and train can be taken from Westport to Mokihinui Mine, a distance of thirty-one miles. On the banks of the railway I have found many curious plants, which have become naturalised there through vessels from Australian ports arriving at Westport, the ballast from which has been utilised for making up the railway embankment. Amongst these are Portulaca oleracea, Amarantus blitum, Chenopodium murale, Emex australis, Asphodelus fistulosus, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and others which have not been identified, and which probably came from Africa.

The pakihis extend to the foot of Mount Rochfort and some distance up its slopes, and in all the Papahua Mountains considerable tracts of these swampy lands are found at an elevation of from 1,000 ft. to 2,000 ft.

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Many gullies seam the face of Mount Rochfort, and in one of them runs Giles's Creek, which supplies the Town of Westport with excellent water. This joins with other creeks running in adjoining gullies to form the Orowaiti River, which enters the sea a couple of miles from the town. In Giles's Creek I found Gnaphalium subrigidum and Raoulia tenuicaulis growing on the shingly bed of the stream, whilst Lindsaya viridis and Tricho-manes elongatum, though rare, may be found draping the face of the papa cliffs in dark and sheltered situations. Lomaria frazeri grows luxuriantly in all these gullies, and Dicksonia squarrosa is abundant. Fagus forms the greatest proportion of the timber in that locality, and I have seen trees fairly ablaze with the scarlet flowers of Elytranthe tetrapetala in the early summer.

On climbing out of the gully on to the high-level terrace, where in days gone by good gold was found, numerous bare patches are seen on the mountain-face where fires have burned off the scrub, leaving little else to clothe the surface than Hypo-lœna lateralis, Gleichenia dicarpa, and G. circinata, with a few gentians and orchids.

Mount Rochfort was one of my favourite hunting-grounds, and many interesting plants were found on its spurs. In the forest at an elevation of from 1,000 ft. to 2,500 ft. grows the rarest of our ratas—viz., Metrosideros parkinsonii. It forms a very conspicuous object with its brilliant crimson flowers, which grow in clusters on the branches, which are often bare of leaves. At times it is a straggling shrub, and at others a small tree; and I have noticed that nearly every specimen is affected with a blight which blackens and pits the leaves. I have also found it growing about 200 ft. above sea-level at Caroline Terrace, and it is thinly distributed through the forests clothing the Paparoa Mountains. On the mountain pakihis numerous orchids are to be found, the most noticeable being Thelymitra pachyphylla, with its flowers variously coloured from a beautiful dark-blue to purple, and again shading from delicate pink to a pale creamy-white; the curious Calochilus paludosus; Pterostylis banksii; and here and there under shelter of the mountain-flax the rare Pterostylis venosa; whilst in the higher regions Prasophyllum colensoi, Lyperanthus antarcticus, Caladenia minor, and C. bifolia are plentiful. Gastrodia cunninghamii and Microtis porrifolia are also fairly abundant. In these open situations Actinotus novœ-zealandiœ, another very interesting plant, grows freely amongst the rocks on the drier part of the pakihi, and is seldom found at a lower elevation than 1,500 ft. In the subalpine bogs the delicate purple flowers of Utricularia monanthos are not uncommon, often associated

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with the white star-like flowers of Liparophyllum gunnii, which are at times submerged, the plant growing deeply bedded in the peaty soil. Both of these plants I have also found on the pakihis, almost at sea-level, growing in the peaty bogs and on the spongy banks of the watercourses, and they are both quite common in these situations. The gentians at the lower levels are Gentiana spenceri and G. townsoni, Cheesem., a new species which Mr. Cheeseman has honoured me by giving my name to, and which is one of our most beautiful West Coast flowers. It grows in the open and most exposed situations, and many plants may often be seen clustered together; and as several stems generally arise from one root, each crowned with its umbel of large white flowers, a patch of these gentians forms a veritable beauty-spot upon the uniformly dreary surface of these bog-lands. Gentiana spenceri affects the scrub, and where it grows on the open ground I imagine that the bushes which formerly sheltered it have been burnt off. Up at the trig. station Gentiana montana whitens the surface and blooms in magnificent profusion amongst the tussocks of Danthonia raoulii.

A peculiar form of Celmisia is found on these upland bogs which has the unusual habit of not only growing on the open ground, but also deep in the shelter of the scrub. Mr. Cheeseman has decided that it is a new species, and has named it Celmisia dubia. In the low forest under the shade of Fagus cliffortioides, Dacrydium biforme, Elœocarpus hookerianus, and Panax lineare grows another rarity—viz., Drimys traversii. On the Westport mountains it seldom exceeds a height of 16 in., and it straggles over the moss-covered rocks just where the low forest is thinning out at the higher levels. It is a shy bloomer, and for flowering specimens I have always had to make a close search, as its small green flowers are very inconspicuous; and only on one occasion did I find the dark-purple berry, so I conclude that the ripe berries, with those of Astelia lineare, which are also hard to find, form a part of the diet of the wekas which abound in those regions. From 1,500 ft. to 2,500 ft. is its altitudinal range, and Mount Rochfort and Mount Frederic are the only mountains on which I have found it growing, never having met with it on the Paparoas across the Buller River. I had the good fortune to discover in the same situation a little orchis which forms a new genus, and which Mr. Cheeseman has honoured me by naming Townsonia.

I must take this opportunity of thanking him for the compliment which he has paid me in thus associating my name with the science of botany in New Zealand, and giving me such liberal rewards for my work, which has always proved to be to me a labour of love. This delicate little plant Townsonia de-

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flexa is only found at about the same elevation as the Drimys just described, growing in the shelter of the manuka and Olearia colensoi, on the bosses of moss and prostrate tree-trunks. It blooms in November and December, but is easily overlooked, as it is very slender, averages from 4 in. to 5 in. in height, and its colour much the same as the cushions of moss on which it grows. When fully matured the flowers show a purplish tint. I have also found it growing on Mount Frederic, and across the Buller on Mount Buckland, at the same elevation.

On the open stony places near the summit Celmisia lateralis and a small form of Celmisia longifolia abound, and on the edges of the dense patches of Olearia which border the bare ground grow Forstera sedifolia, Euphrasia revoluta, and Anagosperma dispermum. Ourisia macrocarpa blooms amongst the conglomerate cliffs on the eastern face, and Ourisia macro-phylla is plentiful around the waterfalls in the numerous gullies. Coprosma colensoi and C. retusa are found in the fissures and crevices of the crags below the trig. station, and in the same sheltered niches the rare little grass Ehrarta thomsoni. Pimelea gnidia and P. longifolia, Epacris alpina, Archeria traversii, Leucopogon fasciculatus, and Cyathodes acerosa are also abundant. Ligusticum haastii and L. aromaticum, Senecio bellidioides, and Drapetes dieffenbachii are plentiful, but you look in vain for Veronicas with the exception of V. buxifolia, Aciphyllas, or any varieties of Myosotis. No Raoulias excepting R. grandiflora, and few varieties of Epilobium, occur.

The Westport Coal Company's workings at Denniston and Coalbrookdale are situated on Mount Rochfort, and back from them and more to the eastward Mount William rises to an elevation of 3,300 ft. I only climbed this mountain once, and made no discoveries of any importance, only bringing back with me Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium and Oreobolus pumilio. In Cascade Creek, running at its base, I found Calceolaria repens flowering amongst the drip from the rocks, and at Cedar Creek, a neighbouring stream, I gathered Carex cockayniana. Near the Iron Bridge workings, and also below in the gorge of the Waimangaroa River, I found a new species of Dracophyllum named Dracophyllum pubescens, Cheeseman. It grows on the steep face of the rock, being often out of reach, and is a stout much-branched plant with a procumbent habit, its leaves acuminate and finely pubescent on both surfaces, and the flowers in 3–5-flowered spikes. It is very local, for I have not met with it in any other locality.

The Waimangaroa River divides Mount Rochfort from its neighbour, Mount Frederic, a slightly higher mountain, but which has not proved so good a field for botanical research. The track

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takes up from the river, and is the old incline down which coal was formerly lowered from the Koranui workings, and very rough walking it makes, as the surface-water has made a channel of the incline, guttering it out and cutting it up badly. Bordering the track Gaultheria rupestris, with its beautiful white racemes, and Cordyline indivisa flourish, the latter being found on parts of the mountain growing in quite extensive groves, where I have found it flowering, although a very shy bloomer, and occasionally have found two flower-heads on one stem. Gahnia hectori also grows alongside the track. Fagus, Panax simplex and P. edgerleyi, Pseudopanax crassifolium, Weinmannia race-mosa, Quintinia acutifolia, Coprosma fœtidissima, and Myrsine salicina form the greatest proportion of the forest at the low levels. Amongst the yellow pines, at an elevation of 2,000 ft. or more, the beautiful purple-veined flowers of Gentiand montana var. stolonifera are met with, and when searching for specimens of this plant I came across numbers of the shells of Paryphanta hochstetteri, but seldom found one perfect, as the wekas destroy them. Close to the summit Celmisia dallii makes its appearance, and Cassinia vauvilliersii is fairly plentiful, and where the surface is bare the peculiar green humps of Raoulia mammillaris are not uncommon. Amongst the loose stones a stunted form of Gentiana patula forms beautiful rosette-like clusters, but Gen-tiana montana is absent. Drimys traversii, Metrosideros par-kinsoni, Townsonia deflexa and Pterostylis venosa are amongst the rarest of the plants which grow on Mount Frederic, and Drosera arcturi is quite common in the moss-covered bogs.

Passing in a northerly direction along the range you reach Millerton, at an elevation of nearly 2,000 ft., where the Westport Coal Company has workings, and from the township a track leads down to Granity Creek, where the coal-bins are situated. Pterostylis banksii is abundant on the sides of the track, and Olearia cunninghami here reaches its southern limit. At Granity Creek there is an abrupt coast-line, the spurs of the mountains coming down to within a few chains of the beach, and at Christmas time their slopes are scarlet with the flowers of Metrosideros robusta, which, together with the feathery fronds of the tree-ferns and the graceful crowns of the nikau palms, make a very charming picture, which is completed by the sea breaking in foamy lines upon the shingle-banks at their foot. From Granity Creek to Mokihinui the travelling, either by way of the beach or on the railway-bank, is bad, and until the road through is completed one or other of these routes must be followed.

I camped for a week at Mokihinui, and made two ascents of Mount Glasgow from there. It is an exceedingly treacherous mountain, as rarely a day passes without its peak being shrouded

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in fog, and on both occasions I had the misfortune to be enveloped in it. An old survey track had to be reblazed and opened up with a bill-hook, and much precious time was lost in track-cutting. The mountain rises to a height of 4,800 ft., its ridge extending apparently for some miles and describing three parts of a circle, where, in the hollow thus enclosed, and 500 ft. below the ridge, lies a beautiful lake, deep, dark, and placid, and it looks to be at least half a mile in diameter. A grand precipice rises sheer from its eastern bank, making a most imposing picture, whilst a number of lakelets in adjoining hollows greatly enhance its beauty. Here I found Olearia lacunosa on the forest-margin; Helichrysum grandiceps and H. bellidioides amongst the rocks on the ridge; and Veronica carnosula, Poa novœ-zealandiœ, and Agrostis dyeri amongst the rough boulders which surround the lake. So far as I could see, Ranunculus, Aciphylla, and Myosotis were unrepresented.

From Mokihinui I walked to Karamea by the inland track, the road zigzagging up the steep bank of the Rough-and-Tumble until, after crossing the saddle, it descends again into the valley of the Little Wanganui. If I remember rightly, Arthropodium candidum was the only addition made to my collection on the side of this track, and my trip to Karamea was remarkably barren in results. For one reason, it is difficult country to travel about in, as most of the roads at that time consisted of disconnected sections, whilst lagoons and back-waters proved very embarrassing. I gathered Carmichœlia flagelliformis on the banks of the salt-water lagoons, and I noticed some fine clumps of Corynocarpus lœvigata, evidently about the sites of ancient Maori camping-places. There was evidence of a large number of Maoris having once lived near the estuary of the Karamea River, and I have had numerous stone axes sent to me from that locality.

