Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 42, 1909

Transactions
of the
New Zealand Institute,
1909.

Art. I.—Oceanic Comparatives.

Communicated by A. Hamilton.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 5th May, 1909.]

Probably most students of Oceanic languages begin by merely comparing words of similar form and meaning in different languages. Later on, the testimony of words to the beliefs of the people, to their common origin, to the position and character of their home before they became scattered, becomes of great interest. But meanwhile certain principles of comparison emerge from the number of comparisons made, and gradually the comparisons become in consequence sounder. Some comparisons made at first without hesitation are seen to be wrong ones, while many comparisons formerly unthought-of can now be safely made. The following paper describes briefly a few principles of comparison in dealing with Oceanic words. They are principles which seem to be true when tested, but they were obtained by collecting a great many examples of comparatives, and then considering these examples to see if they had anything in common. They appeared to conform to certain rules. These rules were then tested by applying them to many fresh comparatives, with excellent results. In the hope that they may be of service to others, or, at least, may be suggestive, it seemed worth while to write them down.

One side of the subject, however, is not discussed—the question of phonetic changes; it deserves separate treatment, and is too large to be discussed here. But the principle may be at once laid down that no comparison should be made of words whose forms are different unless the difference can be explained according to well-known phonetic laws. One might suppose this caution hardly needed, but it is, in fact, generally ignored. One need only quote a sentence from “Maori and Polynesian”: “The Aryan ra (to rest, to be delighted, to love). … is not far off in origin from the root la (to yearn for or desire), which appears in Sanskrit lash (to desire). … It seems much the same as the Maori reka (pleasant), and, in the other sense of ‘calm,’ as the Maori whakaruru (sheltered from the wind).” Such comparisons may easily be a source of confusion.

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Another principle to be insisted on is that all the letters of a word must be taken into consideration. If the Mota vula (moon) is compared with the Malay bulan, the n must be accounted for; if namu (mosquito) is compared with namok, the k must be accounted for. In these two cases the n and k suffixes, common in Malay nouns, are of great interest to the philologist. It is common to ignore single letters, especially at the end of a word. Much of great interest and value is thus passed by.

It is perhaps best to set aside onomatopœic words, interesting as they are. The author of “Maori and Polynesian” compares the Maori mumu (to hum) with the Latin murmurare (to murmur), while “koko (the tui) may be set beside the Sanskrit kakh (to laugh), English ‘quack’ and cackle.’”* Probably such words appear in all languages. There is a Malay word for “dog,” asu, and this is found in Melanesia, but not in Polynesia; so it has been supposed that the Maori au (to bark) represents the Malay asu (a dog)—in fact, that nothing but the bark is left in New Zealand. It is a comparison one is loth to forego when one remembers the classic case of the Cheshire cat; but one must allow that “au au” is very like the sound a dog makes everywhere.

It seems reasonable to suppose that the fuller form of a word is the root. We are familiar enough with shortened forms—cab, from cabriolet; bus, from omnibus; car, from carriage; phone, from telephone. It is, no doubt, a common process in all languages. Now, if we take any word of two or three letters (not a particle) in any Ocean language, it appears to be the case that a fuller form of the word can always be found in some other language. Of course, the fuller form may have been lost everywhere, but no such case has come under the writer's observation. These fuller forms consist of two consonants and two vowels, or, at least, of two syllables. Thus, though hua is “moon” in one language of Indonesia, hula is found in others; though niu is “cocoanut” in many Oceanic languages, niru is found in one (Vella Lavella). It also appears to be the case that no root-forms occur of more than two syllables. There are many longer words in the vocabularies, but they are either roots plus a prefix or suffix or they are compund words. Thus, in the Mota word nonom (think) the m is the common Oceanic verbal suffix; in the Mota malumlum (soft), ma is the common adjectival prefix, while lumlum is the reduplicated root (lumu). The Florida tidalo (a god) is a compound word, ti appearing also in tinoni (a living man), whatever the meaning may be of dalo—the same word, doubtless, as the San Cristoval ataro (a god); Mota tataro (a prayer)—from the first word with which all prayers or charms began; Tahitian tarotaro (a short prayer to the gods). The Florida word appears to be indirect evidence that the primitive religion of the people was ancestor-worship. The Mota geara (a fence) is really two words—ge and ara—a form of the latter being commonly used for “fence” in Oceanic languages.

[Footnote] * I cannot refrain from giving instances of the curious reasoning and inaccurate statements in the chapter of this book entitled “The Maori as seen in his Language”: “Malay, as the tongue of a Mongoloid people, is assumed to be agglutinative,. … But there is nothing agglutinative about [Maori]. … Now, the only inflectional languages are either Aryan or Semitic.” Therefore Maori is either Aryan or Semitic ! So much for the reasoning. Later on he speaks of the “coincidence of Maori ruma (an apartment), used all through the Pacific in the sense of house, with the English ‘room.’” Now, there is no such Maori word at all, and, though ruma does occur in Melanesia, neither the word itself nor any form of it is known to occur in Polynesia.

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The following principle seems, then, to hold good: that all Oceanic roots consist of two syllables. The first point to determine about a word is this root. But the full form is often missing, and the next point is to find out how these root-forms are modified. In the first place, the first consonant may be dropped. The Florida aho (the sun) is a modified form of raho or laho. This modification is a common one. Still more common is the dropping of the second consonant, especially in Polynesia. The full form of the Maori kau (to swim or wade) is karu, the word really meaning “to move the legs and arms.”

In many cases both consonants are dropped, as in the Rarotongan ai (fire), the root of which is kapi; or the Maori ao (dawn), from raho.

Sometimes the second vowel is dropped, as in the Mota kor (dried), from koro; but the first vowel remains, and is rarely altered; it is, in fact, the most stable part of the word. On the other hand, the second vowel is liable to frequent change.

The commonest modification of all is the dropping of the second syllable. Thus, the Maori ra (sun) is from raho; po (night) from pongi; pa (a fence or stockade) from para. It frequently happens that when only the first syllable remains this is strengthened by reduplication. Thus Mota koko (enclose) is from koro; Mota rara (scorch), from raho; Mota roro (deep), from roto; Mota lolo (inner parts), from roto; Mota roroi (news), from rongo; Maori rara (a branch), from rana; Fiji baba (side of a hill), from bara. Such reduplications are very common.

Perhaps there are cases of the dropping of the first syllable of the root; but until they are shown to exist, such comparisons as that of the Mota gana (to eat) with the Malay makan (to eat) must be viewed with suspicion. Manga, which also appears as maka, means originally “a cleft or rent,” in some languages “a mouth”; in Mota “to keep opening and shutting, as the gills of a fish.” This is, no doubt, the Mota representative of the Malay makan (to eat), the n being the common verbal suffix.

There is yet another fairly common modification of the root—by metathesis. Thus, the Florida labu (strike) is the Malay palu; the Mota toro (deep), the Maori roto; the Mota ma-vinvin (thin), from nihi; Maori ngaro (fly), from rango; Maori raku (scratch), from karu; Aneityum mulmul (soft), from lumu; Tongan pelupelu (bent), from lupe; Maori tumu (cape), from mutu. It may be asked which is the root and which the transposed form. The answer is that the transposed form is usually local, and is shown to be later by the fact that modifications of it are absent or rare; whereas the real root is found all over the Pacific, and broken-down forms of it are very common.

Of course, many forms of the same root may, and generally do, exist in one language. An instance may be given from Mota. The root koro means “to encircle, enclose”; hence, “to contract, shrink,” &c. It is found in many Oceanic languages, as koro, kolo, koko, &c. Probably it is the source of the following words in Mota: kolo (contract), koloi (a hole), kolkoloi (a small contracted thing), kor (to shrink with heat or dryness, dried breadfruit), koko (keep close, contract, carry water in the hands), kokor (enclose, keep carefully), kokos (enclose, as fish in a net; fowls, by the people catching them), kokot (enclose, contract), kokota (narrow, contracted), kokorou (fold the arms or wings), gogo (shrink or shrivel), gogorag (gather together with the hands), goro-vag (throw the arms round), goro (to cut round, and so generally to cut), gorogoro (harvest), goro (to embrace).

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golo (fade or wither). There are other more doubtful examples of it, such as oloolo (a sacrifice), where probably (as in Efate gorokoro) the idea was that of protection, coming into the enclosure of the god sought and being shut out from the power of other gods.

Some examples of the application of these rules may now be given. Three roots will perhaps be sufficient to illustrate the subject.

Taking the Maori word roto, it is evident that we have the root itself. We may expect, however, to find it modified in various ways, and may look for it in such forms as loto, oto, lo, ro, roro, lolo, toro. The meaning of roto is “inside, within, the midst, places inland, a lake” (ha-rotoroto, a pond). From this meaning of “within” (which is the root meaning) the word comes to mean in Samoa (in the form loto) “the heart, desire, or will; the understanding; the interior of a house; a deep pool in the lagoon”—loloto (deep, depth), lotoi (to be in the middle). The Tahitian roto and Hawaiian loko have much the same meanings. In Tonga loto means “the mind”; loloto “deep, the deep, ocean.” In Mangareva we get a further meaning, for here roto is “deep, depth, the inward parts,” and “to obscure or darken”; while rotoroto is “the shallow sea,” a curious meaning, to be explained presently. We may follow this full form of the root to Melanesia, where in Saa Malaita roroto is “a dark cloud”; in San Cristoval rodo is “dark,” rodomana “the abode of the dead, the dark land”; and in Florida rorodo is “blind.”

The form oto does not appear in Maori, but from the meanings presently to be given of the Maori roro it appears more than probable that oto has been modified into uto, which means in Tonga “the brains (the inner parts), the spongy substance of an old cocoanut”; the Mangareva uto (marrow, yolk of eggs); Mangaia uto (little kernel growing in a cocoanut); Fiji uto (heart, pith of trees, marrow of bones); Mota utoi (pith of trees); Malay utak; New Celebes utok. Uta (inland country), “forest” in many languages, is doubtless the same word. A final o is often represented in Malay by a, and in Malay otak means “brains” (k is a noun suffix in Malay).

We now come to ro, which appears in Maori, meaning “in, into”; and lo, which in Santa Cruz means “night or darkness.” Taking next the reduplicated form of this, we find the Maori roro, meaning “brains or marrow.” The Samoan lolo and Tahitian roro have similar meanings. The Hawaiian lolo means “the brain, marrow of bones, insane.” Tongan lolo (oil, oily fat) and Mangareva roro (soft) are perhaps meanings derived from “the brain.” In Santa Cruz lolo is “fat or oil”; in Mota loloi means “inside, the inner part, the affections,” and is used in very many compound words to express states of feeling; roro means “deep, to sink down, be deep,” also “to be sunk down,” and so “shallow”; the water is said to roro in the well, hence the well is roro (shallow), an explanation of the Mangarevan word. R frequently becomes n, and there can be little doubt that nonom (to think) and nonon (to smear)—the m and n being verbal suffixes—are both from roto. In Efate, New Hebrides, roro means “to think,” rorona “thought”; and Dr. McDonald mentions that these words are sometimes pronounced trotro and trotrona.

Taking now the final modification, the transposition of the letters, the Mota toro means “deep”; toron, “to desire or long for”; Florida dolo, “to love”; San Cristoval doodoo, “black”; doa, “blind.”

In Oba, New Hebrides, lologi is “inside,” and rorogi “deep”; in Malekula, roror is “deep,” and ror “the afternoon” (gi and r are the noun suffixes in these two language). The meaning “afternoon” is from the

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going-down (roro) of the sun; the sun is said to roro in Mota when it sets. Many more examples of this root might be given, but enough has been written to show how it follows the rules given above.

The root which means “light and heat” is a difficult one to follow, because the two consonants it contains are interchangeable. It seems best to give raho as the root, though this form appears to have been lost, because the modified forms of raho (aho, ao, ra, rara) are the most widespread.

If we take raho as the root, with the meaning of “light and heat, the day, the sky, clouds,” &c., we may expect to find several forms of the full root, because r and h are interchangeable letters, and r may become l, while h becomes s or t, and in the case of such a root it is difficult to say which is the transposed form; however, we may be guided by the number of modified forms which appear.

Laso, the Kayan word for “heat,” is a full form of the root, and so too, apparently, are salo (a cloud) in Saa Malaita, perhaps also sato (the sun) in Saa, and warowaro (the moon), in Saa w representing h, as it commonly does. The three last may be considered transposed forms of the root, and thus be classed with the New Guinea (Kerepunu) haro (the sun) and the Maori Haronga (a mythical sky-power who begot the sun and moon).

The modified forms we might expect to find by dropping the first consonant are aho, aso, alo, aro, and ato. The first four are found. Aho means “the sun” in Florida, and Ysabel (Solomon Islands), and Oba (New Hebrides). In Tongan it means “day”; while ahoaho means “bright or shining,” as the moon on a clear night. The Maori aho means “radiant light,” and aho-roa is “the moon.” Aso in Rotuma and Guadalcanar is “the sun”; in Samoa, “the day”; in Efate, “burning.” Alo is “the sun” in New Celebes (mata-alo) and in Santa Maria. Aro is “the sun” in Hula and Bula'a (New Guinea), “the sky” in San Cristoval; while the Malagasy maso-adro (the sun) is almost identical.

We get two forms by dropping the last vowel—the Mota sar (to shine, give heat) and the Aneityum lah (light) and lav (to shine).

Dropping the second syllable gives ra and la. Ra (the sun) in Maori is said to be the son of Haronga and the sister of Marama (the moon), a very exact account of the words, except that marama, from the root rama, is quite distinct from raho, and occurs along with it in many forms in many Oceanic languages. Ra in Maori also means “the day” and “the east.” In Samoan la means “the sun, daylight; to be intensely hot.” The words, with these meanings, are common in Polynesia.

Reduplicating the first syllabe, we get rara and lala. In Maori rara means “to spread out on a stage to dry,” and hence the stage itself. In Tahiti the word means “to scorch over a fire”; rarararauri, “sunburnt” (uri=black); Fiji rara, “to warm one's-self by a fire”; Mota rara, “to dry or warm by the fire”; rarang, “to dazzle by reflection”; rarangiu, “hard dry ground”; ma-rang, “barren ground, lazy.” In New Guinea the Motu raraia is “to dry in the sun”; Wedau arara, “to shine”; arai, “to burn”; Celebes rarang, “to dry.” The Florida ma-rara means “light”; Mota ma-rarara, “transparent, translucent”; Malay arang means “charcoal.” Samoan ma-lala is “charcoal”; Tongan lala, “to broil”; ma-lala, is “charcoal”; Kayan lala, “to wither”; Wedau, New Guinea, lalai, “light”; Mahaga, Ysabel, lalaha, “light”; New Celebes lallav, “scorch”; Mota lalav, “scorch, burn”; lawa, “blaze or flame; to be red, brilliant in colour.”

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By dropping both consonants we get ao, the Maori “day, dawn, become light, cloud”; Tahitian “day, bright clouds, the bright land of heaven.” In Mangareva we get a, meaning “sun,” where remarkably little remains of raho!

Unusual forms, such as elo (“sun” in the New Hebrides), loa (“sun” in Mota, “cloud” in San Cristoval), have not been referred to.

Perhaps it may be allowed to make two conjectures in conclusion. Maro means in Mota “famine”: may this be ma-aro, and mean “a time of sun without rain, when the ground becomes hard and dry” (Hawaiian malo, “to dry up as water, to wither as a tree”; Mangaia maro, “hard and dry”; Mangareva maro, “hard”)? Mr. Elsdon Best gives the Maori tau maro as “a year in which there are no crops.”

The word tataro in Mota means “a prayer.” Dr. Codrington writes thus of it: “The tataro of the Banks Islands, which may be called ‘a prayer,’ is strictly an invocation of the dead, and is, no doubt, so called because the form begins with the word tataro, which certainly is the ‘ataro of San Cristoval—that is, ‘a ghost of power.’ The Banks-Islanders are clear that tataro is properly made only to the dead, yet the spirits (vui, Qat and Marawa) are addressed in the same way.” Ataro means “a god” in San Cristoval (tidalo in Florida, tidatho Ysabel, tida'o Guadalcanar). “The soul” in Malaita is akalo. In Samoan tatalo is “to pray” (Tahitian, tarotaro; Hawaiian, kalokalo; Tongan, talo-monu, “solicit by actions the favour of the gods,” tolotalo, “cast lots”). Apparently the meaning of taro was “a spirit or ghost.” A man's spirit was perhaps thought to pass to the sky; he was no longer a ta-nun, a living man, but a ta-mate, a dead man, or a ta-taro, an inhabitant of the heavens; so in Florida he was no longer ti-noni, but ti-dalo. In the same way the soul was called akalo, just as ata in Samoan means “a spirit” or “the light”; Tahitian ata, “a cloud, a shadow, a certain prayer”; Tongan ata, “the air, free, the morning light, a shadow, reflection”; Maori ata, “early morning, the soul, a reflected image”; Motu (New Guinea) vata, “a ghost”; Mota atai, “soul.” If tataro meant originally “the spirits of the dead,” it might easily be made to include other inhabitants of the heavens; or, if it meant “the gods,” then, when ancestor-worship grew up, the term would come to include the ancestors of the tribe.

The root bara or para seems to mean “crosswise, lying across.” Other full forms of the root are pala, bala, vala, fala. From these we should expect to get ara or ala; pal, par, &c.; papa, baba, &c.; and transposed forms such as rapa and lapa. As a matter of fact, all these forms are found.

The way in which the meaning becomes modified is quite intelligible: from “crosswise” we get such ideas as—an angle, a ladder, tongs, a fence, a barricade, the shoulder, layers or strata in rocks, and hence flat slabs and anything flat, or, with a slightly different advance of meaning, the sloping side of a mountain, or an axe where the blade is not only flat, but is set sideways, crosswise, unlike the adze. With these preliminary remarks as to the meaning, we may follow the changes of form.

In Wedau, New Guinea, bara is “bent”; barabarana, “a bend or angle”; barabara, “a shelf, a wall-plate.” In San Cristoval “a fence” is bara; in Saa Malaita it is para; while para'a is “the side.” The Fiji baravi means “the sea-coast, the side of an island or mountain”; Maori para-hi, “a steep slope or acclivity.” The Mota parapara is “an axe,” a recent use of the word, according to Dr. Codrington. The Formosa parai

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means “to fence”; the Malay parai “to go in zigzags, as a ship tacking.” An island in the Banks Group is called Ure-parapara, “the island of steep slopes”: the sea has entered the crater, the steep sides of which give the island its name. The Malay parang is “a chopper or chopping-knife,” or to cut with one; and this is the Maori para, “to fell trees or cut down bush.” In Mota, para also means “to go off at an angle”; sus para is “to crouch aside.”

Pala means in Mota “to set stick across stick, to set across, wattle”; pala ta vava, “to strangle a man by pressing a stick across his throat”; i-pala, “tongs”; palapala, “scissors” (a recent word). In Florida palapala is “a ladder.” In Malay palang is “a cross-bar or transverse beam.” In Santa Cruz pala-po is “lightning” (po meaning “downwards” and also “red”). In Tonga palaa means “a piece of a reed fence”; while in Samoa pala'au is “a wooden fence.”

In Mahaga Bugotu babala is “crosswise”; gai babala, “across.” Vala means in Mota “the fence of small stones round an oven.” In Madagascar vala is “a wooden fence or partition.” The Efate (New Hebrides) vala means “a ship's yards,” because set crosswise; while falafala is “a ladder,” which is made by fastening cross-sticks to a tree. Vala in Florida means “the shoulder”; varat in Mota “the purlin of a house.”

Leaving now the full root, of which many more examples might be given, we come to ara and ala. In Mota ara means “to keep off,” while ge-ara is “a fence.” The Saa Malaita ala means “the shoulder.” The Maori arai means “a veil, screen, or curtain; to block up”; Mangaian arai, “to ward off”; Tahitian arai, “to interpose, obstruct”; Hawaiian alai, “to obstruct, to block up a door or passage by sitting in it, to form a circle round a person for defence, to defend.” The Torres pi ala is “a fence round a garden.”

By dropping the final vowel we get par and pal. Par means in Mota “to slice, cut,” as in Par mal, the name given to a class of secret societies the members of which were wont to par a mal or young cocoanut and drink the milk in common, after which they were accounted brethren. Pal in New Britain means “a room” (just as niu in Mota means either “partition” or “room”); in Duke of York Island, “an outhouse”; in Raluana (New Guinea), “a house.”

Dropping the second syllable we get pa and ba, exceedingly common and important forms. A few examples must suffice. In Fiji bai means “to fence round a town or garden,” while ba is “a fish-fence.” In Maori pa means “to block up, obstruct; a fort or stockade, a weir for catching eels, a barricade; to protect”: Samoan, pa, “a wall”: Tahitian, pa, “a fence or hedge”: Hawaiian, pa, “hedge or fence in; the wall of a town”: Paumotu, pa, “a rampart or bulwark.”

The reduplication of this gives us papa and baba. In Malagasy baba is “a wall or fence in fortification”; Formosa, babas, “an earthen dam”; Tahitian, papani, “to block up”; Mota, paparis, “wall of a house”; Maori, papa, “to close up or fasten; the layers or strata of rocks.” It is from this last that the idea of a slab may perhaps be derived, and so papa or baba commonly means “a slab, board, anything flat.” In Wedau, New Guinea, baba means “slab, side of big canoe”; babai, “to build up with slabs”; babana, “canoe built with timbers”; Maori, papa, “anything broad or flat—a slab, board, door, or shutter”; Samoan, papa, “board, floor-mat”; Tahitian, papa, “a board, seat, the shoulder-blade”; Mangareva, papa, “foundation”; Motu, New Guinea, papapapa,

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“flat rock”; Celebes, papang, “a board”; Malay, papan, “a plank or board”; San Cristoval, paparagan, “surf-board”; Malaita, baba, “surf-board.” Papa means also “the earth” in Maori, and no doubt the Maoris conceived of the earth as flat, as our own forefathers did; this word, however, may be from a root meaning “soil.”

Taking last the transposed forms rapa and lapa, we get the Maori rapa-rapa, meaning “the flat part of the foot”; Hawaiian lapa, “a ridge of land between two ravines, steep side of a ravine, having a flat or square side”; Samoan lapa, “flat”; Mangareva raparapa, “flat”; Paumotu rapa, “flat blade of paddle”; Motu, New Guinea, ilapa, “a sword”; Mota irav, “a board, slab of wood in canoe or house”; lapwai, “the flat of a blade, tail of eel.”

These roots are merely given as examples of the working-out of certain principles of comparison. Other roots might be easily given from which a still larger number of words are derived. But the following of such principles as those given above should make comparisons at once easier to obtain and more likely to be correct.

Confusion is especially likely to arise when the first syllable only remains, or where it has been reduplicated. For example, the Maori ta has many meanings, because it is derived from a number of different roots. Papa may be derived for patu (a stone or rock), para (across), para (sediment, dirt, &c.); rara from rana, raho, &c.; roro from roto, rongo, &c. If comparisons are to be sound, they should always have regard to the root-form and its meaning.

The study of the Oceanic languages should throw more light on the general problem of language than the study of the Aryan family or the Semitic, because the problems to be solved are less complicated, owing to the fact that the peoples have been living isolated for so long, and have been unaffected by civilisation. When the Oceanic family has been carefully studied, comparisons may be made with Aryan and Semitic languages. Apparently there were true Aryan and Semitic words in the original Oceanic language.

Art. II.—List of Recent Shells found Fossil in New Zealand.

Communicated by Dr. Chilton.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd November, 1909]

During my recent study of the New Zealand Mollusca I made a list of species which have been recorded as fossil, and it may be of interest to have it published.

P. stands for Pliocene, M. for Miocene, O. for the Oamaru Series.

The latter formation was considered by Zittel to belong to the Oligocene or Upper Eocene, by Hutton to the Oligocene, whilst Professor

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J. Park classed it under the Miocene. Tate, Harris, and Von Ihering, however, consider it to belong to the Eocene.

1.

Acanthochites zelandicus, Q. & G. P.

2.

Chiton pellisserpentis, Q. & G. P.

3.

Acmœa dœdala, Suter. P.

4.

Scissurella rubiginosa, Hutton. P.

5.

mantelli, Woodward. P.

6.

Haliotis australis, Gm. P.

7.

iris, Martyn. M.

8.

Emarginula striatula, Q. & G. P., M.

9.

Subemarginula intermedia, Reeve. P.

10.

parmophoidea, Q. & G. P.

11.

Fissuridea monilifera, Hutton. P.

12.

Trochus chathamensis, Hutton. P.

13.

tiaratus, Q. & G. P.

14.

viridis, Gm. P.

15.

Monodonta œthiops, Gm. P.

16.

corrosa, A. Adams. P.

17.

lugubris, Gm. P.

18.

Cantharidus pupillus, Hutton. P.

19.

purpuratus, Martyn. P.

20.

sanguineus, Gray. P.

21.

ten brosus, A. Adams. P., M., O.

22.

Monilea egena, Gould. P.

23.

Calliostoma pellucidum, Valenciennes. P., M.

24.

punctulatum, Martyn. P., M.

25.

selectum, Chemnitz. P.

26.

spectabile, A. Adams. M., O.

27.

Lissosspira corulum, Hutton. P.

28.

Turbo smaragdus, Martyn. P.

29.

granosus, Martyn. P., M.

30.

Leptothyra fluctuata, Hutton. P.

31.

Astrœ heliotropium, Martyn. P.

32.

Ethalia zelandica, Hombr. & Jacq. P., M.

33.

Rissoa (s. str.) impressa, Hutton. P.

34.

(Cingula) zosterophila, Webster. P.

35.

Rissoina (s. str.) rugulosa, Hutton. P.

36.

(Zebina) emarginata, Hutton. P.

37.

(Eatoniella) olivacea, Hutton. P.

38.

Cerithidea bicarinata, Gray. P.

39.

Seila terebelloides, Martens. P.

40.

Serpulus sipho, Lamarck. P., M.

41.

Stephopoma nucleogranosum, Verco. P.

42.

Cœcum digitulum, Hedley. P.

43.

Turritella rosea, Q. & G. P., M., O.

44.

pagoda, Reeve. P., M.

45.

Carlottœ, Watson. P., M.

46.

symmetrica, Hutton. P., M., O. (=kanieriensis, Harris.)

47.

Struthiolaria papulosa, Martyn. P., M., O.

48.

vermis, Martyn. P., M.

49.

vermis tricarinata, Lesson. P.

– 10 –
50.

Xenophora corrugata, Reeve. P., M. (=neozelanica, Suter.

51.

Calyptrœa scutum, Lesson. P., M.

52.

alta, Hutton. P., M.

53.

maculata, Q. & G. P., M., O. (=calyptrœformis of authors, non Lamarck.)

54.

Crepidula crepidula, L. P., M., O.

55.

costata, Sowerby. P., M.

56.

Natica zelandica, Q. & G. P., M., O.

57.

australis, Hutton. P.

58.

Polinices amphialus, Watson. P.

59.

Ampullina undulata, Hutton. P.

60.

Trichotropis clathrata, Sowerby. P.

61.

Trivia australis, Lamarck. P.

62.

Cymatium spengleri, Chemnitz. P., M., O.

63.

Phalium achatinum pyrum, Lamarck. P.

64.

Epitonium zelebori, Dunker. P., M.

65.

Turbonilla zealandica, Hutton. P.

66.

Odostomia (s. str.) bembix, Suter. P.

67.

(Pyrgulina,) rugata, Hutton. P., M.

68.

Eulima treadwelli, Hutton. P.

69.

Megalatractus maximus, Tryon. P.

70.

Fusinus spiralis, A. Adams. P., M.

71.

Latirus huttoni, Suter. P.

72.

Vexillum rubiginosum, Hutton. P.

73.

planatum, Hutton. P.

74.

biconicum, Murdoch and Suter. P.

75.

marginatum, Hutton. P.

76.

Siphonalia nodosa, Martyn. P., M., O.

77.

caudata, Q. & G. M.

78.

dilatata, Q. & G. P., M.

79.

mandarina, Duclos. P., M., O.

80.

Euthria linea, Martyn. P., M.

81.

linea traversi, Hutton. P.

82.

littorinoides, Reeve. P.

83.

striata, Hutton. P.

84.

Cominella maculata, Martyn. P., M.

85.

maculosa, Martyn. P.

86.

nassoides, Reeve. P., M.

87.

zealandiœ, Reeve. P.

88.

lurida, Philippi. P.

89.

virgata, H. and A. Adams. P.

90.

huttoni, Kobelt. P., M.

91.

costata, Q. & G. var. P.

92.

Murex octogonus, Q. & G. P.

93.

octogonus umbilicatus, T. Woods. P.

94.

octogonus espinosus, Hutton. P.

95.

zelandicus, Q. & G. P., M.

96.

angasi, Crosse. P.

97.

Trophon ambiguus, Philippi. P.

98.

rugosus, Q. & G. P.

99.

cheesemani, Hutton. P.

100.

corticatus, Hutton. P.

– 11 –
101.

Trophon plebejus, Hutton. P.

102.

bonneti, Cossmann. P.

103.

Thais succincta, Martyn. P.

104.

Admete trailli, Hutton. P.

105.

Mitrella choava, Reeve. P.

106.

Alcira transitans, Murdoch. P.

107.

varians, Hutton. P.

108.

Fulguraria arabica, Martyn. P., M., O.

109.

arabica elongata, Swainson. P., M., O.

110.

gracilis, Swainson. P., M.

111.

Ancilla australis, Sowerby. P., M., O.

112.

australis pyramidalis, Reeve. P.

113.

depressa, Sowerby. P., M.

