Art. XX.—Additions to the List of New Zealand Minerals.
[Read before the Otajo Institute, 10th November, 1908.]
In the year 1890 Sir James Hector compiled a list of New Zealand minerals for inclusion in the “Transactions of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science” (vol. ii, 1890). Since that time a large number of papers have been written by a variety of authors on New Zealand geology. In these papers many references have been made to minerals that are not included in Sir James Hector's list. In the present paper these references
are collected together, and additions are made of other species and localities known to the author but not hitherto mentioned in any publication.
It is probable that the present list is still far from complete, but it will, at any rate, serve as an index to the various discoveries that have been made of late years, and may also be useful as a guide to those who may seek for general information as to the occurrence of mineral species in the Dominion.
The arrangement followed is that adopted in Dana's “System of Mineralogy,” 6th edition, 1906.
Sulphur: Very good orthorhombic crystals at Rotokawa, near Lake Taupo.
Zinc (3): It appears somewhat doubtful whether this specimen was native or was produced by artificial means.
Gold: No important new discoveries have been made. Crystalline gold has been recorded (8). Microscopic work has been done on some occurrences at Ohinemuri (2).
Silver (4): In addition, flattened grains of alluvial silver have been found in some diggings in the Shotover River.
Copper (9): Crystallized copper of very recent deposition at Kawau Island.
Lead (11): The same occurrence as that mentioned in Hector's list.
Platinum (18), (19): The quantity of the mineral in these localities is small, and is of no economic value.
Meteoric Iron: An analysis of the Wairarapa meteorite mentioned in Hector's list has been made by Mr. Donovan.
Molybdenite: Large deposits in the Mount Radiant district, Karamea, in lodes traversing granite country.
Orpiment (23), (31).
Realgar (23), (31).
Galena (23) occurs in some quantity in the Jupiter and Pluvius Mines, Te Aroha.
Cinnabar (23) has been found at Waipori, Otago, but has not been mined successfully.
Pyrrhotite (28). Large quantities at the Champion Mine, Nelson.
Chalcopyrite: The new discovery at Mount Radiant appears to be important.
Pyrite: Good octahedral crystals are found in chlorite-schist at Parapara. Cubes are common in phyllite near Mount Aurum, Otago.
Kermesite (23), (31).
Pyrargyrite is said to occur at Puhipuhi, near Whangarei; also 32.
Kerargyrite (23): Several pounds' weight, from Waikoromiko Valley.
Quartz: The quartz of the Waihi Mine is sometimes platy in structure. It is said to be pseudomorphous after barite.
Precious Opal has been found in small quantity at Cabbage Bay.
Hyalite: Incrustations are common on dolerite at Dunedin.
Tridymite (7), (19), (26), (27): Quite common, but in very minute aggregates, in the rhyolites of the volcanic region of the North Island.
Senarmontite (6): Common at Mount Radiant.
Molybdite: Not uncommon at Mount Radiant.
Arsenolite (23), (31).
Corundum: A purplish-red variety, in crystals of moderate size, occurs with green muscovite in boulders in the sluicing-gravels at Rimu, near Hokitika.
Ilmenite: Typical crystals, but of microscopic size, occur in nepheline-basanite of the Domain crater, Auckland.
Magnetite (15): A chrome variety occurs in hartzbergite, Milford Sound. Small octahedrons are common in chlorite-schist, Otago.
Ruttle (16), (22), (28): Microscopic crystals in granulites of south-west Otago; also in schists, Otago.
Turgite (20): Occurs with limonite at Parapara.
Psilomelane: Small nodules in decomposed scoria, Seaview, Dunedin.
Dolomite (32): Pearl-spar, in the May Queen Mine, Thames.
Magnesite (15): A decomposition product of enstatite in hartzbergite at Milford Sound.
Arragonite: Pseudo-hexagonal crystals at Oamaru and Dunedin, in cavities in volcanic rocks.
Cerussite (6): Tui and Pluvius Mines, Te Aroha.
Orthoclase: Crystals with Baveno development, though not twinned, occur porphyritically in the granite of Separation Point. The finer portion of the groundmass disintegrates readily, and the crystals form the sands and gravels of the beaches. The variety sanidine (5), (17), is common in alkaline rocks, Dunedin.
Microcline (22): In many granites, notably at Golden Bay, Stewart Island; Kahurangi Point and Dea's Cove, Thompson Sound.
Albite, Oligoclase, Andesine, Bytownite, and Anorthite: All of these species are mentioned in various petrographical papers as occurring in many rocks of igneous origin. No occurrences deserve any special mention.
Anorthoclase (17): Abundant in many alkaline rocks at Dunedin. Also at Campbell Island.