I returned to Mokikinui along the beach track, parts of which can only be negotiated at low water. After being ferried across the Little Wanganui River your route lays for miles over a rough boulder-strewn beach, and you can only progress by jumping from one to another, and it makes progression slow and difficult, especially in rough weather when the spaces between the boulders are filled in with spume from the breakers. At a point known as Big Hill the track takes to the bush, through which you climb up several hundred feet on the cliff-face; and I noticed that in places where the water ran across the track it left a deposit on all that it touched, coating over grass, moss-leaves, and ferns with a crust of lime, with which the water is highly impregnated. Corysanthes macrantha is very abundant on this bluff, and I found Veronica macrocarpa var. crassifolia

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growing there, which Mr. Cheeseman describes as “differing markedly from the type in having much narrower, smaller, more coriaceous, and rigid leaves, and in the acute calyx segments, and may prove to be a separate species.” Pellucid glands form a dotted margin to each leaf, and I noticed that in a plant which I now have under cultivation this appearance is less marked. Beyond the Big Hill, where the track again reaches the beach, some fine limestone cliffs rise to a height of several hundred feet, forming a conspicuous object from Cape Foulwind, nearly fifty miles away. Here and there along this rugged coast-line are patches of karaka growing to a great size, and groves of nikau palms beautify the cliffs' base, whilst Poa cœspitosa var. australis and Deyeuxia billardieri drape the rocks with their green tassels. Under the shelter of the Coprosmas, Piper excelsum, and Fuchsia bushes, Pteris macilenta grows in great luxuriance, and Lomaria banksii and Polypodium tenellum are also plentiful. Between the bluffs and the mouth of the Mokihinui River there is a stretch of open beach, where I found Hydrocotyle dissecta and Carex colensoi growing amongst the driftwood, and I also collected Lepidium flexicaule, Tetragonia expansa, T. trigyna, and Chenopodium glaucum on the sandy beaches about Mokihinui Cape gooseberries cover a considerable area as you approach the banks of the river, and must yield a handsome harvest to the settlers living on the spit. On the banks of the river Carmichœlia angustata is common, and a few miles up-stream a curious variety of Aristotelia racemosa grows, which bears large red berries, and forms a beautiful object when loaded with fruit. Between Mokihinui and West-port the beach furnishes nothing of particular interest.

My best course will be now to briefly describe the botanical features of the portion of the Buller Valley which I visited, and give what information I can as to the plant-distribution. At the mouth of the Buller River there are tidal lagoons which cover quite an extensive area, and which at low water become converted into mud-flats, covered mostly with Samolus repens, Selliera radicans, Eleocharis acuta, Leptocarpus simplex, Scirpus lacustris, and Juncus. There are several islands amongst the lagoons bearing grass and pasturing a few head of stock, and the banks of the islands are fringed with low bushes, conspicuous amongst which are Veronica salicifolia and V. parviflora; Coprosma fœtidissima, C. parviflora, C. propinqua, and C. lucida; Carmichœlia angustata and C. subulata; Myrsine salicina, M. durvillei, and M. divaricata, with a few bushes of the rare Myrsine montana; Cordyline australis, Pittosporum tenuifolium, and Dodonœa viscosa. Some little way above the railway-bridge which spans the Buller the bush approaches the banks of the

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river, and this condition exists almost continuously through the gorge, only a few cultivations and grass clearings existing between the mouth of the gorge and the Inangahua Junction. Close to the bridge, on the rocks which are only exposed at low water, the little Myriophyllum pedunculatum forms compact green patches, and near by in a wet paddock Gratiola nana is plentiful, a plant by no means common around Westport. About two miles upstream, in some low bush composed of Aristotelia racemosa, Hedycarya arborea, and Melicytus ramiflorus, is one of the best ferning-grounds which I know of. In that restricted area I have collected Pteris tremula and P. macilenta, Pellœa falcata and P. rotundifolia, Asplenium umbrosum, Lomaria membranacea and L. frazeri, and Aspidium richardi, amongst others. Doubtless the spores of some of these ferns are carried down from the back country when the river is in flood, and, finding a congenial soil, have now become permanently established. Coprosma rugosa, a new species, closely allied to C. acerosa, grows on the banks near the first falls, and attains a height of 12 ft. or more. Just above the falls there is an island of some extent, covered for the most part with low bush, and under its shelter I found my first specimens of Australina pusilla, growing amongst the moss, and here and there a bush swathed with Clematis fœtida, a plant very uncommon about Westport. An introduced plant, Lysimachia nummularia, or money-wort, covers some swampy ground bordering the bush, and Mr. Cheeseman considers it to be its first appearance in New Zealand. Carex ternaria and Carex comans are common on the sandy beaches, and Poa colensoi var. intermedia and the graceful Poa anceps droop gracefully from the overhanging rocks. On the more marshy ground, and sometimes in the slowly running water, Isotoma fluviatilis is seen, and is quite common in similar situations around Westport.

At the Blackwater I found the delicate Adiantum Œhiopicum growing amongst the rocks in the river-bed, and on the sandy banks Claytonia australasica seemed quite robust almost at sea-level, although the last time that I had seen it was at an altitude of 4,000 ft. on Mount Mantell. Senecio hectori, with its corymbs of beautiful white flowers and showy foliage, Carpodetus serratus, Pennantia corymbosa, with Schefflera digitata and Hoheria populnea, give variety to the river-banks, whilst the scarlet blooms of Metrosideros florida and Elytranthe tetrapetala provided the requisite touch of colour. Under the limestone cliffs near the Junction I found quantities of both Pellœa rotundifolia and P. falcata, and amongst the rocks in the river-bed Adiantum œhiopicum was growing in nearly every crevice. I was sorry to see that the country around the Junction was overrun with blackberry, and I noticed that it had taken complete possession

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of several paddocks near the bridge. Ragwort [ unclear: ] is [ unclear: ] also in evidence in several parts of the Buller Valley, and is especially noticeable at Fern Flat.

It is about eleven miles from the Junction to the Lyell, and on the road I discovered Gratiola peruviana growing in the boggy ground on the roadside, and Lythrum hyssopifolium was plentiful there. I secured no novelties about the Lyell Township, so went on to Murchison, where I stayed for a week. On the Buller River bed, close to its junction with the Matakitaki, Corokia cotoneaster was in full berry, Discaria toumatou was plentiful, and I made my first acquaintance with Epilobium microphyllum, which I found in abundance on the shingle amongst the driftwood.

From Murchison I made my first excursion up the Matakitaki for the purpose of climbing Mount Mantell, and on my way found Helichrysum depressum, which grows on the shingle-banks in the river-bed. The mountain presents no difficulties to the climber, and there is an ample reward for the labours of the ascent in the extended view which is obtained from the summit, including as it does nearly the whole of the watershed of the Buller. I observed that clover grew luxuriantly around the trig station, and it is accounted for by the fact that when sheep were run on the mountain the open ground was sown with English grasses and clover. My Mount Mantell collection included Helichrysum microphyllum, Gnaphalium traversii var. mackayi, Veronica traversii and V. armstrongii, Claytonia austral-asica, Ligusticum piliferum, and Brachycome sinclairii. I was greatly charmed with the wealth of blossom in the gullies, where Senecio lyallii, in tints varying from bright-yellow to pure white, blooms so freely.

My next excursion was to Mount Murchison, and I was kindly entertained by Mr. Rait, who has a sheep-run at the base of the mountain. He accompanied me in making the ascent on the following morning, and as I was approaching ground which had never been botanized my expectation of securing some rare specimens was correspondingly great. My high hopes were not realised, however, for on reaching the open country the fog descended upon us, and it became so cold and wet that we were compelled to beat a hasty retreat. I gathered, amongst other plants, Celmisia spectabilis and C. hieracifolia, Craspedia fimbriata var. lanata—found for the first and last time—Epilobium novœ-zealandiœ and E. chlorœfolium, Euphrasia monroi, Geum leiospermum, Pimelea lyallii, Myosotis australis, Pozoa roughii, Celmisia monroi, and Veronica cockayniana.

I was sorry not to have the opportunity of spending another day on Mount Murchison, but my time was very limited, and I

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had arranged for a fresh expedition next day, so I once more forded the Buller on horseback, and with a son of Mr. Win's left the Owen Junction for the deserted township situated close to the foot of Mount Owen. We loaded our outfit on to a pack-horse and walked the eight miles over a very indifferent road which traverses Baigent's run, and crosses and recrosses the Owen River. On the marshy lands through which we passed I saw great quantities of Bulbinella hookeri, but I could not find time to examine the flat. We took up our quarters at the old Enterprise Hotel, which contained the furniture and fittings, which had never been interfered with since the house had been abandoned many years ago when the Owen reefs duffered out. It afforded us an ideal camping-place, and we had a paddock also for the horse. We got on our way by starlight in the morning, passing the ruined huts and batteries, and by sunrise were well up the lower spurs of the mountain. My attention was first arrested by the curious little orchis, Adenochilus gracilis, which grows amongst the cushions of moss between the Fagus roots, at an elevation of about 1,000 ft. In the scrub belt Olearia lacunosa was conspicuous, but I could not spend much time at that level for fear of fog invading the higher regions. On leaving the subalpine forest the climbing for some distance was mostly done on hands and knees, owing to the steepness of the spur and the slippery nature of the surface. Here Epilobium vernicosum was in bloom, and formed the most striking feature of the flora, in conjunction with Myosotis concinna. Veronica linifola formed bright-purple patches amongst the rocks, and a peculiar form of Aciphylla with flaccid unarmed leaves proved of great service in affording good hold for our hands on the steep spurs. Erechtites glabrescens and Cotula pyrethrifolia grew on the middle slopes, and at an altitude of from 3,000 ft. to 5,000 ft. I gathered Angelica decipiens, Cardamine latisiliqua, and Ranunculus qeraniifolius, whilst amongst the fissures of the rock Ranunculus insignis and Colobanthus canaliculatus were not uncommon. These, together with Coprosma cuneata and C. repens, Euphrasia cheesemanii, Gnaphalium microphyllum, Notothlaspi australe, Veronica armstrongii, and Poranthera alpina, made up a very interesting collection. At an elevation of 4,500 ft. Cystopteris fragilis was growing under the shelter of the cliffs, and from that point on to the summit, 6,100 ft., was the most difficult travelling which I had encountered. The formation was crystalline limestone, which was fissured and channelled and riddled with caves, in which the snow still lay at midsummer, and the surface was cut about in such a way as to compel us to travel with great caution.

It may not be out of place to quote from a magazine article

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which I wrote some years ago, in which I gave a description of the view from the peak of Mount Owen. “In the middle distance to the north Mount Arthur and the mountains at the head of the Karamea River were the most conspicuous objects, whilst more to the eastward Tasman Bay was seen gleaming blue as amethyst. To the south-west the Lyell Ranges formed a rugged line, and further south the Paparoas stood guard over the coastline down as far as the Grey Valley. The River Maruia could be followed south in its long-winding course towards the Cannibal Gorge, near where it takes its rise, and the Matakitaki could be traced as a silver line from its rise in the Spenser Ranges to the gorge where Mount Mantell overshadows it. The Buller was seen from its source in Lake Rotoiti, threading its way past Kerr's Lake Station, and increasing in volume as it coursed past the Owen and Murchison.”

My next camp was set up on Boundary Peak at an elevation of 3,000 ft., with the view of botanizing the Lyell end of the Brunner Range. A prospecting-track has been cut along the range for some twenty odd miles, and when completed will reach the Victoria Range near Reefton. This track proved of great service to us, for where the country is clear the line has been marked out by finger-posts, which saved us from taking many a roundabout course when returning tired to our camp. The summit of Boundary Peak reaches an altitude of 4,500 ft., whilst some of the mountains in the chain approach 5,000 ft. and are extremely rugged. There I found a variety of gentian with large flabby leaves, and the pretty little Euphrasia zealandica, but the flowers do not quite answer to the description given in the Flora, as they have a bright-pink centre instead of being white as in the type. Aciphylla lyallii, A. colensoi, A. hookeri, and A. townsoni were plentiful on the farther spurs, associated with Celmisia coriacea and C. armstrongii. Mr. Cheeseman has on several occasions remarked the paucity of varieties of Aciphylla on the eastern ranges as compared with the western, where there are so many. Amongst the stony ridges Azorella haastii and A. pallida were constantly met with, and both Ligusticum deltoideum and L. imbricatum were not uncommon. Drapetes villosa var. multiflora, Celmisia petiolata var. membranacea, Notothlaspi australe var. stellatum, and Ranunculus tenuicaulis were some of the rarities obtained, and amongst the rough crags at an elevation of 4,000 ft. I discovered a new variety of Myosotis. It is white-flowered, and Mr. Cheeseman remarks that “it is apparently allied to M. saxosa and M. lyallii, but differs from both in the flowers being chiefly axillary,” and he has named it Myosotis townsoni. It is apparently a rare plant on the Brunner Mountains, as I only secured a few specimens after making an ex-

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haustive search. Myosotis antarctica, Ranunculus monroi and R. geranifolius (the large-leaved variety), Coprosma depressa, Brachy- come thomsoni var. membranifolia, Microseris forsteri (gathered for the first time), Archeria traversii, Dracophyllum urvilleanum var. montana, Gentiana bellidifolia, Veronica cockayniana and V. coarctata, Euphrasia cheesemanii, Juncus antarcticus, Scirpus aucklandicus var. subcucullata, Uncinia purpurata, and Carex acicularis were the chief additions made to my collection in that c& and amongst the grasses Poa dipsacea, P. imbecilla, and P. kirkii var. mackayi were the most interesting. We had rather a novel experience when on leaving that camp we came down to the river with the intention of crossing in the chair and putting up at the hotel which was on the opposite bank. The chair was suspended over the middle of the stream, and as we pulled it up to the landing the hauling-line parted, leaving us without any means of crossing. It was too late in the evening to effect repairs, and we had to go to bed supperless, lying on the grass under the canopy of heaven and badly tormented by mosquitoes.