114.

mucronata, Sowerby. P.

115.

Marginella albescens, Hutton. M.

116.

Drillia novœ-zelandiœ, Reeve. P.

117.

lœvis, Hutton. P.

118.

trailli, Hutton. M.

119.

Mitromorpha striata, Hutton. P., M.

120.

Bathytoma albula, Hutton. P., M.

121.

cheesemani, Hutton. P.

122.

nodilirata, Murdoch and Suter. P.

123.

Mangilia dictyota, Hutton. P.

124.

protensa, Hutton. P.

125.

sinclairi, E. A. Smith. P.

126.

Daphnella cancellata, Hutton. P.

127.

Terebra tristis, Deshayes. P.

128.

Pupa alba, Hutton. P.

129.

Tornatina pachys, Watson. P.

130.

Volvulella reflexa, Hutton. M.

131.

Cylichnella striata, Hutton. P., M.

132.

Amphibola crenata, Martyn. P.

133.

Endodonta coma, Gray. P.

134.

Dentalium nanum, Hutton. P.

135.

opacum, Sowerby. P., M. (=conicum, Hutton.

136.

Dentalium ecostatum, T. W. Kirk. P., M.

137.

Nucula nitidula, A. Adams. P., M.

138.

Leda bellula, A. Adams. P.

139.

fastidiosa, A. Adams. P., M.

140.

Malletia australis, Q. & G. P., M.

141.

Poroleda lanceolata, Hutton. P.

142.

Anomia huttoni, Suter, n. sp. P., M., O. (=alectus, Hutton, non Gray.

143.

Anomia undata, Hutton. P., M., O. (=cytœum, Hutton, non Gray.)

144.

Anomia walteri, Hector. P.

145.

Placunanomia zelandica, Gray. P., M. (=ione, Gray.)

146.

Arca decussata, Sowerby. P., M., O.

147.

Glycymeris laticostata, Q. & G. P., M., O.

148.

velutina, Suter. P., M.

149.

Mytilus canaliculus, Martyn. P., M.

– 12 –
150.

Mytilus magellanicus, Lamarck. P., M., O.

151.

Modiolus australis, Gray. P., M.

152.

Modiolaria impacta, Hermann. P.

153.

Pecten medius, Lamarck. P., O.

154.

radiatus, Hutton. P., M.

155.

zelandiœ, Gray. P., M.

156.

convexus, Q. & G. P., M.

157.

Lima lima, L. P.

158.

angulata, Sowerby. P.

159.

bullata, Born. P., M., O.

160.

Ostrea angasi, Sowerby. P., M., O.

161.

hyotis, L. P.

162.

corrugata, Hutton. P., M.

163.

Atrina zelandica, Gray. P., M., O.

164.

Crassatellites obesus, A. Adams. M.

165.

Cardita calyculata, L. P.

166.

Venericardia australis, Lamarck. P., M.

167.

difficilis, Deshayes. P., M.

168.

zelandica, Deshayes. P.

169.

Loripes concinna, Hutton. P., M.

170.

Divaricella cumingi, Adams and Angas. P., M., O.

171.

Diplodonta zelandica, Gray. P., M.

172.

globularis, Lamarck. P.

173.

Erycina parva, Deshayes. P.

174.

Diplodon menziesi aucklandicus, Gray. P.

175.

Tellina eugonia, Suter. P., M. (=angulata, Hutton, non Gmelin.)

176.

Tellina disculus, Deshayes. P.

177.

alba, Q. & G. P., M.

178.

glabrella, Deshayes. P.

179.

Leptomya lintea, Hutton. P.

180.

Mesodesma subtriangulatum, Gray. P., M.

181.

australe, Gm. P., M.

182.

Mactra scalpellum, Reeve. P.

183.

discors, Gray. P., M.

184.

elongata, Q. & G. P., M.

185.

ovata, Gray. P.

186.

rudis, Hutton. P.

187.

Spisula ordinaria, E. A. Smith. P.

188.

œquilateralis, Deshayes. P.

189.

Zenatia acinaces, Q. & G. P., M.

190.

Dosinia lambata, Gould. P., M.

191.

anus, Philippi. P.

192.

subrosea, Grey. P., M.

193.

greyi, Zittel. P., M.

194.

Macrocallista multistriata, Sowerby. P., M., O.

195.

Cytherea oblonga, Hanley. P., M.

196.

subsulcata, Suter. P.

197.

Chione stutchburyi, Gray. P., M., O.

198.

yatei, Gray. P.

199.

crassa, Q. & G. P., M.

200.

mesodesma, Q. & G. P., M.

201.

Paphia intermedia, Q. & G. P., M.

– 13 –
202.

Protocardia pulchella, Gray. P., M.

203.

Psammobia lineolata, Gray. P., M., O.

204.

stangeri, Gray. P., M.

205.

Soletellina nitida, Gray. P., M.

206.

Corbula macilenta, Hutton. P.

207.

zelandica, Q. & G. P.

208.

Saxicava arctica, L. P.

209.

Panopea zelandica, Q. & G. P., M.

210.

Pholadidea spathulata, Sowerby. P.

211.

Barnea similis, Gray. P.

212.

Thracia vitrea, Hutton. P., M.

213.

Cochlodesma angasi, Crosse and Fischer. P.

214.

Myodora antipodum, E. A. Smith. P.

215.

boltoni, E. A. Smith. P.

216.

novœ-zealandiœ, E. A. Smith. P.

217.

striata, Q. & G. P.

218.

subrostrata, E. A. Smith. P., M.

219.

Chamostrea albida, Lamarck. P., M.

Art. III.—Botanical Notes made on a Journey across the Tararuas.*

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 1st September, 1909.]

The portion of the Tararua Range treated of in this narrative may be viewed from Wellington, stretching beyond the Upper Hutt Valley. At the southern end is seen the rounded outline of Mount Marchant (3,406 ft.) followed, more to the north, by three much lower conical-topped hills then a conical mountain stands out nearer the beholder than the conical hills, and on a level with Mount Marchant. The Quoin (3,905 ft.), the

[Footnote] * Some of the information contained in this account is drawn from experience acquired on trips other than those herein described. Cnronologically enumerated, the author's acquaintance with these mountains is derived from—(1) A three-days trip to Mount Holdsworth with Professor Easterfield, D. L. Cockayne, and Mr. A. H. Cockayne in January, 1906; (2) a three-days solitary ramble on Mount Dennan and in the Otaki Gorge, in December, 1906; (3) a three-days ascent of Mount Hector from Otaki, in January, 1907, with Messrs. D. Petrie, A. Hamilton, J. S. Tennant, W. C. Davies, and Alfred Jones; (4) a three-days journey on Mount Holdsworth, in March, 1907, with Messrs G. de S. Baylis and Turners (two); (5) three days on Mount Holdsworth with Messrs D. Petrie and J. S. Tennant, in January, 1908; (6) the crossing of the range here described (7) a two-days trip up the Hutt Gorge with Mr. John Cnilwell, in November, 1908; (8) a partial ascent of Mount Dennan with Messrs. C. O'Connor and Simmonds, at Easter 1909; (9) an ascent of the Quoin, via the ridge, in June, 1909, with Mr. E. Phillips Turner

[Footnote] Since writing this paper the author, with Mr. W. H. Field, M.P., and Mr. L. Phillips, of Kaitoke, on 12th February, 1910, crossed form Kaitoke to Otaki Gorge settlement in twenty-four hours actual walking-time, the journey occupying, including the time taken for sleep, only thirty-six hours. The Kaitoke ridge track was followed, the route otherwise being as described above. The high levels were obscured by mist which, however, occasionally lifted. Abundance of water was found, as before.

– 14 –

southern termination of a high range leading to Mount Hector, is not discernible in the outline of hills, being overtopped and rendered invisible by Mount Alpha (4,466 ft.). Finally, after a fairly level stretch of country, there succeed a few ragged peaks, near which is the remarkable razorback ridge (to be presently described) overshadowed by Mount Hector (5,014 ft.), the highest peak which can be seen. Descending on the Otaki side there are some rounded summits (4,700 ft.), and at a much lower elevation Mount Dennan (4,010 ft.). Below this is a saucer-shaped depression (“Table Top”) rising on the Otaki side to a rounded knob, the last peak silhouetted against the sky.

The writer cannot find any record of a collector or naturalist having crossed the range from Kaitoke to Otaki. Indeed, even Mount Hector would appear not to have been botanically explored until December, 1906 (see Petrie, “Account of a Visit to Mount Hector”: Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, p. 289), when the writer made his first collection there.

Leaving Wellington by the 7 a.m. train on Boxing Day, 1907, Kaitoke is reached about 9 a.m. The day is fine—a light breeze from the north-east, blue sky with patches of cloud, and a barometer of 30.4 in., giving presage of fair weather for the venture. The party consists of Mr. Alfred Jones (an expert bushman), W. B. Aston, and the writer. The swags include 5 lb. boiled beef, 3 lb. ham, 5 lb. ship-biscuits, a small loaf, 2 lb. oatmeal, 2 lb. sugar, ¾ lb. butter, a little tea, chocolate, and raisins, collecting-boxes, drying-papers, a blanket each, and a tent. The tent is worthy of a brief description. It weighs under 4 lb.—dimensions 5 ½ ft. by 7 ½ ft.,—and includes a flexible wire rope used instead of a ridge-pole. One end of the rope is fixed to a tree, and the other is threaded through the apex of the tent-roof and fixed to another tree. All that now remains is to fasten the guy-ropes, made of light fishing-line, to stumps, &c., near the ground, and peg down the sides. The advantage of having a light and easily pitched tent such as this in climbing-expeditions, where everything has to be carried on one's back, can hardly be overstimated. The tent is made by Messrs. Hutcheson, Wilson, and Co., Jervois Quay, and is similar to those supplied to the Tourist Department for alpine climbers, with the exception that it has no floor. The material is that of which the fine topsails of yachts are made, technically known as japarra—an Egyptian fabric.

At least three routes are open to the explorer of the Tararuas from Kaitoke. The Mount Marchant track involves climbing the bare ridge connecting the Rimutakas with the Tararua Range, and following the spur over Mount Marchant, thence taking a large sweep to the north-east over many lesser tops on the high range by a track marked on the map “well blazed” to Mount Omega (3,669 ft.), between which and Mount Alpha (4,466 ft.) there remains a deep valley to be crossed before attaining the high leading range of which Mount Hector is the culminating point. The writer is informed that it is not necessary to climb to the top of Mount Marchant, but that the spur may be attained on the farther side by a passage through the bush on the north-east flank of the mountain.

The second and third routes are the same with the difference that the first few miles is over a spur—four hours' walk—or through the river gorge—nine and a half hours' walk—at the traveller's discretion, to the junction of the Main Hutt with the Lesser Hutt River. The spur route is always available, and is remarkably easy travelling, through dead standing bush which was swept by the fires of last year and completely denuded of under-

– 15 –

scrub. One should take the hill at the back of Phillips's hut (650 ft.), near the mouth of the Pakuratahi Gorge, and, steering due magnetic north, two and a half hours' walk on the ridge brings one to the summit of the hill (2,000 ft.), where Mount Marchant looms largely ahead, and the lower slopes of the Quoin are seen on the left in the angle formed by the junction of the rivers. The Lesser Hutt Gorge is from this aspect visible for a considerable distance. Descending the hill, still through burnt standing timber, another one and a half hours' walk should bring one to the base of the Quoin.

The gorge route, on the other hand, takes at least nine hours' laborious walking, the times taken on the two occasions the writer traversed the route being nine hours and a half and nine hours and a quarter from Kaitoke to the junction; and it is not accessible if the river is in flood. The advantages of going this way are the beautiful scenery, the impossibility of mistaking the way, and the facility for studying the various forms of life met with in the forests of the banks and in the unfished waters of the rivers.

Crossing, to the north of the Kaitoke Station, some flat country where agriculture is being practised, judging by the Californian thistle, blackberry, and gorse which impeded progress, the Pakuratahi Gorge is soon reached, and little time is lost in finding the track, which leads off from behind a blue cliff-face on the south side of the river. Numerous shapely ribbonwood-trees (Plagianthus betulinus), which always attain their finest growth on silty alluvial soil, are observed growing on the flats. The track is excellent, and leads through a very mixed forest, of which the plants noted in the appended list are observed.

After a mile or so of this track the forest undergoes a distinct change. Red-beech (Fagus fusca) is now the predominant growth—in fact, it is almost the only tree-growth, being supplemented only to a slight extent by miro (Podocarpus ferrugineus). The underscrub consists of Coprosma Colensoi, Griselinia littoralis, Leucopogon fasciculatus, Coprosma grandifolia, Pseudopanax crassifolium, Myrsine salicina, Panax arboreum, Coprosma fœtidissima, Myrtus pedunculata, and Metrosideros florida, while the forest-flor is covered with Gahnia, Gleichenia Cunninghamii (umbrellafern), and moss. Here and there on stumps are patches of the beautiful Earina mucronata, the blue-berried Dianella intermedia, and a variety of ferns, mostly kidney-ferns (Trichomanes reniforme). The tree-trunks are covered with climbing ratas (Metrosideros hypericifolia and M. Colensoi), epiphytic growths, filmy ferns, polypodies, asteliads, Tmesipteris, and orchids (Earina mucronata and E. suaveolens).

The path wanders for some distance through this light open forest, and then descends suddenly to the junction of the Pakuratahi and Hutt Rivers. Here the steep banks are sprinkled with bright flowering shrubs and herbs. Prominent are Carmichaelia odorata, with masses of sweetly scented purpleblue flowers and graceful pendulous branches, while Veronica catarractœ, Gnaphalium Keriense, Oxalis magellanica, Pratia angulata, and Libertia ixioides brighten the steep mossy banks with their large white flowers.

The forest is thicker here, and the spaces are well filled with scrub and small trees. Rimu and kamahi (Weinmannia) are the prevailing trees, with a shrubbery of Fuchsia, Pittosporum, Veronica salicifolia, Schefflera, and Coprosma; and along the banks the free-flowering Olearia nitida, toitoi (Arundo conspicua), and wood-grass (Microlœna avenacea) are plentiful, and a few patches of snow-grass (Danthonia Cunninghamii).

– 16 –

A walk of an hour and a half brings one from the Kaitoke Station to this charming spot, where but a couple of years ago was pitched a survey camp, by the work of whose vanished tenants one wishing to advance into the wilds may largely profit.

Crossing the Pakuratahi, we soon leave all vestige of a track behind and plunge up the Hutt River. Here and there blazes on the trees are met with, and occasionally one comes across a track cut over the bluff forming one of the walls of some impassable gorge between which the waters rush as through a mill-sluice. The river bends with monotonous frequency, which necessitates incessant crossing to take advantage of the shingle-bank or rocky ledge on the opposite side, in order to gain a few chains advnce; thus, sometimes wading up to one's middle, scrambling over slippery rocks, hanging on by bough, tussock, or pendant kiekie (Freycinetia), always striving to keep the food and blankets, strapped shoulder-high, dry, slow progress is made. Anon one of the party slips from the rock into some deep pool, and the water surges round the knapsack; but the biscuits, contained in a tin case, are safe, and the victim slowly and laboriously draws himself out of the swift current, and drains himself on the bank. Occasionally the spirit of sport asserts itself, and a halt is called to watch some monster of a trout or eel, the solitary inhabitant of a deep pool, lazily disporting himself.

The rock scenery of the gorges is truly grand. Cut into fantastic shapes by the current when in flood, here and there a mass of rock which has survived the eroding force of the river stands out in bold relief, often with some narrow defile for a background, through which the river rushes with deafening surge. Pockets and pot-holes in the rock hold a lodgment of silty soil, supporting many beautiful plants. Prominent is Carmichaelia odorata, Veronica catarractœ (well named), Microlœna avenacea, Pratia angulata, Hydrocotyle sp., Coriaria ruscifolia, Gnaphalium Keriense, sometimes the rare Calceolaria repens, and similar plants requiring a moist, welldrained alluvial soil.

Feathered friends are not wanting to break the stillness of the bush. Once a pair of blue mountain-duck were started from the bank, and swam leisurely down-stream, uttering expostulatory quacks against the intruders of their fastness. The quaint little rifleman is observed in numbers, running up the sides of the trees and snapping up many a toothsome morsel with its upwardly inclined bill, whistling from time to time a cheerful twit. The tui's musical note is often heard, contrasting strongly with the long-tailed cuckoo's screechy pipe. Fantails flutter here and there, and occasionally a handsome pigeon laboriously wings its musical flight from tree to tree.

Presently the gorge opens out, and light floods the valley. We are nearing the confluence of the Hutt and the Lesser Hutt. Scrambling down a steep face, a fine river-beach is reached at 6.30 p.m. Camp is soon pitched, and a hearty meal enjoyed. This camp is about 800 ft. altitude—not greatly different from that of Kaitoke.

A visit to this camp in November, 1908, when the faint odour of the rangiora (Brachyglottis repanda) was in the air, and the spring flowers had shaken out their petals to the full, showed us many whiteheads, tomtits, riflemen, pied fantails, grey warblers, a pair of grey duck, flocks of chaffinches, many pigeons, kaka, parrakeets, tuis, long-tailed cuckoos; and in the still hour of the early dawn a weka visited the tent, was disturbed, and stalked up the valley, waking the echoes with its vibrant call.

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Bluffs and Beeches on the Hutt River.
Confluence Camp, junction of the Main and Lessen Hutt Rivers, foot of Quoin.
Botany of the Tararuas.—Aston.

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Effect of wind-action on Quoin top, cutting vegetation (Danthonia Raoulii, Dracophyllum longifolium, Celmisia Spectabilis, Pimelia, Gmdia, Drapetes Dieffenbachii, Senecio lagopus) into lanes
Scrub on Quoin top, consisting of Coprosma cuneata, C fœtidissima, [ unclear: Olea ] lacunosa, O Colensoi, Astelia [ unclear: nevosa ] , Senecio eleagnifoius, Danthoma Raoulii (Snowgrass)
Botany of the Tararuas.—Aston

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Mountain-tarn on Quoin top, with Cushion-plants and Snowgrass
Mount Alpha and [ unclear: dge ] leading from Quoin top Fagus Menziesii trees deeply covered with lichens and mosses to topmost bough.
Botany of the Tararuas.—Aston

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IV Mount Hector Range from Quoin top, with Mount Hector in the distance
Astelia nervosa beds on summit of Quoin The darker patches are composed of Coprosma cuneata and the lighter of Dracophyllum and Danthoma Raoulii (Snowgrass).
Botany of the Tararuas.—Aston

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Ligusticum dissectum, a characteristic and abunoant plant of the Tararuas-its only known habitat.
Botany of the Tararuas.—Aston

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Hehchiysum leontopodium (New Zealand Edelweiss), an abundant plant above 4,000ft.
Botany of the Tararuas.—Aston

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Mouth of the Pakaiutahi Heketara (Olcaria Cunninghamii) in flower.
Shingle-beds on the Pakarutahi River.
Botany of the Tararuas.—Aston.

– 17 –

A list of plants seen from the junction of the Pakuratahi and Hutt Rivers to the camp is given below: Pittosporum eugenioides, P. tenuifolium, Hoheria populnea, Oxalis magellanica, Coriaria ruscifolia, Carmichaelia odorata, Weinmannia racemosa, Gunnera monica, Myrtus obcordata, Fuchsia excorticata, Hydrocotyle elongata, elongata, Schefflera digitata, Griselinia littoralis, Coprosma robusta, Lagenphora Forsteri, Olearia nitida, Gnaphalium Keriense, Helichrysum glomeratum, Senecio latifolius, S. lagopus, S. Kirkii, Pratia angulata, Calceolaria repens, Veronica catarractœ, V. salicifolia, Ourisia, Piper excelsum, Laurelia novœ-zealandiœ, Beilschmiedia tawa, Knightia excelsa, Fagus Menziesii, Podocarpus ferrugineus, Dacrydium cupressinum, Corysanthes, Dendrobium Cunninghamii, Thelymitra sp., Earina autumnalis, Cordyline Banksii, Dianella intermedia, Danthonia Cunninghamii, D. semiannularis, Deyeuxia, Hymenophyllum multifidum, Asplenium flaccidum, Adiantum affine, Lomaria alpina, L. vulcanica, L. Patersoni, Microlœna avenacea.

An early start is made next moring, with fair weather and a rising barometer. At 5 a.m. the Lesser Hutt River is crossed, and the ascent of the steep leading spur to the Quoin is begun. But few supplejacks—the bane of the bushman—impede the way. The forest is chiefly kamahi, with beech, rimu, and a little totara and rata. The forest-floor is carpeted with umbrella (Gleichenia Cunninghamii) and kidney (Trichomanes reniforme) fern. At 1,100 ft. Senecio Kirkii appears as a plentiful underscrub; at 1,400 ft. totara is more plentiful, and the floor is a perfect carpet of kidney-fern, with clumps of Astelia nervosa dotted through it. The kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa) is still the predominating tree; occasionally a miro (Podocarpus ferrugineus) is seen, its bright-red fruit presently to afford a rich feast for the pigeons. The epiphytic orchids Earina mucronata and E. suaveolens are still plentiful, and Gastrodia Cunninghamii, the tall black-and-white flowered terrestrial orchid, with the large tuberous roots beloved of pigs, is met with. The ferns Lomaria discolor and L. alpina cover the ground in places. Here and there a spray of pure-white flowers shows where the beautiful little nohi (Enargia parviflora) wastes its sweetness on the desert-air. The underscrub is chiefly Coprosma fœtidissima, C. lucida, and Myrsine salicina.

At 1,600 ft. the forest is more open. There is a greater preponderance of light scrub, Coprosma grandifolia, C. fœtidissima, and C. Colensoi. Clumps of Uncinia appear.

At 1,700 ft. snow-grass is plentiful on the floor of the forest, of which the chief tree is kamahi. Leucopogon fasciculatum and Pseudopanax crassifolium are common.

At 1,900 ft. Panax simplex becomes common.

At 2,100 ft. Fagus fusca, Weinmannia, Senecio Kirkii, Coprosma Colensoi, Panax arboreum, Myrsine salicina, filmy ferns (Hymenophyllum), and mosses are most conspicuous.

At 2,200 ft. the billy is boiled, the water being obtained from a puddle in a hollow. Hanging moss or lichen is now becoming a prominent feature on the trees. In wet places Microlœna avenacea, and in dark places Todea superba (double crape-fern), were plentiful.

Deep moss now covers the forest-floor. The trees are Fagus fusca and F. Menziesii, with a sprinkling of kamahi.

At 2,300 ft. the arboreal growth is more stunted, and the floor is carpeted with moss, nohi, and filmy fern. An open space here shows the top of the Quoin to be due (magnetic) north; but the ridge takes a considerable sweep to the east and back again to the north. This is the only part

– 18 –

of the ascent where it is possible to go wrong; but, as one may obtain such a clear view of the country by climbing one of the stunted beeches, losing the way is a very unlikely contingency. The forest is Fagus Menziesii and totara, with a little Fagus fusca. The occurrence of Phormium tenax testifies to the open nature of the forest. Lomaria discolor, L. capensis, snow-grass (Danthonia Cunninghamii), and Gleichenia Cunninghamii are abundant. The country here is fairly level, and, viewed from the top of a stunted tree, shows Fagus Menziesii, with Dracophyllum longifolium, with some Fagus fusca and totara, to be the main forest-growth. Occasional kamahi, Myrsine salicina, Coprosma Colensoi, and C. fœtidissima are present. The totaras are deeply mossed with lichens to the topmost bough.

Thence succeeds a wind-exposed slope, with stunted Suttonia divaricata and other scrub breast-high, with Lycopodium and stunted Fagus Menziesii and Weinmannia.

At 2,500 ft. to 2,600 ft. the beech and totara trees are very gnarled growths, with an underscrub of Coprosma fœtidissima.

At 3,000 ft. (12.20 p.m.) the forest is gnarled Fagus Menziesii 40 ft. high, with an underscrub of Coprosma fœtidissima, Panax arboreum, and Suttonia divaricata. Astelia nervosa is common. The broadleaf (Griselinia littoralis) here attains a height of 15–20 ft., being quite a small tree. Hymenophyllum multifidum, Todea superba, and moss cover the forest-floor. Kaka and bell-birds are seen.

At 3,100 ft. stunted Fagus Menziesii 14 ft. high at edge of bush, mossed to the topmost bough, forms the dominant growth. The underscrub is Pittosporum rigidum, Senecio eleagnifolius, and Coprosma cuneata.

3,150 ft. We are out at last, and breathe the fresh air on the open mountain-side. On the western face there is stunted Fagus Menziesii 3 ft. high, and snow-grass, and then an alpine meadow containing Celmisia spectabilis (in flower), Carpha alpina, Drosera stenopetala, Caladenia bifolia (in flower), moss, Forstera (in flower), Pentachondra pumila, Pimelia Gnidia (in flower).

3,350 ft. We encounter stunted scrub again on the south side of the spur, chiefly Coprosma cuneata and Dracophyllum longifolium.

On the east side the Fagus Menziesii creeps up to within 100 ft. of the top, and affords a grateful shelter from the fierce sun, the beech-trees being about 20 ft. high here. Directly one moves over to the western face the trees are beaten down to a height of 3 ft., making it difficult to force a passage through.

3,600 ft. On the west side of the spur Olearia Colensoi (the mutton-bird scrub) appears in thick shrubberies, broken by snow-grass meadows. Ligusticum dissectum is in full flower. Entering the forest on the west side to avoid the mutton-bird scrub, we meet with Olearia alpina, a handsome shrub of most characteristic growth, resembling the lancewood (Pseudopanax crassifolium). The floor of the forest is carpeted with filmy ferns and Myrsine nummularia. Good progress is made, and the top of the Quoin (3,900 ft.) is reached at 4 p.m. Although it has taken eleven hours to climb to this height, allowance must be made for the fact that we are carrying heavy swags, and are not in the best condition. The day has been very hot, and we are new to the route. Moreover, frequent rests for taking notes and observations have been resorted to.

Between the summit and the bush-line on the eastern face are a few acres of mountain-meadow containing many beautiful alpine plants. Among the most noticeable are Aciphylla Colensoi, Ligusticum dissectum,

– 19 –

Celmisia spectabilis, Raoulia grandiflora, Senecio bellidioides, Phyllachne Colensoi, Euphrasia revoluta, Suttonia nummularia, Gaultheria antipoda, Pimelia Gnidia, Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium, Astelia nervosa, Carpha alpina, Danthonia Raoulii, Ehrharta Colensoi. In the wetter parts are clear pools of good water, surrounded by the interesting cushion-plant Oreobolus pumilio var. pectinatus, mixed with Astelia linearis, Drosera stenopetala, Pentachondra pumila, Forstera (?) Bidwillii, Caladenia bifolia, and Caltha novœ-zealandiœ. A black bird, which may be a huia, is twice seen in the evening. A fine wild bull seems inclined to dispute possession of the summit with us, but, being left alone, towards sunset, after the manner of his kind, he makes his way down into the valleys. Long after dark we hear the distant lowing of his mates. This and the mournful notes of the ruru (morepork) are the only sounds which wake the stillness of our first night on the hilltops.

Sunday, 29th December.—We had witnessed the sinking of the sun into the south-western ocean the previous evening, and were this morning to see it rise from the sea in the opposite direction. An interesting phenomenon accompanied it. Before the edge of the sun appeared above the horizon, one-half of the disc appeared below the horizon-line and nothing above it, the effect being due possibly to reflection from a bank of clouds.

After breakfast we start to ascend the northern arête to Mount Alpha, and notice the rare Abrotanella pusilla in flower. The spur we now descend has been burnt on the west side, but on the east side is virgin scrub, merging gradually into forest. The way is fairly easy, though beds of Astelia nervosa occasionally impede us. The vegetation on this ridge is Coprosma cunneata, Olearia lacunosa, and O. excorticata, growing in great profusion; Phormium tenax (in flower), Gaultheria antipoda, Ligusticum aromaticum, and a stout species of Uncinia; while the only naturalised plant seen was Hypochœris radicata in the cattle-tracks. At the lowest point of the arête, 300 ft. below the Quoin-top, Cordyline indivisa, Senecio eleagnifolius, Olearia nitida, Gaultheria rupestris, Hoheria populnea, Danthonia Raoulii, Ourisia Colensoi are common.

At 3,800 ft. we commence the rise to Mount Alpha, and are on the open mountain-side, with no scrub. Senecio Bidwillii (in bud) becomes common, but Ligusticum dissectum is abundant.

At 4,000 ft. Gentiana patula (in bud), Celmisia spectabilis, Oreomyrrhis andicola, Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium, and Ligusticum dissectu are abundant. Pipits and fantails are seen.

At 4,200 ft. a small mountain-tarn gave us a grateful drink. Celmisia hieracifolia (in flower), Ourisia cœspitosa, Veronica buxifolia (in flower), Drapetes Dieffenbachii (in flower), patches of Raoulia grandiflora, Helichrysum Leontopodium (in flower), Veronica Astoni, Bulbinella Hookeri, Aciphylla Colensoi (in flower), Epilobium sp. (?), Poa, are the most noticeable plants. On the rocks are many specimens of the vegetable sheep of the Tararuas (Raoulia rubra).