Perthite (16), (17): At Stewart Island and at Dunedin.
Leucite: The locality mentioned by Hector in the list quoted was apparently an error. Microscopic crystals occur in a leucitophyre at Puketeraki, near Dunedin.
Enstatite (15): Very large crystals in a hartzbergite at Milford Sound; also mentioned by Hutton in North Island volcanic rocks; occurs also at the North Cape, in a hartzbergite.
Hypersthene (16), (19), (26), (27): Hutton has mentioned the occurrence of this mineral at Lake Taupo, where crystals washed out of pumice form a black sand. Abundant in the volcanic region of the North Island, and in norites at Milford Sound, especially in the gravels of the Cleddau River and at the Bluff.
Bronzite: This mineral has been referred to in geological reports on the Dun Mountain, but it appears that diallage was mistaken for it.
Bastite (25): Noted by Hutton in a rock at the Dun Mountain, where it is associated with diallage. Occurs also in a hartzbergite at the North Cape.
Augite: Good crystals are obtained from weathered tufas at Otago Peninsula and Banks Peninsula.
Ægirine (5), (17): Abundant in alkaline rocks at Dunedin. Also at Rarotonga, but of microscopic size only.
Hornblende: Many varieties have been recorded in different petrographical papers. The common green variety occurs widely in the diorites of the south-west Sounds (16); brown or basaltic hornblende at Dunedin and Banks Peninsula (5), (17); barkevicite (17) in alkaline rocks at Dunedin.
Riebeckite (30): In granite boulders near Brunner, Westland; also at Campbell Island.
Arfvedsonite (29): Small crystals in trachyte of the Cass Peak, Port Hills, Lyttelton.
Tremolite: With garnet forming boulders in gravels at Lake Kanieri and other Westland localities.
Actinolite (22): Abundant in West Coast schists and in Otago.
Ænigmatite (Cossyrite) (17): Quite abundant in phonolites and trachydolerites at Dunedin. Also at Campbell Island.
Iolite: Abundant in some contact rocks near Aorere River, west Nelson. The form of crystal composed of trillings occurs in these rocks (P. Marshall, this vol., p. 101).
Nephelite (5), (17), (19), (26): Abundant in large crystals in tinguaites, basanites, and trachydolerites, Dunedin. Also in basanite at Auckland, and in tinguaite boulders at Brunner (30).
Sodalite (17), (19): Small crystals in phonolites and trachydolerites, Dunedin.
Garnet (16), (18), (20), (21), (22): Abundant in schist rocks, Otago and Westland. A somewhat remarkable form in Otago, where a rock occurs of a pink colour, containing a multitude of extremely minute crystals of almandine.
Grossularite (24): Occurs with diallage in a garnet gabbro of the Dun Mountain, Nelson.
Uvarovite (28): Minute crystals at Dusky Sound.
Chrysolite: Forms rock-masses of dunite at Milford Sound, as well as the other localities mentioned by Hector.
Melilite (17): Plates in basanite at Puketiraki, near Dunedin.
Zircon: Abundant in a porphyry at Campbell Island.
Andalusite (20): Relatively large crystals in schists.
Chiastolite: Found by Mr. Isaacson in the north-west of Nelson (P. Marshall, this vol., p. 101).
Staurolite occurs with chiastolite (P. Marshall, this vol., p. 101).
Sillimanite: With tourmaline in a specimen brought by Professor Black from Stewart Island; also in minute needles in a mica-schist from Dusky Sound.
Zoisite (18): Occurs with epidote in schistose rocks in Westland.
Epidote (17), (18): Abundant in quartzite and schists, especially in Westland.
Tourmaline (19): Large crystals at Richmond Hill, Parapara, in chloriteschist; also in smaller groups of radiating crystals at the same locality.
Analcite (17): A rock-constituent, and in cavities in camptonite, at Dunedin.
Muscovite: Large crystals in granite between George Sound and Lake Te Anau; also widely distributed in minute flakes in schists in Otago and Westland.
Biotite: A rock composed of large crystal plates at Port Pegasus, Stewart Island.
Fuchsite (28): Also said to occur in Central Otago.
Paragonite: A green variety, in boulders in Jacob's River, Westland.
Phlogopite (21): A mica between this and lepidolite, in the Alexandra area.
Clinochlore: This is the variety of chlorite most commonly present in the Otago schists.
Serpentine (18): Often mentioned, but no new localities deserving of special mention.
Bowenite (18), (15): Excellent specimens have lately been obtained from Anita Bay, Milford Sound. At Teratama it is found with ordinary serpentine.
Talc (18): In schist, Westland, and at the Caples River, Lake Wakatipu.