After setting up our camp at the Lyell Creek, I made several ascents of Mount Lyell, and added a few more novelties to my collection. On one of the rocky spurs I found a plant described by Mr. Cheeseman as a remarkable variety of Aciphylla lyallii, having larger and more rigid leaves, the lower pinnÆ of which are trifid or again pinnate. Celmisia monroi was also found on this mountain. On the road leading down from our camp to the Lyell I collected Uncinia riparia, and more specimens of the flabby-leaved gentian met with before on Boundary Peak; also Rubus parvus was in fruit on the roadside; and I noticed in many of the wet mossy spots which were exposed to the drip from the rocks above there were mats of Calceolaria repens in full bloom, and charming the eye with their delicate beauty.

Returning again to Westport, the next point of interest is Cape Foulwind, and the seven miles can be most pleasantly walked at low water on a hard sandy beach. Amongst the granite rocks which strew the beach just beyond the cape Lepidium flexicaule is fairly plentiful, and a peculiar form of Wahlenbergia, named W. saxicola var. congesta, grows amongst the gravel, and further down the coast is quite common amongst the sandhills. Mr. Cheeseman says of it, “Mr. Townson's plant from Cape Foulwind, which forms broadly matted patches in sandy soil, has a very distinct appearance, and almost deserves specific rank.” Desmoschœnus spiralis, Mariscus ustulatus, Euphorbia glauca, and Veronica elliptica are the most conspicuous plants, not forgetting Senecio rotundifolius, which attains its

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northern limit just beyond Westport. Tillœa moschata, Colo-banthus muelleri, and Plantago triandra grow in situations exposed to the salt spray, whilst Lomaria banksii, Pteris macilenta, and Polypodium tenellum are fairly plentiful. There is a considerable patch of Corynocarpus lœvigatus, probably planted there in former times by the hand of the Maori. In the low bush around the lighthouse I gathered Acianthus sinclairii; and at Tauranga Bay, a mile or two further down the coast, Corysanthes triloba is abundant under the shelter of the nikaus and tree-ferns. In that bay, on a sandy knoll, there is a clump of Weinmannia racemosa showing a most unusual mode of growth, for from the horizontal branches descend stout limbs, which are rooted in the ground, giving the trees the appearance of mangroves as I have seen them pictured. Pimelea arenaria, Coprosma acerosa, and Spinifex hirsutus are the commonest plants on the sandhills, whilst Arundo conspicua and Festuca littoralis are also abundant. I met with a few patches of Gaul-theria perplexa and Discaria toumatou straggling over the sand, and Mazus radicans is not uncommon on the sandy banks.

Following the coast-line to Charleston, a most unusual condition of things is found on a spray-swept promontory called “Usher's Rock,” for there, just at sea-level or a little above it, grow Gentiana saxosa, Celmisia coriacea, Senecio bellidioides, and Pimelea longifolia, many of them plants which in other parts of the district are mostly found at high elevations. I do not recollect gathering any of these plants on the Cape Foul-wind bluffs, nor on the White Horse bluffs, near Brighton, some miles south of Charleston.

Between Westport and Charleston most of the country lying between the high-level terraces which flank the Paparoas and the sea is composed of pakihis interspersed with patches of forest. The bulk of the low-growing forms of plant life on these wet plains is made up of Gahnia rigida, G. ebenocarpa, and G. setifolia; Cladium teretefolium, C. glomeratum, and C. capil-laceum; Dianella intermedia; Epilobium pubens, E. nummu-larifolium, and E. rotundifolium; Gunnera monoica, Haloragis micrantha, various forms of Hydrocotyle, Celmisia longifolia, and Epacris pauciflora; together with Arundo conspicua, micro-lœna stipoides, and Danthonia semiannularis. Gentiana townsoni is scattered over the whole area, and Thelymitra pachyphylla helps to vary the monotony of the brown surface; whilst here and there Orthoceras solandri, Pterostylis graminea, P. banksii, and Prasophyllum colensoi may be found. In some of the more boggy spots the pale-blue flowers of Herpolirion novœ-zealandiœ are conspicuous, the delicate flowers of Anagospermum dispermum forming broad patches of colour, and Liparophyllum

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gunnii starring over some of the bare patches of brown peat. Drosera binata is ubiquitous, and Acœna sanguisorbœ is plentiful on the drier parts of the surface. The most abundant ferns are Pteris aquilina, P. incisa, P. scaberula, and Gleichenia dicarpa; whilst on the margins of the forest Lomaria frazeri flourishes.

On the main road to Charleston, where it crosses the pakihis, patches of Gnaphalium collinum and Helichrysum filicaule are seen on the roadside, and growing amongst them I found a Gnaphalium new to Mr. Cheeseman, and which he thinks must be introduced. In the same locality, growing on the banks at the side of the road, and also on dry elevations amongst the pakihis, I collected Prasophyllum rufum, in reference to which Mr. Cheeseman remarks, “I suspect that the New Zealand plant will prove to be a different species to the Australian, and it is probable that the North Island plant described in the Handbook under the name of P. nudum is distinct from Mc-Mahon's and Townson's South Island specimens. Mr. Townson's have a broad obtuse lip, but in Fitzgerald's ‘Australian Orchids’ (vol. ii, part iv) the lip of P. rufum is represented as lanceolate and acute.”

In many places these marshy plains extend from the top of the high-level terraces to the foot of the mountain-spurs, and are favourite sites for gold-miners' dams.

The nearest peak of the Paparoa Mountains to Westport is Mount Buckland, which overlooks the Buller Gorge. Round about Caroline Terrace, which flanks this mountain, and on the foothills, I met with a new species of Dracophyllum, named D. townsoni, Cheesem., the peculiarity of which is its bearing curved and drooping panicles of fœtid-smelling flowers, situated beneath the leaves. It grows to a height of from 10 ft. to 20 ft., and the branches are ringed with the scars of the fallen leaves, and so far as I know it grows only in that locality. On that terrace I found Elytranthe flavida parasitic upon Fagus solandri; also, by the dam, a patch of Pelargonium australe; and I never found either plant again in any other locality. The mountain forest is chiefly Fagus, and where it runs out, Dracophyllum urvilleanum var. montanum, Dacrydium biforme, Archeria traversii, and Olearia colensoi replace it. On reaching the open country Aciphylla hookeri appears; and on a swampy tableland Ranunculus gracilipes is in abundance amongst the grass; and where it is more stony, Celmisia dallii, C. sessiliflora, and C. lateralis are fairly common. In the mossy bogs Caltha novœ-zealandiœ and Plantago brownii are plentiful, whilst Ourisia glandulosa and Geum uniflorum decorate the rock-ledges. Near the peak Veronica gilliesiana and Ourisia sessiliflora grow in

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some abundance, and on a shingle-slide on the eastern face I was pleased to find Ranunculus lyallii in bloom. In my many excursions amongst the other peaks in this chain I never found this plant growing again, but it may occur on the Greymouth end of the range. Euphrasia cockayniana and E. revoluta are not uncommon, and there are many patches of Donatia novœ-zealandiœ on the higher slopes. My last experience on this mountain was not a very pleasant one, as my companion and myself became enveloped in dense fog, and the narrow saddle by which we could gain the clear country was not to be picked up, and consequently we had to spend the night on the rocky peak, fireless and half-perished, and were obliged to tramp up and down a shelf of rock all through the night, as there was no shelter of any sort. We walked for thirty-one consecutive hours on that expedition, but experienced no bad results from the exposure.

The next mountain in the chain is Mount Kelvin, which overtops its neighbours by nearly 1,000 ft. Here Aciphylla hookeri and A. townsoni grow in profusion, A. colensoi being plentiful in the valleys between the spurs, whilst the two former affect the dry slopes. Celmisia armstrongii and C. coriacea star the meadows over, and amongst the rocks Senecio lyallii in places whitens the surface. One noticeable feature regarding these flowers is the colouring, for on the Paparoa Range, where they grow so freely, I have never found a specimen of Senecio lyallii or its variety scorzoneroides other than pure white. Gnaphalium grandiceps mats over some of the dry rocks, and Coprosma serrulata and Carex forsteri are found on the banks of the rills and in spots that are sheltered. I have gathered Geranium microphyllum at an elevation of 4,000 ft. Ehrharta colensoi, Danthonia raoulii, and D. australis grow in abundance, the last-named being popularly called “carpet-grass,” and rendering the surface of the steep spurs very slippery indeed. On one occasion after scaling this peak a party of us got belated, and as the country was too rough to attempt travelling in the dark we were obliged to camp in the bed of the Totara River, and make the best of it until daylight appeared, when we resumed our march.

Mount Faraday is the next important peak in the Paparoas, and I approached it by way of the Four-mile River, as a good track follows the river to within a short distance of the foot of the mountain. On the side of the track I gathered Mazus radicans, and, where it crossed a small swamp, Centrolepis viridis. I camped for the night in company with Mr. Boswell in a bush-feller's tent, and from there on the following day we made a successful ascent of the mountain. In the subalpine scrub on

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parts of this range Podocarpus nivalis is found, and is most difficult to make one's way through; sometimes, when too thick to crawl under, the only course is to climb over the top of it. The only curiosities which I obtained on Mount Faraday were Hydrocotyle novœ-zealandiœ var. montana, Drapetes dieffenbachii var. multiflora, a form of Ligusticum resembling L. haastii but smaller and more slender and bearing pink flowers, and a curiously matted form of Polypodium serpens which grows amongst the rocks around the peak.

From the Four-mile we returned to Brighton, where we were staying, and on our way home I gathered Dichelachne sciurea where the road crosses the saddle. At the mouth of Fox's River, at Brighton, amongst the rocks on the sea-face, grows a new species of Veronica, named V. divergens by Mr. Cheeseman, whose remarks regarding it I cannot do better than quote: “Although unwilling to create new species in a genus like Veronica, I feel compelled to assign specific rank to this, which appears to be well characterized by the small oblong or elliptic-oblong flat spreading leaves, dense racemes, very short and broad corollatube, and broadly oblong subacute capsule. In some respects it approaches V. macroura var. dubia, but its nearest ally is probably V. salicifolia var. kirkii.” Not far from the mouth of the river is an island called Seal Island, which can only be approached at low water on spring tides, and there I found Juncus cœspiticius and Agnopyrum scabrum growing, and on many of the rocks in the vicinity Tillœa sieberiana may be found. Following Fox's River through one of the most picturesque gorges which I have ever seen, we approached the foothills of the main range, the peaks of Mount Faraday, the Razorback, and Mount Bovis serrating the sky-line. On a subsequent visit I made one of the first ascents of the Razorback, but made no fresh botanical discoveries. On the banks of the river Poa anceps hangs in long tresses from the cliff-face side by side with Schœnus pauciflorus; on the shingly banks here and there Senecio hectori was in full flower. Olearia ilicifolia var. molle was one mass of white bloom, and Elytranthe colensoi showed in scarlet masses pendent from the limbs of Fagus fusca. Corysanthes micrantha was plentiful in shaded situations, and where a stream strongly impregnated with lime flowed across the roadway Veronica macrocarpa var. crassifolia was again met with, and on the more open banks Urtica ferox and Arctium lappa were not uncommon.