At 4,450 ft. by our aneroid we top Mount Alpha, and discover several good mountain-tarns, but no firewood. There is the usual vegetation, comprising most of the species noticed, and one notable addition, Celmisia hieracifolia var. oblonga, a very diminutive variety of a handsome species, and now recorded for the first time in the North Island. Descending Mount Alpha a hundred feet or so, at 4,300 ft. another tarn is passed; then a climb over an unnamed peak of 4,450 ft. On the other side of this a remarkable instance of wind-action on vegetation is noticed. On a

– 20 –

gentle slope trending towards the west, the ground - mass of which is angular stones, are lanes of herbaceous plants growing with a regularity which simulates artificial arrangement. The area of this would be about 3 or 4 square chains. There is a space of 6 ft. to 8 ft. between the strips of vegetation, containing angular stones with but little vegetation, save an occasional patch of Raoulia grandiflora, Phyllachne Colensoi, and Drapetes Dieffenbachii. The vegetation of the lane “hedge” is two species of Danthonia (one of which is D. Raoulii), Ligusticum dissectum, Bulbinella, Phyllachne, Celmisia spectabilis, Dracophyllum, Ligusticum aromaticum, Astelia linearis (in beautiful red fruit). These lanes run in an east-and-west direction. We have been traversing a long stretch of gently rising country, and, passing a tarn, arrive at a point 4,500 ft., the lowest point between the flat land and the ridge leading to Mount Hector. Patches of Luzula compestris frequently occur, and some stunted Olearia Colensoi, very fine plants of Senecio Bidwillii, snow-grass (Danthonia), and masses of Raoulia rubra on steep rubble slips, are the most noticeable botanical features.

We now ascend the remarkable razorbacked ridge. On the north-east face a Danthonia (snow-grass) meadow extends for several hundred feet down the slope. Scattered through the snow-grass are Dracophyllum longifolium, Senecio Bidwillii, Bulbinella Hookeri, Aciphylla Colensoi. On the south-west side is a steep shingle or rocky face covered in parts with Raoulia rubra, patches of Ligusticum dissectum, Celmisia hieracifolia, Danthonia Raoulii, and Helichrysum Leontopodium. The ridge is equally steep on either face, and where it changes its aspect in zigzagging the flora also changes: the Danthonia meadow now appears on the left-hand side, facing the north-east, and the rocky slope on the right hand, facing south-west, approximately, showing that the difference in vegetation is due to a climatic and not to an edaphic cause.

At 4,700 ft. the “razorback” disappears, giving place to a rounded hill, covered on the south-west slope with a lane formation similar to that previously described, and containing Danthonia, Ligusticum, Phyllachne, and Celmisia spectabilis.

At 4,800 ft., where the faces of the ridge again become steeper, are noticed stunted Danthonia and Bulbinella on the north-east face, and incipient lane formation on the south-west face; and again at 4,900 ft. is a rocky face on the south-west and Danthonia on the north-east face.

A plant we have noticed all the way from Mount Alpha is Veronica Astoni, usually found growing on the top of the ridge.

At 5,050 ft. we at length reach the final slope of Mount Hector, and now meet for the first time the gorgeous Ranunculus insignis in full bloom, growing on shingle-slips. A mountain-tarn is almost hidden by the tall Danthonia. Helichrysum bellidioides with very large heads and orbicular leaves, Cotula pyrethrifolia, and Ourisia cœspitosa we here collect.

At 5,200 ft. by the aneroid, at 3.45 p.m., the summit is reached. Danthonia, Aciphylla Colensoi, Ligusticum dissectum, Bulbinella Hookeri, and Veronica Astoni occupy the north-east face, but the south-west aspect is a steep shingle-slope with patches of Raoulia rubra, Ranunculus insignis, Phyllachne, and Ligusticum dissectum. A glorious view greets the eye from every direction. The Wairarapa Plain is spread out to the east, Kapiti Island and the Otaki beach in the west. Cape Palliser and Palliser Bay can be seen in the south, followed by the Hutt Valley—Wellington Harbour and Tupuaewainuku beyond. To the north the Tararua peaks block the view.

– 21 –
Picture icon

Aston - Botanical Notes made on a Journey across the Tararuas

– 22 –

Commencing the descent, a sharp dip of 400 ft. brings us to a valley where a chain of tarns stretches down the slope. From this point a well-defined aréte leans to Mount Dennan.

A hill between Mounts Dennan and Hector has its vegetation cut into lanes running south-west and north-east.

Just before reaching Mount Dennan, 4,200 ft., the main ridge is broken up into several. The small valleys thus formed afford good protection to the snow-grass, which flourishes exceedingly. Astelia beds are also intermixed with snow-grass and Aciphyllum Colensoi. Many of these hollows, with snow-grass leaves in abundance on the ground, would make an excellent camping-ground. We reach our old camp at “Table Top” at 7.15 p.m., and, too tired to pitch tent, merely pull it over us, and sleep soundly through the starry subalpine night.

There is little more to tell. The next morning, the fourth since leaving Kaitoke, we dally long on “Table Top,” around the camp, collecting specimens and taking notes. Here the rare Liparophyllum Gunnii is plentifully gathered in the habitat originally found by Mr. Petrie. It is late in the forenoon when a start is made for the Forks camp at the junction of the Waiotauru and Otaki Rivers. The descent through the bush to the river is only eventful in our passage through the subalpine scrub (Olearia Colensoi), and over “Dry Camp” (a ridge where all the trees have been blown down, and lie inextricably mixed)—incidents which bring home in a very human manner the feebleness of language, upon occasion, to express one's thoughts.

Avoiding all tracks leading to the right, from a fear of entering the dreaded portion of the Otaki Gorge above the Forks camp, we strike the Waiotauru rather farther to the south than we intended. Here we eat our remaining provisions as the dusk rapidly deepens into night. Although only a few more miles remain, they are among the most trying of the trip. The bush track is deeper than our boot-tops in mud, the night is dark, and a stump of candle soon burns out. It is not until 11.30 p.m. that we reach the cottage of Mr. Murray, at the Gorge Settlement, where, after being mistaken for burglars, we are hospitably sheltered for the night.

Plants Seen in the Valley of the Pakuratahi.

Clematis indivisa, Drimys axillaris, Cardamine hirsuta, Melicytus ramiflorus, Pittosporum tenuifolium, Stellaria parviflora, Plagianthus betulinus, Aristotelia racemosa, Elœocarpus dentatus, Coriaria ruscifolia (tree-tutu or tupakihi), Pennantia corymbosa, Carmichaelia odorata, Rubus australis, R. schmidelioides, Carpodetus serratus, Weinmannia racemosa (towhai), Myrtus pedunculata, Metrosideros florida, M. Hypericifolia, M. Colensoi, M. scandens, Epilobium junceum var. macrophyllum (E. erectum, D.P.), E. pubens, E. rotundifolium, E. nummularifolium, Fuchsia excorticata, Panax arboreum, Schefflera digitata, Pseudopanax crassifolium, Coprosma grandiflora, C. lucida, C. robusta, C. fœtidissima, C. Colensoi, C. microcarpa, Olearia Cunninghamii, Gnaphalium luteo-album, Erechtites prenanthoides, Brachyglottis repanda, Leucopogon fasciculatus, Myrsine salicina, Olea montana, Parsonsia capsularis, Muehlenbeckia australis, Hedycarya dentata, Beilschmiedia tawa, Knightia excelsa, Loranthus Colensoi, Urtica incisa, Fagus fusca, Podocarpus ferrugineus (miro), P. dacrydioides (kahikatea), Dacrydium cupressinum (rimu), Earina autumnalis, Gahnia setifolia, G. pauciflora, Microlœna avenacea, Libertia ixioides, Rhipogonum scandens, Astelia nervosa, Dianella intermedia,

– 23 –

Freycinetia Banksii, Uncinia australis, Hymenophyllum polyanthos, H. dilatatum, H. flabellatum, H. scabrum, H. subtilissimum, H. Tunbridgense, H. multifidum, H. bivalve, Trichomanes venosum, T. reniforme, Cyathea dealbata, C. medullaris, Hemitelia Smithii, Dicksonia squarrosa, Davallia novœ-zealandiœ, Lindsaya trichomanoides, Pteris scaberula, P. incisa, Lomaria discolor, L. fluviatilis, L. membranacea, L. lanceolata, L. filiformis, Asplenium falcatum, A. bulbiferum, A. obtusatum, A. capense, A. Richardi, Nephrodium glabellum, Polypodium pennigerum, P. Billardieri, P. punctatum, P. australe, P. serpens, Gleichenia Cunninghamii, Todea hymenophylloides, Tmesipteris Forsteri.

List of Plants Observed on the Tararuas not in Mr. Petrie's List

(Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, p. 299).

Flowering-plants.

  • Ranunculus rivularis, Banks and Sol., Mount Holdsworth.

  • " Munroi, Hook. f., Tararuas (Buchanan).

  • Pittosporum eugenioides, A. Cunn., Hutt Gorge.

  • Colobanthus Billardieri, Fenzl., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Plagianthus betulinus, A. Cunn.

  • Aristotelia fruticosa, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Coriaria angustissima, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Donatia novæ-zelandiæ, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth (Townson).

  • Tillæa (?) debilis, Col., Kaitoke Ridge.

  • Drosera binata, Labill., Kaitoke.

  • Metrosideros Colensoi, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • Myrtus obcordata, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • " Ralphii, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • Eugenia maire, A. Cunn., Otaki Gorge, Mount Hector.

  • Epilobium pallidiflorum, Sol., Upper Hutt.

  • " chloræfolium, Haussk., Mount Holdsworth, Mount Hector.

  • " Cockaynianum, Petrie, Mount Holdsworth.

  • Azorella nitens (?), Petrie, Otaki Gorge.

  • Aciphylla Lyallii (?), Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth, Mount Hector.

  • Coprosma microcarpa, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth, Kaitoke.

  • " Cunninghamii, Hook. f.

  • " parviflora, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth.

  • " rubra, Petrie, foot of Mount Holdsworth.

  • Lagenophora Forsteri, D.C., Mount Holdsworth, Kaitoke.

  • Celmisia longifolia, Cass., Mount Holdsworth, Mount Hector.

  • " hieracifolia, Hook. f., var. oblonga, Mount Alpha, 4,600 ft.

  • Gnaphalium luteo-album, Linn.

  • Gnaphalium Traversii, Hook. f., Mount Hector.

  • Raoulia glabra, Hook. f., Quoin.

  • Helichrysum Loganii, T. Kirk, Mount Holdsworth, Mount Hector, 4,500 ft.

  • " glomeratum, Benth. and Hook. f., Hutt Gorge.

  • " bellidioides, Willd., var. prostratum.

  • Craspedia uniflora, Forst., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Erechtites prenanthoides, D.C., abundant in bush clearings.

  • " quadridentata, D.C., ridge above Kaitoke.

  • " arguta, D.C.

  • Senecio Adamsii, Cheesem., Mount Holdsworth.

– 24 –
  • Wahlenbergia gracilis, A. D.C., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Olea Cunninghamii, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth.

  • " lanceolata, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Gentiana Grisebachii, Hook. f., Mount Hector.

  • Myosotis Astoni, Cheesem., Mount Holdsworth, Tauherinikau Valley.

  • Solanum aviculare, Forst., Kaitoke.

  • Veronica catarractæ, Forst., var. diffusa, Mount Holdsworth.

  • Euphrasia zealandica, Wettst.

  • Plantago Raoulii, Decne., Mount Hector.

  • Piper excelsum, Forst., Hutt Gorge.

  • Muehlenbeckia australis, Meissn.

  • " complexa, Meissn.

  • Knightia excelsa, R. Br.

  • Pimelia longifolia, Banks and Sol., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Loranthus tetrapetalus, Forst., Quoin.

  • Tupeia antarctica, Cham. and Schl., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Dactylanthus Taylori, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • Fagus cliffortioides, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Podocarpus Hallii, T. Kirk.

  • " spicatus, R. Br.

  • Earina autumnalis, Hook. f.

  • Orthoceras strictum, R. Br., Kaitoke.

  • Pterostylis Banksii, R. Br.

  • " graminea, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • " foliata, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • " trullifolia, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • " barbata, Lindl., Kaitoke.

  • Cyrtostylis oblonga, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • Chiloglottis cornuta, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • Gastrodia sesamoides, R. Br., Tauherinikau Valley.

  • Phormium tenax, Forst.

  • Juncus scheuchzerioides, Gaud.

  • " planifolius, R. Br., Mount Holdsworth.

  • " cæspiticius, E. Mey.

  • Luzula campestris, D.C., var. picta.

  • Cyperus vegetus, Willd.

  • Eleocharis Cunninghamii, Boeck., Kaitoke.

  • Scirpus cernuus, Vahl., Kaitoke.

  • " prolifer, Rottb., Kaitoke.

  • " sulcatus, Thouars., Kaitoke.

  • Danthonia Cunninghamii, Hook. f., Hutt Gorge.

  • " pilosa, R. Br., Kaitoke.

  • Arundo conspicua, Forst., var. intermedia.

  • Agrostis Muellerii, Benth.

  • Deyeuxia Petrei, Hack.

  • " quadriseta, Benth., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Dichelachne crinata, Hook. f., Kaitoke.

  • Poa seticulmis, Petrie.

  • Filices.

  • Hymenophyllum multifidum, Swartz.

  • " polyanthos, Swartz.

  • " bivalve, Swartz.

– 25 –
  • Hymenophyllum flabellatum, Lab.

  • " subtilissimum, Kunze.

  • " dilatatum, Swartz.

  • " Tunbridgense, Smith.

  • " scabrum, A. Rich.

  • " demissum, Swartz.

  • " rarum, R. Br.

  • Trichomanes venosum, R. Br.

  • " reniforme, Forst.

  • " strictum, Menz., Mount Dennan.

  • Cyathea dealbata, Swartz.

  • " medullaris, Swartz.

  • Hemitelia Smithii, Hook.

  • Alsophila Colensoi, Hook. f., Mount Holdsworth.

  • Dicksonia squarrosa, Swartz.

  • Davallia novæ-zealandiæ, Col.

  • Lindsaya trichomanoides, Dryand.

  • Adiantum affine, Willd.

  • Hypolepsis millefolium, Hook.

  • " distans, Hook.

  • Pteris incisa, Thunb.

  • " scaberula, A. Rich.

  • " aquilina, Linn.

  • Lomaria lanceolata, Spreng.

  • " membranacea, Col.

  • " fluviatilis, Spreng.

  • " filiformis, A. Cunn.

  • " discolor, Willd.

  • " capensis, Willd., var. minor.

  • " Patersoni, Spreng.

  • " alpina, Spreng.

  • " vulcanica, Blume.

  • Asplenium falcatum, Lam.

  • " obtusatum, Forst.

  • " flaccidum, Forst.

  • " Hookerianum, Col.

  • " fluviatilis, Spreng.

  • " lucidum, Forst.

  • Aspidium Richardi, Hook.

  • " capense, Willd.

  • " aculeatum, var. vestitum.

  • Nephrodium glabellum, A. Cunn.

  • Polypodium pennigerum, Forst.

  • " Billardieri, R. Br.

  • " punctatum, Thunb.

  • " australe, Mett.

  • " serpens, Forst.

  • " grammitidis, R. Br.

  • Gleichenia Cunninghamii, Heward.

  • Todea hymenophylloides, A. Rich.

  • " superba, Col.

  • Lycopodium scariosum volubile, Forst.

  • Tmesipteris tannensis, Benth.

– 26 –

Art. IV.—Unrecorded Habitats for New Zealand Plants.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 1st September, 1909.]

Ranunculus sericophyllus, Hook. f.

Bold Peak, Kinloch, Wakatipu.

Lepidium oleraceum, Forst.

Snares; Antipodes Island; Titahi Bay; Ohau Bay, near Wellington.

Lepidium tenuicaule, T. Kirk, var. minor.

Titahi Bay, Wellington.

Hymenanthera obovata, T. Kirk., var.

Titahi Bay, Wellington.

   This Mr. Cheeseman considers is an intermediate form between H. crassifolia and H. obovata.

Claytonia australasica, Hook. f.

Enderby Island, Auckland Islands.

Aristotelia Colensoi, Hook. f.

Colac Bay, Southland.

Carmichaelia grandiflora, Hook. f.

Bold Peak, Kinloch, Lake Wakatipu.

Tillæa multicaulis, Petrie.

Bluff Hill, Southland.

Tillæa debilis, Col.

Happy Valley Beach, Wellington.

Gunnera dentata, T. Kirk.

Lowther, near Lumsden.

Gunnera arenaria, Cheesem.

Fortrose, Southland.

Fuchsia excorticata, Linn. f.

Head of Laurie Harbour, Auckland Island.

Aciphylla Traillii, T. Kirk.

Top of Rock and Pillar Range.

Apium prostratum, Labill.

Antipodes Island.

Aciphylla, sp.

Mount Holdsworth; Quoin; Mount Hector.

Panax anomalum, var. microphyllum.

Sandymount, Otago.

Pseudopanax ferox, T. Kirk.

Green Island; Taieri Gorge; Gore; Chifden.

Coprosma microcarpa, Hook. f.

Tararua Mountains, Day's Bay, Wellington.

Coprosma Buchanani, T. Kirk.

Fruit translucent, white, globose. Happy Valley beach, Wellington.

Coprosma virescens, Petrie.

Clifden (Waiau River).

– 27 –

Coprosma rubra, Petrie.

Clifden; Tapanui; Mount Holdsworth.

Craspedia uniflora, Forst.

Mount Dumas, Campbell Island.

Helichrysum bellidioides, Willd., var. prostratum.

Mount Hector, 5,000 ft.

Celmisia hieracifolia, Hook. f., var. oblonga.

Mount Alpha (Tararuas), 4,600 ft.

Sènecio Greyii, Hook. f.

Little Mukumuku cliffs, Palliser Bay.

Taraxacum officinale, Wigg.

Indigenous form, Campbell Island.

Cyathodes pumila, Hook. f.

Blue Mountains, Otago, 3,000 ft.

Cyathodes Colensoi, Hook. f.

Common under bog-pines, Blue Mountains, Otago, 3,000 ft.; Quoin (Tararuas), 3,900 ft.

Samolus repens, Pers.

Eweburn, Maniototo Plain.

Myosotis Astoni, Cheesem.

Mount Holdsworth.

Calceolaria repens, Hook. f.

Maungatiriri River; Hutt Gorge.

Mazus radicans, Cheesem.

Bluff, Southland.

Veronica odora, Hook. f.

Port Ross, Enderby Island; Norman Inlet, Enderby Island.

Euphrasia zealandica, Wettst.

Mount Hector.

Ourisia sessilifolia, Hook. f.

Takitimos, 4,000 ft.

Teucridium parviflorum, Hook. f.

North Otago Heads; Clifden.

Muehlenbeckia, nov. sp.

Wainui-o-mata mouth, Orongorongo, Wellington.

Peperomia Endlicheri, Mig.

Titahi Bay; Evans Bay, near Wellington.

Pimelia sericeo-villosa, Hook. f.

Ben Lomond, Lake Wakatipu, 4,000 ft.

Paratrophis Banksii, Cheesem.

Wainui-o-mata mouth.

Corysanthes oblonga, Hook. f.

Port Ross, Auckland Island.

Corysanthes rivularis, Hook. f.

Norman's Inlet, Laurie Harbour, Auckland Island.

Thelymitra, nov. sp.

Bluff Hill, Southland.

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Thelymitra pachyphylla, Cheesem.

Bluff Hill, Southland.

Pterostylis foliata, Hook. f.

Kaitoke.

Pterostylis barbata, Lindl.

Kaitoke.

Adenochilus gracilis, Hook. f.

Under Fagus at 1,000 ft. on Maungtaua, Otago. (This habitat was attributed to Mr. Petrie in the “Manual.”)

Gastrodia sesamoides, R. Br.

Tauherinikau Valley.

Uncinia, sp.

Port Ross, Auckland Island.

Paspalum Digitaria, Poir.

Sydney Street, Wellington.

Microlæna avenacea, Hook. f.

Auckland Island.

Poa incrassata, Petrie.

Flowers January, Campbell Island.

Poa Tennantia, Petrie.

Snares Island.

Poa Astoni, Petrie.

Snares Island.

Poa antipoda, Petrie.

Port Ross, Auckland Island.

Poa aucklandica, Petrie.

Summit of hill above Camp Cove boat depot, Carnley Harbour, Auckland Island.

Poa oraria, Petrie.

Snug Cove, Doubtful Sound. (A new tussock-grass.)

Deschampsia gracillima, T. Kirk.

Port Ross, Auckland Island.

Deschampsia Chapmanii, Petrie.

Port Ross, Auckland Island.

Atropis antipoda, Petrie.

Antipodes Island.

Atropis stricta, Hack.

Enderby Island; Auckland Island.

Deyeuxia Forsteri, var. Lyallii, Kunth.

Enderby Island; Auckland Island.

Deyeuxia setifolia, Hook. f.

Port Ross, Auckland Island.

Asperella lævis, Petrie.

Snug Cove, Doubtful Sound.

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Art. V.—Some Additions to the Perlidæ, Neuroptera - Planipennia, and Trichoptera of New Zealand.

Communicated by G. V. Hudson, F.E.S.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 1st September, 1909.]

The descriptions that follow are made from specimens kindly sent to me by Mr. G. V. Hudson, F.E.S., of Wellington, New Zealand.

Perlidæ.

Four new species are described below. Of these, probably two have been included hitherto, with a Tasmanian species, under the name of Leptoperla opposita, Wlk., and I have merely put into practice the opinion of McLachlan in separating them. No more revolutionary is the foundation of a new genus for the Chloroperla cyrene of Newman.

The number of species at present recognised in New Zealand is six.

Genus Leptoperla, Newm.

Leptoperla fulvescens, n. sp.

♀. Reddish - brown. Antennæ rather longer than forewings; 1st joint stoutly cylindrical, 2nd oval; brownish-ochreous. Meso- and metathorax fuscous - brown; abdomen reddish, dark fuscous at extremity. Forewings greyish-ochreous, veins fulvous; discal area, and spaces surrounding veinlets of posterior half, pale, subhyaline. Hindwings subhyaline, iridescent, costa tinged with reddish-ochreous; neuration with an asymmetrical tendency. Legs reddish-brown. Caudal setæ reddish-ochreous, the under-surface of the proximal joints with a fringe of yellow hairs.

Length of body, 13 mm. Expanse of wings, 25 mm.

Hab.—Karori, Wellington.

Leptoperla maculata, n. sp.

Blackish-fuscous. Antennæ nearly as long as forewings, fuscous; 1st joint stoutly cylindrical, 2nd rounded. Forewings shaded with grey, veins dark brown; posterior veinlets surrounded by grey oval spots. Hindwings greyish, subhyaline. Legs dark fuscous, mixed, on posterior femora and tibiæ, with pale dull yellow. Caudal setæ slender, light fuscous, as long as abdomen. In the male the appendices are light brown and rather slender.

Length, 10–12 mm. Expanse of wings, 22–27 mm.

Hab.—New Zealand.

Leptoperla confusa, n. sp.

Differs from L. maculata as follows: Smaller and rather paler. Forewings: 1st sector terminally furcate; posterior veinlets arranged in dis-

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tinct series, the grey markings about the veinlets of each series being confluent and not in the form of distinct spots. Hindwings: Veins 7 and 9 furcate. Legs reddish-brown, almost unicolorous.

Length, 8 mm. Expanse of wings, 19 mm.

Hab.—New Zealand.

Leptoperla hudsoni, n. sp.

♂. Fuscous. Antennæ shorter than forewings, dark fuscous. Head and thorax blackish-fuscous; abdomen rather paler. Forewings greyishfuscous; posterior veinlets very distinct, outlined with dark fuscous; 1st sector terminally furcate. Hindwings greyish - fuscous. Legs reddish - brown; tibiæ paler and rather slender. Caudal setæ slender, as long as abdomen, fuscous.

Length, 8 mm. Expanse of wings, 17 mm.

Hab.—Karori, Wellington.

The New Zealand species of Leptoperla may readily be identified by the following artificial key:—

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

1. {First sector of forewings terminally furcate 2
First sector of forewings simple 3
2. {Posterior veinlets of forewings surrounded by grey spots L. confusa.
Posterior veinlets of forewings merely outlined L. hudsoni.
3. {Reddish-brown L. fulvescens.
Blackish-fuscous L. maculata.

The characters afforded by the neuration seem to separate the genus into two natural divisions, but such a schism is inadvisable in practice in the present state of our knowledge.

The Tasmanian species (L. opposita, Wlk.) has the posterior veinlets of the forewings very numerous and distinct, and not surrounded by spots; and while the posterior femora have a distinct paler band, the knees are dark fuscous. It is also a larger insect than either L. confusa or L. maculata.

Genus Heteroperla, gen. nov.

Antennæ strong, 1st joint large and cylindrical, 2nd practically uniform with its successors. Labial palpi very short; 1st and 2nd joints minute; 3rd and 4th equal, ovate; 5th very small and rounded. Prothorax subquadrate, rather broader than head. Forewings: Upper branch of 1st sector and lower branch of 2nd sector furcate, cubital furcate at ¼, the posterior half of the forewings with 7 parallel veins; subcostal veinlets numerous. Hindwings broad, subtriangular; 1st cubital vein furcate, others simple. Caudal setæ short, incurved.

Distribution: New Zealand.

Type, Heteroperla cyrene (Chloroperla cyrene, Newm.; Perla (?) cyrene, Wlk. et McL.; Stenoperla (?) cyrene, Hutton).

This genus would, no doubt, have been created long ago but for the fact that there were no specimens available which were sufficiently well preserved for detailed examination. It seems to have no affinities with any other existing genus of Perlidœ, except perhaps with Stenoperla, McL., with which, however, it is only very remotely connected.

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Neuroptera-Planipennia.

Genus Drepanepteryx, Leach.

Drepanepteryx maori, n. sp.

♀. Brownish-fuscous. Antennæ brown. Forewings subhyaline, anterior half partly, and posterior half wholly, suffused with brown; six sectors, the 4th and 5th connected, the 6th connected with cubitus; ten gradate veinlets in inner series, thirteen in outer, each series marked by a dark-brown line angulated near costa; a dark-brown spot on upper branch of superior cubitus before 1st gradate series; termen not very deeply excised, with two white marginal spaces. Hindwings iridescent; costa brownish-fuscous, darker on pterostigma; outer gradate series and an irregular dorsal spot fuscous. Legs pale brownish-ochreous.

Length of body, 6 mm. Expanse of wings, 16 mm.

Hab.—Wainuiomata River, Wellington.

The nearest relation of this species appears to be the Australian D. binoculus, McL.

Drepanepteryx humilior, n. sp.

Light brownish-fuscous. Antennæ ochreous, ringed with brown. Forewings with apical margin only slightly excised; subhyaline, faintly clouded with greyish-brown; nine gradate veinlets in inner, thirteen in outer, series; veins marked with brown; numerous brown spots irregularly distributed, with a large brown spot on upper branch of superior cubitus before 1st gradate series. Hindwings hyaline, iridescent; subcosta shaded with fuscous, paler on pterostigma; a fuscous line along outer gradate series, and a light-fuscous dorsal suffusion. Legs pale ochreous. Abdomen ochreous beneath.

Length of body, 5 mm. Expanse of wings, 13 mm.

Hab.—Wainuiomata River, Wellington.

Quite distinct from the Queensland D. humilis, McL., which, in all probability, has never occurred in New Zealand, and should therefore be excluded from New Zealand lists.

Trichoptera.

Genus Helicopsyche, Hagen.

Helicopsyche zealandica, Hudson, n. sp.

Fuscous-brown. Antennæ slightly shorter than forewings, clothed with pubescence; 1st joint with longish hairs. Maxillary palpi stout, terminal joint curved, ascending; densely hairy. Wings with dense clothing of hairs: forewings with costa and dorsum nearly parallel; lower branch of sector and upper branch of superior cubitus closely approximated; greyish, with light-fuscous hairs mixed with golden, somewhat darker on longitudinal veins; termen and fringe mixed with black: hindwings rather narrow, with light-fuscous hairs; dorsal fringe very long, greyish-fuscous. Legs light brownish-fuscous, posterior tibiæ; darker; spurs 2, 4, 4, the inner longer than the outer, and the median pair of posterior tibiæ close to terminal pair; tarsal joints pale-tipped.

Length of body, 5 mm. Expanse of wings, 12 mm.

Hab.—Wellington.

The species is structurally described here for the first time. I have adopted the name suggested by Mr. Hudson.

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Genus Philorheithous, gen. nov.

[Greek, ρ∊τθιoν = stream.]

1st joint of antennæ longer than breadth of vertex, densely hairy Maxillary palpi with basal joint very short, 2–5 subequal. Labial palpi with 1st joint short, the 3rd longer than the 2nd. Forewings rather narrow, dilated before apex; subcosta and radius connected near base; a series of transverse veins connecting the longitudinal veins successively from radius to upper branch of superior cubitus closes a large discal area; a chitinous nodule on dorsum near base serves as frenulum. Hindwings obtusely elongate-triangular, with a closed discal area similar to that of forewings. Tibial spurs 2, 4, 4.

Distribution: New Zealand.

The type (P. agilis, Huds.) is described by Hudson (“New Zealand Neuroptera,” p. 64) as follows:—

? agilis, n. sp.

“The expansion of the wings is about 1 ¼ inches. The antennæ are rather stout, and about the same length as the forewings. Spurs 2, 4, 4. The forewings have the costa slightly arched at the base, and much arched before the apex; the termen is sharply excavated near the middle. The general colour of the forewings is pale brown, paler in the middle with a large almost white patch towards the tornus, partially bordered by a number of dark chocolate-brown markings. The hindwings are yellowish-brown, darker towards the apex. The body is dark brown.”

In the same place is a description of the larva and of the remarkable habits of the imago.

Hab.—Wainuiomata River, Wellington.

Genus Hydropsyche, Pict.

