Art. IV.—A List of the Hemiptera (excluding Sternorrhyncha) of the Maorian Subregion, with Notes on a Few of the Species.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 5th August, 1908.]
The list of Hemiptera given in the “Index Faunae Zealandiae” (1904 is so inadequate as regards the correctness of the nomenclature, and as indicating the probable endemicity or otherwise of the species included, that I have been tempted to prepare a new list, and to add a few notes on one or two of the forms. The total number now enumerated of the Heteroptera and auchenorrhynchous Homoptera—that is to say, the bugs and leaf-hoppers—is seventy-seven species (this excludes eight recorded in almost positive error). Of these, thirteen may be positively assumed to be non-endemic; of the remaining sixty-four, only about forty may be reasonably assumed to be endemic, but a considerable proportion of these belong to groups scarcely known yet outside the palearctic region.
The forms which may be considered at once pretty safely as endemic are the species of Rhopalimorpha, Oncacontias, Acanthia, Anisops, most of Gicadetta, and probably some at least of Oliarus, Gixius, and Nysius. The rest are entirely conjectural.
The valuable contributions by Hutton, Hudson, Fereday, and others, in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” dealing with the fauna of the country, lay stress on the almost entire absence of Hemiptera, and especially of Homoptera; but I am sure that this is entirely a mistake.
The only other Pacific fauna of which the Hemiptera are at all well known is that of the Hawaiian Islands. Although endemic Coccidce and Aphidae are absent, I estimate the total number of endemic Hemptera at little less than 360; of these, 138 have already been described, over a hundred more are in manuscript a waiting early publication, and I have at least a hundred more before me. These figures do not include thirty-six introduced Heteroptera and Auchenorrhyncha, as well as over a hundred coccids, aphids, and aleyrodids, all introduced.
In the Hawaiian fauna the following families are represented endemically: Lygeidce, Myodochidce, Nabidce, Reduvvidce, Anthocoridce, Muridce, Acanthidce, Tetigoniidce, Fulgoridce, Asiracidce, and Chermidce, and possibly. Cimicidce—that is, eleven or twelve out of forty recognised families. In New Zealand all these are present, and we have to add Thyreocoridœ, Aradidœ, Enicocephalidœ, Gerridœ, Notonectidœ, Cicadidœ,
Cercopidœ, Aleyrodidœ, and Coccidœ, all of which may be (and five certainly are) endemic.
The principal Hawaiian plants, from a hemipterological point of view, are Nam (= Metrosideros) polymorpha, Pipturus, Myrsine, Ipomoea, Sida, various tree-ferns, Myoporum, and, to a less degree, Acacia koa, Cyathodes, Eleocarpus, Eugenia, Freycinetia, Dodoncea, and Bobea. Of these, I find, on reference to Kirk's great work on New Zealand foresttrees (the only such work I have for reference), that Cyathodes, Elaeocarpus, Eugenia, Dodonea, Nani, Myoporum, and Myrsine—and, I suppose, Freycinetia, Ipomoea, and Sida also—are well represented in New Zealand. It is almost impossible to believe that they too are not the shelters or food plants of a large hemipterous fauna there.
I have estimated the total endemic Hawaiian fauna at little less than 360. Taking into consideration the hemipterous faunas of the Hawaiian Islands and the British Islands, and the coleopterous and lepidopterous faunas of New Zealand, the British Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, I have no hesitation in estimating at least 750 species of endemic Hemiptera for New Zealand, and I think that this is really much too little.
As it is just possible that some of the members of our Society may feel moved to remedy our deplorable state of knowledge—or, rather, want of knowledge—of the New Zealand Hemiptera, I venture to give a few hints as to what may prove to be the best method of securing specimens.