Mount Bovis was the last mountain in the Paparoa Chain which I was able to visit, and to reach it we travelled overnight to Bullock Creek, from which point it is most easily approached. To reach our destination we were obliged to ford Fox's River

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some twenty-two times, but as the stream was low the fords presented no difficulties, and at the end of our journey we were hospitably entertained by a settler who runs cattle on the river-flats. Sometimes on O'Brien's land, where the surface is undermined by subterranean streams, huge rata-trees disappear bodily, and where they stood will be pools of water from which a few of the topmost twigs of the trees protrude. On Mount Bovis I collected Celmisia bellidioides, Ourisia cœspitosa, Veronica vernicosa, Abrotanella cœspitosa, and Epilobium gracilipes.

There is a noticeable absence in these ranges of the mountain forms of Ranunculus, and no varieties of Myosotis were found on the Paparoas. There are no Carmichœlias, whilst the only Raoulias are R. grandiflora and R. eximia, and the whipcord Veronicas are almost unrepresented. No mountain varieties of Clematis were ever observed by me, and I only collected three species of this genus in the whole district. The Paparoas are bush-clad to an elevation of from 2,000 ft. to 3,000 ft., and much of the lands on the flat are clothed with forest, and beyond Bullock Creek there are grand belts of Podocarpus spicata growing on limestone country which will doubtless prove valuable grazing lands when cleared. Rhopalostylis sapida is found in magnificent groves dotted about on the coastal bluffs as far south as I reached, but they do not extend inland very far.

The excessive rainfall, which reached 72 in. in 1904 and 1905, may account for the absence of many plants which are found further inland, and in the mountains especially many plants that one would naturally expect to find at a given elevation are conspicuous by their absence. They may still be discovered on the sheltered eastern face of the ranges when they are examined.

Some southern plants seem to make the Westport district their northern limit—for instance, Gentiana montana and G. saxosa, Liparophyllum gunnii, Ranunculus lyallii, Actinotus novœ-zealandiœ, Epilobium gracilipes, Euphrasia cockayniana, Coprosma retusa, Senecio rotundifolius, Veronica elliptica, and Ehrharta thomsoni. On the other hand, many northern species find their southern limit in the vicinity of the Buller, amongst which are Lepidium flexicaule, Notothlaspi australe var. stellatum, Myriophyllum robustum, Nertera cunninghamii, Olearia cunninghamii, Celmisia dallii, Astelia banksii, Orthoceras solandri, Calochilus paludosus, Pterostylis venosa and P. puberula, Corysanthes cheesemanii, and Poa anceps; and amongst the Filices, Adiantum œthiopicum, Pteris macilenta and P. tremula, and Asplenium umbrosum. Mr. Cheeseman has several times remarked whilst looking over my specimens that Westport and its immediate

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neighbourhood seems to be the meeting-place of many northern and southern species. Another interesting feature of this part of the West Coast is the low elevation at which alpine and sub-alpine plants occur, some of them, such as Celmisia coriacea, Anagospermum dispermum, Liparophyllum gunnii, and Claytonia australasica, being found at sea-level.

If I had had the opportunity of making a closer and more exhaustive search over the area included in the appended sketch-map no doubt many more species and varieties than the 755 comprising my catalogue would have been obtained, and this number with the thirty-four contained in the supplementary list makes a total of 789. Seventy-four natural orders are represented, Filices heading the list with ninety-two species, CompositÆ coming next with seventy-six, followed by CyperaceÆ with fifty-six, GramineÆ with thirty-nine, ScrophularineÆ with thirty-four, and OrchideÆ with thirty-two. Carex takes the lead amongst the genera with twenty-five species, Coprosma follows with twenty, and Celmisia accounts for seventeen. Some plants, such as Drimys traversii and Metrosideros parkinsonii, are very rare outside the district. Some few make their appearance for the first time in the South Island—viz., Lepidium flexicaule, Gnaphalium subrigidum, Pterostylis venosa and P. puberula, and Corysanthes cheesemanii; and it yet remains to be proved by future observers whether the new species, such as Aciphylla townsoni, Celmisia dubia, Wahlenbergia saxicola var. congesta, Dracophyllum townsoni and D. pubescens, Myosotis townsoni, Veronica macrocarpa var. crassifolia and V. divergens, Town-sonia deflexa, and Prasophyllum rufum, are confined to the district or have a more extended range.

I feel that my thanks are due not only to Mr. Cheeseman, who suggested the work and helped it through its various stages, but to Mr. A. McKay, from whose geological report I obtained all my information on geology, and from which I largely quoted, and also to the companions who accompanied me on many expeditions, and often had to put up with hardships and exposure to which they had not been inured—who were often leg-weary and yet never complained, and in that way helped forward my botanical work, of which this catalogue is the outcome. I must not omit recording my thanks also to the County Engineer, who kindly lent me an outfit when going on a camping-out expedition into the Lyell Ranges.

In describing the new species I have not given any minute details, as that has been done so well by Mr. Cheeseman in his very excellent “Manual of the New Zealand Flora.”

– 404 –

Catalogue of the Flowering-plants and Ferns gathered in the Districts around Westport.


  • Clematis indivisa, Willd. Common throughout the district.

  • " indivisa, var. lobulata, Kirk. Common throughout the district.

  • " fœtida, Raoul. Island in Buller River, near Westport.

  • Ranunculus lyallii, Hook. f. Mount Buckland, on peak; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " insignis, Hook. f. Mount Owen; between 4,000 ft. and 5,000 ft.

  • " monroi, Hook. f. Mount Murchison and Boundary Peak; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " geranifolius, Hook. f. Mount Murchison, Brunner Range; ascending to 4,500 ft.

  • " tenuicaulis, Cheesem. Boundary Peak; altitude, 3,500 ft.

  • " gracilipes, Hook. f. Mount Buckland; altitude, 3,000 ft.

  • " hirtus, Banks and Sol. Throughout the district.

  • " lappaceus, Sm. Plentiful throughout the district.

  • " rivularis, Banks and Sol. Plentiful throughout the district in wet ground.

  • " acaulis, Banks and Sol. On sandhills between Cape Foulwind and Charleston.

  • Caltha novœ-zealandiœ, Hook. f. On the Brunner Range and Paparoas, in bogs in subalpine regions, at an altitude of from 3,000–4,000 ft.


  • Drimys axillaris, Forst. In the Cape Foulwind and Mokihinui woods.

  • " colorata, Raoul. Not uncommon in woods in damp situations.

  • " traversii, T. Kirk. Mount Rochfort and Mount Frederic, at an elevation of from 2,000–3,000 ft.; fairly abundant on the mossy surface under the shade of the low Fagus forest.


  • Nasturtium palustre, DC. Common in damp situations.

  • Cardamine hirsuta, L. Common; ascending to 4,000 ft. on Paparoas.

  • " latesiliqua, Cheesem. Mount Owen; altitude, from 3,000–5,000 ft.

– 405 –
  • Lepidium flexicaule, T. Kirk. On the beach at Cape Foulwind, and also between Mokihinui and Karamea on the stony beach.

  • Notothlaspi rosulatum, Hook. f. Mount Owen; altitude, from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " australe, var. stellatum, Kirk. On a shingle-slip on Boundary Peak; atitude, 4,000 ft.


  • Viola filicaulis, Hook f. Common.

  • " lyallii, Hook. f. Common; ascending to 4,000 ft. on the Paparoas.

  • " cunninghamii, Hook. f. Common.

  • Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst. Abundant in all woods at low elevations.

  • " lanceolatus, Hook. f. Buller Valley.


  • Pittosporum tenuifolium, Banks and Sol. Abundant throughout the district.

  • " colensoi, Hook. f. Not uncommon.

  • " rigidum, Hook. f. Not uncommon from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " eugenioides, A. Cunn. At Tauranga Bay, near Cape Foulwind.


  • Stellaria parviflora, Banks and Sol. Common. A matted form found on Mount Lyell, at an altitude of 3,000 ft.

  • Colobanthus quitensis, Bartl. Mount Mantell; altitude, from 4,000–6,000 ft.

  • " billardieri, Fenzl. Buller Valley; not uncommon.

  • " muelleri, T. Kirk. Abundant on the rocks along the coast.

  • " canaliculatus, T. Kirk. On limestone rock on Mount Owen; altitude, 4,000 ft.


  • Claytonia australasica, Hook. f. Buller River bed at the Black-water; Mount Mantell; altitude, 5,000 ft.

  • Montia fontana, Linn. Not uncommon in slow-running water-courses.


  • Elatine americana, Arn. On muddy margin of Lake Rochfort; altitude, about 1,500 ft.

– 406 –


  • Hypericum japonicum, Thunb. Abundant in marshy meadows.


  • Plagianthus divaricatus, Forst. Abundant on the salt marshes.

  • " betulinus, A. Cunn. Throughout the district.

  • Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn., var. angustifolia. Throughout the district.


  • Aristotelia racemosa, Hook. f. Abundant throughout.

  • " fruticosa, Hook. f. Boundary Peak, at an altitude of 3,000 ft. I never gathered specimens on the coastal ranges.

  • Elœocarpus dentatus, Vahl. Fairly abundant.

  • " hookerianus, Raoul. Common in subalpine forests.


  • Linum monogynum, Forst. Abundant on the coastal cliffs and in places on the Buller River bed.


  • Geranium dissectum, L. Common.

  • " dissectum, var. patulum, Hook. f. Buller Valley.

  • " microphyllum, Hook. f. Common on dry banks.

  • " sessiliflorum, Cav. Sandhills between Cape Foulwind and Charleston.

  • " molle, L. Throughout the district.

  • Pelargonium australe, Jacq. Caroline Terrace, at an elevation of about 500 ft.

  • Oxalis corniculata, L. Common.

  • " magellanica, Forst. Abundant up to an elevation of 3,000 ft.


  • Melicope simplex, A. Cunn. Mount Rochfort and Paparoas; altitude, from 1,000–2,000 ft.


  • Pennantia corymbosa, Forst. Abundant on the margins of forest lands and amongst the low bushes on river-banks.


  • Discaria toumatou, Raoul. Sandhills at Cape Foulwind, and Buller Valley.

– 407 –


  • Dodonoé viscosa, Jacq. Along the coast-line is abundant.


  • Corynocarpus lœvigata, Forst. From Cape Foulwind along the coast to Karamea in isolated patches, and a few solitary trees on the banks of the Buller River.


  • Coriaria ruscifolia, L. Abundant throughout the district.

  • " thymifolia, Humb. Buller Valley and Fox's River.


  • Carmichœlia subulata, T. Kirk. Buller Valley, salt-water lagoons, and littoral swamps.

  • " angustata, T. Kirk. Common in Buller Valley, and on the banks of the Karamea, Mokihinui, and Fox's Rivers.

  • " flagelliformis, Col. Banks of salt-water lagoons, Karamea.

  • Sophora tetraptera, J. Mull. In the vicinity of lagoons and on river-flats, common.


  • Rubus australis, Forst. Common.

  • " cissoides, A. Cunn. Common.

  • " parvus, Buch. Lyell Creek Road.

  • Geum parviflorum, Sm. Mount Mantell; altitude, from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " uniflorum, Buch. Paparoas, Mount Mantell; altitude, from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " leiospermum, Petrie. Mount Murchison; altitude, from 3,000–4,500 ft.

  • Acœna sanguisorbœ, Vahl. Abundant from sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • " sanguisorbœ var. pilosa. T. Kirk. Brunner Range, from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " microphylla, var. inermis. T. Kirk. Buller Valley and Mokihinui.


  • Donatia novœ-zealandiœ, Hook. f. Abundant on the Papahua-Paparoa Mountains; altitude, from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • Quintinia acutifolia, T. Kirk. Abundant throughout the district from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

– 408 –
  • Carpodetus serratus, Forst. Abundant on the margins of forests. Weinmannia racemosa, L. Abundant throughout the district from sea-level to 2,000 ft.


  • Tillœa moschata, DC. Common on the rocks along the coast.

  • " helmsii, T. Kirk. On marshy lands about the estuaries of the rivers.

  • " sieberiana, Schultz. On the sea-cliffs and rocks at St. Kilda and Brighton.


  • Drosera stenopetala, Hook. f. Abundant on the mountains at an altitude of from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " arcturi, Hook. Common at an elevation of from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " spathulata, Labill. Not uncommon from sea-level to 4,000 ft.

  • " binata, Labill. An abundant plant on all the pakihis.


  • Haloragis alata, Jacq. Abundant on the river-banks and flats.

  • " depressa, Walp. On sandhills between Cape Foulwind and Charleston.

  • " micrantha, R. Br. Common all over the pakihis.

  • Myriophyllum elatinoides, Gaud. I only found this plant on one occasion in the Buller Valley.

  • " intermedium, DC. Not uncommon in still pools and on marsh lands.