Hydropsyche auricoma, n. sp.

Brownish-fuscous. Antennæ brownish-fuscous, segments tipped with pale ochreous. Head, prothorax, and mesothorax densely clothed with pale-golden hairs. Forewings greyish-yellow, with darke reticulations; four series of brownish-fuscous marks tending to form transverse bands. Hindwings greyish, slightly iridescent. Legs pale ochreous. Abdomen brownish-ochreous, darker above.

Length of body, 5 mm. Expanse of wings, 15 mm.

Hab.—Wellington.

Genus Hydrobiosis, McL.

Hydrobiosis occulta, n. sp.

♂. Dark brown. Antennæ rather longer than forewings, dark brown, almost unicolorous; the basal joint, with the face and prothorax, clothed with golden-brown hairs. Forewings dark brown with dense golden-brown pubescence. Hindwings with pubescence scantier and dark brown. Legs light ochreous-brown. Abdomen without ventral teeth. Penis yellow; inferior appendices directed upwards and curved so as to meet over extremity of abdomen.

Length, 6 mm. Expanse of wings, 14 mm.

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♀. Differs from ♂ as follows: Antennæ not longer than forewings; pubescence of forewings almost wholly dark brown.

Length, 6 mm. Expanse of wings, 17 mm.

Hab.—Wainuiomata River, Wellington.

Hydrobiosis ingenua, n. sp.

Brownish-fuscous. Antennæ as long as forewings, brown. Maxillary palpi pilose, fuscous. Ocelli dark brown, distinct. Head, prothorax, and mesothorax densely clothed with brown hairs. Forewings brownish-fuscous, hairs lighter; a pale-golden band before termen and a tuft of black hairs on superior cubitus at ⅓. Hindwings greyish-fuscous, strongly iridescent. Legs greyish-ochreous, tibiæ and tarsi marked with fuscous, spurs brownish-ochreous.

Length of body, 6 mm. Expanse of wings, 14 mm.

Hab.—Wainuiomata River, Wellington.

Art. VI.—Notes on some Rocks from Parapara, Bluff Hill, and Waikawa.

Communicated by G. M. Thomson, F.L.S.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 14th September, 1909.]

Introduction.

The description of a few isolated rocks can seldom advance geological knowledge very greatly, and this paper must be regarded mainly as an attempt to draw attention to some interesting regions of the Dominion. The day has gone by when descriptions of new types of igneous rocks can attract more than local interest, and petrologists are more and more tending to use description only as a handle for the discussion of theoretical questions. The two outstanding subjects of discussion are,—

(1.)

The nature of igneous magmas, the history of their consolidation and their relations to neighbouring rocks, involving the theories of differentiation, admixture of igneous magmas, and assimilation of the walls of the magma-basins.

(2.)

The mode of formation of the crystalline schists.

New Zealand is a country so rich in rock-types, and so well provided with natural sections, that it is not vain to suppose that much material may be found which may throw important light on these philosophical questions. Two such districts are outlined in the sequel.

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The authors of Bulletin No. 3 of the Geological Survey describe certain basic facies of the Waitapu granite as occuring only at the contact with the carbonate rocks, and are led to the conclusion that it was owing to the introduction of the carbonate bases into the acid magma that these basic facies arose. This theory of assimilation or absorption has its home in France, and its most notable protagonists in Levy* and Lacroix. It receives support from Finnish geologists, but is strongly opposed by the differentiation school of Rosenbusch and Brögger, with whom English petrologists are in large part inclined to agree. In America, however, the French have a strong following.

One of the difficulties in settling the question is the rugged and inaccessible nature of the country in Ariège described by Lacroix, while another lies in the complication of phenomena in regions of crystalline schists such as Adams describes. It suggested itself to me that the Parapara district would furnish an excellent case on which to test the rival theories, and Dr. Bell, Director of the Geological Survey, kindly furnished me with six specimens for preliminary study. These will now be described in detail.

The members of the igneous complex are represented by an acid and a basic type. The acid rock has the structure of an augen-gneiss and the mineral composition of a binary granite. The feldspars, which form the augen, are mostly untwinned and partially sericitised, and are referred to orthoclase, but there are also present microcline, and albite in microcline-microperthite. Graphic intergrowths of quartz and orthoclase are fairly abundant. Both dark and white mica are arranged in parallel flakes along the planes of foliation, the former in course of alteration to chlorite and rutile. Apatite is not abundant, but magnetite is more plentiful, and it is evident that the original iron-ore was titaniferous, since the magnetite shows minute outgrowths of a highly refringent platy mineral determined as anatase. There is, in addition, a brown mineral of which only one large prismatic crystal appears in the section, with a pleochroism from brown to yellow. The orientation is not favourable for study in convergent light, and the mineral is doubtfully referred to cero-epidote on account of its low obliquity of extinction. Although it is paler in colour than is usual in common orthite, it is too pleochroic for monazite.

The basic rock shows, in section, abundant common hornblende enveloping colourless patches, which are evidently pseudomorphs after feldspar. They consist chiefly of muscovite and epidote, but a little basic plagioclase has here and there escaped alteration. Magnetite is probably an original constituent, but much of iron is now present as pyrite.

Secondary alterations in the large hornblende plates are of two kinds: there is a decomposition to clinochlore and sphene, to be ascribed to shallow-seated alteration, and also a local separation of minute needles of rutile and

[Footnote] * Levy, MM. “Le granite de Flamandville, &c.,” Bull. Carte geol. Fr., tome v, No. 36, 1893–4. “Sur l'évolution des magmas de certains granites à amphibole,” Comptes Rendus, cxxi, p. 228, 1895. “Sur quelques particularités de gisement du porphyre bleu de l'Esterel,” Bull. Soc. geol. Fr., 3rd ser., xxiv, p. 123, 1896.

[Footnote] † Lacroix, A. “Les granites des Pyrenées et leur phénomènes de contact.” Bull. Carte geol. Fr., tome x, No. 64. 1898–99.

[Footnote] ‡ Cf. Adams, F. D., on the Structure and Relations of the Laurentian System in Eastern Canada. Q.J.G.S., lxiv, pp. 127–47. 1908.

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linearly arranged granules of magnetite, giving rise to a rude schiller-like striation oblique to the prismatic cleavages. This latter alteration is very common in the hornblende of rocks that have suffered shearing, and seems to be due to an attempt on the part of magmatically formed brown horn-blende, rich in iron and titanium, to adapt itself to the altered conditions according to the volume law. From the presence of these striations and the strongly green colour of the hornblende, it appears original, and not a uralitic pseudomorph of pyroxene, and the rock is therefore an altered hornblende dolerite or gabbro.

The other four rocks come from the contact aureole of the granite, one being an amphibolite intercalated among the stratified rocks. It is almost completely recrystallized, and in description it is desirable to make use of the terms introduced by Becke.* These are based on the belief that in crystalline schists the formation of the different minerals has proceeded simultaneously, since each may be found enclosed in the others, in opposition to the sequence of growth amongst minerals of igneous rocks. Owing, however, to the different powers of crystal-growth exhibited by the minerals, they differ widely in their development of crystal-faces, so that some appear moulded on others. The resulting structure is called “krystalloblastisch,” or, anglicé, “crystalloblastic,” and the apparent order of separation is termed “the crystalloblastic order.” Well-shaped (euhedral) crystals are termed “idioblastic,” those with irregular boundaries (anhedral) “xenoblastic,” and other structural terms used in the descriptions of igneous rocks are similarly adapted with the suffix “blastic.” In this amphibolite there are evidences of former igneous structure in the presence of original phenocrysts of feldspar. The rock is therefore “porphyro-blastic.” The minerals, especially the sphene, are frequently honeycombed with inclusions, and the crystalloblastic order appears to differ from that established by Becke, in that feldspar is idioblastic to sphene and hornblende; but this apparent difference may be due to the incomplete recrystallization of the feldspar. These three minerals are the most abundant constituents of the rock, but epidote, apatite, and pyrite are also present, and secondary sericite is forming in the feldspar, which is near andesine in composition. The mineralogical composition of the rock shows that it is an ortho-amphibolite, the large crystals of plagioclase that it was porphyritic, but to arrive at the nature of the original rock an analysis would be necessary.

The three stratified rocks are interesting as containing contact minerals, a class which must be common but has not yet been widely observed in New Zealand. One rock is a biotite-hornfels, containing biotite, quartz, plagioclase, feldspar, chlorite, and magnetite. The quartz forms a fine mosaic of polygonal grains, between the interstices of which are inserted abundant flakes of biotite, locally decomposed to chlorite.

The other two rocks are marbles with contact minerals. In one—the “complex-carbonate rock” of the Survey—there is little besides the large polygonal carbonate grains. White mica and sphene can be recognised, but small needles of a highly refringent and bi-refringent mineral lying in the carbonate defy determination in section, although they can scarcely be other than rutile. The other must have been an impure dolomitic rock, for, besides calcite, a colourless augite occurs very abundantly both in separate grains and in small aggregates. Octagonal cross-sections may occasionally

[Footnote] * Becke, F. Ueber Mineralbestand und Struktur der krystallinischen Sohiefer” Comptes Rendus ix Sess. Cong. Geol. Inter. Vienna, 1904, pp. 553–70.

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be seen, but most of the crystals are rounded or irregular in shape, and are interrupted in crystallization by inclusions, so that the form is like a sponge. Sphene and quartz are found in the pores of the sponge, and also independently in the calcite. Finally there is a little pyrites.

This collection of rocks, interesting as it is in itself, throws little light on the question of assimilation. Certainly there are many points of resemblance with the Pyrenean granite-contacts, but the endomorphic modifications of the granite are too poorly represented to draw a parallel. A complete investigation would involve the detailed mapping of these basic facies with the rocks at their contact. Even then, the phenomena would admit of either interpretation, unless a thorough chemical examination of both classes of rocks conclusively proved the absorption of the earthy bases. Probably the truth will be found to lie between the extreme positions, a partial assimilation accompanying laccolitic differentiation. This paper will serve its purpose if it draws attention to this interesting question.

Part II.—Bluff Hill.

The rocks here described are the result of a few hours' collection along the shore south and west from Bluff Harbour. Immediately joining the harbour is a series of apparently bedded rocks, which are in some cases so dense as to resemble hornstones, but in other cases suggest sheared porphyritic igneous rocks. A section of one of the denser varieties proves the rock to be a fine-grained banded hornblende schist. Some of the bands are richer in hornblende, others in epidote and iron-ores, while a mosaic of polygonal quartz grains is common to both. Apatite is not rare, and rutile is very abundant in minute prismatic crystals with pyramidal terminations projecting out of quadrate magnetite crystals. A similar mineral occurs in more rounded crystals in the quartz, and is difficult to determine with certainty as rutile or sphene, but there are a few undoubted larger crystals of the latter. The hornblende, a common green variety, occurs in prismatic crystals mostly parallel to one another, more rarely oblique to the schistosity. Sometimes the crystals are so slim and needle-like as to simulate sillimanite needles. Cross-sections show that in addition to the prismatic faces the B pinacoids (010) are present, a feature rarely observed in hornblende schists. The epidote does not show clear crystalline form, but occurs in granular aggregates elongated in the same direction as the hornblende. The crystalloblastic order appears to be apatite, magnetite, rutile, sphene, hornblende, epidote, and finally quartz.

A vein of coarser grain separates the hornblendic and epidotic bands, and contains, besides hornblende, epidote, and quartz, a few large twinned basic feldspars. The absence of albite in the rock is surprising if it is derived from an igneous or pyroclastic rock. Untwinned feldspar is always difficult to recognise in the presence of quartz, but an examination of as many of the colourless grains as possible in convergent light gave only uniaxial figures. From the absence or relative paucity of feldspar the rock has more affinities with a para-hornblende-schist than with an ortho-hornblende-schist. It presents many points of resemblance to the “green schists” among the Old Lizard Head series of Cornwall.

A dyke of a dark porphyritic rock crosses the schist formation at an angle approaching 45o. In section this rock also proves to be quite schistose, but, unfortunately, the directions of schistosity of the dyke and the intruded schists were not compared in the field. The phenocrysts consist of large

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compact hornblende crystals, often white in the centre, and smaller anhedral feldspars. In section the hornblende presents rhomboidal shapes with ragged outlines, and is seen to be a strongly pleochroic variety of common hornblende, with occasional tremolitic cores. Not seldom some crystallographically discontinuous hornblende crosses the main phenocryst, a feature often observed in uralite. The feldspars give more rounded outlines, and are turbid, and filled with calcite. They include also hornblende, magnetite, and epidote. The groundmass consists of elongated, often needle-like hornblende prisms, with associated biotite flakes, slightly elongate feldspars, probably albite, showing Carlsbad twinning, magnetite grains, and occasionally a green epidote. The rock is thus a porphyroblastic hornblendeschist derived from a basic igneous dyke-rock.

The next three specimens to be described come from a small headland about half a mile round the coast to the south-west, just beyond the mouth of the harbour. There is here an interesting complex of coarse holocrystalline rocks. Three elements may be distinguished, a dark dioritic rock (No. 1), which appears to vein a much lighter dioritic rock (No. 2), occasionally enclosing both the latter and a coarse hornblendic rock (No. 3) as xenoliths. The dark diorite (No. 1) is often gneissose, while the walls of light diorite (No. 2) which surround it are quite massive.

In section, all three rocks present a similar assemblage of minerals, but the relative amounts of iron-ores, hornblende, and feldspar vary very considerably. Hornblende forms the predominate mineral of No. 3, and is a brown-green variety with a fine schiller-structure in the centre, surrounded by a margin of green hornblende. Besides the hornblende, there is a limited amount of a basic feldspar and iron-ores. The hornblende shows a fair approach to idiomorphism, but the larger iron-ores, probably ilmenite, are moulded both on hornblende and feldspars. Minute octohedra of magnetite are abundantly included in the two last-named minerals, but are probably of secondary formation.

In No. 1, iron-ores and hornblende of the same nature as above described are abundant, but feldspar predominates, and besides these minerals a little apatite and pyrite are found. A very peculiar zoning is observable in the feldspar; there are only two zones, separated by a boundary of the most irregular nature. The cores are in some instances as basic as labradorite, but the exteriors are so acid that there is a marked difference of relief between the two on lowering the condenser of the microscope, and the Becke effect may be easily observed. The Carlsbad and albite twinning of the cores does not persist in the exteriors, as in the case of albitization recently described by Bailey and Grabham* in the quartz dolerites of the central valley of Scotland, but it appears probable that something of similar nature has taken place here.

The structure differs from that of No. 3 in that the hornblende is distinctly ophitic to the feldspar. This observation is in accord with recent theories of the dependence of structure on eutectic relations, since in the former rock the hornblende is in excess, and in the latter the feldspar predominates. But caution must be used in describing rocks as much altered as these, for, though in No. 2 the hornblende is moulded on the feldspar

[Footnote] * Bailey, E. B., and Grabham, G. W. “Albitization of Basic Plagioclase Feldspars.” Geol. Mag. Dec. V, vol. vi, p. 250. 1909.

[Footnote] † Vogt, J. H. L “Physikalische-chemische Gesetze der Kristallisationfolge in Eruptiogesteine.” Isch. min. u. petr., Mitt. xxiv, p. 437. 1905.

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it is also included within it, a structure already noted typical of the crystalline schists. There is also evidence for a slight cataclasis in the section.

A still paler variety of hornblende may occasionally be seen in this rock, occurring in almost colourless fibrous forms with beautiful polysynthetic twins. Further study would be necessary to prove whether this is due to bleaching, to recrystallization of coloured hornblende with separation of iron-oxides, or to uralisation of previously existing pyroxenes.

In No. 2 the feldspars predominate greatly over the darker minerals. They give evidence of considerable crushing in strain shadows, bent twin lamellæ, and local cataclasis. Often irregularly disposed grains are included in the larger crystals. Both coarse and fine albite lamellation may be observed, while pericline twinning is rare. Probably more than one variety of feldspar is present, and, indeed, the larger crystals show gradual zoning from the centre to periphery, but the prevailing species appears to be andesine. Delicate colourless needles are often abundant in the feldspars, and seem to be sillimanite. Beyond these the feldspars show little sign of alteration with the exception of rare grains of epidote or zoisite, and flakes of chlorite which have probably migrated from the ferromagnesian minerals along cracks. The hornblende and iron-ores occur in small patches of individuals with such ragged contours that the structural relations to the feldspars cannot be made out. The cores of the hornblende crystals generally consist of a paler variety in optical continuity with the green exteriors, so that the former presence of pyroxene is suggested. This small collection of rocks is yet sufficient to show that there is a considerable diversity of rocks in Bluff Hill. It would be exceedingly valuable to have a detailed examination of this area made, as the phenomena observed are probably common to a large part of Stewart Island, if not also in the Sounds region, and Bluff Hill is a much more easily accessible region. The relative ages of the different rocks, the mode of origin of the foliation, whether arising during or after consolidation, the origin of the rock-variations and “basic secretions,” whether by pure differentiation or differentiation combined with absorption as in Skye, are a few of the problems presented for solution. Probably many analogies will be found with the Lizard district of Cornwall, on which the Geological Survey of Great Britain is shortly issuing a detailed memoir.

Part III.—Waikawa.

The last rock is an isolated beach-pebble picked up at Waikawa, and possesses interest as being a type not hitherto recorded in New Zealand. The other beach-pebbles consist mainly of microgranites derived from the Triassic conglomerates, but from its soft nature it is more probable that this rock has come from a neighbouring intrusion. It shows a rich mineralogical association, consisting of amphiboles, biotite, muscovite, clinozoisite, epidote, two varieties of chlorite, talc, magnetite, and pyrite, but hornblende is so abundant as to render the designation “lustremottled hornblende rock” applicable.

The hornblende occurs chiefly in large pœcilitic plates of a pale-brown variety, passing gradually to a pale-green on the exteriors. The minerals enclosed pœcilitically are feldspar and secondary minerals, partly after feldspar and partly after some ferromagnesian, while there are chloritic areas with sphene, which may simply represent alterations of a hornblende.

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The feldspars are often rounded, and show good albite twinning with rarer pericline lamellæ. The extinction angles are characteristic of basic labradorite. Of the secondary minerals the chief is tremolite, oriented in crystallographic continuity with its host. This structure, described by me* in the amphibolite of Glendalough, Ireland, is commonly ascribed to the uralitisation of pyroxene, but may also arise, as shown at Glendalough, from the amphibolitisation of olivine. Probably both methods have operated here. Occasionally small fibres of tremolite oriented independently of the host occur in these areas. The feldspar inclusions are sometimes wholly or partly replaced by clinozoisite associated with muscovite and a feebly birefringent chlorite. The green margins of the hornblende plates contain similar inclusions, and, in one case, twinned clinochlore and small prisms of pale actinolite.

Only one large crystal of biotite is seen in the section, and it includes hornblende.

Outside the large pœcilitic plates, feldspars altering to clinozoisite and muscovite are not rare, but there is a large development of recrystallized actinolitic hornblende fibres pointing in all directions, but most often distinctly aggregated in bundles, and interspaced with most of the secondary minerals included in the large plates. There are, in addition, some areas consisting of finely divided talc, into which fibres of hornblende project. It is difficult to be sure of talc in the presence of sericitic muscovite, since there is no certain microscopic method of discriminating between these minerals, unless recourse be had to microchemical tests; but the mineralogical association supports the general appearance. These areas do not contain clinozoisite or epidote, which are associated with muscovite in the altered feldspars, and contain hornblende, which does not occur in the latter. Assuming the presence of talc, these areas are then pilite after olivine, and the rock is derived from a hornblende olivine dolerite such as Harker describes from Anglesey in association with hornblende-peridotites.

[Footnote] * Thomson, J. A. “The Hornblendic Rocks of Glendalough and Greystones.” Q.J.G.S., lxiv, p. 475. 1908.

[Footnote] † Becke, F. “Eruptiogesteine aus der Gneissformation des niederösterreichischen Waldviertels.” Isch. min. u. petr., Mitt. v, p. 147. 1883.

[Footnote] ‡ Harker, A. “The Bala Igneous Rocks of Carnarvonshire,” pp. 92, 97.

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Art. VII—On some Armour presented to Titore, a Nga Puhi Chief, by H.M. William IV in 1835.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 6th October, 1909.]

Dr. Maui Pomare deposited in the Dominion Museum in November, 1908, some pieces of “armour” which was supposed to be the armour belonging to the great Nga Puhi chief Hongi.

Dr. Pomare stated that Hongi's armour descended to his relative and fighting chief, Tuwhare. About the end of the twenties this chief led an expedition against the Whanganui Tribe, and, in a bloody battle which resulted, his nephew Tokiwhati, with others of the Nga Puhi, was taken prisoner. Tuwhare, who was wounded in the same fight, and died shortly afterwards at Mokau, on his way to the Bay of Islands, learned that Tokiwhati was still alive, and entered into negotiations for his release. Either as a gift or ransom the treasured suit of armour was handed over to Hori Kingi te Anaua, uncle of the late Major Kemp. The armour was placed in the sacred house at Pukehika, opposite Jerusalem, till the walls of that edifice were tumbling down, and Hore Pukehika, a relative of the late Hori Kingi, and the present Native Sanitary Inspector for that district, hearing that some Europeans were planning how to carry off the relics, concealed them very carefully near the pa. This was thirty or forty years ago, and the armour lay undisturbed till a few weeks ago. Then Hori Pukehika and Dr. Pomare sought out the place, and, after laborious searching—for the scrub and other features had changed a great deal in the interval—discovered the old armour, rusty, but quite recognisable.

The armour consisted of plate armour for the back and chest, and pieces for the arms. It is much eaten with rust, but, considering that it is stated that it has been buried, is in fair preservation. It is fastened together with brass studs.

On looking into the details of the story given, and comparing them with the known and recorded facts concerning Hongi's armour, it became apparent that the history of the armour was incomplete, and that there were serious discrepancies.

In the first place, Earl, in 1827, speaking of the visit of Hongi to England in 1821, mentions that George IV gave him, amongst other presents of value, “a superb suit of chain armour and a splendid double-barrelled gun.”* Taylor also speaks of Hongi giving the coat of mail to one of his sons when on his death-bed in 1827. There are at least two other notices, the earliest of which is in Angas's “Savage Life and Scenes,” 1847; and I must give this in full, as it contains several details which are of interest. Angas writes from Paripari, Mokau, “At a small pah not far from the abode of his pakeha (Lewis), Taonui the chief has his residence. He is one of the most powerful and superstitious of the old heathen chiefs…. He has also in his possession the original suit of armour that was given by King George IV of England to the Bay of Islands chief (E'Hongi), when that warrior visited England. The subsequent history of this armour is somewhat

[Footnote] * Earl, “New Zealand,” p. 62. 1827.

[Footnote] † R. Taylor, “Te Ika a Maui,” pp. 310 and 315. 1855.

[Footnote] ‡ Angas, “Savage Life and Scenes,” p. 86, vol. ii. 1847.

Picture icon

Pl. VIII.
Armour Presented to Titore.—Hamilton.

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what curious: it passed from the Nga Puhi to Titore, and from Titore to Te Whero Whero, at the Waikato feast, and came into Taonui's hands under the following circumstances: On the death of a favourite daughter, To Whero Whero made a song, the substance of which was that he would take off the scalps of all the chiefs except the Ngaweka and fling them into his daughter's grave to revenge her untimely death. The words of the song highly insulted the various individuals against whom it was directed, more especially as it was a great curse for the hair of a chief, which is sacred, to be thus treated with contempt. But the only chief who dared to resent this insult from so great a man as Te Whero Whero was Taonui, a chief of Nga Puhi and Ngati Whatua, who demanded a taua or gift as recompense for the affront, and received the armour of E'Hongi in compensation. I made a drawing of the armour, which was old and rusty: it is steel inlaid with brass; and, although never worn by the possessors in battle—for it would sadly impede their movements—it is regarded with a sort of superstitious veneration by the Natives, who look upon it as something extraordinary.”

There is another extract which I will give, from Thompson's “Study of New Zealand,” as it relates to information obtained by him in 1849.* “This armour” [Hongi's] “is now scattered about the country. In 1849 I found the breastplate in the possession of a chief living near the source of the Waipa River; in 1853 Waikato, the chief who accompanied Hongi to England, told me he had buried the helmet with his son's bones a few weeks before my visit to him at the Bay of Islands.”

Both of the latter extracts refer to Hongi's “armour.” The first gives the details of its passing from Titore to Te Whero Whero at the Waikato feast, but both extracts describe the armour sufficiently to make it clear that it was not chain armour, but plate armour.

It is evident, therefore, that, if the relics deposited by Dr. Pomare were Hongi's, he must have had a suit of mail and a suit of plate armour. Earl, in his book published about the year of Hongi's death, distinctly mentions “chain armour,” and in this he is supported by Taylor. Angas and Thompson speak quite as positively to its being plate armour.

Then, it is stated by the Whanganuis that the armour was given as a ransom for Tokiwhati. Now, Tokiwhati was wounded and captured by the Whanganuis in the course of Tuwhare's third expedition or war party, the survivors of which reached their homes at the Bay of Islands about October, 1820. Now, we know that Hongi, who returned from England to the Bay of Islands 11th July, 1821, wore his coat of mail at the capture of Mokoia Island, at Lake Rotorua, in August or September, 1823. It is also recorded that Hongi had a narrow escape at this battle. He was struck by the bullets of the Arawa from one of their few guns, and one bullet fired by the hand of Te Awa-awa struck his steel cap and knocked him over into the hold of the canoe. Mr. Percy Smith thinks that Hongi probably used the armour at Mauinaina, November, 1821, and at Te Totara. It is therefore quite clear that the ransom of Tokiwhati could not have been the armour of Hongi.

The whole question at this time seemed to turn on deciding who was correct, Earl and Taylor or Angas and Thompson.

[Footnote] * Thompson's “Study of New Zealand,” p. 256.

[Footnote] † This is the great feast held at Remuera, 11th May, 1844.

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I made inquiries as to Hongi's armour from Mr. Stowell (Hare Hongi), a descendant of Hongi-nui, and by great good fortune was able to obtain from him some documents which settle the question. The first document is from Titore to King William IV: “Letter from Titore, Chief of Nga Puhi, to King William IV.” Undated, probably 1834.

King William,—Here am I, the friend of Captain Sadler. The ship is full, and is now about to sail. I have heard that you, aforetime, were the captain of a ship. Do you therefore examine the spars, whether they are good or whether they are bad. Should you and the French quarrel, here are some trees for your battleships. I am now beginning to think about a ship for myself: a Native canoe is my vessel, and I have nothing else. The Native canoes upset when they are filled with potatoes and other matters for your people. I have put on board the ‘Buffalo’ a mere pounamu and two garments: these are all the things which New-Zealanders possess. If I had anything better, I would give it to Captain Sadler for you.

“This is all mine to you—mine, Titore, to William, King of England.”

[“True copy of translation.—Henry M. Stowell, 3 Sterling Street, Berhampore. 7/12/08.”]

The following is the reply:— “The Earl of Aberdeen, one of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, to His Highness Titore.

“Friend and Brother,—

“I have received the commands of my most gracious sovereign, King William the Fourth, to thank you for your letter, brought to him by the hands of Captain Sadler, commander of His Majesty's ship the ‘Buffalo,’ and for the assistance which you rendered to him in obtaining the articles for which that ship was expressly sent to your country.

“King William will not forget this proof of your friendship, and he trusts that such mutual good offices will continue to be interchanged between His Majesty's subjects and the chiefs and people of New Zealand as may cement the friendship already so happily existing between the two countries, and advance the commercial interests and wealth of both.

“The King, my master, further commands me to thank you for your present, and in return he desires you will accept a suit of armour, such as was worn in former times by his warriors, but which are now only used by his own Body Guard.

“This letter, as well as His Majesty's Royal present, will be conveyed to you through James Busby, Esq., His Majesty's authorised Resident at the Bay of Islands, whose esteem and friendship you will do well to cultivate, and who in his turn will do all in his power to promote your welfare, and that of your countrymen.

“I am your Friend and Brother,

Aberdeen.

“Colonial Office, London, 31st January, 1835.”

The armour is undoubtedly the suit presented to Titore as a recognition of his services to the captain of the “Buffalo.” Although not Hongi's armour, it is still Nga Puhi, as will be seen from the following whakapapa showing the relationship between Hongi and Titore. I am indebted for this genealogy to Mr. Stowell (Hare Hongi).

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Picture icon

Family Connections, Hongi and Titore.

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The question of the whereabouts of Hongi's armour was discussed by some of the chiefs of Nga Puhi lately, but it seems to have disappeared. It is supposed by some to have been stolen by two slaves. Being chain armour, it would disappear more quickly in a mass of rust than plate armour. I am informed that for many years after Hongi's death the armour lay in a solid wooden box deposited in the midst of a clump of tea-tree (manuka) (a wahi tapu) near the spot where Hongi died, at Papuke, Whangaroa. On the death of his son Hare Hongi, in the eighties, the various weapons and relics of his illustrious father were gathered up and placed round him at his tangi, and buried with him. There can be no mistake about Hongi's armour, as it is inscribed as presented to Hongi, a prince of New Zealand, by H.M. George IV, with date of presentation.*

If there is, as my correspondent says, an inscription on Hongi's armour, it can only have been on the cap. Judging from a sketch made from life by Gilfillan, in which Hongi is wearing what might be a steel cap, the cap and shirt of mail might have been of Indian workmanship.

It is fairly certain, from Native tradition, that at the peacemaking after the fall of Makoia Hongi gave his helmet to the man who had “killed” him, Te Awa-awa; and many persons believe it to be buried in that district (Mokoia) at the present time.