To a considerable extent collecting in New Zealand will be not unlike collecting in the Hawaiian Islands. In the latter, almost all the endemic species are arboreal. They are to be obtained, therefore, by careful beating of the leaves, twigs, and branches, especially the last, but, better still, by searching. The wonderful native grasses, however, must not be neglected, as they are certain to have a large fauna. When collecting leaf-hoppers, searching is often best, but if not, then the branches should be beaten into a large, rather deep, net, as the very agile hoppers will jump at once right out of an ordinary umbrella. It is very important to identify the food-plants, and also the nymphal stages, of the various Hemiptera, especially of the plant-eating kinds, which are often much restricted in that way. In Hawaii, however, such carnivorous kinds as Reduviolus (Nabidce) are also considerably thus restricted. In the forests themselves “sweeping” will be of little avail, this method of capture being reserved principally for grasses. One fruitful method of capturing certain Miridce, Anthocoridce, Ploiarimce, &c., is to beat dead trees which still retain their leaves, though these are withered; such trees will be found near recent forest-clearings.
Of course, these remarks are based on methods of collecting which have been found effective in the Hawaiian Islands, but I believe they will also be found effective in New Zealand. I have only to add that I will be very pleased to help any one who contemplates collecting Hemiptera in New Zealand if he will write to me at Honolulu.
Fam. Cimicidae (= Scutelleridce, Asopidce, Sciocoridce, Pentatomidce, Halydidce, and Acanthosomatidce of Hutton's list).
1. consocialis (Boisduval) = O. schellembergii, Hutton.
This has been figured by Schouteden, 1907, Gen. Ins., fasc. 52, pl. v, f. 12. It is scarcely endemic in New Zealand, being common almost all
over Australia and Tasmania. The record from the Philippines is almost certainly a mistake. In Australia, CEchalia is (at least partly) carnivorous, preying on the larvae of Phalanides glycine (the vine-moth), and of Galeruca semipullata (the figleaf-beetle).
2. nasalis (Westwood).
This also is scarcely endemic, as it is also found in Australia and Tasmania. Schouteden figures it: pl. v, f. 6. Hudson, who figures the nymph (Man. N.Z. Ent., pl. xx, f. 6A), notes it from “white rata” (Metrosideros scandens). I seem to have another species in my collection, but none of the material is in good enough condition for description. I have recorded C. nasalis from French Pass and Stephen Island.
3. amyoti (White) = Nezaia amoyti (1), Hutton.
This also is an Australian species, and not endemic. I have recorded it from French Pass.
Nezara, Am. and Serv.
4. viridula (Linn.) = prasina, Hutton.
Not endemic, but a practically cosmopolitan species, figured in Wolff's Icon. Cim. 56, f. 53 (as smaragdula).
Diemenia, Spinola (= Platycoris, Hutton).
5. immarginata (Dallas).
Another Australian form.
helferi, Fieber. A southern European species, recorded almost certainly in error from New Zealand.]
6. canosus (Westwood) = polysticticus, Hutton.
Distributed over Australia and Tasmania. I have recorded it from French Pass.
7. obscura, Dallas.
This species seems to be autochthonous. I have recorded it from French Pass and Chatham Island.
8. ignota, Hutton, 1898.
From the Chatham Islands.
Oncacontias, Breddin (= Anubis, Hutton).
9. vittatus (Fabricius).
Apparently also autochthonous.
imperialis (Fabricius). An Australian species, whose presence in New Zealand requires confirmation; certainly not endemic. It is figured in Donovan's Ins. New Holland, pl. iii, f. 2.]
pedicellata, W. Kirby. The presence of this species in New Zealand also requires confirmation. It occurs in Papua, Australia, and Tasmania, and is somewhat of a pest at times on fruits in Australia.]
Fam. Thyreocoridæ (= Cydnida, Hutton).
Hahnia, Ellenrieder (= Geotomus, Hutton).
10. australis, Erichson = leptospermi, Hutton.
Distributed over Australia, Tasmania, New Caledonia, and Ceylon. F. B. White states that this was once found “in numbers on the sea-beach at Sumner, either floating in salt-water pools or crawling on the sand” (Ent. Mo. Mag. xiv, 275).
Choerocydnus, A. White (= Choeno, Hutton).
11. nigrisignata, F. B. White.
Not known elsewhere.