  • " robustum, Hook. f. Common in swamps about the Orowaiti and Cape Foulwind.

  • " pedunculatum, Hook. f. Not uncommon in the Buller River bed.

  • Gunnera monoica, Raoul. Abundant throughout the district.

  • " monoica, var. albocarpa, Kirk. Common on the sea-cliffs.

  • " dentata, T. Kirk. Buller and Matakitaki river-beds.

  • Callitriche verna, L. Abundant.

  • " muelleri, Sond. Abundant.


  • Leptospermum scoparium, Forst. Common. On coastal ranges ascends to an altitude of 2,000 ft.

  • " ericoides, A. Rich. Common, many parts of district.

– 409 –
  • Metrosideros florida, Sm. Abundant from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " lucida, A. Rich. Abundant from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " parkinsonii, Buch. On Mount Rochfort and Mount Frederic, also the Westport end of the Paparoas; altitude, from 1,000–2,500 ft.

  • " hypericifolia, A. Cunn. Abundant.

  • " robusta, A. Cunn. Abundant in the coastal forests, ascending to an altitude of 2,000 ft.

  • " scandens, Sol. Common.

  • Myrtus obcordata, Hook. f. Abundant on river-flats and on the borders of forests.

  • " pedunculata, Hook. f. Not uncommon; ascending to altitude of 1,500 ft.


  • Epilobium pallidiflorum, Sol. Abundant in swampy ground.

  • " chionanthum, Haussk. In Orowaiti swamps.

  • " junceum, Sol. Common.

  • " junceum, var. macrophyllum, Haussk. Lyell Creek.

  • " pubens, A. Rich. Common.

  • " chlorœfoloium, Haussk. Mount Murchison; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " insulare, Haussk. Not uncommon in swamps.

  • " rotundifolium, Forst. Abundant throughout the district.

  • " linnœoides, Hook. f. Mount Rochfort, at elevation of 3,000 ft.

  • " nummularifolium, R. Cunn. Common.

  • " " var. pedunculare, Hook. f. Common.

  • " gracilipes, Kirk. Mount Bovis; from 2,000–3,500 ft.

  • " vernicosum, Cheesem. Mount Owen, Boundary Peak; at elevation of from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " microphyllum, A. Rich. Buller Valley, at Murchison.

  • " glabellum, Forst. Common in mountainous districts.

  • " novœ-zealandiœ, Haussk. Mount Murchison; altitude, 3,000 ft.

  • Fuchsia excorticata, L. Common.

  • " colensoi, Hook. f. Common.


  • Mesembryanthemum australe, Sol. Abundant on the coast.

  • Tetragonia expansa, Murr. Mokihinui Beach.

  • " trigyna, Banks and Sol. Abundant about headlands on the coast.

– 410 –


  • Hydrocotyle elongata, A. Cunn. Common in river-valleys.

  • " dissecta, Hook. f. Beach at Mokihinui.

  • " novœ-zealandiœ, DC. Abundant through district.

  • " novœ-zealandiœ, var. montana, Kirk. Paparoas; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " moschata, Forst. Abundant throughout.

  • " microphylla, A. Cunn. Buller Valley.

  • " asiatica, L. Common on the sea-beach.

  • Azorella haastii, Benth. and Hook. f. Brunner Range; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " pallida, T. Kirk. Brunner Range; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " trifoliata, Benth. and Hook. f. Buller Valley.

  • Actinotus novœ-zealandiœ, Petrie. Coastal mountains; from an elevation of 1,500–3,000 ft.

  • Apium prostratum, var. filiforme. Common near the coast.

  • Oreomyrrhus andicola, Endl. Brunner Range; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " andicola, var. colensoi, Kirk. Paparoas, Mount Owen, and Mount Mantell.

  • Crantzia lineata, Nutt. Buller River bed.

  • Aciphylla colensoi, var. conspicua, Kirk. Mount Kelvin; altitude, 4,500 ft.

  • " colensoi, var. maxima, Kirk. Mount Murchison and Brunner Range; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " hookeri, T. Kirk. Paparoas and Brunner Range, at an altitude from 2,500–4,500 ft.

  • " lyallii, Hook. f. Lyell Mountains; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " monroi, Hook. f. Mount Murchison; from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " townsoni, n. s., Cheesem. Mount Faraday, Mount Kelvin, Mount Buckland, and Lyell Mountains; altitude, from 3,000–4,500 ft.

  • Ligusticum haastii, F. Muell. Common on all the coastal mountains, ascending to 4,000 ft.

  • " deltoideum, Cheesem. Lyell Mountains; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " piliferum, Hook. f. Mount Mantell, from 4,000–5,000 ft.; Brunner Range, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " aromaticum, Hook. f. Common on coastal mountains at an altitude of from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " imbricatum, Hook. f. Brunner Range; altitude, 5,000 ft.

  • Angelica gingidium, Hook. f. Buller Valley, Fox's River, and Mount Faraday.

  • " decipiens, Hook. f. Mount Owen, Buller Valley.

– 411 –


  • Panax lineare, Hook. f. Common on the mountains at an elevation of from 1,500–3,500 ft.

  • " simplex, Forst. Not uncommon from sea-level to an elevatin of 3,000 ft.

  • " edgerleyi, Hook. f. Not uncommon from sea-level to an elevation of 2,000 ft.

  • " colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant in mountains, ascending to 4,000 ft.

  • " arboreum, Forst. Common throughout the district.

  • Schefflera digitata, Forst. Abundant in woods, ascending to 1,000 ft. or more.

  • Pseudopanax crassifolium, C. Koch. Abundant from sea-level to 2,000 ft.


  • Corokia cotoneaster, Raoul. Buller River bed at Murcnison.

  • Griselinia lucida, Forst. Abundant throughout the district.

  • " littoralis, Raoul. Abundant from sea-level to 2,000 ft.


  • Coprosma grandiflora, Hook. f. Abundant throughout the district.

  • " lucida, Forst. Abundant throughout.

  • " serrulata, Hook. f. Plentiful on western slopes of coastal ranges; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " baueri, Endl. Common on the whole line of the seacoast.

  • " robusta, Raoul. Common throughout the district.

  • " cunninghamii, Hook. f. Common in river-valleys.

  • " rotundifolia, A. Cunn. Abundant throughout.

  • " areolata, Cheesem. Buller Valley; not common.

  • " rhamnoides, A. Cunn. Abundant in low-lying situations.

  • " parviflora, Hook. f. Common, ascending to 4,000 ft.

  • " acerosa, A. Cunn. Common on beaches and beds of rivers.

  • " rugosa, n. sp., Cheesem. Buller Valley, on the sandbanks by the river.

  • " propinqua, A. Cunn. Abundant, especially in the salt marshes.

  • " linarifolia, Hook. f. Not uncommon at an elevation of from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • " fœtidissima, Forst. Common from sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • " colensoi, Hook. f. On coastal ranges; from 2,000–3,000 ft.

– 412 –
  • Coprosma retusa, Petrie. Mount Rochfort; 3,000 ft.

  • " cuneata, Hook. f. Mount Owen, Mount Murchison, and Mount Mantell; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " depressa, Col. ex Hook. f. Boundary Peak; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " repens, Hook. f. Mount Murchison, Brunner Range, Mount Faraday; altitude, 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • Nertera depressa, Banks and Sol. Not uncommon in Buller Valley.

  • " cunninghamii, Hook. f. Throughout the Westport district.

  • " dichondrœfolia, Hook. f. Abundant under shelter of low woods.

  • Galium tenuicaule, A. Cunn. Common in low damp situations.

  • " umbrosum, Sol. ex Forst. Plentiful.

  • Asperula perpusilla, Hook. f. Mount Mantell; altitude, 5,000 ft.


  • Lagenophora, forsteri, DC. Common throughout the district; a large-leaved variety grows on the track to Denniston.

  • Brachycome sinclairii, Hook. f. Mount Mantell, Mount Murchison; from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " thomsoni, var. membranifolia, Kirk. Brunner Range; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • Olearia colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant in mountains, from 2,000–3,500 ft.

  • " nitida, Hook. f. Abundant from sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • " ilicifolia, var. mollis, Kirk. Fox's River and Bullock Creek.

  • " cunninghamii, Hook. f. Mount Frederic; from 200–500 ft.

  • " lacunosa, Hook. f. Mount Owen, Mount Murchison, Mount Glasgow; from 3,000–4,500 ft.

  • " avicenniœfolia, Hook. f. Not uncommon in Buller Valley.

  • Celmisia lateralis, Buch. Mount Rochfort, Mount Frederic; altitude, 3,000 ft.

  • " lateralis, var. villosa, Cheesem. Mount Murchison; from 3,000–4,500 ft.

  • " dallii, Buch. Mount Rochfort, Mount Frederic, and Paparoas; from 2,500–4,000 ft.

  • " hieracifolia, Hook. f. Mount Murchison; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " discolor, Hook. f. Abundant in mountains; most plentiful at about 3,000 ft.

  • " incana, Hook. f. Paparoas and Mount Mantell.

– 413 –
  • Celmisia incana, var. petiolata, Kirk. Paparoas; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " petiolata, var. membranacea, Kirk. Brunner Range. Only found in one valley, at an altitude of 4,000 ft.

  • " spectabilis, Hook. f. Mount Mantell; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " dubia, n. sp., Cheesem. Coastal mountains; altitude, from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • " coriacea, Hook. f. On all mountains, attaining an elevation of from 3,000–5,000 ft., and descending to sea-level at Charleston.

  • " armstrongii, Petrie. Common on Paparoas and Brunner Range; altitude, from 2,500–4,500 ft.

  • " monroi, Hook. f. Mount Lyell; from 3,000–3,500 ft.

  • " longifolia, Cass. Common from sea-level, where it grows on the pakihis, up to an elevation of 4,000 ft. on Lyell Mountains.

  • " laricifolia, Hook. f. Westport Mountains; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " sessiliflora, Hook. f. Paparoas, Mount Glasgow, Lyell Mountains; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " bellidioides, Hook. f. Mount Bovis; 4,000 ft.; rare.

  • Vittadinia australis, A. Rich. On shingle-beds in Buller Valley.

  • Gnaphalium lyallii, Hook. f. Common on banks of rivers and creeks.

  • " trinerve, Forst. Common on sea-cliffs.

  • " Keriense, A. Cunn. Common on all river-banks.

  • " subrigidum, Col. Giles's Creek.

  • " traversii, var. mackayi, Kirk. Mount Glasgow, Mount Lyell, Mount Mantell; from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " paludosum, Petrie. Orowaiti, in swamp, at sea-level.

  • " luteo-album, L. Abundant throughout.

  • " japonicum, Thunb. Abundant in dry stony situations.

  • " collinum, Lab. Not uncommon.

  • Raoulia australis, Hook. f. Abundant on beaches and river-beds.

  • " tenuicaulis, Hook. f. Giles's Creek.

  • " grandiflora, Hook. f. In the mountains; from 2,500–5,000 ft.

  • " mammillaris, Hook. f. Mount Frederic, 3,000 ft.; Mount Kelvin, from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " bryoides, Hook. f. Mount Mantell; from 4,000–6,000 ft.

  • Helichrysum bellidioides, Willd. Abundant in mountains, from sea-level to 5,000 ft.

– 414 –
  • Helichrysum filicaule, Hook. f. Not uncommon in dry stony situations.

  • " grandiceps, Hook. f. Paparoas, Lyell Ranges; from 3,000–4,500 ft.

  • " depressum, Benth. and Hook. Matakitaki River bed, near the gorge.

  • " microphyllum, Benth. and Hook. Mount Owen, Mount Mantell; from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • Cassinia vauvilliersii, Hook. f. Coastal ranges; altitude, from 3,000–3,500 ft.

  • Craspedia uniflora, Forst. Abundant on sea-cliffs and river-banks.

  • " uniflora, var. lanata, Hook. f. Mount Mantell, at an altitude of 5,000 ft.

  • Cotula coronopifolia, L. Abundant in wet situations.

  • " australis, Hook. f. Abundant from sea-level to 1,000 ft.

  • " pyrethrifolia, Hook. f. Mount Owen, at an altitude of from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " squalida, Hook. f. Abundant.

  • " dioica, Hook. f. Especially abundant on the coast.

  • Centipeda orbicularis, Lour. Not uncommon throughout district.

  • Abrotanella linearis, Bergg. Plentiful on coastal range at an altitude of from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " cœspitosa, Petrie. Mount Bovis; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • Erechtites prenanthoides, DC. Common.

  • " arguta, DC. Not uncommon.