Subsequently I received from my friend Wiremu Hipango, of Waitotara, a correct account of part of the history of the armour. He says, “It was myself and Hori Pukehika, at my request, made a search in 1892 and found it. The helmet could not be found. I heard after-wards it was buried in Pipiriki Cave. I have heard from my own people that the armour belonged to Titore, a Nga Puhi chief, and is not the armour that Hongi had. Titore's armour was given to Te Wherowhero, and by him to Te Heuheu, the Taupo chief, and he it was who gave it to a relative of his named Aperahama Ruka, who married Wiki Tumuo, a niece of Hori Kingi. Te Anaua (uncle to Major Kemp), Ruka, and his wife brought it to Whanganui, and presented it to Hori Kingi te Anaua, and they kept it at Pukehika Pa. Another part of the story I was told: Titore was told a gun could not pierce the armour. Titore put it on, and told his son to aim straight at his head and fire. The son took his gun and made steady aim, but he was shaking so he told his father to take the armour off. So it was placed on a stump, and he took the fire. The bullet ran through. So his son said to his father, ‘Ha! if you had had that on, you would be a dead man.’ If the helmet were to be found I believe the bullet-hole could be seen. I believe that to be the reason why Titore would not care to keep it any longer. The armour was presented to Titore in Sydney. As to Tokiwhati's present, it is another matter.”

A little later I made further inquiries from Mr. Percy Smith, and he wrote to Wiremu Hipango, and Wiremu wrote to Tawhiao, of Taumarunui, and afterwards sent Mr. Smith the following letter, which is interesting, and explains some things rather more in detail:—

[Translation]

“To Mr. Smith.

“Salutations in this new year. Here is the letter of Tawhiao of Taumarunui, explaining about your letter to him asking for information

[Footnote] * Letter from F. J. Hagger, Esq.

[Footnote] † This I believe to be incorrect. It was, I am informed on good authority, for many years at Taumarunui, but has now been lost. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxviii, pl. xvi.)

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as to the kahu-maitai” [suit of armour] “which was found by Dr. Pomare, and who has given it to the Museum containing the curiosities at Wellington. I am very glad that it has fallen to me to explain this, because I have seen in the Dominion newspaper which says, ‘This is a peace-offering by Tuwhare to Te Anaua’ (i.e., to Hori Kingi). This is mere supposition, because Tuwhare came from Nga Puhi, hence the people think he owned the armour (that was the origin), and also because they heard that Hongi visited England and brought back some armour. Thus it has been thought ever since that it was Hongi's. I confirm the story of the peacemaking between Tuwhare and Hori Kingi te Anaua in reference to Tokiwhati. It was at the Kohimarama conference that the generosity of Nga Puhi was laid before Whanganui, which has lasted to this day. There was no armour with Tuwhare when he was fighting Whanganui; had there been, the fact would not have been lost in the history of the old men of Whanganui; there would have been 'sayings’ about it. As, for instance, the news of Nga Puhi's guns, which was handed down by the escapees from the Nga Puhi fights, when our people of the South said, ‘Let those pu (guns) come to their pu,’ and then they sounded their pu-kaea (or trumpets).* When they saw the real meaning of those pu, then did Whanganui apply the words to the koanga kaahu” [? armour], “and hence the origin of the story about Tuwhare.

“But let me return to my story. This property (the armour) belonged to Te Heuheu the Great. The daughter of Te Anaua, Nga-weuweu, married Aperahama Ruke, a chief of Taupo, and the property descended to them, and was brought by them to Whanganui, and was left with Hori Kingi as a valuable property for Whanganui.

“Here is another reference to this matter. Hori Kingi te Anaua had two wives, both chieftainesses, Te Ao-tarewa of Ngati Ruaka, and Te Hukinga-huia of Ngati Ruru. In consequence of neither of them having children, they prepared a wooden image as a baby. Then Te Aotarewa composed an oriori, or lullaby, beginning ‘Taku tamaiti e, i puta nui ra koe i te toi ki Hawaiki,’ &c. (which may be seen at length in Tu-wha-whakia's narrative in your paper)” [vide Jour. Polynesian Soc. vol. xiv, p. 135]. “Te Anaua and his brother Te Mawae had also a lullaby about their image, part of which refers to the armour and to Te Heuheu: ‘Kaore te whakama ki te kore tamariki i a au,’ &c.” [I do not see the application, however.—S.P.S.]

“This is the continuation of the story. The armour descended to the chief, and finally to me at Whanganui. I will now explain how this property came to Titore. It was sent to Port Jackson and thence to Titore. The fame of this armour was that bullets would not pierce it. It was then put on by the old man” [? Te Anaua] “who then called on his son to shoot at him; and when the distance had been arranged, the son took his gun and prepared to fire, but was very anxious about the result. So he said to his father, ‘Take off your garment (i.e., armour), and let me try it first, or put it on a stump,’ to which the old man consented. Then he fired at it, hitting it on the forehead, and the bullet went through it. Said the son, ‘If I had listened to you, you would have been shot dead.’

“If the helmet should be found, the hole in it will also be seen. One of my old men has just returned to Whanganui, and he told me that he

[Footnote] * They, in fact, understood the modern word pu (gun) for the ancient word pu (a trumpet).

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had seen the helmet, with the hole through it on the forehead, but he did. not know from whence the armour came. Now you will understand.

“Now, my urgent desire is that this property shall be permanently left in the Whare-Ruanuku (Museum). It was I that directed the search for it in 1895, and Hori Pukehika and I found it concealed in a place, that had been lost” [i.e., the recollection of it]. “Last year Hori Pukehika and Dr. Pomare brought it away. Pukehika has only just returned” [? from here]. “I have sent a communication to Mr. Hamilton, but not so lengthy as this. Will you send him the enclosed copy? I have also sent to Hakiaha Tawhiao in case he should feel dark” [anxious] “on account of that property. Hence do I say that this property of Whanganui should be left in the Museum for ever.

“Enough. May you live, the only old man left of those other old who have departed to the night, Major Keepa, Mete Kingi, Hori Kingi, and many others.

“Your friend,

W. Hipango.”

Art. VIII.—The Present Position of New Zealand Palœontology; with a List of Papers on the Palœontology of New Zealand, including the Titles of those Stratigraphical Papers containing Important Lists of Fossils.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 6th October, 1909.]

Geological explorations in New Zealand have been in progress now for seventy years, and a mass of reports and papers is in existence bearing witness to the work done by solitary pioneers, and later by—

  • The Provincial Surveys of Canterbury, 1860, under Haast; Otago, 1861, under Hector; and Wellington, 1862, under Crawford:

  • The Geological Survey established under the New Zealand Institute Act of 1867:

  • The officers of the Mines Department from 1878 to date: and

  • The new Geological Survey of 1905.

In addition to this there was the important work done by Hochstetter, and by Haast and Hutton and others, as private individuals.

The portions of this work that I wish to deal with are the collections that were made by these Surveys; and I wish to give, if possible, some idea of the progress that has been made with the study of them, and more especially what has been done in the examination and determination of the fossils.*

[Footnote] *I do not propose to say anything about the collection of rocks and minerals, except to state that the collection of these made by the old Survey of 1867 in the Dominion Museum building exceeds 12,000 specimens; nor do I propose to say anything about the work that has been done on the moa and other extinct birds.

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The collections that are in New Zealand are not many, and may be described as under:—

(1.)

The collection of the older provincial Surveys and of the Geological Survey of 1867. These are in the Museum at Wellington. The number of specimens available for study is about 120,000. All these have correct locality numbers.

(2.)

The displayed collection in the Canterbury Museum.

(3.)

The displayed collection in the Auckland Museum.

(4.)

The displayed collection in the Otago University Museum, Dunedin.

(5.)

The Hochstetter collection in the Nelson Museum.

(6.)

A few small private collections.

Outside New Zealand.

(7.)

Collection of Tertiary fossils in the British Museum.

(8.)

Specimens in the hands of experts for determination.

I will now say a few words about these collections, and as some justification for doing so I may say that I have been intimately acquainted with the collectors and the collections made by the Government Surveys for thirty-two years, and have watched their growth under the guidance of Sir James Hector, ably assisted by Mr. A. McKay, Professor Park, Mr. Cox, and others. It is with pleasure that I bear witness to the great interest and value of the collections. There can be little doubt that the cost of making the collections has been not far short of £50,000,* and some of them could not be secured again at any price.

At the end of this paper I have placed a bibliography of the papers bearing more especially on the palæontology of New Zealand; and those who are acquainted with the subject will see, on looking it over, that, except in the case of the Tertiary fossils, there has been very little systematic work recorded. Even the Tertiary lists must shortly undergo a severe revision, based on the new manual of the marine Mollusca, which is now near complection. The percentages of recent and extinct forms will be greatly modified. Much also remains to be done in carefully collecting with a view to establishing characteristic zones in the marine Tertiaries.

No serious systematic work has been done on the description of the Mesozoic or Palæozoic fossils. It was the intention of the late Sir James Hector to bring out a series of publications on the palæontology of of New Zealand, and as early as 1878 the following reports were announced as specially descriptive of the palæontology of New Zealand:—

(1.)

New Zealand Belemnites.

(2.)

New Zealand Brachiopoda.

(3.)

New Zealand Fossil Flora.

(4.)

Fossil Corals.

(5.)

Tertiary Mollusca.

[Footnote] * Or perhaps one-half the total cost of the survey under Sir James Hector.

[Footnote] † A sufficient study of the fossils has been made to determine the probable age of the Lower and Upper Silurian, Lower Devonian, and Carboniferous formations in the Palæozoic series, and of the Permian. Triassic, Liassic, and Jurassic sequence of the Mesozoic formation and the determinations yet to be made are not likely to disprove the general accuracy of the conclusions that have been arrived at with respect to these formations.

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Of these, the fourth was printed and issued with plates, being a descriptive catalogue of fossil corals and Bryozoa sent to the Sydney Exhibition in 1879, written by Rev. Tenison-Woods.

One (the first) was to be on the belemnites; and the plates for this part were published in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,”* with an abstract of the descriptions by Sir James Hector. A sufficient supply of extra plates was printed for the separate issue, and are still in store.

The same course seems to have been taken with the palæozoic Brachiopoda, although in this case additional plates are in existence besides those that were printed for a separate issue. Three new genera, Rastelligera, Psioidea, and Clavigera, are proposed in the abstract published. The plates as prepared figure thirty-three species in thirteen genera. Plates v, vi, vii, viii have not been printed, although the drawings are arranged. Besides this there are drawings, not arranged, for about four more plates. A paragraph on page 539 states that “These two papers” [on the fossil flora and on the fossil Brachiopoda] “will appear in full in the report of the Geological Survey Department now in the press” [January, 1879].

There is another paper in the form of a translation of Ettingshausen's paper on the fossil plants of New Zealand. This appears in the Transactions, and a few copies were issued with separate pagination, and the extra supply of plates was printed off and stored.

It is possible that another palæontological report was in contemplation, as there is an extra supply of plates printed corresponding to those of the paper on the fossil Reptilia of New Zealand.§ A number of blocks were made of characteristic fossils from drawings by Buchanan—the draughtsman to the Survey—and were used in the Catalogue and Guide to the Geological Exhibits at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition in London in 1886.

It is much to be regretted that apparently no manuscript by the late Sir James Hector exists to enable his work to be taken up. I have been able to identify the figures in Buchanan's drawings of the brachiopods by the number on the drawings and the number on the specimens still in the case. Whether it is worth while to endeavour to retain these names remains to be seen. The three genera proposed by Sir James are entitled to stand so far as publication is concerned. A very large series of specific names are used in the introductions to the annual reports of the Geological Survey; but, as they have not been printed with any author's name, it is difficult to identify them, especially as they are not attached to any specimen.

The catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca and Echinodermata by Captain Hutton was issued in 1873.

In the general collection at the Museum the only named specimens are a few of Hutton's types of the Tertiary Mollusca, and the collection of fish-teeth examined by Davis, and a few of the reptilian remains which can be identified by the published plates. Probably the plant-fossils named by Ettingshausen are also still named, although they have been packed

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. x, p. 484, pls. xxii, xxiii.

[Footnote] † Trans N.Z. Inst., vol. xi, p. 537.

[Footnote] ‡ Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiii, p. 237, pls. xxiv-xxxiii; Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi, p. 536.

[Footnote] § Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. vi, p. 333, pls. xxvii-xxxi.

[Footnote] ∥ Trans. Royal Dublin Soc., vol. iv, ser. 2. 1888.

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away for year. The number of named New Zealand fossils in the Museum other than types is certainly well under fifty.*

There is one important matter which I consider should be placed on record which is at present buried in departmental files. In 1885, at the request of Professor Tate, of Adelaide, a collection of fossils from the New Zealand Tertiaries was sent to him; and again in 1890, at the request of the late Captain Hutton, a collection of the New Zealand fossil pectens was sent for comparison with the Tertiary fossils of the Australian regions, which the professor was then describing. He appears to have drawn up a report, but desired better and more specimens. This was attended to, and practically all the pectens in the collection were sent, the list of which covers eleven folio sheets, the collection itself filling many cases. Shortly after this, Professor Tate died; and frequent applications were, I believe, made for the return of the specimens, without avail. I understand that at the professor's death it was found impossible for the University authorities to separate the University collection from those belonging to the professor and those loaned to him. We have suffered, at any rate for the present, a great loss. The loss is important, as the pectens as a rule afford important stratigraphical information from a zonal point of view. From an interview which I had not long ago with an Adelaide gentleman, I believe it would still be possible to recover some of the specimens.

To return to our list of collections: The second is that displayed in the Canterbury Museum; and, when we remember that for some years Dr. Von Haast and Captain Hutton devoted much time and labour to it, we shall not be surprised to find here probably the best-arranged and best-named collection of fossils, mainly Tertiary, in the Dominion. The collection was worked over some years ago by Mr. Suter, and is in good condition, and well arranged in a pattern of case which originated in the Museum, and is mentioned with approval by Bather in his report on antipodean museums. There is also the finest collection of remains of the Dinornis that yet has been exhibited; and the whole is supplemented by a large collection of fossils from other countries. It contains many types of Hutton's species. It would be very convenient to have a published list of this collection, with types indicated.

The third collection is that in the Auckland Museum. Mr. Cheeseman informs me that, with the exception of a few well-known species, they have less than fifty named fossils to represent the Palæozoic and Secondary fossils. In the Tertiaries their collections are larger, but still far from satisfactory.

The fourth is the small collection exhibited in the Otago University Museum. Here for some time the New Zealand and foreign fossil species were exhibited in their places with the living species; but Professor Parker, recognising that the Museum was devoted more especially to teaching-collections, as distinguished from large general collections, largely reduced the number of exhibits, and substituted instead a very carefully selected series of fossils from all countries illustrating the sequence of life-forms in geological order. The number of specimens is small, but the value is great for teaching purposes, set out as it is with instructive labels at frequent

[Footnote] * In the Rep. N.Z. Inst., –78, it states that “The New Zealand fossils now accumulated in the course of the Geological Survey represent collections from 450 different localities, and comprise about 6,200 trays, which have been thoroughly classified, and 1,200 specific types withdrawn into a separate collection for publication. A large number of types have been figured, and their publication will be proceeded with as rapidly as the other work of the Department will permit.”

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intervals. The collection of moa-remains is notable, including several individual specimens and a complete egg, together with some excellent osteological preparations of the juvenile states, and the originals of the plates in Professor Parker's paper on the cranial osteology of the moa.

The fifth is the Hochstetter collection of rocks and fossils presented to the Nelson Museum by Hochstetter, and, when the Museum was destroyed by fire a few years ago, it was much damaged. Now, however, it has been cleaned and restored.

The remaining head of my list includes a number of small collections that are the property of private collectors. None of these are of any great extent, and they are mainly from the Tertiary beds.

The collections outside New Zealand are not many or extensive, but include the following:—

In the year 1860 the Hon. W. B. D. Mantell presented a collection of Mollusca from the Miocene and Pliocene beds at Awamoa and Onekakara to the British Museum.

In 1875 a large and valuable collection was taken Home by Sir James Hector from various horizons in the Tertiary of New Zealand, and exchanged with the British Museum authorities, and in 1880 a few were transferred to the British Museum from the Museum of Practical Geology. A few were presented in 1882 by Lieut.-Colonel Wilmer from the Pliocene and Post-Pliocene, and a few by Mr. Bullen from a raised beach near Opua, Russell, Bay of Islands. These specimens were described and three species figured in the Australasian Section of the Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca in the Department of Geology, British Museum, by G. F. Harris, F.G.S., in 1897, the New Zealand species being 108 gasteropods, with 42 lamellibranchs.

In 1904 Professor Park collected a large number of fossils from a new locality on Mount Mary on the Upper Waitaki, and these were forwarded to Professor Boehm, Freiburg, for examination. He has been obliged to hand them over to Dr. Otto Wilckens, Associate Professor of Geology, Bonn University, for description, and we are still waiting for the issue of the publication. Some collections have been made in the older rocks of the Nelson District, and are, I believe, being examined at the British Museum at the present time.

In the same year Professor Park and the writer made large collections of fossils from the Triassic and Jurassic rocks at Nugget Point and Catlins district. These fossils, supplemented with collections made by Professor Park from the Trias of Nelson, are now in the hands of Professor Wilckens awaiting description.

When we come to inquire into the literature that is available, we have at present to rely largely on the results of the “Novara” expedition and the determinations of Zittel for the Triassic and Jurassic rocks. Fortunately, the publications of that voyage are available in most of the libraries, and the plates are excellent. The work, however, only figures fifty species of Mollusca from all formations, together with nine quarto plates of Foraminifera and Bryozoa—quite a creditable result, however, under the circumstances.

Scattered through the pages of the series of the New Zealand Geological Reports are a great number of generic and specific names, a very large proportion of which will be found on examination to be “nominanuda,” and will disappear.

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In the catalogue of the New Zealand fossils exhibited at Sydney particular pains seems to have been taken to affix names to the exhibits. from the list I have extracted all that could be taken with any hope of tracing them, and arranged them under authors, placing the letter M against those species that can now be identified in the Museum collections.

In Catalogue of Fossils exhibited at Sydney by Colonial Museum.

  • Salter—

  • Orthis patera. M.

  • Hall—

  • Murchisonia terebralis.

  • Orthis fissicostata. M.

  • Callopora elegantula.

  • Astrocerium venustum.

  • Orthis circulus. M.

  • Streptelasma junceum.

  • Orthoceras junceum.

  • Murchisonia uniangulata (var. abbreviata).

  • Modiolopsis modiolaris.

  • Leptæna bipartita. M.

  • Davidson—

  • Strophomena corrugatella.

  • d'orbignyi. M.

  • Orthis interlineata. M.

  • Phillips—

  • Avicula anisota.

  • cancellata.

  • Monotis radialis.

  • Belemnites australis. M.

  • Dalman—

  • Orthis basalis.

  • Chonetes striatella.

  • Lindstrom—

  • Orthis crassa. M.

  • Sowerby—

  • Orthis unguis.

  • Spirifera radiata.

  • Stricklandia lyrata.

  • Rhynchonella wilsoni. M.

  • Trigonotreta undulata.

  • Mytilus squamosus.

  • Astarte minima.

  • Astarte elegans.

  • Trigonia costata.

  • Avicula costata.

  • Brongniart—

  • Calymene blumenbachii.

  • Konig—

  • Homalonotus knightii.

  • Romer—

  • Spirifera cultrijugata.

  • Hector—

  • Homalonotus expansus.

  • Psioidea, nov. gen. M.

  • Rastelligera, nov. gen. M.

  • Belemnites otapiriensis.

  • pallinensis.

  • hochstetteri.

  • Trigonia sulcata.

  • Schlotheim—

  • Spirifera speciosa. M.

  • Epithyris elongata. M.

  • Geinitz—

  • Schizodus schlothemii.

  • Nautilus frieslebendi.

  • Zittel—

  • Mytilus problematicus. M.

  • Spirigera (Athyris) wreyii. M.

  • Monotis salinaria. M.

  • Aucella plicata.

  • Hochstetter—

  • Inoceramus haasti.

  • Hauer—

  • Ammonites novo-zelandicus.

  • Belemnites aucklandicus.

  • Brown—

  • Pleurophorus costatus.

In the list of papers given at the end there are some in which further assistance in the identification of species may be found; but there is a great lack of information until we come to the Tertiaries.

It will be seen from this short summary that the student of geology has plenty of palæontological material that might be available for him to work on under expert guidance, but that the literature relating directly to his work is small, scattered, and hardly up to the present level of research. This is not a new discovery—the matter has been discussed for many years. The subject is a difficult one, as it requires not only a

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thorough knowledge of the progress of modern systematic work in classification, but a working knowledge of the mass of published literature on the rocks of similar age found in other countries. Unless this is taken into account, the result will be a useless multiplication of genera and species, and a further burdening of a synonymy already of bewildering length.

At the meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science held at Dunedin in 1904, the subject of New Zealand palæontology was brought up, and the President, Professor David, waited on the Minister of Mines and communicated the following recommendation from Section C, which had been agreed to by the association:—

New Zealand Fossils.

“On the recommendation of Section C, it was agreed, That the following resolution be forwarded to the New Zealand Government: That, whereas this association considers that the description of the large collection of fossils now at the Wellington Museum is one of the most important services which the New Zealand Government could at the present time render to science, and that it is one which would be for the advancement of science throughout the world; that, whereas the work would be of economic as well as of scientific interest, as it is only by its means that the coalfields of New Zealand can be properly correlated, and the broad relations and modes of origin of its metalliferous deposits understood; that, whereas, according to the annual reports, there are more than thirty thousand fossil-specimens in the exhibition-cases at Wellington Museum, by far the larger part of which are unnamed and undescribed, and besides about five hundred boxes of fossils still unpacked in the same Museum; and that, whereas these collections, made at considerable expense to New Zealand, are obviously useless in their present state—this Council recommends: (1.) That the description of these fossils should be commenced immediately, and that, if this recommendation is adopted by the New Zealand Government, the undermentioned groups of fossils be sent for description to the following workers at once: The graptohtes, to T. S. Hall, M.A.; the Foraminifera and ostracods, to F. W. Chapman; the echinoids, to Professor Gregory; Palæozoic fossils other than those in the above groups, to R. Etheridge, jun. (Curator, Australian Museum, Sydney), and W. S. Dun (Palæontologist, Geological Survey, New South Wales). (2.) That, with regard to the large and important collections of Mesozoic and Cainozoic fossils (other than echinoids, Foraminifera, and ostracods) in the Wellington Museum, the Council recommends that advice as to their description be delegated, so far as this association is concerned, to a committee consisting of the following: Captain F. W. Hutton (retiring President), Professor Baldwin Spencer (President-elect), and A. Hamilton, Esq. (Director of the Colonial Museum, Wellington).”

The Hon. the Colonial Secretary was also written to to the same effect, and did me the honour to forward the letter for my perusal, and asked for my views on the matter; and I replied as follows:—

“Feb. 9th, 1904.

“To the Hon. the Colonial Secretary, Wellington.

Sir,—

“I am obliged to you for the opportunity to peruse the letter addressed to the Premier by the President of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, and I am glad to have the opportunity

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of expressing my views on the subject of the description of the fossils in the Museum, although that part of the collection has not passed under my charge.

“I think that it is imperative that steps should be taken at once to have the fossils (other than the Tertiary fossils) got together and prepared for examination and description by an expert. Without this preliminary step no arrangement could be come to with any expert, either as regards the description and figuring or the publication of results. He must know whether he is to deal with hundreds or thousands of specimens. This matter of getting the material together is urgent, as the only person thoroughly acquainted with the whole of the specimens is Mr. McKay.

“I concur in the suggestions made generally, and I can assure you that the feeling of geologists and men of science all over the world is that this matter is urgent. The conditions under which the arrangements are made with the experts employed must be carefully framed, and will need much consideration.

“I am, sir, your obedient servant,

A. Hamilton, Director.”

Further suggestions were asked for, and I wrote as follows:—

“To the Hon. the Colonial Secretary.

“Feb. 26, 1904.

Sir,—

“In reply to your memo. of the 24th instant, re the fossils of the New Zealand Geological Survey at present in the Museum under my charge, and the proposed arrangements for their description and publication, I have the honour to make the following suggestions and remarks:—

“1. Preparatory Work.

“(a.)

That the Mines Department be asked to instruct their officials to get together in a convenient place all the specimens of fossils now in their collections up to the close of the Cainozoic period, arranged generally under the following heads:—

  • “Hydrozoa,

  • Actinozoa,

  • Echinoderms,

  • Annelids,

  • Crustacea,

  • Polyzoa,

  • Brachiopoda,

  • Lamellibranchiata,

  • Gasteropoda,

  • Cephalopoda.

“(b.)

That the number of specimens in each class be ascertained within reasonable limits, and that an estimate be made of the probable number of species.

“(c.)

That the specimens be repacked in strong cases, and plainly labelled and numbered at the side and at the end of the case. A more detailed description of the specimens to be entered against the number of the case in a record-book. It is presumed that all specimens have already their locality number. When this preparatory work has been done,* which will take some months, the following steps should be taken:—

[Footnote] * It is not quite finished yet.

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“2. Arrangements for Description and Publication.

“(a.)

Certain well-known experts in the Australasian Colonies should be approached as to their willingness to undertake the description of one or the other of the groups of fossils, and as to the terms on which they would do so, and also as to what they consider a fair and reasonable time in which to do the work.

“(b.)

A draft agreement should be drawn up by the Government or the Department, setting forth, with the necessary blanks, what the expert contracts to do on his side, and what remuneration he is to receive for the work, and when and how he is to be paid.

“In making the above suggestions I wish to point out that the preliminary sorting and packing of the fossils is the most urgent matter, and should be seen to at once. Unfortunately, the accommodation at the Museum is at present quite insufficient for such work, and emphasizes the necessity for the workshops at the back of the Museum, which I trust will be soon authorised.

“However, as soon as the Government Analyst takes possession of his new building, the rooms he vacates could be used with advantage for the sorting. The Mines Department will no doubt give Mr. McKay what assistance he requires for the purpose, and provide suitable boxes for the repacking of the specimens. Directly the number is ascertained of the fossils to be examined and described, the Government should appoint one or more persons to interview the selected experts in Australia to arrange the terms and conditions; and I would suggest that, instead of visiting them separately, they should be invited to meet in Sydney and discuss with the New Zealand representatives a plan for the description and publication of the fossils, in order to insure as much uniformity as possible for the various New Zealand publications, and also that they should conform as far as possible to similar publications by the Australian States.

“I must call your attention to the extremely unsatisfactory result of some transactions with the late Professor Tate, of Adelaide, as disclosed by the file of correspondence in the office of the Museum. It seems that at his request Professor Tate was intrusted with a large collection of Tertiary fossils for description. The fossils have not been returned to the Museum, and I have recently been informed that the fossils have passed into the hands of a person who has sold or otherwise disposed of them.*

“Professor Tate furnished a few notes on a part of the collection which he received in 1890. It does not seem to me right that such a thing should occur, although I am not now in charge of the collection of which the lost specimens formed a part.

“I am, sir, your obedient servant,

A. Hamilton, Director.”

Since that time Mr. A. McKay and an assistant have been continuously employed in the transfer of the specimens of rocks and fossils to new and better boxes, and have checked every specimen as to locality, and a complete record has been made. It is fortunate that this has been done, as there is no one else now living who could have done it, and Mr. McKay,

[Footnote] * This, I now learn, is incorrect.

[Footnote] † Under the New Zealand Institute Act of 1903 the minerals and fossils in the Museum passed into the control of the Mines Department.

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who has now retired from active work in the Mines Department, can look back with satisfaction on the present condition of the collection which represents the work of his life.

The work of bringing together, reticketing, and cataloguing the fossil collections in the Dominion Museum was begun in 1904. By Sir James Hector most of the collections were subdivided to bring together the genera of the families and orders represented, and it was determined to bring together in the collection all the specimens from each locality. This proved a most arduous work, and for want of sorting-space it was found to be impossible, and the specimens of one locality had often to be repacked in several boxes containing other fossils. Finally the ticketing, &c., was finished (excepting the brachiopods and cephalopods in the cases), and for some months past a revision and gathering of the fossils from one locality into as few boxes as possible has been going on. When this work is finished the whole of any collection can be laid out, and the different species culled from the evident duplicates of the same, and, thus pruned, the collection may be placed in the hands of an expert for description. There is even now plenty of material wherewith to make a start—as, for instance, in the large and important collection from Amuri Bluff.

Mr. McKay has also greatly elaborated the old lists of localities for the guidance of future collectors.

Since the meeting of the Australasian Association in Dunedin in 1904 a new Geological Survey, with Dr. Mackintosh Bell as Director, has been established, and the palæontological work done by the officers of the Survey will be found in the new series of Bulletins issued since that time.

Palæontology has naturally held a place in the training of the students who have passed through the various courses for certificates and diplomas of the School of Mines of the University of Otago, and it also forms a part of the subject of geology in the degree subjects for the University of New Zealand.

The results are, so far as I can gather, that, of our students who have attended the Otago School of Mines, twelve mining students have passed the requirements of the examination in general palæontology.

In the University of New Zealand 197 students* have, up to the present time, taken geology, including New Zealand palæontology, for the pass degree, with the following results: Passed, 197. For honours, 24 have taken geology, including palæontology: of these, 16 passed with firstclass honours, 7 with second-class, and 1 with third-class. Of these honours students, Clarke, Thomson, Andrew, and Boult have contributed papers to the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” which appear under their names in the list at the end of the paper, Mr. Clarke describing as new 3 species, Thomson 3 species, Andrew 1 species of Mollusca and some cetacean remains, Boult 1 species; most of these being Tertiary species.