12. scotti, Signoret. Figured 1882, A. S. E. France (6), ii, pl. ix, f. 117. Not known elsewhere.
13. australis, Erichson.
Also from Australia, Tasmania, and New Caledonia. I have recorded it from Chatham Islands.
14. hochstetteri (Mayr) = Crimia attenuata and Mezira maorica, Hutton, syn. Aneurus, Curtis.
15. brouni, F. B. White.
Fam. Myodochidæ (= Lygaida, Hutton).
16. rusticus, Stæl. = ruficollis, Hutton.
A common Australian species. I have recorded it from French Pass.
[Stalagmostethus, Stæl. (= Lygaus, Hutton, syn.).
pacificus (Boisduval). Distributed over Australia, Tasmania, and New Caledonia. The record from New Zealand is doubtful.]
17. huttoni, F. B. White.
I have recorded it also from Chatham Islands.
18. clavicornis (Fabricius) = zealandicus, Hutton.
19. ? anceps, F. B. White.
Metagerra, F. B. White (= Paresuris, Reuter).
20. helmsi (Reuter).
21. obscura, F. B. White.
Orthoea, Dallas (= Plociomerus, Hutton).
22. nigriceps, Mayr = inornatus, Hutton.
Also recorded from the Hawaiian Islands, Tahiti, and the Philippines. The synonymy of this species is perhaps a little doubtful. I have recorded the var. inornata (Walker) from Chatham Islands.
Targarema, F. B. White.
23. electa, F. B. White.
24. stali, F. B. White.
Margareta, F. B. White.
25. dominica, F. B. White.
26. putoni, F. B. White.
Reduviolus, W. Kirby (= Nabis, Hutton).
27. saundersi (F. B. White).
28. maoricus (Walker).
[lineatus, Dahlbom (not Dahlberg!), is a European species, and was almost certainly recorded in error.]
Microvelia, Westwood (= Hydroessa, Hutton).
29. macgregori, Kirkaldy.
Fam. Reduviidæ (incl. Emegidae).
Peirates, Am. and Serv. (= Pirates, Hutton).
30. ephippiger (A. White).
An Australian species.
Ploiaria, Scopoli (= Emesodema, Hutton).
31. huttoni (Scott).
Fam. Enicocephalidæ. Enicocephalus, Westwood (= Henicocephalus, Hutton).
32. maclachlani (Kirkaldy).
Probably not endemic, but Australian, though not known elsewhere than in New Zealand.
[Fam. Macrocephalidæ (= Phymatida, Hutton).
Phymata inconspicua and feredayi were recorded in error, or else were introduced from America]
Fam. Anthocoridæ. Cardiastethus, Fieber.
33. brounianus, F. B. White.
34. consors, F. B. White.
35. poweri, F. B. White
Fam. Clinocoridæ. Clinocoris, Fallén (= Cimex, Hutton).
36. lectularius (Linneus).
Fam. Miridæ (= Capsida, Hutton).
37. reuteriana, F. B. White.
Romna, Kirkaldy (= Morna, F. B. White).
38. capsoides (F. B. White).
39. scotti (F. B. White).
Reuda, F. B. White.
40. mayri, F. B. White.
The next three species are of uncertain generic position.
41. Leptomerocoris maoricus, Walker.
42. Capsus laticinctus.
42A. C. ustulatus, Walker.
This appears from the description to be the same as No. 42.
Fam. Acanthiidæ (= Saldida, Hutton).
Acanthia, Fabricius (= Salda, Hutton).
43. australis (F. B. White).
44. butleri (F. B. White) = bulteri! Hutton.
45. laelaps (F. B. White).
Arctocorisa, Wallengren (= Corixa, Hutton).
46. arguta (F. B. White).
[Diaprepocoris barycephala, Kirkaldy, is an Australian form, and has not been taken in New Zealand.]
47. wakefieldi, F. B. White.
I have recorded this from Chatham Islands also.
48. assimilis, F. B. White.
Cicadetta, Kolenati (= Melampsalta, Hutton).