  • " glabrescens, T. Kirk. Mount Owen and Mount Mantell; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • Brachyglottis repanda, Forst. Common from sea-level to 1,500 ft.

  • Senecio bellidioides, Hook. f. Common in mountains, from 2,000–4,000 ft.; down to sea-level at Charleston.

  • " lyallii, Hook. f. Mount Kelvin, Brunner Range, Mount Owen, and Mount Murchison; from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " lyallii, var. scorzonerioides, Kirk. In same situations as preceding.

  • " lautus, Forst. Not uncommon on the sea-cliffs; ascending to 3,000 ft. elevation.

  • " latifolius, Banks and Sol. Abundant on the banks of rivers, but almost confined to sea-level.

  • " hectori, Buch. Buller Valley and Fox's River.

  • " elœagnifolius, Hook. f. Common in mountainous districts; altitude, from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " rotundifolius, Hook. f. Abundant on the sea-cliffs south of Westport.

– 415 –
  • Senecio bidwillii, Hook. f. Abundant on Mount Mantell, at an altitude of from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " bidwillii, var. viridis. Lyell Ranges; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • Microseris forsteri, Hook. f. Boundary Peak; altitude, from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • Sonchus oleraceus, L. Common throughout.


  • Oreostylidium subulatum, Bergg. In places on the mountains at an elevation of from 1,000–2,000 ft.

  • Forstera sedifolia, Linn. f. Mount Rochfort, Mount Frederic, at an altitude of from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • " tenella, Hook. f. Common on the mountains forming Buller Watershed; altitude, from 2,000–4,000 ft.


  • Selliera radicans, Cav. Abundant on tidal mud-flats.


  • Pratia angulata, Hook, f. Abundant throughout district, ascending to 3,000 ft.

  • " macrodon, Hook. f. Mount Murchison, Mount Stormy, Karamea.

  • Lobelia anceps, Linn. f. Abundant.

  • Isotoma fluviatilis, F. Muell. Abundant in marshy situations near Westport.

  • Wahlenbergia gracilis, A. DC. Abundant throughout the district.

  • " saxicola, A. DC. Abundant throughout the district; sea-level to 5,000 ft.

  • " saxicola, var. congesta. On sandhills between Cape Foulwind and Charleston.


  • Gaultheria antipoda, Forst. Abundant; growing to an altitude of 3,000 ft.

  • " perplexa, T. Kirk. On sandhills between Westport and Charleston.

  • " rupestris, R. Br. Buller Valley, and on stony elevations to an altitude of 3,000 ft.

– 416 –


  • Pentachondra pumila, R. Br. Abundant at elevation of from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • Cyathodes acerosa, R. Br. Abundant at elevation of from 1,500–3,000 ft.

  • " empetrifolia, Hook. f. Mount Rochfort; altitude, 1,500 ft.

  • Leucopogon fasciculatus, A. Rich. Abundant; sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " fraseri, A. Cunn. Abundant on sandhills.

  • Epacris pauciflora, A. Rich. Common on lowland and upland pakihis.

  • " alpina, Hook. f. Mount Rochfort; altitude, from 1,000–2,000 ft. Mount Owen.

  • Archeria traversii, Hook. f. Coastal mountains and Brunner Ranges, abundant from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • Dracophyllum latifolium, A. Cunn. Common at an elevation of from 1,500–3,000 ft.

  • " traversii, Hook. f. Paparoas, Mount Glasgow, Brunner Range; from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " townsoni, n. sp., Cheesem. Spurs of Mount Buckland;; from 500–2,500 ft. elevation.

  • " longifolium, R. Br. Between Westport and Charleston, growing to the proportions of a tree in patches of pakihi forest.

  • " urvilleanum, A. Rich. Common from 500–3,000 ft. elevation.

  • " urvilleanum, var. montanum. Lyell Mountains; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " pubescens, Cheesem., n. sp. Waimangaroa Gorge; from 1,500–2,500 ft.

  • " uniflorum, Hook. f. Common on coastal mountains from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • " rosmarinifolium, R. Br. Mount William, Mount Frederic; altitude, 3,000 ft.


  • Samolus repens, Pers. Abundant along the coast.


  • Myrsine salicina, Heward. Common throughout from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " urvillei, A. DC. Abundant from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " montana, Hook. f. Banks of tidal lagoons; rare.

  • " divaricata, A. Cunn. Common on salt marshes and on banks of tidal lagoons.

– 417 –


  • Parsonsia heterophylla, A. Cunn. Common, sea-level to 1,500 ft.

  • " capsularis, R. Br. Thinly distributed over the district.


  • Gentiana townsoni, Cheesem., n. sp. Abundant on pakihis, and reaching an elevation of 2,500 ft.

  • " montana, Forst. Mount Rochfort, 3,000 ft.; Mount Lyell, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " montana, var. stolonifera. Mount Frederic, Mount Rochfort, and Paparoas; from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " patula, Cheesem., n. sp. Mount Kelvin, Mount Mantell, Mount Owen; altitude, from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " bellidifolia, Hook. f. Brunner Range; from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " spenceri, T. Kirk. Mount Frederic, Mount Rochfort, Paparoas; from 1,500–3,500 ft.

  • " saxosa, Forst. Only found on rocks at Charleston, slightly above sea-level.

  • Liparophyllum gunnii, Hook. f. Not uncommon on the peaty bogs on the pakihis, ascending to 3,000 ft. on the mountains.


  • Myosotis antarctica, Hook. f. Boundary Peak; from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " australis, R. Br. Mount Mantell; from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " forsteri, Lehm. Not uncommon.

  • " townsoni, Cheesem., n. sp. Brunner Range; far from abundant; 3,000–4,500 ft.

  • " concinna, Cheesem. Plentiful on Buller face of Mount Owen; altitude, from 3,000–4,500 ft.


  • Calystegia sepium, R. Br. Abundant throughout the district.

  • " soldanella, R. Br. Abundant on sandhills and shingle-banks along the coast.

  • Dichondra repens, Forst. Abundant.

  • " brevifolia, Buch. On shingle beach at Granity Creek.


  • Solanum nigrum, L. Common.

  • " aviculare, Forst. Abundant on margins of forests.

– 418 –


  • Calceolaria repens, Hook. f. Giles's Creek, Cedar Creek, and Lyell Creek.

  • Mimulus repens, R. Br. Orowaiti, on mud-flats.

  • Mazus radicans, Cheesem. Sandhills along the coast; Four-mile River, and at Fairdown.

  • Gratiola peruviana, L. Buller Valley and Charleston.

  • " nana, Benth. Several wet situations near Westport Glossostigma elatinoides, Benth. In marshy situations; not uncommon.

  • Veronica divergens, Cheesem., n. sp. On sea-cliffs south of Brighton.

  • " salicifolia, Forst. Common throughout.

  • " macrocarpa, var. crassifolia, Cheesem. Big Hill on the road over the rocks from Mokihinui to Karamea, and on the side of the track up Fox's River.

  • " parviflora, Vahl. Abundant in the river-valleys.

  • " gracillima, Cheesem., n. sp. Buller Valley, and especially abundant in swamps between Fairdown and Waimangaroa.

  • " elliptica, Forst. Abundant along the coast, growing into a tree over 20 ft. high near Cape Foulwind.

  • " traversii, Hook. f. Mount Mantell; altitude not observed.

  • " vernicosa, Hook. f. Waimangaroa Gorge, altitude 2,000 ft.; Mount Bovis, altitude 3,000 ft.

  • " cockayniana, Cheesem., n. sp. Mount Lyell, Mount Murchison; from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " buxifolia, Benth. Abundant on mountains at an elevation of from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " carnosula, Hook. f. Mount Glasgow: altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " gilliesiana, T. Kirk. Mount Buckland, altitude, 4,000 ft.; Mount Mantell.

  • " coarctata, Cheesem., n. sp. Mount Owen and Brunner Range; altitude, from 3,500–5,000 ft.

  • " armstrongii, T. Kirk. Mount Mantell, Mount Owen; from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " linifolia, Hook. f. Mount Owen; abundant between 3,000 ft. and 4,000 ft.

  • " lyallii, Hook. f. Abundant on river-banks; ascending to 3,000 ft.

  • Ourisia macrocarpa, Hook. f. Mount Rochfort, Paparoas; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " macrophylla, Hook. Abundant on coastal ranges and on banks of mountain-streams; altitude, from 1,000–4,000 ft.

– 419 –
  • Ourisia sessilifolia, Hook. f. Mount Buckland; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " cœspitosa, Hook. f. Paparoas; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " glandulosa, Hook. f. Paparoas; altitude, from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • Euphrasia monroi, Hook. f. Mount Murchison and Brunner Range; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " revoluta, Hook. f. Coastal ranges; common at an altitude of from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " cockayniana, Petrie. Paparoa Range; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " zealandica, Wettst. Boundary Peak; from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " cheesemanii, Wettst. Mount Mantell, Brunner Range; from 3,500–5,000 ft.

  • Anagosperma dispermum, Wettst. On pakihis; altitude, 500 ft.; quite abundant. Coastal mountains; from 2,000–3,500 ft.;


  • Utricularia monanthos, Hook. f. On pakihis nearly at sea-level to 3,000 ft.


  • Myoporum lœtum, Forst. Abundant on the coast.


  • Mentha cunninghamii, Benth. Plentiful, especially oil sandhills near the sea.


  • Plantago raoulli, Decne. Abundant along the coast, on sandhills.

  • " brownii, Rapin. Paparoa Range, altitude from 3,000–4,000 ft., in subalpine bogs.

  • " triandra, Berggr. Common along the coast, and also on the banks of Buller River.


  • Rhagodia nutans, R. Br. On sea-cliffs below Cape Foulwind.

  • Chenopodium glaucum, L. On shingle beaches on coast.

  • Salicornia australis, Soland. ex Forst. Orowaiti Beach; not common.


  • Polygonum aviculare, L. Abundant.

  • " serrulatum, Lag., gen. et sp. Abundant

  • Rumex flexsuosus, Sol. ex Forst. Abundant.

– 420 –
  • Muehlenbeckia australis, Meissn. Common up to 1,500 ft.

  • " complexa, Meissn. Most abundant on the coast.

  • " axillaris, Walp. Common on stony ground bordering the beach.


  • Piper exclesum, Forst. A common littoral plant.

  • Peperomia endlicheri, Miq. Cape Foulwind, on cliffs.


  • Ascarina lucida, Hook. f. Common in the Westport district, especially in the neighbourhood of Cape Foulwind.


  • Hedycarya arborea, Forst. Abundant throughout district.


  • Pimelea longifolia, Banks and Sol. Abundant in the mountains, from 1,500–2,500 ft.; sea-level at Charleston.

  • " gnidia, Willd. Mount Rochfort; from 1,500–2,500 ft.

  • " arenaria, A. Cunn. Abundant on sandhills between Cape Foulwind and Charleston.

  • " lœvigata, Gaertn. Common on all waste lands along the coast.

  • " lyallii, Hook. f. Sea-level on Seal Island; 4,000 ft. on Mount Murchison.

  • Drapetes dieffenbachii, Hook. Mount Rochfort, from 2,000–3,000 ft.; Mount Murchison, from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " villosa, Cheesem. Mount Faraday; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • "villosa, var. multiflora. Brunner Range; altitude, 4,000 ft.


  • Loranthus micranthus, Hook. f. Abundant throughout.

  • Elytranthe ocolensoi, Engl. Common as a parasite on Fagus.

  • " tetrapetala, Engl. Abundant from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " flavida, Engl. Caroline Terrace, 500 ft. above sea-level; parasitic on Fagus solandri.


  • Exocarpus bidwillii, Hook. f. Westport Mountains; altitude, from 2,000–3,000 ft.

– 421 –


  • Euphorbia glauca, Forst. Common along the sea-beach.

  • Poranthera alpina, Cheesem. Mount Murchison; from 3,000–5,000 ft.


  • Paratrophis heterophylla, Bl. A common constituent of lowland forests.

  • Urtica ferox, Forst. Not uncommon in Buller Valley and banks of Fox's River.

  • " incisa, Poir. Not uncommon throughout district.

  • Australina pusilla, Gaud. On island, Buller River.


  • Fagus menziesii, Hook. f. Plentiful; sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • " fusca, Hook. f. Plentiful; sea-level to 3,500 ft.

  • " solandri, Hook. f. Plentiful; sea-level to 3,500 ft.

  • " cliffortioides, Hook. f. Plentiful from altitude of 2,000–4,000 ft.


  • Libocedrus bidwillii, Hook. f. Not uncommon up to an altitude of 2,000 ft.