This paper is written to point out the present unsatisfactory position of New Zealand palæontology, and I have endeavoured to provide a base for a new departure when the opportunity occurs for a forward movement. I am convinced that so far as the Palæozoic and Mesozoic fossils are concerned there is little of permanent value on record, except in the “Voyage of the Novara” and one or two recent papers, and it will be necessary to make a fresh start in the description and correlation of the New Zealand species in the collection.

[Footnote] * Bachelor of Arts, 107; Bachelor of Science, 84; Bachelor of Engineering, 6.

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It will be found that fresh collections will have to be made in some localities to ascertain correctly the horizons and zones in which certain species occur.

List of Papers on the Palœontology of New Zealand, including the Titles of those Stratigraphical Papers containing Important Lists of Fossils.*

Andrew, A.

  • On the Geology of the Clarendon Phosphate Deposits, Otago, N.Z. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxviii, 447. [Pl. iv figures a new brachiopod—Magellania marshalli—and some cetacean bones.]

Bather, F. A.

  • The Mount Torlesse Annelid. Geological Magazine (n.s.), dec. v, vol. ii, pp. –541, December 1905. [And letter to editor, January 1906, pp. 46, 47, ib.]

Benham, W. B.

  • A Gigantic Cirripede from New Zealand. Geol. Mag. Lond. (ser. 2), 1903, pp. –119, 2 pls.

Boehm, Georg.

  • Ueber tertiare Brachiopoden von Oamaru, Sudinsel. N.Z. Berlin; Zs.D. geol. Ges. 56, 1904, brieft Mitt. (146-150, mit 1 Taf.).

  • Reisenotizen aus Neu-Seeland. Abdruck a. d. Deutsch. geolog. Gesellschaft, Jahrg. 1900, p. –177.

Boult, A.

  • Occurrence of Gold in Harbour Cone, Dunedin. [Incidentally describes and figures (p. 432, pl. ix, fig. 1) Pseudamussium huttoni.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxviii, 425.

Buchanan, J.

  • On the Belemnite Beds at Amuri Bluff. Rep. N.Z. Geol., 1867.

Castracane.

  • Sul deposits di Jackson's Paddock, Oamaru, nella Nuova Zelandia. Roma, 1890, 4.

Clarke, E.

  • The Fossils of the Waitemata and Papakura Series. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, 413; 1905.

  • Graptolites of the Aorere Series. Bull. No. 3 (N.S.), N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1907, p. 34, pl. viii.

Crawford, J. C.

  • On Probable Reasons why Few Fossils are found in the Upper Palæozoic and Possible Triassic Rocks of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 561.

Davis, James William.

  • On some Fish-remains from the Tertiary Strata of New Zealand. (Paper afterwards withdrawn.) Jan., 1886. [Sent by Captain Hutton: Fish teeth and spines exhibited—Lamna, Carcharodon, Notidanus, Myliobatus, and Sparnodus; Te Aute.] Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xlii, pt. ii, p. 4; 1886.

[Footnote] * This list does not include, except in a few instances, the papers that have been written on the subject of the fossil remains of the extinct birds of New Zealand. These have been given in the Transactions of the N.Z. Institute, vol. xxvi, p. 229; vol. xxvii, p. 229; vol. xxxvi, p. 471.

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  • Report on the Fossil Fish-remains of New Zealand. Trans. Roy. Dub. Soc., vol. iv, ser.2; 1888. [See also N.Z. Geol. Rep. (as a separatum).]

  • Note on a Species of Scymnus from the Upper Tertiary Formation of New Zealand (S. acutus). [Napier series, Esk River.] Geol. Mag., n.s., dec. iii, vol. v; 1888.

De Latour, H. A.

  • On the Fossil Marine Diatomaceous Deposit near Oamaru. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 293.

Duncan, P. M.

  • On some Fossil Alcyonaria from the Tertiary Deposits of New Zealand. Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxi, 1875, p. 675, pl. xxxvii.B.

Ettingshausen, Professor Dr. Constantin Freiherrn von.

  • Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Fossilen Flora Neuseelands. Besonders abgedruckt aus dem liii Bande der Mathematisch Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, p. 1–52, taf. 1–9, vol. liii, pt. i; 4to. Wien, 1887.

  • Genetische Gliederung der Flora von N.Z. Sitzungsbr. Imp. Acad. Sc. of Vienna, vol. lviii, pt. i, p. 653. 1884.

  • On the Fossil Flora of New Zealand. Geol. Mag., 363, 1887.

  • Contributions to the Knowledge of the Fossil Flora of New Zealand, Trans. by C. Juhl from the German (Vienna, 1887). Plants from seventeen localities. Tert., Cretaceous, and Trias. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii, 237, plates xxiv-xxxii, redrawn by J. Buchanan. [This was reprinted as New Zealand Palæontology, pt. ii, Fossil Flora, pp. 1–74, and Supply of the plates from Trans., vol. xxiii, to issue with it. A few copies were issued.]

Etheridge, R., jun.

  • On some Species of Terebratulina, Waldheimia, and Terebratella from the Upper Tertiary Deposits of Mount Gambier and the Murray Cliffs, S.A. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1876, vol. xvii, p. 15. [Waldheimia taylori, Ett., pl. i, fig. 3, a, b, c, has been identified as New Zealand by Hutton, and other Australian Tertiary species will probably be found to be represented in New Zealand formations.]

Field, H. C.

  • A Fossil Egg. [In “shell-rock,” Otatoka Valley, near Waitotara. 2in. long by 1 ¼in.] N.Z. Journ. Sci., ii, 325.

Forbes, Dr. C.

  • On the Geology of New Zealand, with Notes on its Carboniferous Deposits. Q.J. Geol. Soc., xi, 521.

Forbes, E., and Rupert Jones.

  • See Mantell. Forbes: Note on Fossiliferous Deposits in the Middle Island of New Zealand. [Jones: Foraminifera and Diatoms.] Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. vi, p. 329; 1850.

Haast, Sir J. von.

  • Geology of Canterbury and Westland, 1879. Pt. iii, Geology: Waipara Formation, Fossil Contents, p. 295; Oamaru Formation, Fossil Contents, p. 311; Pareora Formation, Fossil Contents, p. 319; Saurian Remains in the Waipara, pp. –155.

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  • Saurian Remains from the Waipara River, Canterbury, in the Possession of J. Cockburn Hood. [Lost in the “Matoaka.” A tooth figured. pl. xxiv, fig. G, a, b, c. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi (Knight).] Trans. N.Z. Inst., ii, 186.

  • Saurien in der Tertiarform. in New Zealand. Wien Verhandl. Geol., 350; 1869.

  • Vorkommen von Brachiopoden im den Kusten von Neu Seeland. Wien Geol. Verhandl., 253; 1874.

Hamilton, A.

  • List of Recent and Fossil Bryozoa collected in various Parts of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., i-xxxvi, 1908, –467.

  • Notes on a Small Collection of Fossils from Wharekauri, on the Waitaki River, North Otago. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvi, –467; 1904.

Harris, George F.

  • Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca in the Department of Geology, pt. i, Australasia; 1897; British Museum (Nat. Hist.). [Localities 1, 5, 13, 14, and 15 are New Zealand. Describes species presented by Dr. Hector and others.]

  • British Museum Catalogue. Tertiary Fossils. New Zealand Section. 1897. Heaphy, Charles.

  • The Volcanic Country of Auckland, N.Z. In an appendix to the paper, list of fossils, mostly Foraminifera, by the editor Q.J.G.S., T. Rupert Jones. Journ. Geol. Soc., 1860, vol. xvi, p. 251, pls. xii and xiii. (In Review of Karrer's paper, T.R.J.[ones] and W. K. P.[arker] in Geol. Mag., i, p. 75; 1864)

Hector, Sir James.

  • Table of Fossiliferous Localities. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 13, –80, iii.

  • Index to Fossiliferous Localities in New Zealand. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 255. –87.

  • On the Fossil Brachiopoda of New Zealand (abstract). Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi, p. 537.

  • Fossil Reptilia of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 333, pls. xxvii to xxxi.

  • Index to Fossiliferous Localities in New Zealand, distinguished by Numbers. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 120; –91.

  • Index to Fossiliferous Localities according to Counties. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 146; –91.

  • On a New Trilobite (Homalonotus expansus). Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 602.

  • Handbook of New Zealand, Sec. Geology, List of Characteristic Fossils in the various Formations: 1879 (Sydney), pp. 17, 30; 1880 (Melbourne), Appendix to Official Cat., with Geological Map, pp. 19, 32; 1883, pp. –41, with geol. map; 1886, pp. –35.

  • Indian and Colonial Exhibition, 1886, N.Z. Court: Detailed Catalogue and Guide to the Geological Exhibits. [Pp. 1–88, with geologically coloured map of North and South Islands; 65 sections and figures, about 184 figures of characteristic fossils. Though in many cases poorly drawn, they form the best series yet issued. Pp. –101: Appendix to General Index to Reports and List of Publications of the Geological Survey of New Zealand.]

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  • Notes on N.Z. Cetacea, Recent and Fossil. In Proc. N.Z. Inst., vol. xiii, p. 434 (abstract only), pl. xviii. [Part of lower jaw, tympanic bulla, and teeth of Kekenodon onamata, nov. gen. and sp., Waitaki Valley. Types in Dominion Museum. See also Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1881, pp. xxviii and 68, with section; also (p. 104) recording a nearly entire specimen, 23 ft. in length, the fragments of which are now in the Museum.]

  • Outlines of New Zealand Geology, with Map. Second Part of Special Catalogue of Geological Exhibits sent to Indian and Colonial Exhibition. Also Appendix to General Index to Reports of Geological Survey. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 37. 1886.

  • Critical Notes and Corrections of Localities in “Report on the Fossil Fish-remains of N.Z.,” by J. W. Davis. N.Z. Geol. Rep., No. 22, 1894, pp. –120.

  • Preliminary Note on the Bones of a Fossil Penguin. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ii, 403.

  • On the Remains of a Gigantic Penguin (Palœeudyptes antarcticus, Huxley) from the Tertiary Rocks on the Coast of Nelson. Trans. N.Z. Inst., iv, 341.

  • Further Notes on the Bones of a Fossil Penguin (Palœeudyptes). Trans. N.Z. Inst., v, 438.

  • On the Belemnites found in New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., x, 484.

Hill, H.

  • Description of a Scaphites found near Cape Turnagain. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix, 387.

Hinde, G. Jennings, and Holmes, W. Murton.

  • On the Sponge-remains in the Lower Tertiary Strata near Oamaru, Otago, N.Z. Journ. Linnean Soc. (Zoology), vol. xxiv, p. –262, pls. vii to xv.

Hochstetter, Ferd. von.

  • Palæontologie von Neu Seeland. By Unger, Zittel, Suess, Karrer, Stoliczka, Stache, and Jaeger. Reise der “Novara,” 2 abth. 1864.

Huxley, Professor T. H.

  • On a Fossil Bird and a Fossil Cetacean from N.Z. [Palœeudyptes antarcticus, Kakanui limestone; Phocœnopsis mantelli, Awamoa (Pareora).] Q.J. Geol. Soc., xv, 671.

Hutton, Captain F. W.

  • Descriptions of New Tertiary Shells. [Pt. i, Wanganui and Petane, H.B.; pt. ii, from Canterbury Museum and Hawke's Bay.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii, –322, pl. xviii, fig. 22.

  • Three New Tertiary Shells. [Pleurotoma hamiltoni and Mitra hectori. Waihao Forks, Cant.; and Pecten hilli, Napier.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, –473, pl. 44.

  • New Species of Tertiary Shells from Canterbury, Wanganui, and Petane. [“The list of New Zealand Tertiary Mollusca, 1885, numbers about 460 species, of which about 250 still remain unfigured.”] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii, 333.

  • Revision of the Tertiary Brachiopoda of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, –481, pls. xlv, xlvi.

  • On the Supposed Rib of the Kumi. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxi, 485.

– 60 –
  • Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca and Echinodermata of New Zealand in the Collection of the Colonial Museum, Wellington, 1873: Mollusca, 1–37. Echinodermata, pp. iv, vii, ix, 1–43; index, –48, –43. [The plates mentioned in the preface were never published.]

  • On Some Railway Cuttings in the Weka Pass, North Canterbury. [List of Fossils, Mount Brown Beds, Greta (Upper Pareora) Beds.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 257.

  • On some Fossils recently obtained from the Cobden Limestone at Greymouth. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 267.

  • On the Correlations of the “Curiosity-shop Bed” in Canterbury, N.Z., June, 1885. Q.J. Geol. Soc., Nov., 1885. [Long list of fossils, with references.]

  • On a New Plesiosaur from the Waipara River (Cimoliosaurus caudalis). From Bobby's Creek, Waipara. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxvi, –358, pl. xlii. [See also Haast, Geol. of Cant. and Westland, p. 169, and Hector, Trans., vol. vi, p. 341.]

  • The Pliocene Mollusca of N.Z. Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 35, 1893, pls. vi-ix.

  • On the Relation between the Pareora and the Ahuriri Formations. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 590.

  • The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru Systems of N.Z. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 31st March, 1886, vol. i (ser. ii, p. 205). [268 species.]

  • Sketch of the Geology of New Zealand. Q.J. Geol. Soc., May, 1885, vol. xli, p. 266. [Formations, with lists of characteristic fossils and full references.]

  • The Wanganui System. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii, 336. [Full list of species to date, Aug., 1885.]

  • Description of some New Tertiary Shells from Wanganui. [Mostly collected by S. H. Drew.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv, 410. 1882.

  • Description of Three New Tertiary Shells in the Otago Museum. [Cominella striata and Zizyphinus hodgei, Wanganui; Venus sulcata, Napier Limestone.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., viii, 383.

  • Cimoliosaurus caudalis, n. sp. (abstract). Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xlix, 1893; Proc., p. 151.

  • Oxford Chalk Foraminifera. N.Z. Jour. Sci., ii, 565.

  • On the Reptilian Beds of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 581.

  • On Crassatellites trailli. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxviii, 65.

  • On Conchothyra parasitica. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxvi, 358, pl. xliii. [See also a poor figure, upside down, fig. 20, p. 58, Cat. N.Z. Court Indian and Colonial Ex., 1886. Name spelled incorrectly.]

  • Description of some New Tertiary Mollusca from Canterbury, and 68 Species from White Rock, Mount Harris, and Waihao. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 593, pl. xvi [13 sp. fig.].

  • On a Trilobite from Reefton. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ser. ii, vol. ii, p. 257.

Karrer, Felix.

  • Die Foraminiferen-Fauna des tertiaren Grunsandsteines der Orakei-Bay bei Auckland. Mit 1 Tafel, xvi (69-86), Pal. Voy. “Novara.” 1864.

Kidston, R., and Gwynne-Vaughan, D. T.

  • On the Fossil Osmundaceœ (O. dunlopi and O. gibbiana), New Zealand new species from Jurassic rocks near Gore. Trans. Roy. Soc. Ed., vol. xlv, pt. 3, p. 759, 1907; vol. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 213, 1909; vol. xlvi, pt. 3, p. 651, 1909.

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Kirk, T. W.

  • Description of New Tertiary Fossils. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiv, 409.

Knight, Charles.

  • On the Teeth of the Leiodon. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 358, pls. xxiv-xxvi; 1874. Pl. xxiv—figs. A-F, Leiodon haumuriensis, Hector; fig. G, Mauisaurus (tooth ?); fig. H, tooth of Plesiosaurus traversii. Pl. xxv, Leiodon. Pl. xxvi, Taniwhasaurus (?).

Lydekker, R.

  • Cat. Fossil Reptilia in the British Museum, vol. ii. [P. 113, Ichthyosaurus hectori, Lydd., I., Australia; Hector, T., vi, p. 355: p. 118, Cimoliosaurus tenuis, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 345; 1874: p. 216, Cimoliosaurus haasti, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 346: p. 220, Cimoliosaurus australis, Owen, Rep. B.A., 1861, Trans. of Sec., p. 122; 1862 (Leiodon, Squalodon, Zeuglodon): p. 245, Cimoliosaurus hoodi, Owen, Geol. Mag., Dec. i, vol. vii, 53(1870), plesiosaur: p. 247, Plesiosaurus holmesi, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 344: Plesiosaurus traversi, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, p. 345: Plesiosaurus mackayi, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 345: Mauisaurus latibranchialis, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 350.]

McKay, A.

  • Mataura Plant Beds. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 13, –80, p. 39.

  • Fossils from West Coast of South Island. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 8, –74, p. 74.

  • Fossils from Hokonui District. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 11, –78, p. 49.

  • Fossils from Mount Potts. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 11, –78, p. 91.

  • Reports relative to Collection of Fossils in South-east District of Otago: Caversham to Catlin's River. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 59; –73.

  • Reports relative to Collection of Fossils made in East Cape District, North Island. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 116; –73.

  • On the Reptilian Beds of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 581.

  • Curiosity-shop, Rakaia River, Canterbury: Notes to accompany a Collection of Fossils from that Locality. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 75; –80.

  • On the Genus Rhynchonella. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiii, 396.

  • On a Diatom Deposit near Pakaraka, Bay of Islands. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii, 375, and xxv, 375.

Marshall, P.

  • Some New Zealand Fossil Cephalopods. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xli, 143.

Montgomery, A.

  • Some Fossil Plants in Quartzite at Pukerau, Southland. N.Z. Jour. Sci., vol. i, 1882, p. 141.

Murdoch, R.

  • Description of some New Species of Pliocene Mollusca from the Wanganui District, with Notes on other Described Species. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxii, 216.

Newton, E. Tully.

  • On two Chimæroid Jaws from the Lower Greensand of New Zealand, June 7, 1876. Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxii, p. 326; 1876 (No. 127). [Ischyodus brevirostris, Agassiz, pl. xxi, figs. 1–5; Callorhynchus hectori, Newton, sp. nov., figs. 6–9.]

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Owen, Professor.

  • Notice of some Saurian Fossils discovered by J. H. Hood, Esq., at Waipara, Middle Island, N.Z. [Plesiosaurus hoodii, owen; P. crassicostatus, Owen.] Geol. Mag., 68, Feb. 1870, vol. vii, pl. iii.

  • On Reptilian Fossils discovered by Mr. Cockburn Hood in New Zealand. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1861, p. 122.

Park, James.

  • On the Older Fossiliferous Rocks in Nelson. Rep. Geol. Explor. N.Z., 1885, p. 178. [Deals mainly with fossils from Silurian rocks at Baton River, a list of which is given—mostly brachiopods.]

  • On the Geology of Western Portion of Wellington Province and Part of Taranaki. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., –87, p. 24. [Gives extensive lists of Pliocene fossils from localities around Wanganui, and Waitotara.]

  • Marine Tertiaries of Otago and Canterbury: [Extensive Lists of Fossils.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, 489.

  • Description of a New Species of Pecten from the Oamaru Series [P. (Pseudamussium) Huttoni—both valves smooth.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, 485.

Purnell, C. W.

  • On the Wanganui Tertiaries. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vii, 453.

Shakespear, Ethel M.R., D.Sc.

  • On some New Zealand Graptolites. Geol. Mag., n.s., dec. v, vol. v, No. 4, April 1908, p. 145.

Stache, Dr. Guido.

  • Die Foraminiferen der tertiaren Mergel des Whangaroa Hafnes (Prov. Auckland), Raglan. Mit 4 Tafeln, xxi-xxiv (159-304) Pal. Voy. “Novara,” 1864.

Stoliczka, Dr. Ferdinand.

  • Fossil Bryozen aus dem tertiaren Grunsandsteine der Orakei-Bay bei Auckland. Mit 4 Tafeln, xvii-xx (87-158) Pal. Voy. “Novara,” 1864.

Tate, Ralph.

  • On New Species of Belemnites and Salenia from the Middle Tertiaries of South Australia. Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxiii, p. 257, No. 130; 1877. [Belemnites (Graphularia) senescens, n.s., fig. 1 (wood-cut). Also found in Oamaru and Kakanui beds. See Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1881, p. xxix.]

Tenison-Woods, Rev. J. E.

  • Palæontology of New Zealand, pt. iv [parts i, ii, and iii were never published]: Corals and Bryozoa of the Neozoic Period in New Zealand. Wellington, 1880. Pp. preface, i-v, 1–32. [3 plates (not numbered), 32 figs. This describes only the specimens exhibited in the N.Z. Court of the Sydney Exhibition.]

Thomson, J. Allan.

  • Fossils from Kakanui. [Three new species.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xl, 98, pl. xiv.

Traill, Charles.

  • On the Tertiary Series of Oamaru and Moeraki. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ii, 166.

Unger, Dr. Franz.

  • Fossile Pflanzenreste. Mit 5 Tafeln, pp. 1–3, Pal. Voy. “Novara,” Geol. Theil, I Bd., 2 Ab., pp. 1–13.

– 63 –

Vine, G. R., jun. (Hamilton, A.).

  • On the Foraminifera of the Tertiary Beds at Petane, near Napier. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiii, 393.

Waters, Arthur William.

  • On Tertiary Cyclostomatous Bryozoa from New Zealand. Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xliii, 1887, p. 337, pl. xviii.

  • On Tertiary Chilostomatous Bryozoa from New Zealand. Q.J. Geol. Soc., 1887, vol. xliii, p. 40, pls. vi-viii.

Woodward, Henry.

  • On a New Fossil Crab from the Tertiary of New Zealand, collected by Dr. Hector (with a note by Dr. Hector). Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxii, p. 51, pl. vii; 1875. [Harpactocarcinus tumidus. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., –74, p. 111.]

Zittel, Dr. Karl A.

  • Fossile Mollusken und Echinodermen (N.Z.). Mit 10 Tafeln, vi-xv, –68, Pal. Voy. “Novara.” 1864.

  • Fossile Mollusken und Echinodermen aus Neu-seeland; nebst Beitragen von Herrn Bergrath Fr. Ritter von Hauer und Prof. E. Suess. 10 Plates. See Geol. Mag., vol. i, p. 73; 1864.

Zittel, Count M.

  • General Notes from Proc. Imp. Geol. Instit., Vienna, Jan. 20, 1863.

  • On Hochstetter's Collection. See Q.J. Geol. Soc., 1863, vol. xix, pt. ii, p. 20.

Art. IX.—Notes on New Zealand Lepidoptera.

Communicated by G. V. Hudson, F.E.S.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 5th May, 1909.]

Caradrinidæ.

Melanchra decorata, Philp.

Mr. Philpott has sent me a ♀ of this species, with the request that I would describe it, as his description was taken from a faded specimen, and is therefore in some respects defective.

40 mm. Head mixed with whitish, olive-yellowish, pale-greenish, palecrimson, and dark-fuscous colouring. Palpi ochreous-whitish irrorated with crimson, second joint with a streak of black irroration. Thorax with strong anterior bifid crest, light pinkish-ochreous streaked and on collar barred with blackish and light-greenish. Forewings pale ochreous suffused with light olive-greenish; veins more or less marked with fine interrupted black lines; first and second lines double, very indistinct, darker greenish, waved, forming pairs of small blackish spots on costa, second strongly retracted near costa so as to be parallel to costa for some distance; median line dark

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fuscous, angulated near costa, on costa blackish; orbicular and reniform finely outlined with black, orbicular rather large, suboval, oblique, reniform large, transverse-oval, pale whitish-rosy; a broad irregular dark-fuscous streak above fold from base to termen, including a strong black line along fold, edged beneath by an irregular streak of white suffusion from before middle to subterminal line, on which it is bent upwards for a short distance; subterminal line otherwise faintly indicated, pale, waved, traversing an oblique dark reddish-fuscous suffused streak above middle: cilia pale ochreous, suffused with greenish and barred with fuscous. Hindwings rather dark grey, tinged with pinkish, with suffused darker grey discal spot and terminal band: cilia light greyish-ochreous, with a greenish-fuscous shade.

A distinct species.

I have been asked to express an opinion on the classification adopted by Sir George Hampson in his “British Museum Catalogue” for this family, so far as it relates to New Zealand species. The matter cannot be discussed in detail without entering on a general survey of other faunas; but, speaking generally, I may say that I see no reason at present to alter my previous views as to the limits and constitution of the New Zealand genera. I should not recommend any student of the group to adopt the generic divisions employed by Sir George Hampson unless he finds that he can in practice always clearly distinguish these genera by the structural characters employed, and also finds that these genera appear to him truly natural—that is, such that the species in each genus are more closely allied together through inheritance of common characters than they are to the species of any other genus. I do not myself find this, and am therefore at present unable to adopt his classification, which appears to me to conflict with geographical distribution, instead of explaining it.

Crambidæ.

Crambus thrincodes, n. sp.

♂. 28 mm. Head white, with a light ochreous spot behind eye. Labial palpi fuscous, basal joint white. Maxillary palpi white, towards base dark fuscous. Antennæ white, beneath brownish-ochreous. Thorax white, patagia suffused with pale ochreous and sprinkled with dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous tinged with yellow. Forewings elongate, very narrow, gradually dilated, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, oblique; light ochreous-brownish, veins sprinkled with dark fuscous; a broad white costal streak, suffused beneath, enclosing a narrow blackish costal streak from base almost to apex, which is divided into three portions by rather broad interruptions of white before middle and at ¾ (representing origin of first and second lines); on lower margin of the white streak are a longitudinal projection at base, and an inwards-oblique projection representing first line, space between and beyond these to near middle suffused with blackish; beyond this a suffused white streak in disc to ¾, between which and costal streak is enclosed a round white discal spot at ⅔ edged with dark fuscous and centred with a fuscous dot; second line from costal streak to dorsum before tornus white, sharply dentate, indented near dorsum: cilia light brownish, partially barred with white. Hindwings whitish-ochreous; a small spot of grey suffusion on costa before apex; cilia ochreous-whitish.

Kaitoke; one specimen received from Mr. G. V. Hudson. This remarkable and very distinct species is intermediate in character between

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flexuosellus, tuhualis, and cyclopicus, partaking nearly equally of the characters of all three; it is probably very local.

Tortricidæ.

Cacœcia acrocausta, Meyr.

Additional specimens sent by Mr. A. Philpott show the variation of colouring to be very considerable; one ♂ is very uniformly coloured, forewings light brownish, with two or three black scales, costal extremity of central fascia and costal patch indicated by two very small darker spots, hindwings whitish-grey; three females are whitish-ochreous more or less strongly tinged with yellow, with well-marked small yellow-brown or dark fuscous spots on costa in middle and at ¾, and sometimes one at ⅕, dorsal extremities of basal patch and central fascia and sometimes intervening space clouded with brown, hindwings ochreous-whitish. The species is, however, always recognisable by the form of wing and palpi, the dark patch in apical cilia (least conspicuous in the ♂ mentioned above), and stalking of 6 and 7 of hindwings.

Phaloniadæ.

Heterocrossa adreptella, Walk.

A ♂ sent by Mr. A. Philpott has a streak of blackish suffusion along fold throughout, and another rising from this near base and traversing disc to ⅗.

Œcophoridæ.

Borkhausenia paratrimma, n. sp.

♂. 15 mm. Head and thorax ferruginous-ochreous. Palpi ochreous irrorated with dark fuscous. Antennæ dark grey. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, termen very obliquely rounded; ferruginous-ochreous; very indistinct oblique fasciæ of fuscous irroration before and beyond middle; some slight fuscous irroration towards apex: cilia ferruginous-ochreous. Hindwings and cilia grey.

Invercargill, in December; two specimens received from Mr. A. Philpott. Allied to B. siderodeta, but certainly distinct, being rather broader-winged; differs by absence of dark fuscous irroration in forewings, and grey, not dark fuscous, hindwings.

Borkhausenia amnopis, n. sp.

♀. –18 mm. Head whitish-ochreous, sides of face sprinkled with grey. Palpi whitish-ochreous irrorated with dark fuscous, apex of joints whitish. Antennæ dark grey ringed with white, alternate rings wider. Thorax whitish-ochreous irrorated with dark fuscous. Abdomen dark grey, segmental margins white. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, termen almost straight, very oblique; whitish-ochreous, irregularly mixed with whitish and pale ferruginous-ochreous, and irrorated throughout with grey; a short oblique blackish streak representing plical stigma; first discal stigma moderate, round, blackish, beyond plical; second discal larger, round, fuscous or dark fuscous, edged with black, connected with tornus by a patch of fuscous suffusion; a curved black irregular subterminal line, indented near costa and sinuate above dorsum, more or less edged with white anteriorly; some fine blackish irroration towards costa before and beyond middle: cilia whitish-ochreous, more or

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less sprinkled with dark fuscous, especially on a tornal patch, beneath which is an ochreous-whitish patch. Hindwings grey; cilia pale grey, with grey subbasal shade.

Invercargill, from November to March; two specimens received from Mr. A. Philpott. Allied to contextella, but somewhat broader-winged, and distinguished by the general grey irroration, black subterminal line, which is place so that costal extremity is nearer apex, and grey hindwings.

Zirosaris, n. g.

Head with appressed hairs; ocelli present; tongue developed. Antennæ ¾, in ♂ shortly ciliated (⅔), basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, second joint beneath with dense long rough projecting scales throughout, terminal joint shorter than second, slender, acute. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Thorax with small posterior crest. Posterior tibiæ clothed with hairs above. Forewings with tufts of scales on surface; 2 nearly from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to apex, 11 from middle. Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia ½; 3 and 4 connate, 5–7 parallel.

Allied to Trachypepla, but with quite different palpi.

Zirosaris amorbas, n. sp.