Glauconite: Common in Miocene sandstones and limestones throughout New Zealand.
Titanite: Granite of Separation Point, and common in granulites of the West Coast Sounds.
Mosandrite: Minute crystals in trachyte at Perseverance Harbour, Campbell Island.
Perofskite (17): In diorite, Bell Hill, Dunedin; also in a porphyry, Campbell Island.
Monazite: Small quantities have been found in sands at Greymouth.
Apatite: An earthy phosphorite, in limestones at Millburn, Otago.
Hedyphane (23), (31).
Vivianite (6): Earthy form common; also good crystals in moa-bones, Waitati.
Barite: Tabular form at the Thames.
Gypsum: Crystals at the Thames and at Oamaru.
Epsomite (1): Thames.
Melanterite (6): Thames.
Chalcanthite (6): Thames.
Alum: In the Hot Lakes District, at Waiotapu and Orakeikorako.
Retinite: In brown coals throughout New Zealand.
1. 1891. Park, J.: “Occurrence of Some Rare Minerals in New Zealand.” Trans. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. iii, p. 150.
2. 1890. Haeusler, Dr. R.: “On the Microscopical Structure of the Ohinemuri Gold.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiii, p. 335.
3. 1891. Park, J.: “Occurrence of Native Zinc at Hape Creek, Thames.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiv, p. 386.
4. 1891. Park, J.: “Occurrence of Native Silver at Thames Goldfield.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiv, p. 386.
5. 1891. Ulrich, G. H. F.: “The Occurrence of Nepheline-bearing Rocks at Dunedin, New Zealand.” Trans. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. iii, p. 127.
6. 1892. Park, J.: “Occurrence of Rare Minerals in New Zealand.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxvi, p. 365.
7. 1892. Marshall, P.: “Tridymite-trachyte of Lyttelton.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxvi, p. 368.
8. 1898. McLaren, J. M.: “Occurrences of Crystalline Gold in the Coromandel Region.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxi, p. 492.
9. 1899. Baker, W. H.: “Crystallized Native Copper on Mine-timber at Kawau Island.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxiii, p. 336.
10. 1902. Park, J.: “Rock-phosphate Deposits of Clarendon.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxv, p. 391.
11. 1903. Park, J.: “Native Lead at Parapara.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxv, p. 403.
12. 1904. von Wolff, F.: “Liparit Lava von Mayor Island.” Centralblatt fur Geologie und Mineralogie, p. 208.
13. 1905. Thomson, J. A.: “Gem Gravels at Kakanui.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxviii, p. 447.
14. 1905. Andrew, A. R.: “Clarendon Phosphates.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxviii, p. 447.
15. 1904. Marshall, P.: “Magnesian Rocks of Milford Sound.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvii, p. 481.
16. 1906. Marshall, P.: “Geological Notes on South-west Otago.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxix, p. 496.
17. 1906. Marshall, P.: “Geology of Dunedin.” Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. lxii, pp. 381-424.
18. 1906. Bell, J. M., and Fraser, C.: “Report on Hokitika Sheet, North Westland Quadrangle.” Bulletin Geol. Surv., new series, No. 1.
19. 1907. Marshall, P.: “Distribution of the Igneous Rocks of New Zealand.” Trans. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. xi, p. 4.
20. 1907. Bell, J. M., Webb, E. J., and Clarke, E.: “Report on Parapara Subdivision.” Bulletin Geol. Surv., new series, No. 3.
21. 1906. Park, J.: “Report on Alexandra Subdivision.” Bulletin Geol. Surv., No. 2.
22. 1907. Park, J.: “Cromwell Subdivision.” Bulletin Geol. Surv., new series, No. 5.
23. 1907. Fraser, C.: “Coromandel Subdivision.” Bulletin Geol. Surv., new series, No. 6.
24. 1907. Marshall, P.: “Note on the Gabbro of the Dun Mountain.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xl, p. 320.
26. 1907. Marshall, P.: “Geology of the Centre and North of the North Island, New Zealand.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xl, p. 80.
27. 1903. Sollas, W. J., and McKay: “Rocks of Cape Colville Peninsula.” 2 vols. Govt. Printer, Wellington.
28. 1888. Park, J.: “Geological Survey Report on Dusky Sound.”
29. 1907. Speight, R.: “Trachyte from Banks Peninsula.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xl, p. 176.
30. 1907. Smith, J. P.: “Alkaline Rocks from Westland.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xl, p. 123.
31. 1900. Maclaren, J. M.: “Geology of the Coromandel Goldfields.” Parl. paper C.-9.
32. 1897. Park, J.: “Geology and Veins of the Hauraki Goldfields.” N.Z. Inst. of Min. Eng., Auckland.