49. cassiape (Hudson) =? nervosa (Walker).
50. mangu (F. B. White).
51. iolanthe (Hudson).
52. scutellaris (Walker).
53. ? arche (Walker).
A doubtful species, placed by Stæl as a synonym of telxiope, but probably in error.
54. muta (Fabricius) (var. subalpina, Hudson).
Also on Chatham Islands.
55. aprilina (Hudson).
C. cutora (Walker) and ochrina (Walker) may belong to this, but were placed by Stæl as synonyms of muta.
56. cruentata (Fabricius).
C. rosea (Walker), bilinea (Walker), sericea (Walker), and muta vars. rufescens and flavescens, probably belong to this. Hutton and I have recorded it from Chatham Islands.
57. cincta (Walker).
This is probably muta var. minor, Hudson.
58 cingulata (Fabricius).
This is probably zealandica (Boisduval) and indivulsa (Walker).
59. strepitans, nom. nov.!
This is Cicada cingulata var. obscura, Hudson, which is a good species. I have renamed it, as I have not been able to identify it with any of Walker's species.
60. angusta (Walker).
This is probably muta var cinerascens, Hudson.
The New Zealand species of Cicadetta much need revision, but it will be necessary for Walker's types to be examined. Stæl made a hurried revision of them in 1862, and later notes were made by Kirby and Distant, but their conclusions are not to be relied on, as they did not study the ♂ genitalia, the most important specific characteristic in this genus. There are doubtless still many more species to be obtained in New Zealand.
My remarks cited by Alfken (1904 Zool. Jahrb. Syst., xix, 582) were written in 1899, and are to be disregarded entirely, as I had not then studied the genitalia.
Cercopis, Fabricius (= Aphrophora, Hutton).
61. jactator (F. B. White).
Philaenus, Stæl (= Phlanus, Hutton).
62. fingens (Walker).
63. subvirescens (Butler).
64. trimaculatus (Walker).
The type-form with two vars. (tristis, Alfken, and lata, Alfken) have been recorded from Chatham Islands.
Fam. Tetigoniidæ (= Jassida, Hutton).
Paradorydium, Kirkaldy (= Dorydium, Hutton).
65. westwoodi (F. B. White).
The genus of the following specimens is doubtful. I have not seen a specimen.
66. negatus, F. B. White.
67. interior, Walker.
68. punctimargo, Walker.
69. ? aspilus, Walker.
70. rufifrons, Walker.
71. oppositus (Walker).
72. marginalis (Walker).
Scolypopa, Stæl (= Ricania, Hutton).
73. australis (Walker).
An Australian species, feeding on passion-vines, &c. The nymph is green, with white filaments.
Aka, F. B. White.
74. finitima (Walker).
Semo, F. B. White.
75. clypeatus, F. B. White.
Agandecca, F. B. White.
76. annectens, F. B. White.
Fam. Asiracidæ (= Delphacinae, Hutton).
Micromasoria, Kirkaldy (= Cona, Hutton).
77. calata (F. B. White).
P.S.—Recently I have received from Mr. A. Hamilton, Director of the Dominion Museum, Wellington, a small box of Hemiptera, containing, with other species, a specimen of Dindymus versicolor, an addition to the Maorian fauna. It is distributed over Australia and Tasmania, and is therefore not likely to be endemic, but has probably been introduced with fruit or fruit-trees. It belongs to the family Pyrrhocorida (not previously known from New Zealand), which may be recognised by the antennae being inserted low down on the head, by the absence of ocelli, by the numerous veins on the membrane, &c.
In Dindymus versicolor, H.-S., the head, antennae (mostly), legs, anterior area of pronotum, scutellum, apical margin of tegmina broadly, pygophor beneath, black; rest of pronotum and of tegmina brownish-red; sterna and pleura mostly red; abdomen beneath pale-yellow. Length, about 12 mm.
In the collection was also a specimen of Nysius anceps, White, which belong to the subgenus Nithecus, Horváth, if this is indeed a natural one. The species may, as White suggests, have a macropterous form.