♂. 19 mm. Head and thorax blackish, finely sprinkled with greywhitish. Palpi blackish, second joint finely sprinkled with whitish, terminal joint with two oblique whitish lines. Antennæ blackish, finely dotted with white. Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental margins white. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex rounded, termen obliquely rounded; dark purplish-fuscous mixed with blackish; basal area, an undefined spot on middle of costa, and four diminishing spots on costa posteriorly finely sprinkled with whitish; two raised tufts containing a few brownish-ochreous scales transversely placed in disc at about ⅕; stigmata formed by raised black tufts, plical beneath first discal, second discal transverse, edged with white posteriorly, above the two discal stigmata are a few pale brownish-ochreous scales; a curved posterior line of whitish irroration indistinctly indicated: cilia dark grey with some white points and a blackish-grey shade. Hindwings dark fuscous, towards apex irrorated with blackish; cilia fuscous, with blackish subbasal shade.

Broken River, Canterbury; one specimen collected by Mr. J. H. Lewis, received through Mr. A. Philpott.

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Art. X.—Lepidoptera from the Kermadec Islands.

Communicated by G. V. Hudson, F.E.S.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 6th October, 1909.]

In the following complete list of Lepidoptera taken, those species marked with an asterisk were identified by Mr. Hudson and not seen by me; of the rest, examples were forwarded to me for identification. I will begin by summarising the geographical relations of this portion of the fauna, and then give a systematic list of the species.

The total number of species is 46. Of this number, 24 are common insects of wide general distribution, which, owing to their numerical abundance, powers of flight, and adaptation to food-plants of common occurrence, have found their way to suitable stations throughout a more or less large area of the warmer regions of the globe, though one or two of them may be sometimes transported by man: these 24 may be disregarded. It may be noticed that 14 of these have not yet occurred in New Zealand; probably some will still be found there as stragglers, but in general the New Zealand climate is too temperate for them or their food-plants.

Of the remaining 22 species, 4 occur also in New Zealand and Australia (one of these, Monopis ethelella, being semi-domestic, and recently found also in South Africa), 6 occur in New Zealand only, 1 in Australia only, 3 in other Pacific islands, and 8 are at present only known as endemic. Since, however, the Lepidoptera of the Pacific islands are very little known, it is highly likely that some at least of these species will be found hereafter amongst other groups of these islands. Of the 8 endemic species, 2 are probably to be regarded as of New Zealand type, 3 of Pacific, and 3 of Australian, but it is quite possible that the 3 last may prove also to have Pacific representatives. In the present state of our knowledge I should think that the above facts indicated that the islands have always been considerably isolated, and have received their lepidopterous fauna by the accidental immigration, across a wide stretch of sea, of specimens carried by strong winds.

In the following list of species the number of specimens taken is mentioned in each case; the full geographical distribution of each species is given; and the food-plant of the larva is mentioned whenever known, as it must always be taken into account as a factor in distribution:—

Arctiadæ.

*Nyctemera annulata, Boisd.

12 specimens. New Zealand. Larva on Senecio.

*Utetheisa pulchella, L.

10 specimens. Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific islands, New Zealand. Larva on grasses, &c.

Caradrinidæ.

Leucania loreyi, Dup.

3 specimens. Southern Europe, southern Asia, Africa, Australia, Fiji.

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*Leucania unipuncta, Hw.

7 specimens. North and South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand. Larva on grasses.

Tiracola plagiata, Walk.

5 specimens. Central America, India, Malay Islands, Australia, Pacific islands. Larva on Emilia.

*Heliothis armigera, Hb.

5 specimens. North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific islands, New Zealand. Larva on many vegetables and other plants.

*Agrotis ypsilon, Rott.

2 specimens. North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand. Larva on many plants.

Caradrina reclusa, Walk.

11 specimens. India, Malay Islands, New Guinea, Fiji.

Spodoptera littoralis, Boisd.

18 specimens. Southern Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific islands. Larva on Lantana.

Eriopus Maillardi, Gn.

8 specimens. Africa, southern Asia, New Guinea, Pacific islands.

Perigea capensis, Gn.

14 specimens. Africa, Asia, Australia, Pacific islands. Larva on Acanthaceœ.

Plusiadæ.

Hydrillodes surata, n. sp.

♂ ♀. –34 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax in ♂ dark fuscous, in ♀ ochreous-fuscous; palpi in ♂ rectangularly bent at both joints, very densely clothed with rather rough scales throughout except tip of terminal joint, especially largely towards apex of second joint, which much exceeds crown, terminal joint as long as second, in ♀ recurved, sickle-shaped, first two joints densely scaled, terminal joint ⅘ of second, with appressed scales, posteriorly with loosely projecting hairs throughout, apex pointed. Anterior legs in ♂ with hairs of coxæ forming a strong apical brush, femora short, unevenly swollen, beneath with dense rough projecting hairs longest at apex, tibiæ swollen, beneath with dense rough projecting hairs throughout, middle and posterior femora in ♂ beneath with rough projecting hairs diminishing to apex. Forewings elongate-traingular, apex rounded, termen rounded, slightly waved, somewhat oblique; dark fuscous, in ♀ suffused with light brownish-ochreous from base to second line; first and second lines in ♀ hardly paler, in ♀ pale ochreous, edged with dark fuscous, slightly waved, first almost straight, second little beyond middle, curved on upper ⅔; a dark-fuscous transverse-linear discal mark between them; subterminal line represented by an irregular series of whitish-ochreous dots connected by dark suffusion; cilia rather dark fuscous. Hindwings light fuscous, with faint darker postmedian shade; cilia whitish-fuscous.

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2 specimens; 9 others taken. There are three examples of the same species in the British Museum from the Solomon Islands; it will probably be found widely distributed in the Pacific islands. The species is nearly allied to the common Indian and Australian H. lentalis, Gn., but larger, and certainly distinct by the structural characters of palpi and legs.

Hypenodes costæstrigalis, Stph. (exsularis, Meyr.).

2 specimens. Europe, Australia, New Zealand. A closely allied form occurs in the Hawaiian Islands.

Hypena gonospilais, Walk.

13 specimens. Java, Pacific islands.

Thermesia rubricans, Boisd.

2 specimens. Africa, southern Asia, Pacific islands.

*Plusia chalcites, Esp.

4 specimens. North and South America, southern Europe, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, Pacific islands. Larva on various plants.

*Achæa melicerte, Drury.

1 specimen. Africa, Asia, Australia, Pacific islands. New Zealand.

Hydriomenidæ.

Phrissogonus laticostatus, Walk.

1 ♂, 1 ♀. Australia.

Phrissogonus denotatus, Walk.

3 specimens. Australia, New Zealand. Larva on Brachyglottis repanda.

*Chloroclystis indicataria, Walk.

1 specimen. New Zealand.

Hydriomena officiosa, n. sp.

♀. 25 mm. Head and thorax brownish mixed with pale ochreous, face with moderate tuft, thorax with two dark-grey bars. Palpi moderate, dark fuscous, base of second and third joints whitish. Forewings triangular, termen almost straight, slightly waved, rather oblique; brownish, irrorated with blackish and whitish, with almost straight, somewhat waved, darkfuscous striæ; edge of basal patch slightly whitish-margined, angulated near costa; edges of median band somewhat black-marked, whitish-margined, posterior above middle with a slight distinctly black-marked sinuation, followed by a small patch of undefined pale-ochreous suffusion; discal dot linear, blackish; subterminal line waved, slender, whitish. Hindwings with termen rounded, waved; grey, towards dorsum with dark-fuscous and whitish striæ.

1 specimen; 5 others taken. Nearest to the New Zealand H. deltoidata but easily distinguished by the smaller size and grey hindwings.

*Euchœca rubropunctaria, Dbld.

1 specimen, in very poor condition. Australia, New Zealand. Larva on Haloragis alata.

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Sterrhidæ.

*Leptomeris rubraria, Dbld.

17 specimens. Australia, New Zealand.

Nymphalidæ.

*Anosia bolina, L.

1 ♂ specimen. India, Malay Islands, Australia, Pacific islands, New Zealand.

*Vanessa itea, F.

3 specimens. Australia, Norfolk Island, New Zealand.

Satyridæ.

*Melanitis leda, L.

1 specimen. Africa, southern Asia, Australia, Pacific islands.

Phycitidæ.

Homœosoma anaspila, Meyr.

8 specimens. New Zealand.

Pyraustidæ.

Eranistis, n. g.

Face rather oblique; ocelli present; tongue developed. Antennæ ¾ Labial palpi moderate, ascending, second joint dilated with rough projecting scales, tufted towards apex beneath, terminal joint very short, loosely scaled. Maxillary palpi moderate, porrected, loosely scaled. Forewings with 3 almost from angle, 4 and 5 stalked, 7 out of 8 near base, 9 and 10 out of 8 beyond 7, 11 almost connate with 8. Hindwings 1; frenulum in ♀ simple; 4 and 5 stalked, 7 out of 6 near origin, anastomosing with 8 to middle.

This curious genus differs from all others in the Pyraustidœ by the origin of vein 7 of the forewings from 8; it does, notwithstanding, belong here, and not to the Pyralididœ, and is an instance of the independent and exceptional acquisition of a character which is normally characteristic of another family. It is undoubtedly allied to the group of Nymphula and Perisyntrocha; the simple frenulum of ♀ is an interesting and unusual character, but found in some species of that group.

Eranistis pandora, n. sp.

♀. 22mm. Head and thorax light brownish-ochreous. Labial palpi light brownish-ochreous sprinkled with dark fuscous, white towards base beneath, tip white. Maxillary palpi pale ochreous banded with blackish. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa moderately arched towards apex, apex obtuse, termen obliquely bowed; brownish-ochreous, thinly sprinkled with dark fuscous; costa suffused with darkfuscous irroration towards base; lines represented by very undefined thick shades of dark-fuscous irroration, first about ¼, slightly curved, second about ¾, nearly parallel to termen, space beyond this more irrorated with dark fuscous. Hindwings ochreous-white. Undersurface of forewings and hindwings suffusedly whitish, with a bent dark-grey post-median line becoming obsolete dorsally.

1 specimen; another taken. The example described is in indifferent condition, but is so distinct as to be easy of recognition.

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Dracænura ægialitis, n. sp.

♂. 26mm. Head and thorax pale whitish-ochreous, face fuscous, shoulders suffused with fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, white towards base beneath. Antennæ wbitish-ochreous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, segmental margins whitish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa posteriorly moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen gently rounded, oblique; pale greyish-ochreous, slightly tinged with fuscous; costa suffused with fuscous towards base; lines thick, suffused, fuscous, first from ⅕ of costa to ⅓ of dorsum, slightly curved, second just before ¾, nearly parallel to termen, slightly indented beneath costa and on fold; roundish orbicular and transverse discal spots fuscous; cilia pale greyish-ochreous. Hindwings with termen rounded; whitish; a thick grey nearly straight slightly waved postmedian line; a moderate suffused greyish-ochreous terminal fascia, towards termen fuscous-tinged; cilia pale greyish-ochreous, tips whitish.

1 specimen; 5 others taken. A true Dracœnura in all respects, with the peculiar neuration of hindwings in ♂; perhaps nearest pelochra, but quite different in colour. The genus Dracœnura is characteristic of the South Pacific islands, where it is probably rather extensive.

Diasemia ramburialis, Dup.

9 specimens. North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific islands.

Hymenia fascialis, Cr. (recurvalis, F.).

13 specimens. Central and South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, Pacific islands.

Scoparia fragosa, n. sp.

♀. 13mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, mixed with white, patagia mixed with dark fuscous. Palpi 2 ½, fuscous, upper margin white. Abdomen pale ochreous. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, posteriorly dilated, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, oblique; fuscous suffusedly mixed with whitish, with scattered black scales; a blackish streak from base of costa to disc beyond ⅕, interrupted beneath costa; lines cloudy, white, confused with the general whitish suffusion, first irregularly dentate, edged with blackish towards costa posteriorly, second unusually approximated to termen, acutely angulated, indented above angle; orbicular and claviform elongate, blackish, resting on first line, claviform edged beneath with whitish-ochreous suffusion; discal mark elongate-X-shaped, blackish, edged beneath with whitish-ochreous; a blackish costal spot above this; subterminal line obsolete; cilia whitish, basal half barred with fuscous (imperfect). Hindwings grey-whitish; cilia whitish.

1 specimen. Denham Bay, Sunday Island. Not very near to any New Zealand or Australian species; on a careful comparison it is perhaps nearest to the Hawaiian S. catactis, Meyr., and is decidedly of general Hawaiian type.

Pyralididæ.

Endotricha mesenterialis, Walk.

12 specimens. Southern Asia, Australia, Pacific islands.

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Pterophoridæ.

Sphenarches caffer, Z.

2 specimens. Africa, southern Asia, Australia, Pacific islands.

Tortricidæ.

Capua semiferana, Walk.

3 specimens. New Zealand.

Eucosmidæ.

Spilonota melanotreta, n. sp.

♀. 22mm. Head, palpi, and thorax rather dark fuscous mixed with whitish, patagia tinged with brownish. Abdomen dark grey. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen gently rounded, oblique; brownish, suffusedly mixed with grey-whitish, and sprinkled with dark fuscous; costa with oblique alternate long and short dark strigulæ; an irregular streak of blackish suffusion along basal third of dorsum; an irregular streak of dark-brown suffusion mixed with blackish along submedian fold from base to middle, and a similar longitudinal streak in disc from ⅓ to ¾, connected posteriorly with an elongate blackish spot above middle nearly reaching termen; a very small irregular black apical spot; three or four minute black dots towards termen on lower half, and three or four others on central third of termen; cilia fuscous, with rows of whitish points edged anteriorly with blackish. Hindwings with 3 and 4 long-stalked; grey, on veins and towards termen suffused with dark fuscous; cilia grey-whitish, with fuscous subbasal shade.

1 specimen; 8 other taken.

*Bactra noteraula, Wals. (straminea, Meyr.).

1 specimen. New Zealand.

Polychrosis meliscia, n. sp.

♀. 18mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous, second joint of palpi finely sprinkled with dark fuscous towards middle. Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen gently rounded, oblique; 2 from ¾ of cell; whitish-ochreous finely speckled with dark fuscous, and irregularly strewn with small ferruginous-ochreous strigulæ; markings faint, indefinite, formed by greater development of dark speckling and strigulation; a moderate basal patch, outer edge nearly straight, rather oblique; central fascia indicated by a broad costal blotch reaching half across wing and a patch before tornus; cilia whitish-ochreous, obscurely barred with ferruginous-ochreous. Hindwings grey-whitish, posteriorly faintly strigulated with grey; cilia whitish.

1 specimen; 1 other taken.

Cosmopterygidæ.

Stagmatophora ællotricha, Meyr.

2 specimens. New Zealand.

Pachyrhabda antinoma, n. sp.

♂. 9mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs silvery-white, terminal joint of palpi with anterior edge dark fuscous; antennæ greyish

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beneath; anterior legs suffused with dark fuscous, posterior tibiæ with a small blackish apical spot above. Abdomen light yellowish, on sides and beneath silvery-white. Forewings narrowly elongate-lanceolate; silvery-whitish, faintly ochreous-tinged; extreme costal edge dark grey on basal half; cilia ochreous-whitish. Hindwings grey-whitish; cilia whitish. Undersurface of forewings suffused with dark grey.

1 specimen, taken in July.

Gracilariadæ.

Gracilaria octopunctata, Turn.

6 specimens. India, Australia.

Plutellidæ.

Glyphipteryx scolias, n. sp.

♀. 8mm. Head and thorax light greyish-bronze. Palpi with four whorls of blackish white-tipped scales, without tuft. Antennæ bronzy-fuscous. (Abdomen broken.) Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex acute, termen extremely obliquely rounded; 7 and 8 stalked; greyish-bronze; six whitish costal streaks edged anteriorly with dark-fuscous suffusion, first from middle, oblique, reaching half across wing, second at ¾, equally long, less oblique, third short, cloudy, and less defined, remaining three short, direct, close together before apex; an irregularly sinuate slender silvery-whitish oblique streak from dorsum before tornus, nearly reaching apex of second costal; a silvery-whitish dot on middle of termen; a round black apical dot; cilia bronzy-whitish, with a black subbasal shade, interrupted with whitish below apex, with a fine black line projecting from interruption, above apex with a black hook, and with four fine black bars in costal cilia between streaks. (Hindwings missing.)

1 specimen. Denham Bay. Very nearly allied to G. iocheœra from New Zealand, but that species is larger, and has the prætornal streak straight, and the terminal silvery-whitish dot replaced by a short streak. I have a good series of it, and these characters are constant.

Plutella maculipennis, Curt.

6 specimens. Quite cosmopolitan. Larva on cabbage, turnip, and other Cruciferœ.

Tineidæ.

Opogona aurisquamosa, Butl.

2 specimens; 21 others taken. Hawaiian and South Pacific isles. Larva on sugar-cane and banana.

Decadarchis flavistriata, Wals.

1 specimen; 2 others taken. Hawaiian Isles. The example examined differs from the description and figure of the single original type in having a black dot representing plical stigma, and the streak at base of costal cilia towards apex blackish. I do not think, however, that it can be separated specifically. Hindwings with 5 and 6 stalked, 6 to costa.

*Monopis ethelella, Newm.

3 specimens. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa. A semi-domestic species, of which the larva probably feeds on refuse.

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Art. XI.—Early History of Rangitikei, and Notes on the Ngati Apa Tribe.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 6th October, 1909.]

Summary of Contents.

Chapter I.—Introduction—Ngati Apa district—Kura-haupo canoe—Table 1—Former inhabitants—Taniwha Tutae-poroporo—Hau's journey—Tamatea's travels—Custom known as uruuru-whenua—Tama-kopiri's wars and death—Table 2, showing Tamatea, Tama-kopiri, &c.—Journeyings of Ma-tangi—Table 3, showing the ancestor Ma-tangi, &c.

Chapter II.—Apa-hapai-taketake's theft—Resulting troubles—Table 4, showing the time of Awa-tope—Residence at Roto-a-ira—Various fights around Roto-a-ira—Ngati Apa extending south—Hau-iti—Fighting relating to Hau-iti—Table 5, showing Hau-iti's position.

Chapter III.—Whare-pu-rakau's time—Defeat of Ngati Wahine Tribe—Punaki-ao—Invasion of Awa-rua by Ngati Tama-wahine—Defeat of invaders—Dispute between Tahuna and Whare-pu-rakau—Tahuna's defeat—Whare-pu-rakau's death—Whanganui's invasion and defeat at Moa-whango—Tini-o-te-kotiri fight at the Potaka Pa—Resulting troubles—Dispute between Rangi-pa-whai-tiri and wives—Tukai-ora's capture—Table No. 6—Death of Te Kiore and Hoko-o-te-rangi—Capture of Kiriweka—Series of engagements between Ngati Apa and Ngati Hau-iti—Tu-whare—Te Rau-paraha expedition—Te Mawai's visit to Awa-rua—The Kai-inanga fight—The bewitching of Ngati Hau-iti by Ngati Apa.

Chapter IV.—The Ngati Rau-kawa migration known as Heke Karihi-tahi—Death of Ika-whaka-ariki—The bewitching by Rangi-te-muri—Defeat of Rangi-tane at Turaki-awatea—Rangi-tane's stratagem—Murder of Rangi-hau-tu—Defeat of Rangitane at Harakeke Pa—The Tuke-a-maui fight at Pari-kino—Te Hina, of the Kauae Subtribe, causes trouble—Custom called tunutunu ki te ahi—Civil fighting at Awa-mate—The murder of Kakaho.

Chapter V.—Te Hakeke revenges the death of Rangi-hau-tu—Table 7, showing the ancestor Kauae—Capture of Kaewa and Ngoki—Skirmish with Mua-upoko—More civil troubles—Te Rau-paraha settles on Kapiti—Capture of Te Hakeke—Defeat of Ngati Apa by Rangi-tane—Murder of Hatoa by Rangi-tane—Ngati Apa's revenge.

Chapter VI.—Battle of Manga-toetoe—Battle of Taku-te-rangi—The third Rau-kawa heke (Heke Mai-raro)—Hao-whenua fight—Birth of Kawana Hunia—Oriori or lullaby—Te Hakeke a peacemaker—Kohuru-po battle—Table 8, showing Taka-rangi's descent—Death of Te Ao-kehu—Rau-kawa heke (Houhou rongo ki Hao-whenua)—Final skirmishes.

Illustrations.

Plate IX.—Sketch-map illustrating history, and showing most of the places named.

Plate X.—Sketch-map from very old Maori sketches, showing early occupation of lower Whanga-ehu and Turakina Valleys by Ngati Apa people.

Plate XI.—A photograph of an old plan of Kai-kokopu Lake. The chief pa stood on the narrow neck between the lagoons, and is interesting as being the last place in the district where remnants of ancient palisading can be seen; the lines of stumps running into the lake still being in good preservation.

Chapter I.

It has been my good fortune to have the curtain of obscurity of the longago past slightly drawn aside for me, and so to gain a glance into the dim and fast-fading history of our Island at a time when it was to us an enchanted, dreamlike land.

Few people have had so much written about them, in so comparatively few years, too, as the Natives of New Zealand; but there is something fascinating in the old Maori who sits half-dreaming, conjuring up those other days when fighting and feasting were almost all that was worth living for, and telling us of them in stories handed down by his forefathers.

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The history of the old-time Maori wars—i.e., of Maori with Maori—is a subject comparatively unknown, for, apart from the “Journal of the Polynesian Society,” little has been published regarding it, and of this particular tribe we have no printed records at all. This paper is little more than a collection of scattered fragments, gathered with much labour and patience. Everything pertaining to the olden days—“the good old Maori days”—has become most difficult to learn, and soon all opportunity will be lost, for the old men with their stores of knowledge are almost gone, and in a few more years at most will have passed through Reinga's gate.

I had hoped that the task of delving into the old history of this district might be undertaken by others who, I am confident, have a deeper knowledge of Maori lore, and are therefore better qualified to handle a difficult subject. However, I trust the following notes will prove interesting to some at least who, like the author, have lived all their days in Maoriland, this “sea-girt Eldorado of the south.”

The district inhabited in former times, and to some extent even yet, by the Ngati Apa tribes was roughly all the country drained by the Whanga-ehu, Turakina, and Rangi-tikei Rivers, extending as far south as Manawa-tu, and bounded on the north-east by the Ruahine Mountains. A large tract of open and broken forest country about the Moa-whango district called Mokai-Patea was their chief inland home, and Parewa-nui, near the Rangi-tikei River, some eight miles from the sea, was their largest pa. They claim to be descended chiefly from Ruatea, who came to New Zealand in the Kura-haupo canoe about 1350; but all inquiries concerning this ancestor and his great canoe have yielded but little information.

Table 1.
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“Look yonder,” said one old man, “behold those distant hills” (pointing to the Ruahine Range). “On those mountains are growing the totara and rimu, the maire and miro tree; but who can tell from this distance what they are? Our forefathers could have told you of these things; we cannot: the haze and mist of time and distance obscure all detail, and our vision cannot pierce the fog. Say, friend, can you tell me of your great navigator Cook, all who were with him, and what they did?” Collapse of questioner, and subject changed.

They were at one time a very strong and numerous people, but they suffered severely at the hands of Te Rau-paraha of the Ngati Toa; and the Ngati Rau-kawa incursion in the early days of the nineteenthe century also greatly lessened their power and influence, so that to-day they are but a shadow of their former greatness: but of this later on.

The district mentioned, as well as other parts of New Zealand, seems to have been people with a numerous population long before the advent of the fleet in 1350; for when Tamatea visited the district—and to him is credited the honour of being the first to travel inland—he found a numerous people (the descendants of a former and forgotten migration) wherever he went, and if the story of the taniwha Tutae-poroporo is to be believed (and who would doubt it!) the Whanga-nui Valley and lower Rangi-tikei districts were thickly populated even in those early times; while the additional evidence of the Ngati Hotu, an aboriginal tribe liveing round Lake Taupo, helps to prove the presence of people here long before the great migration of 1350 from Hawaiki.

As a full account of the doings of the taniwha Tutae-poroporo has already appeared in the Jour. Polynesian Soc., a very brief outline of the legend will be sufficient for the present purpose: Tutae-poroporo was originally a young shark that was cautht by a man of the Ngati Apa Trible named Tu-ariki, who lived at Rangi-tikei.

(Although Tu-ariki is here shoen as a Ngati Apa man, the Ngati Apa did not arrive in the rangi-tikei district till several generations later.) He caught the fish when on a visit to Nelson (Whakatu), and, seeing something special in it, he kept it alive, made a pet of it, and bgrought it backwith him to Rangi-tikei, where he prepared a place for it in the Rangitikei River just where the Tutae-nui Stream joins the river, and here he recited karakias over it, and turned it into a taniwha. After a time a warparty from Whanga-nui came along, and Tu-ariki was killed, and the taniwha, missing his master, started out to look for him. He eventually took up his abode under Taumaba-aute (Shakespeare's cliff), on the Whanga-hui River, and here he devoured the canoes and their crews as they travelled up and down the river. Soon the Whanga-nui people became afraid of the creature, and sought help to be rid of him. They send to Ao-kehu, of Wai-totara, a celebrated taniwha-slayer of eighteen generations back, who devised means of killing the monster by hollowing out a sort of box canoe with a close-fitting lid. He got inside this affair, and floated

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down-stream past Tutae-poroporo's lair, ans as soon as the taniwha saw him he rushed out and swallowed both box and Ao-kehu. Thereupon Aokehu got out of his box, slashed about with his weapons, cut a way out for himself, and so obtained glory and renown for ever.

To Hau, one of the immigrants in the Aotea canoe. (1350), is credited the honour of giving names to the various places along this coast, as embodied in a very old song, a translation of part of which is as follows:—

Then Hau, taking soil of the land in one hand,

Together with the staff of Turo

(Went forth on his journey giving names)

First he crossed the river, and from its size called it Whanga-nui (great harbour);

Then next he dipped up water, and called it Whanga-ehu (harbour of spray);

Again, he felled a tree to cross, and named it Turakina (throw it down);

Beyond, with long stride, he reached, and named Rangi-tikei (walking with long strides);

The next, with doubts as to his power of crossing, he called Manawa-tu (standing heart);

Then a whistling wind in his ears gave rise to Hokio,

And the ancient Awa-iti he named after himself, Ohau.

Speechmaking to his followers took place at Otaki.

Eto., etc.—Translation by S. Percy Smith

Tamatea is said to have been the captain of the Takitumu canoe; and his journey (according to Utiku Potaka) was somewhat as follows:—

Tamatea was the first person to travel inland from this district. He came from Here-taunga (Hastings), and went first of all to Te Papa-a-Tari-nukum his son Kahu-ngunu (from whom sprang the Ngati Kahu-ngunu (from whom sprang the Ngati Kahu-ngunu Tribe) accompanying him. Here Tari-nuku gave Tamatea a gift of food, at which his son was very angry, seeing a gift for his father but none for himself, so he left Tamatea and went back to Here-taunga alone. When Tamatea arrived at Puke-o-kahu (a hill north-east of Taihape, about fifteen miles distant) he put a lizard there, and then went on till he came to the waterfall Te Pounga, on the Moa-whango. Here he put some brands from his fire into the waterfull, and it is still called “The Firebrands of Tamatea.” Then he journeyed on to Tiki-rere, which drops as a waterfall into the Moa-whango, and there he placed a crayfish. Next he came to Whakatara, at Motu-kawa (a hill midway between Tu-ranga-rere and Taihape, about two miles to the east of the road), and there he placed another lizard. Then on he went ot Te Whaka-ua, on the south-west portion of the Awa-rua Block, where there is a ridge which he called, after himself, “The Jawbone of Tamatea.” Another place he called Harakeke-a-Tamatea (Tamatea's flax). Formerly when strangers went to that place (Whakaua) it would rain, but now these things have changed, and the stranger may come or may go without being so heralded.

There was a stone here that had some connection or understanding with the heavens above, for whenever the Native journeyed past that place, it was their custom (called uruuru-whenua) to break a small branch from the forest and throw it on the stone as an offering to secure them from hail and rain on their journey. The writer has been told of a similar place on the Kau-ara-paoa (Whanga-nui River); but at this place the Native gods still hold power, for on the two occasions when curiosity has led to the spot, a thunderstrom has quickly driven the curious to a place of refuge and shelter.

From that place he went on to Whaka-tara (about eight miles from Turakina up the river), at Turakina, where there is a taniwha, and then

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on to Putiki, from which place he travelled up the Whanga-nui River. A few miles above the Tanga-rakau tributary there is a fine reach, which he called after himself. Then on he journeyed to Taupo, gathering on his way from the river pas a crew of expert canoemen, with whom he wished to descend the Wai-kato. At Taupo a discussion arose as to which was the most difficult river to navigate, the Whanga-nui or the Wai-kato. The Whanga-nui men naturally supported the claims of their own river, so in the end the Taupo people dared the others to descend the rapids of the Waikato soon after it leaves Lake Taupo. A canoe was provided, and the Whanga-nui crew, with Rua-wharu (who was steersman on the Takitumu) at the steering-paddle, started down the river. A Taupo man accompained them as far as a little islet just above the Huka rapid and falls, where he jumped ashore, telling the others to proceed. They did so, and were soon flying down the channel just above the falls, not knowing what was before them. They soon discovered, to their cost; and it is said that Tamatea's canoe can still be seen under the falls, held tight by the force of the falls in front of it. (We have looked hard for that canoe, but so far have failed to discover it.)

So perished Tamatea and his crew. As canoemen, their skill and bravery counted for nought amidst the thundering waters of the Huka. It was doubtless a pleasing incident to the men of Taupo, and proof positive that Whanga-nui had much to learn from Wai-kato.