  • Podocarpus totara, D. Don. Not uncommon throughout.

  • " hallii, T. Kirk. Not uncommon throughout.

  • " nivalis, Hook. Paparoas; 3,000 ft.

  • " ferrugineus, D. Don. Abundant.

  • " spicatus, R. Br. Local in its distribution; abundant below Brighton.

  • " dacrydiviodes, A. Rich. Abundant on low-lying ground.

  • Dacrydium biforme, Pilger. Abundant from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " cupressinum, Soland. ex Forst. Abundant throughout.

  • " intermedium, T. Kirk. Abundant from sea-level to 4,000 ft. Yellow-pine. Wood is durable, and used largely for railway-sleepers.

  • " colensoi, Hook. Not uncommon from sea-level to 3,000 ft. Silver-pine. Wood durable, and used largely for railway-sleepers.

  • Phyllocladus alpinus, Hook. f. Not uncommon from sea-level to 3,000 ft.


  • Dendrobium cunninghamii, Lindl. Common; sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • Bulbophyllum pygmœum, Lindl. Not uncommon throughout.

  • Earina mucronata, Lindl. Abundant.

– 422 –
  • Earina suaveolens, Lindl. Abundant.

  • Sarcochilus adversus, Hook. f. Rather a rare plant, growing mostly on Aristotelia racemosa in Buller Valley.

  • Thelymitra longifolia, Forst. Abundant from sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • " pachyphylla, Cheesem., n. sp. An abundant species on both lowland and mountain pakihis; sea-level to between 2,000 ft. and 3,000 ft.

  • " uniflora, Hook. f Abundant from sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • Orthoceras strictum, R. Br. On stony elevations on the pakihis, at sea-level; not common.

  • Microtis porrifolia, R. Br. Common from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • Prasophyllum colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant from sea-level to 4,000 ft.

  • " rufum, R. Br. Not uncommon on sides of roads, and on dry elevations on the pakihis.

  • Pterostylis banksii, R. Br. Abundant; ascending to an elevation of 2,000 ft.

  • " graminea, Hook. f. Less abundant than the preceding. Grows on pakihis under shelter of low bushes, and on margins of the patches of Fagus forest.

  • " venosa, Col. Mount Rochfort and Mount Frederic, amongst mountain-flax, at an elevation of from 2,000–3,500 ft.

  • " puberula, Hook. f. On margin of pakihi forest, and amongst Pteris aquilina on elevated ground on “Waite's pakihi”; not common.

  • Acianthus sinclairii, Hook. f. In forest around Cape Foulwind, but not common.

  • Calochilus paludosus, R. Br. Not uncommon on the pakihis from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • Lyperanthus antarcticus, Hook. f. On coastal mountains from an elevation of 2,000–4,000 ft. or more; fairly abundant.

  • Caladenia minor, Hook. f. Not uncommon from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " bifolia, Hook. f. Mount Rochfort, Mount Frederic; from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • Chiloglottis cornuta, Hook. f. Not uncommon from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • Adenochilus gracilis, Hook. f. Mount Owen, in Fagus forest; altitude, 1,000 ft.

  • Townsonia deflexa, Cheesem. Mount Rochfort, Mount Frederic, and the Paparoas, at an elevation of from 1,500–2,500 ft., growing in low forests on mossy surface of logs and rocks; not uncommon.

– 423 –
  • Corysanthes cheesemanii, Hook. f. Amongst Fagus roots in pakihi forest on “Waite's pakihi”; far from common.

  • " oblonga, Hook. f. Abundant in ahady woods.

  • " rivularis, Hook, f. In damp foresia; not uncommon.

  • " rotundifolia, Hook. f. Not uncommon on the rock-faces where the tributaries of the Buller run through narrow gorges.

  • " triloba, Hook. f. On the sea-slopes near to Cape Foulwind, under shelter of tree-ferns and nikau palms.

  • " macrantha, Hook. f. Abundant between Mokihinui and Karamea on the road by the beach and in Fox's River.

  • Gastrodia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Not uncommon from sea-level to 1,000 ft.


  • Libertia ixioides, Spreng. Abundant.

  • " pulchella, Spreng. Abundant from sea-level to 3,000 ft.


  • Rhipogonum scandens, Forst. Abundant in lowland forests.

  • Enargea marginata, Banks and Sol. Common in mountain forests.

  • Cordyline banksii, Hook. f. Abundant on all river-flats.

  • " australis, Hook. f. Ascending to 2,000 ft.

  • " indivisa, Steud. On all the coastal mountains; forming beautiful groves on the slopes of Mount Frederic at an elevation of from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • Astelia linearis, Hook. f. On the mountains between 2,000 ft. and 4,000 ft.; fairly plentiful.

  • " cunninghamii, Hook. f. Not uncommon; mostly terrestrial.

  • " banksii, A. Cunn. Lower Buller Valley.

  • " trinervia, T. Kirk. Near to Westport.

  • " solandri, A. Cunn. Common throughout.

  • " nervosa, Banks and Sol. Common from sea-level to an altitude of 4,000 ft.

  • " nervosa, var. montana, Kirk. On coastal ranges from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • Dianella intermedia, Endl. A common plant on the pakihis; ascending to 2,500 ft.

  • Phormium tenax, Forst. Abundant; sea-level to 4,000 ft.

  • " cookianum, Le Jolis. Abundant.

  • Bulbinella hookeri, Benth. and Hook. Not uncommon in upland logs.

– 424 –
  • Arthropodium candidum, Raoul. Rough-and-Tumble Saddle, on Mokihinui track to Karamea.

  • Herpolirion novœ-zealandiœ, Hook. f. Common on banks amongst the pakihis.


  • Juncus pallidus, R. Br. Buller Valley.

  • " vaginatus, R. Br. Common in vicinity of coast.

  • " effusus, L. Abundant from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " maritimus, Lam. Not uncommon throughout the coastal regions.

  • " bufonius, L. Common throughout.

  • " tenuis, Willd. Orowaiti and other localities on coast.

  • " planifolius, R. Br. Buller Valley.

  • " cœspiticius, E. Mey. Seal Island and Charleston.

  • " antarcticus, Hook. i. Boundary Peak; altitude, from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " prismatocarpus, B. Br. Not uncommon in Buller Valley.

  • " lamprocarpus, Ehr. Muddy shores of Lake Rochfort, 1,500 ft.; Buller Valley.

  • " novœ-zealatidiœ, Hook. f. A common plant, ascending to 3,000 ft. in the mountains.

  • Luzula colensoi, Hook. f. Brunner Range; altitude, from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " campestris, DC. Abundant from sea-level to 4,000 ft.


  • Rhopalostylis sapida, Wendl. and Drude. Abundantly distributed in groves from Karamea to Brighton, and generally near the coast at a low elevation.


  • Freycinetia banksii, A. Cunn. Common in all the forests to an altitude of 2,000 ft.


  • Typha angustifolia, L. Abundant in bog lands.

  • Sparganium antipodum, Graebner. In sluggish watercourses; not common.


  • Triglochin striatum, Ruiz and Pav. In salt marshes on the coast.

  • Potamogeton polygonifolius, Pourr. Not uncommon.

  • " cheesemanii, A. Bennett. Common throughout from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • Ruppia maritima, L. Common along the coast in both still water and watercourses.

  • Zostera nana, Roth. On beach at Mokihinui.

– 425 –


  • Centrolepis viridis, T. Kirk. On Four-mile Track, Charleston, a little above sea-level.


  • Leptocarpus simplex, A. Rich. Abundant on mud-flats and wet lands along the coast.

  • Hypolœna lateriflora, Benth. Abundant on the pakihis, and ascending to 3,000 ft. altitude.


  • Mariscus ustulatus, C. B. Clarke. Common on all the sandhills on the coast.

  • Eleocharis acuta, R. Br. Common in tidal lagoons and on river-banks.

  • " cunninghamn, Boeck. Not uncommon from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • Scirpus aucklandicus, var. subcucullata, C. B. Clarke. Brunner Range; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " cernuus, Vahl. Abundant; sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " inundatus, Poir. Abundant in damp lowland situations.

  • " sulcatus, Thouars. Watercourses at Waimangaroa.

  • " prolifer, Rotth. Buller Valley.

  • " frondosus, Banks and Sol. On all coastal sandhills.

  • " lacustris, L. On tidal lagoons.

  • Carpha alpina, R. Br. On pakihis, in places growing to a height of 2 ft.; abundant; altitude, from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • Sckaenus tendo, Banks and Sol. Mount Rochfort; altitude, from 1,000–2,000 ft.

  • " pauciflorus, Hook. f. Not uncommon in subalpine situations.

  • " axillaris, Poir. Westport mountains, up to 2,000 ft.

  • Cladium glotnsratum, R. Br. Not uncommon from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " teretifolium, R. Br. Abundant on pakihis, ascending to an altitude of 2,000 ft.

  • " gunnii, Hook. f. Common on pakihis.

  • " vauthiera, C. B. Clarke. Abundant near the coast.

  • " capillaceum, C. B. Clarke. On high-level pakihis; abundant.

  • Gahnia setifolia, Hook. f. Abundant.

  • " rigida, T. Kirk. Common on swamp lands along the coast.

  • " xanthocarpa, Hook. f. Not uncommon on pakihis and river-flats.

– 426 –
  • Gahnia procera, Forst. On coastal ranges from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " pauciflora, T. Kirk. Mount Frederic; altitude, from 500–1,500 ft.

  • Oreobolus pumilio, R. Br. Mount Rochfort and Mount William; 3,000 ft.

  • Uncinia purpurata, Petrie. Boundary Peak; altitude, 4,500 ft.

  • " cœspitosa, Boott. Not uncommon.

  • " australis, Pers. Common.

  • " riparia, R. Br. Lyell Creek; from 500–1,500 ft.

  • Carex acicularis, Boott. Boundary Peak; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " trachycarpa, Cheesem. Mount Mantell, from 3,000–4,500 ft.; Mount Faraday.

  • " virgata, Sol. ex Hook. Common in swamps.

  • " secta, Boott. Common in swamps.

  • " inversa, R. Br. Not uncommon.

  • " colensoi, Boott. On beach at Mokihinui.

  • " leporina, L. Wet land about Orowaiti River.

  • " gaudichaudiana, Kunth. Common on more swampy portions of pakihis north of Westport.

  • " ternaria, Forst. Abundant from sea-level to between 3,000 ft. and 4,000 ft.

  • " ternaria, var. pallida, Cheesem. Buller Valley.

  • " sinclairii, Boott. Boundary Peak; from 4,000–4,500 ft.

  • " dipsacea, Berggr. Not uncommon.

  • " testacea, Sol. ex Boott. Abundant on sandhills.

  • " lucida, Boott. Abundant.

  • " comans, Berggr. Abundant in Buller Valley.

  • " dissita, Sol. ex Hook. Abundant on the sandhills.

  • " solandri, Boott. Mokihinui, on sea-cliffs.

  • " pumila, Thumb. Not uncommon on the coast.

  • " flava, L. Charleston

  • " cockayniana, Kukenthal. Mount Kelvin, 4,000 ft. Cedar Creek.

  • " forsteri, Wahl. Mount Kelvin, 3,500 ft.

  • " pseudo-cyperus, L. Abundant in swampy ground.


  • Zoysia pungens, Willd. Plentiful in dry ground near the sea.

  • Spinifex hirsutus, Labill. Common on sandhills between Westport and Charleston.

  • Ehrharta colensoi, Hook, f. Mount Rochfort, Paparoas; from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " thomsoni, Petrie. On all coastal mountains, from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • Microlœna stipoides, R. Br. A common grass on the pakihis.

– 427 –
  • Microlœna avenacea, Hook. f. Abundant in forests, ascending to 2,500 ft.

  • Hierochloe redolens, R. Br. Not uncommon on the pakihis.

  • " fraseri, Hook. f. Common in subalpine regions.

  • Echinopogon ovatius, Beauv. Not uncommon.

  • Sporobolus indicus, R. Br. Patches often met with on pakihis.

  • Agrostis muelleri, Benth. Abundant in mountains from 2,000–4,000 ft.

  • " dyeri, Petrie. Mount Glasgow; altitude, 4,000 ft.

  • " parviflora, R. Br. Near summit of Mount Rochfort, 3,000 ft.

  • Deyeuxia forsteri, var. lyalli. Cape Foulwind; abundant.

  • " billardieri, Kunth. Mokihinui Beach, Tauranga Bay.

  • " setifolia, Hook. Mount Rochfort; altitude, from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • " quadriseta, Benth. Not uncommon.

  • Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. Abundant on sandhills near coast.

  • " sciurea, Hook. f. Four-mile Saddle, on road to Brighton.

  • Deschampsia cœspitosa, Beauv. Common around the Orowaiti district.

  • Trisetum antarcticum, Trin. Boundary Peak; from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • Danthonia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Buller Valley, Mokihinui; but not common in the vicinity of Westport or in the lower Buller.

  • " raoulii, Steud. Abundant in the mountains at elevation of from 3,000–5,000 ft. There is a good deal of variation in the breadth of leaf in various localities.

  • " australis, Buch. A common grass on the Paparoas; altitude, from 3,000–5,000 ft.

  • " semiannularis, R. Br. Abundant throughout, especially on pakihis.

  • Arundo conspicua, Forst. Common throughout, on sandhills, river-banks, and swamps.

  • Poa novœ-zealandiœ, Hack. Mount Lyell, Mount Glasgow, at an elevation of 4,000 ft.; abundant.

  • " anceps, Forst. Buller Valley and Fox's River.

  • " dipsacea, Petrie. Boundary Peak; from 3,000–4,000ft.

  • " cheesemanii, Hack. Only gathered on two occasions, on pakihi south of Westport.

  • " cœspitosa, var. australis, Benth. Not uncommon on the sea-cliffs.

  • " colensoi, Hook. f. Paparoa Range; altitude, from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • " colensoi, var. intermedia, Cheesem. Buller Valley.

– 428 –
  • Poa kirkii, var. mackayi, Hack. Mount Lyell and Boundary Peak, at an elevation of from 3,000–4,000 ft.

  • " imbecilla, Forst. Brunner Range; from 4,000–5,000 ft.

  • Festuca littoralis, Labill. Common on sandhills near sea.

  • " ovina, L. Denniston plateau.

  • Agropyrum scabrum, Beauv. Seal Island, near Brighton.


  • Hymenophyllum rarum, R. Br. Not uncommon in mountainous districts; altitude, from 1,000–2,000 ft.

  • " polyanthos, Swartz. Abundant.

  • " australe, Willd. Abundant in lowland forests.

  • " pulcherrimum, Col. Not uncommon up to 2,000 ft.

  • " dilatatum, Swartz. In shady woods throughout.

  • " demissum, Swartz. Common from sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • " scabrum, A. Rich. Abundant.

  • " flabellatum Lab. Abundant, ascending to 2,000 ft.

  • " rufescens, T. Kirk. Abundant in mountainous districts, ascending to 3,000 ft.

  • " subtilissimum, Kunze. An abundant fern in woods at sea-level, ascending to 2,000 ft. or more.

  • " malingii, Metten. Mount Rochfort; 2,000 ft.

  • " tunbridgense, Smith. Abundant; sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " multifidum, Swartz. Buller Valley; not uncommon.

  • " bivalve, Swartz. Abundant throughout district.

  • Trichomanes reniforme, Forst. Abundant up to an altitude of 3,000 ft.

  • " lyallii, and Bak. Plentiful from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " humile, Forst. Not uncommon.

  • " venosum, R. Br. Abundant.

  • " colensoi, Hook. f. Mount Rochfort; altitude, from 1,000–2,000 ft.

  • " strictum, Menz. ex Hook. and Grev. Not uncommon from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " elongatum, A. Cunn. Giles's Creek, not common; Buller Valley.

  • Cyathea dealbata, Swartz. Granity Creek, but rare in Westport district

– 429 –
  • Cyathea medullaris, Swartz. Abundant in river-valleys; ascending to 2,000 ft.

  • Hemitelia smithii, Hook. ex Hook, and Baker. Abundant.

  • Dicksonia squarrosa, Swartz. Common up to 2,000 ft.

  • " lanata, Col. Mount Rochfort and Mount Frederic; sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • Davallia novœ-zealandiœ, Col. Abundant in Buller Valley.

  • Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. Mount Owen, 5,000 ft

  • Lindsaya trichomanoides, Dryand. Abundant.

  • " viridis, Col. Giles's Creek, Millerton, Costello's Hill on Charleston Road.

  • Adiantum œthiopicum, L. Buller Valley, at Blackwater and Inangahua.

  • " affine, Willd. Common throughout.

  • Hypolepis tenuifolia, Bernh. Serjeant's Hill.

  • " distans, Hook. Not uncommon throughout.

  • Pellœa falcata, Fée, gen. Buller Valley; not uncommon.

  • " rotundifolia, Hook. Buller Valley; not uncommon.

  • Pteris aquilina, L. Common; sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • " scaberula, A. Rich. Common up to 2,000 ft.

  • " tremula, R. Br. Bank of Buller, near Westport.

  • " macilenta, A. Rich. Abundant in low forest fringing the coast-line.

  • " incisa, Thunb. Abundant at low elevations.

  • Lomaria patersoni, Spreng. In most damp gullies and gorges throughout the district.

  • " discolor, Willd. Abundant.

  • " vulcanica, Blume. Abundant on river-banks throughout the district.

  • " lanceolata, Spreng. Common.

  • " banksii, Hook. f. Comparatively common on the cliffs along the coast.

  • " alpina, Spreng. Abundant on banks of Buller River.

  • "nigra, Col. Not uncommon in damp shady situations; ascending to 2,000 ft.

  • " fluviatilis, Spreng. Common.

  • " membranacea, Col. Not uncommon in lower Buller Valley.

  • " frazeri, A. Cunn. Abundant in many gullies on the sea face of the mountains and in the forest fringing the lowland pakihis.

  • Asplenium flabellifolium, Cav. Upper Buller Valley.

  • " falcatum, Lam. Not uncommon.

  • " obtusatum, Forst. Plentiful along the coast.

  • " hookerianum, Col. Not uncommon on wooded banks of Buller River.

– 430 –
  • Asplenium bulbiferum, Forst. Abundant throughout.

  • " flaccidum, Forst. Abundant throughout.

  • " umbrosum, J. Sm. Not uncommon on wooded banks of Buller River.

  • Aspidium aculeatum, Swartz. Abundant throughout, ascending to an altitude of 4,000 ft.

  • " richardi, Hook. In several situations in lower Bullor Valley.

  • " capense, Willd. Not uncommon throughout.

  • Nephrodium decompositum, R. Br. Forests on Mount Rochfort, &c.

  • " glabellum, A. Cunn. Plentiful in Buller Valley, &c.

  • " hispidum, Hook. Abundant in forests.

  • Polypodium punctatum, Thunb. Not uncommon in river-valley.

  • " pennigerum, Forst Abundant from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " australe, Mett. Not uncommon.

  • " grammitidis, R Br. Not uncommon from sea-level to 2,000 ft.

  • " tenellum, Forst. Cape Foulwind, on rocks; Mokihinui, on trunks of trees, on beach track to Karamea.

  • " serpens, Forst. Abundant throughout; a curiously matted form on Mount Faraday, at 4,000 ft.

  • " cunninghamii, Hook. Not uncommon in Buller Valley.

  • " pustulatum, Forst. Abundant.

  • " billardieri, R. Br. Abundant from sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • Gleichenia circinata, Swartz. Plentiful, ascending to 2,000 ft.

  • " dicarpa, R. Br. Common on pakihis, ascending to 2,000 ft.

  • " cunninghamii, Heward ex Hook. Not uncommon throughout.

  • Schizea fistulosa, Labill. Not uncommon on lowland and upland pakihis.

  • Todea hymenophylloides, A. Rich. Not uncommon below 2,000 ft.

  • " superba, Col. Mokihinui, Karamea, Buller Valley; abundant in shady situations; sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. In many localities.


  • Lycopodium billardieri, Spring. Not uncommon in Westport district.

  • " ramulosum, T. Kirk. Abundant on some of the upland pakihis.

– 431 –
  • Lycopodium fastigiatum, R. Br. Mount Frederic and other mountains, from 2,000–3,000 ft.

  • " scariosum, Forst. Abundant; sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • " volubile, Forst. Abundant from sea-level to 3,000 ft.

  • Tmesipteris tannensis, Bernh. Abundant in low forests, pendent from limbs of trees.

Naturalised Plants.

  • Ranunculus acris.

  • Nasturtium officinale.

  • Barbara vulgaris.

  • Capsella bursa-pastoris.

  • Senebiera didyma.

  • " coronopus.

  • Silene gallica.

  • Cerastium glomeratum.

  • " vulgatum.

  • Stellaria media.

  • " graminea.

  • " uliginosa.

  • Sagina apetala.

  • Spergula arvensis.

  • Spergularia rubra.

  • Polycarpon tetraphyllum, L.

  • Portulaca oleracea, L.

  • Hypericum humifusum.

  • Erodium cicutarium.

  • Lupinus arboreus.

  • Cytisus scoparius.

  • Ulex europæus.

  • Medicago denticulata.

  • Trifolium arvense.

  • " pratense.

  • " repens.

  • " hybridum.

  • Lotus major.

  • Vicia sativa.

  • " tetrasperma.

  • Rubus fruticosus.

  • Rosa rubiginosa.

  • Lythrum hyssopifolium.

  • Mesembryanthemum angulatum.

  • Fœniculum vulgare.

  • Arctium lappa.

  • Lapsana communis.

  • Crepis virens.

  • Hypochæris radicata.

  • Anagallis arvensis.

  • Myosotis lingulata.

  • Cuscuta epithymum.

  • Physalis peruviana.

  • Verbascum blattaria.

  • Digitalis purpurea.

  • Veronica serpyllifolia.

  • Lysimachia nummularia.

  • Bartsia viscosa.

  • Mentha pulegium.

  • Plantago lanceolata.

  • " major.

  • " coronopus.

  • Prunella vulgaris.

  • Amarantus blitum.

  • Chenopodium album.

  • " murale.

  • Polygonum convolvulus.

  • Rumex obtusifolius.

  • " viridis.

  • " acetosella.

  • Emex australis.

  • Euphorbia peplus.

  • Asphodelus fistulosus.

  • Panicum crus-galli.

  • Phalaris arundinacea.

  • Anthoxanthum odoratum.

  • Phleum pratense.

  • Agrostis alba.

  • Ammophila arundinacea.

  • Holcus lanatus.

  • Aira caryophyllea.

– 432 –
  • Sherardia arvensis.

  • Bellis perennis.

  • Erigeron canadensis.

  • Achillea millefolium.

  • Chrysanthemum leucanthemum.

  • Helichrysum eymosum.

  • Senecio vulgaris.

  • " sylvaticus.

  • " jacobæa.

  • " aquaticus.

  • " mikanioides.

  • Cynodon dactylon.

  • Brisa minor.

  • Dactylis glomerata.

  • Eleusine indica.

  • Cynosurus cristatus.

  • Poa annua.

  • Glyceria fluitans.

  • Festuca myurus.

  • Bromus mollis.

  • " unioloides.

  • Lolium perenne.

List of flowering-plants and ferns gathered by others, and principally by mr. cheeseman in the upper buller valley, parts of which I never reached.

  • Clematis colensoi, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Stellaria minuta, Kirk. Westport Beach; Dr. Gaze.

  • Melicytus micranthus, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Gaya lyallii, J. E. Baker. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Carmichœlia nana, Col. ex Hook. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • " grandiflora, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Geum urbanum, L. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Tillœa sinclairii, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Epilobium macropus, Hook. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • " billardierianum, Ser. Upper Buller Valley; Cheeseman.

  • " melanocaulon, Hook. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Pseudopanax ferox, T. Kirk. Buller Valley; T. Kirk.

  • Raoulia subsericea, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Cotula minor, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Forstera bidwillii, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Senecio geminatus, T. Kirk. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Limosella tenuifolia, Nutt. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Drapetes lyallii, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Dacrydium laxifolium, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Cyrtostylis oblonga, Hook. f. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Polamogeton natans, L. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Scirpus nodosus, Rottb. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Uncinia filiformis, Boot. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

– 433 –
  • Carex pyrenaica, Wahl. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • " echinata, Murr. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • " breviculmis, R. Br. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Agrostis muscosa, T. Kirk. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Hymenophyllum villosum, Col. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • " cheesemanii, Bak. ex Hook, and Bank. Waimangaroa: Dr. Gaze.

  • Alsophila colensoi, Hook. f. Serjeant's Hill; Mr. Green.

  • Lomaria dura, Moore. Waimangaroa Gorge; Mr. Wright.

  • Hypolepis millefolium, Hook., Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.

  • Lycopodium selago, L. Buller Valley; T. F. Cheeseman.