[Note.—The above story originates at Taupo. Old chiefs of the Ngati Kahu-ngunu Tribe allow that Tamatea lost his canoe at the falls, but they affirm that he himself was saved. In proof of this the writer was told the story of Tamatea's after-life, and the narator also affirmed that he and other direct descendants from this old ancestor knew the cave where he was buried, and had seen the place.]

One of Tamatea's sons migrated to inland Patea about eighteen generations ago. His name was Tama-kopiri. He was the founder of the Ngati Tama Tribe. He came from Tu-ranga, but the present-day Natives at that place do not recognise him as one of Tamatea's sons. If not a son of the captain of the Takitumu, he was certainly descended from one of the Tamateas of that period—probably Tamatea Kopiri.

I have obtained a few notes relating to his wars, also an account of his death, which is worth placing on record, and is as follows:—

Tama-kopiri came to Patea with a taua, and made war on the Ngati Hotu there (the Ngati Hotu were an aboriginal tribe formerly owning Taupo). He was victorious, and so went on to Kaki-kino, where he again found the Ngati Hotu gathered, and a second time he attacked and conquered. He also found them at O-tama-kura, on the edge of the Opakaru bush, also at Ngapukara-nui and Pae-tutu, and in all these various engagements Tama-kopiri and his party were victorious. After all this fighting, the Ngati Tama, under the chief Tama-kopiri, attacked Te Kumete, which was the name of a settlement near Kauanga-roa belonging to Hai-rangi, who was the father of Kahu-kaka. At this place the daughter of Matapou, and granddaughter of Hai-rangi, was killed by Tama-kopiri. Her name was Tu-kai-rongo-reupea.

One evening Hai-rangi and his granddaughter went down from Aromango on a visit, and slept at Te Kumete. On their return the next day, they got as far as Houhou, on the banks of the Rangi-tikei River, near Rata, when they found the pa was surrounded by the war-party. They endeavoured to return unseen, but it was too late; they were perceived

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by the enemy, and Tama-kopiri started off in pursuit. Some of his people wished to go with him to assist; but he would not allow them, and said “You stay here: I am a chief, and can look after myself.” On hearing this remark, Hai-rangi knew that he was being pursued by a rangatira, and so made all haste to get awary; but, being on old man, and encumbered with the girl, he was unable to gain on his pursuer. He therefore hid his granddaughter in a flax-bush, and covered her with his own garment, thinking that, as his pursuer was a chief, if he happened to find her he would spare her life. After he had hidden her away he crossed over a stream and went up on a hill where there was hawk-snare set, from which place he could look down and see where his grandchild was hidden, without being discovered himself. After a time Tama-kopiri came along searching, and when he found the girl he speared her, and went on looking for her companion. Hai-rangi, looking down, saw all that happened, and with great anger he seized the hawk-snaring stick, rushed down the hill, attacked and killed Tama-kopiri with it; and this hill on which he was slain was afterwards known as Puke-o-kahu (the hill of the hawk) After killing Tama-kopiri, Hai-rangi scalped him, hung the scalp on his belt, and went cautiously back to see how it fared with the people in the pa. He climbed up an eminence overlooking the place, and when he found they were still all right, he called out to them, telling them what had happened, and sang about the death of his grandchild. When the war-party heard him they looked up, and saw Tama-kopiri's scalp hanging to the chief's girdle. This frightened them, and so, instead of further fighting, they proceeded to make peace, which was agreed upon by the people of the pa, although they still sought an opportunity of destroying that war-party and so it happened that one day, when the people of that party were just below the pa, digging fern-root, Hai-rangi and his people rushed down upon them, and before they had time to protect themselves many were killed; but the only person of note killed was Tama-kopiri, previously cut down and scalped by Hai-rangi. The chief Tama-tapui was in the Aro-mango Pa on this occasion.

On the next page is a genealogical table showing Tama-kopiri as a descendant from Tamatea, also some of the descendants of Kahu-ngunu; but, as previously stated, it is a disputed question whether these two were brothers. Indeed, many of these tables are rather conflicting, and although the utmost endeavours have been used to glean the truth, chiefly by comparing one man's statement with another's, yet it is difficult to eliminate all error. For the most part, I have written the narratives as I have received them, only making such alterations as were necessary.

For further lines of descent from Kahu-ngunu see Jour. Polynesian Soc., vol. v, p. 7.

Another whakapapa in my possession shows Tama-kopiri twenty generations back.

Another visitor who arrived and journeyed through the district, eventually settling here, was Ma-tangi, who came from Wai-rarapa about eighteen generations ago. He came hither, having heard that the place swarmed with flocks of birds (whirikoko= a flock of birds in flight). When he reached the summits of the Tara-rua Mountains he saw the first flight, so he called the place Tiro-hanga. The flock alighted at Tahuna-a-rua (near Palmerston North), so he followed them; but when he drew near they arose and flew very high—hence the name of Te Ao-rangi (near Feilding). They next alighted at Purakau, below Whaka-ari (trig. station between

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Table 2.
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Sandon and Awa-huri usually called Mount Stewart), in the bush; but again he disturbed them, and they flew on to Taumata-patiti. Next they alighted in the bush called Te Rakau-hou, near Mount Stewart. Matangi went into the bush, but found that the birds did not stay; and, as the trees were young, he gave the name above mentioned. Again they alighted in the bush, where he slept with his face to the ground; therefore he called that place Te Whaka-moe-takapu (near Kaka-riki), (railway-bridge near Greatford). Still following the birds, he arrived at a new country, and, taking a pole, he took a leap with it, calling the place Toko-rangi (a hill between Halcombe and the river on the cliffs above the Onepuhi Pa). Still following them, he reached a stream where he recited karakias; therefore he called the stream Wai-tapu (near Rata, one of the boundaries of the Manawa-tu Block). Again he followed the birds, and caught the sound of them, and so called the place Paroro-rangi. There are two ranges meeting at an angle—one is Paroro-rangi; on the other he stood and blew his horn, calling it Puto-rino (between Hunterville and the Rangi-tikei River). Still following the birds, he reached the upper Rangitikei, and, seeing that they had taken flight inland, he called the sopt Tiro-hanga; but the place is now called Te Papa-o-Hauiti (Rata). He followed them to the top of the ridge, where he halted and stamped on the ground, and so called the place Tapuae (a trig. shown on most maps). Again he went on, and, seeing them high up in the air above him, he called the place O-tama-kapua. Then he went along the river and again blew a blast on his horn, and there he called the place Puta-tara. Still on up the river he went till he came to a place where he grounded his staff, and called it Te Tokotoko-o-Matangi. Then he climbed the range and reached the top, calling it Whaka-ara-waru. From this place he watched the birds cross the river, and saw them alight; therefore he called the place Rangi-tauria. He was now almost exhausted, and gave up the chase; but the birds were also tired, and could not fly any further: so he and his children (for his children had followed him all the way) caught and killed them, and there they stayed and settled, and his children are still living at Rangi-tauria to this day.

“If you ask me,” continued the old man who gave the narrative, “whether I have been there and seen them, I answer Yes. I have seen the place, and have seen his children. They have been changed into 'spirits of the brook'—i.e., taniwhas—because they disobeyed the voice of their father when he told them to bring some water. I have myself seen the posts of his house, for they are still standing (450 years since that house was built). I have seen his children with my own eyes. If we all went up to them it would make no difference. Many attempts have been made to secure them with ropes, but in vain—they can release themselves at once by their magic powers. Their names are Hine-te-iwaiwa and Horoputa, her brother, and they are still at that place, for there Ma-tangi left them.” The lake which Ma-tangi's children still inhabit is near O-kaha-rau, and is called O-toea. His house was built at Whiti-anga, near the lake, and it was there that our friend saw the totara posts. It was Matangi who brought to this land the atua Kahu-kura, which came from Hawaiki in the Takitumu canoe. This atua was first taken to Te Awarua, but in the time of Te Ngahoa it was removed to Owhioi. All inquiries regarding the shape and power of this atua have yielded but little information beyond the fact that it was very large, and shone like fire, something after the shape of a comet, and had power of flight or movement. (other

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accounts affirm that Kahu-kura was lost at the Huka Falls when Tamatea's canoe went over.) After Ma-tangi's children left him he was returning to his old home, accompanied by his dog. He travelled down the Rangi-tikei River, but had the misfortune to lose his dog; and, as its name was Ranga-tira, he went about calling “Ranga-tira, Ranga-tira”; so that place was ever afterwards known as Ranga-tira (a well-known block between the Pou-rewa and Rangi-tikei Rivers). Many of Ma-tangi's descendants intermarried with Ngati Hau-iti.

Table 3.

[Note.—One of Utiku Potaka's grandchildren is named after one of the taniwhas—namely, Hine-te-iwaiwa.]

Chapter II.

The history of the next period is almost a blank. The early history of the Ngati Apa proper, as far as their traditions give us any enlightenment, extends back some twelve generations, when the founders of the tribe came into the district under the following circumstances:—

Apa-hapai-taketake, a son of Ruatea, who came in the Kura-haupo canoe, was an ancestor of the Ngati Apa, and to him this somewhat ill-fated tribe can trace the beginning of their misfortunes, as they trace their names. He seems to have coveted a pet moa (he mokai) belonging to Ngati Tu-whare-toa, and, not being able to restrain his desires, he stole the bird and made off with it; but, unfortunately for him, in this adventure he fell over a cliff and received an injury that resulted in permanent lameness;

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hence his companions, with fine humour, ever after denominated him Apakoki (Hop-and-go-one). Being a man of energy, he managed to get off with the bird in spite of his accident; and, if tradition speaks truly, he and his friends obtained a fine meal. When Ngati Tu-whare-toa discovered the theft, they naturally felt aggrieved, and soon started out seeking utu for the stolen moa. They returned home well satisfied, bringing with them Hine-moatu, the wife of Apa-koki. this roused the ire of Apa-koki, and in great wrath he seized the kumaras of Kawerau; whereupon Ngati Tu-whare-toa, in equal wrath, came down on Ngati Apa under the chief Awatope, and drove them from their home at Puta-uaki, near the Awa-o-teatua (Mount Edgecumbe, in the Bay of Plenty); and so they fled, and came to Manga-nui, on the upper Rangi-ta-iki; but Awa-tope still pursued, and forced them south till they came to Roto-a-ira, where they settled.

The following table shows Awa-tope as a descendant from Kahu-ngunu:—

Table 4.

Seventeen generations more to the people living in the Bay of Plenty at the present time.

They had not been established at Roto-a-ira very long before trouble arose owing to a dog being killed. The animal's name was Te Rangi-a-kopu-takere, and it belonged to a man named Ripo-a-rangi, of Ngati Tu-whare-toa. The man who brought this trouble on the Ngati Apa people not only killed the dog, but he roasted and ate it when in the bush by himself. As he was suspected, a woman smelt his breath while he was asleep, and, detecting the dog-smell, quickly reported her discovery to the owner. In revenge for the death of his favourite, Ripo-a-rangi gathered his family and came down upon the Ngati Apa, taking the pas Tauwhare-papa-auma and Motu-roa. After these pas were taken, peace was made, which lasted till a man named Ma-tangi killed his wife Hine-mihi in a fit of jealousy because of Miromiro, who had been paying attention to her. As her relatives belonged to Ngati Tu-whare-toa, the latter besieged a pa belonging to Ngati Apa called Rangi-te-taia. Tu-te-tawhoa, the leader of the Ngati Tu-whare-toa, and his party approached the pa on one side, while he sent another party to the opposite side; but when Wai-keri and Rakei-poho, of the besieging forces, entered the pa they found it empty, the Ngati Apa having evacuated during the night. The pursuit was followed up, and the chief Ma-tangi killed, as well as a great number of his people, while many were taken prisoners. Those of the latter who were

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spared were taken to Inland Patea, where they were kindly treated. One of the prisoners taken on that occasion was Te Rehu, Ma-tangi's son. Afterwards when he grew up he escaped and went to seek help from the Ngati Tama to avenge his father's death. They responded, and the warparty so raised went to Tauranga Taupo (about twelve miles from Toka-anu, on the Toka-anu - Taupo Road), and there attacked the Ngati Tu-whare-toa at the Horo-tanuku Pa. They seem to have been repulsed, one of their chief men, Te Iwi-kinakia, being killed and eaten. The attackers now became the attacked, for as they returned home they were followed up by Ngati Tu-whare-toa, who killed Tuma-kau-rangi, of the Ngati Tama Tribe, and Haere-te-kura (Hau-iti's son), of Ngati Hau-iti, at Rangi-po. Such a defeat required to be wiped out with blood, so another party was organized to avenge those deaths. Tama-kai-tangi and his brother Hika-kainga, also Hau-iti, accompanied that war-party, and they obtained what they sought, for they captured the pa Hawera-roa, and then went on to Kapo-a-rangi, where they killed Rakei-atu, but they spared Ripo-rangi, who was captured by Hika-kainga. The war-party then went on to Taupo, where they were attacked by the Ngati Tu-whare-toa; but peace was made when it was known that Ripo-rangi had been spared in the previous fight; so that war-party then returned to their homes.

In the meantime the Ngati Apa people had rapidly been extending themselves throughout this new country. From the time they arrived at Roto-a-ira they had been sending companies south, so that when the main body migrated they had settled pas and extensive cultivation in many of the inland districts, as well as right down the Rangi-tikei River to its mouth.

It was soon after Ngati Apa were settled in this new country that Hau-iti (the ancestor of the Ngati Hau-iti Tribe) left his fighting-pa, Ara-o-tawhaki, and started for Taupo to avenge the death of his son Haere-te-kura, who had been killed in battle by the Ngati Tu-whare-toa people, as related. He left his pas O-tau-eru and Rongo-motumotu at Ranga-tira in charge of his younger brother Ka-ama; but Ngati Apa took advantage of Hau-iti's absence, killed and ate Ka-ama, seized Rongo-motumotu (on the Rangi-tikei River, near Rata), as well as several other pas in the vicinity. A messenger was hurriedly sent to Hau-iti, who returned with all pa belonging to Hau-iti. Driven out of this place, they fled to Te Ara-o-tawhaki, evacuated by Hau-iti when he left for Taupo. After the fall of this pa they retreated to Puapua-tanaki, one of the pas which they had taken from Hau-iti, and here they found a secure retreat. After this Hau-iti was killed by Pukeko, a Ngati Apa man, at a place which still bears his name, Te Papa-o-Hau-iti (Rata); and his descendants sought to avenge his death by attacking a pa called Oti-haupu, on the south-east of the Rangi-tikei River. They were successful in this venture, for a great number of the Ngati Apa people were killed, but a few, among whom were Hatea and Rangi-whiowhio, were spared. When the Ngati Hau-iti had taken this pa, they assaulted the Wharewhare-riki and Po-takataka pas (on the O-tama-kapua Block), both of which were taken. The Ngati Hau-iti were then satisfied, and returned home. The large force that attacked these pas was gathered from Inland Patea, O-tara, O-tau-eru, and the upper Rangi-tikei, and the flghting took place in the time of Whare-pu-rakau, contemporary with Tama-te-raka and Iro-kino, and was in revenge for the death of Hau-iti.

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Table 5.
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Chapter III.

Another dispute took place in the upper Rangi-tikei district about the time of Whare-pu-rakau (see Table 2), when the Ngati Wahine Tribe came from Here-taunga (Hastings). They came, a great army, with boasting and pride, but they left with defeat and disaster, for they were opposed by Tamapo and the sons of Tu-ka-roua at Whiri-nga-otau, and there they left their pride as food for their adversaries. Those who escaped the battle hid in a cave called Ana-roa at Atu-pae, where they also were cut off by hunger and exposure. As soon as their friends became aware of the fate of the taua, they determined on revenge, and raised a second party to send over to conquer the victors; but again their intentions were brought to nought.

It seems that a lady named Punaki-ao (see Table 2), from the upper Rangi-tikei, was taken as a wife by Taraia (her own husband being away at Whanga-nui at the time), and the two fled away to Here-taunga, and dwelt there at Puke-hamoamoa. After a time Tutu-mohuta, who was Puna-ki-ao's father, left his home at Awa-rua and went to visit Taraia and his daughter. As soon as he arrived, Taraia asked him if he had met a warparty on his journey, and, as he replied in the negative, Taraia advised him to return immediately, telling him of the intention of the Ngati Tama-wahine to take Patea. Without loss of time Tutu-mohuta returned to Te Awa-rua, but found he was just too late, for the fires were still burning where the war-party had cooked the father of Whiti-kaupeka, who belonged to Ngati Hau-iti; but the enemy themselves had gone. The chiefs of the Here-taunga party were Rua-te-kuri, Tawhao, and Rangi-tau-ira; and the manner of their attack was as follows: Coming upon Whiti-kaupeka's party suddenly, they feigned hunger, and asked Whiti for his dog as food, and when this was denied them they killed the dog. After it was cooked they offered some to Whiti, who, wishing to prevent trouble, took it; but while he was eating they suddenly set upon him and killed him. As soon as Tutu-mohuta found out which direction the war-party had taken, he and his wife followed them up, and came upon them at Manga-weka. The war-party tried to detain them until the morning, intending to kill them during the night; but they escaped unobserved, and reached O-hinga-iti, where Tumehau and Tumore, with a large party, had gathered to resist the invaders. Immediately on their arrival a meeting was held to decide on the best course of action, and while they were gathered the war-party came upon them unexpectedly, being in the pursuit of Tutu-mohuta. They fought there at O-hinga-iti, the inland tribes combining to resist the invaders; with the result that Ngati Wahine were defeated, and their leaders Rua-te-kuri and Tawhao slain; but Rangi-tau-ira and Tu-purupuru escaped. But again misfortune dogged their steps, for, having reached Manga-o-hunu on their way back to Here-taunga, they were over-taken by a severe snowstorm, so they took shelter in the cave O-huake (on the Rangi-po Plains); but, as the cold continued, they, and their followers also, perished through hunger, cold, and exposure. In this fight the invaders killed Tamapo, who had previously resisted them; but otherwise they had but little success, while their own party was practically exterminated.

After this fight Ngati Tama, Ngati Whiti, and Ngati Hau-iti lived together as neighbours on the west side of Moa-whango.

Soon after this affair Tahuna, a Ngati Apa chief, and his party travelled from Whanga-nui to Rangi-tikei to visit Whare-pu-rakau. All went well

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till one day Whare-pu-rakau returned from a hunting expedition in the bush and found his son Rangi-pa-whatiri covered with blood, and upon inquiry he learnt that Tahuna's child had beaten his son. He therefore killed Tahuna's child, and the father, in fear for his own life, fled back to Whanga-nui, where he collected a war-party about eight hundred strong and travelled back to Tawhiti, on the Rangi-tikei River, where Whare-purakau had gathered Ngati Tama, Ngati Whiti, and Ngati Ohuao to resist the inevitable attack. For a time Tahuna and his party camped on the river-bed, subsisting on Whare-pu-rakau's kumaras, which they stole at night; but, as soon as Whare-pu-rakau's people discovered the position Tabuna had taken up, they resorted to stratagem, and threw a great quantity of wood and rubbish in the river to make Tahuna think a flood was coming, and that they (Whare-pu-rakau's party) would not be able to cross over to the attack. Tahuna's party saw the rubbish, and hurriedly left the river-bed and went inland; but while so engaged Whare-pu-rakau attacked them. In the fight that followed (known as Waha-kaka-roa) it is related that Whare-pu-rakau had a certain taiaha, but he was struck and disabled by the enemy, consequently was unable to use it. He afterwards made a proverb to the effect that if his weapon had only been long enough he would not have been wounded; hence his uncle took the name of Tu-whaka-uru. When wounded, Whare-pu-rakau discarded his taiaha and took a long spear, and, although wounded, succeeded in killing Tahuna, whose party, seeing their leader fall, gave way and fled. They were pursued night and day, and it is said their bones may still be seen along that path (excepting perhaps Tahuna's ribs, which were made into a bird-snare, which snare is still in a matai-tree somewhere at Moa-whango).

This may be so, but we pakehas doubt if a snare would last for two hundred years exposed to all weathers; yet it is asserted that some of Whare-pu-rakau's spears are still to be seen on Mr. Batley's farm at Moa-whango. They are imbedded in a large and hollow cabbage-tree, where they were hidden, the tree eventually growing round them and gripping them as part of the tree itself. It is also related that Whare-pu-rakau was a very athletic man, and, near his place on the upper Rangi-tikei, he on several occasions saved himself from pursuit by clearing at a jump a narrow part of the river where the cliffs nearly meet. No other man would venture this hazardous feat; so he could defy his enemies, and often did so. He lost his life by drowning in the Rangi-tikei River. As his party were crossing a dangerous ford, his wife got into difficulties, and in going back to assist he himself lost his life, though his wife was saved.

Again Whanga-nui started on the war-path against Ngati Tama, whom they found living on the land between Moa-whango and Hau-tapu. A battle was fought in which Whanga-nui was defeated, Nuko and Tuahungia being slain. The invaders fled, and were pursued by Ngati Tama as far as Wai-paruparu. After this invasion the inhabitants of the Potaka Pa (just above the Awa-ua Pa) heard that they were about to be attacked by the Ngati Apa and other tribes. At this time there were no Ngati Tama in the pa—they were all away at Taupo; while most of the Ngati Whiti and Ngati Upoko-iri were away at Here-taunga. Before they could obtain assistance the taua came down on them. Te Kahu-o-te-rangi, of the Ngati Apa, and Nga-makako, of the Tu-heke-rangi, were the principal chiefs, and their followers numbered eight hundred men, gathered from Whanga-nui, Whanga-ehu, and Turakina. When the taua reached Potaka, they found that the people of this pa (mostly Ngati Hine-manu), although warned of

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their coming, were quite unprepared, for a number of men, among whom was the chief Whanau, were surprised and killed while gathering mataiberries. Then the pa was surrounded and the siege commenced, but after four days Te Kata managed to slip out of the pa unseen, and escaped through the enemies' ranks to seek assistance. he fled to Here-taunga to bring over the people of the Ngati Hine-manu Tribe, who were living there. He was successful, and the chiefs Tao-rangi, Maka, Toia-iho, and Tu-te-rangi, with their men, hastened back with Te Kata to help their kinsmen. Under cover of darkness they obtained entrance to the pa by ropes being thrown to them; and next morning, being so strengthened, a sortie was made on the besiegers, who quickly discovered, during the fight that ensued, how the garrison had been strengthened. So many of the enemy were killed by this sudden onslaught that they thought discretion the better part of valour, and so decided to sue for peace.

Te Kahu-o-te-rangi called out his desire to Tao-rangi, who agreed to the request, so Te Kahu-o-te-rangi was taken into the pa, where presents of food were made and hakas sung, and so the peace was confirmed.

In this fight, which was called Tini-o-te-kotiri (on account of the large number taking part in it), the Ngati Apa party killed Tama-kahuri-rangi, of the pa, and his death was afterwards avenged by a party from Te Awa-rua Pa, who travelled as far as Manga-whero taking prisoners, who were killed and eaten. They also journeyed to Turakina, where the Ngati Tu-heke-rangi and the Ngati Wai-riki were severely defeated. But though defeated in this fight they were by no means conquered: the spirit of battle only burned with a fiercer flame, and the shame and ignominy which tarnished their proud name had to be wiped out at all cost. On reaching Whanga-nui they at once reconstructed, more determined than ever to wipe out their defeats, and this time cautiously divided their forces, one half going to attack Ngati Hine-manu and Ngati Hau-iti on the east side of the Rangi-tikei River, and the other half going to attack Ngati Tama and Ngati Whiti on the western side. This time the fortune of war was with them—Ngati Tama were defeated, and their chief Te Hainga and many others slain. And so the gentle game of “tit for tat” went on. Ngati Tama now sought utu for those deaths, and started from Motu-kawa with vengeance quivering in every nerve of their bodies. Again they were successful at Turakina, where the chief Taputu and several of his men met their death and “chief's burial.” After this victory Ngati Tama returned to the western side of the Rangi-tikei, and when they arrived they found new troubles had commenced, and fresh work was in store for them; for their kinsman Rangi-pa-whitiri (Whare-pu-rakau's son) had just been despatched to the happy hunting-grounds. This chief had two wives, one belonging to the Ngati Kahu-ngunu, and the other, whose name was Hine-iro, was related to the Ngati Tama and the Ngati Whiti tribes. Rangi-pa-whitiri collected food for a feast, and took the food so gathered to the first-mentioned wife as a present to her. Hine-iro was very angry about this, for she considered the food had been gathered on her land, consequently it should not have been given to a stranger; so she gathered together a war-party of the Rua-kopiri and killed her husband Rangi-pa-whitiri. When the enraged lady's taua had completed this mission they returned to Whanga-nui.

Then Ngati Tama and ngati Whiti started off to avenge his death under the chiefs Hoko-o-te-rangi and his uncle Te Kiore; and at Pakaka (Karioi) they killed Tu-rere, and captured his son Tukai-ora. When Tukai-ora was taken prisoner he was loaded with calabashes, which were to hold the flesh

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of the slain after it had been rendered down. But he, watching for an opportunity, threw them off, killed four of his captors, and escaped. From this great warrior descended Pehi Turoa of Whanga-nui, thus:—

Table 6.

As Hoko-o-te-rangi and his party were returning after their victory they were followed by a Nga Rangi taua from Whanga-nui, who came upon them at Wai-tangi. During the fight that took place Te Kiore saw that his party was likely to be worsted, so he called out to Hoko-o-te-rangi, “Escape while you can; go and live as a chief at Mokai Patea; I will carry on the struggle without you.” Hoko-o-te-rangi replied, “I will carry it through and fight the enemy.” So they continued the fight, and soon both Te Kiore and Hoko-o-te-rangi were killed, and their party utterly routed. The survivors fled to Mokai Patea. It may be mentioned that Hine-iro and Te Kiore were brother and sister.

After Tukai-ora escaped and reached Whanga-nui, word came through the Ngati Whiti and Ngati Tama had killed Tuhongia and Miki on the west side of the Moa-whango. Whanga-nui went out, fought, and gained a battle, in retaliation; but, not satisfied, took out another war-party, and captured a pa called Kiri-weka, where Rangi-wha-rawarawa, Horua, and Kai-toha were taken prisoners.

After this, Ngati Apa murdered Te-ihui-tu at the O-tau-eru Pa (Taupo), which was occupied by Ngati Hau-iti; and so Ngati Hau-iti came down in full force on the Ngati Apa, whom they met in open field, and, after a severe struggle, defeated. Then they attacked the pa at Kaka-riki, which they took, killing a great number, and making several prisoners, among whom was Puao. In revenge for this Ngati Apa killed the chief Tu-tohu at Pourewa, at a place called Pukiore (Pukiore is west of Makohine Viaduct, near the Pou-rewa), and his death was avenged at the Pa-kihi-roa battle, fought at Tara-ketu (Manawa-tu). This battle was fought at the pa called by this name, and Ngati Apa were defeated. Again they were defeated in a fight where both sides met in open country at upper Tutae-nui. Ngati Hau-iti, not yet satisfied, assaulted the pa of Taumata-maire, in the district of Whaka-tara, which they took, and then returned home. Ngati Apa now sought reprisals at Mokai Patea, where they met Ngati Hau-iti and killed Repa-rangi and Te Pu-o-te-rangi, the former chief belonging to Ngati Whiti and also Ngati Tu-whare-toa. On hearing of this, Ngati Hau-iti started in pursuit of the Ngati Apa forces, and overtook them the next day, and in the action that ensued the entire Ngati Apa party was cut off, as they were few in number, while Ngati Hau-iti were strong, having obtained help form the Ngati Whiti, the Ngati Tu-whare-toa, and the Ngati Tu-mokai

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tribes. Flushed with victory, they still pushed on in hope of further success, when they were met and defeated by another taua of Ngati Apa at the battle of Te Taku-o-te-rangi, at a place called Korero-mai-waho (now Great-ford). This defeat was avenged at the battle of One-puhi, where the combined forces of Ngati Hau-iti and Ngati Whiti overthrew Ngati Apa, who were not strong enough to resist them at that place, but who followed Ngati Hau-iti on their return journey, and overtook them at Pari-roa, on the O-roua; but the Ngati Apa force, under the chief Takiao, was defeated, and their leader slain. Some time after this fight at Pari-roa there was another great engagement, at Kai-inanga (a pa near the junction of the Hau-tapu and Rangi-tikei rivers), in which Ngati Apa were victorious, although fighting against the combined tribes; but before this, and during the interval between the two battles, there came from the north the Tu-whare-Te Rau-paraha expedition under the leadership of Waka Nene, Patu-one, Te Rau-paraha, Tu-whare, and others. They had a few guns in the party, and, as this was the first time these weapons were seen on this coast, the havoc they wrought was tremendous. This taua came down somewhere about 1819 or 1820, and it was this journey that gave Te Rau-paraha the idea of migrating to Kapiti, to be near the centre of European trade, which idea he put into practice about 1822, when his whole tribe (the Ngati Toa) removed thither. In order to strengthen his position, he induced the Ngati Rau-kawa to make hekes (some of which we are able to describe) to his newly acquired land. From this time up to about 1825 the great Ngati Toa chief was actively combining business with pleasure in endeavouring to exterminate the whole of the Mua-upoko Tribe. Then the Ngati Rau-kawa chief Te Whata-nui, who had previously accompanied two or three of the hekes, intervened, and stayed his hand by taking up his residence at Horo-whenua, where eventually he died. Here he was looked up to as an ally and protector by the Mua-upoko, which indeed he was, for it was certainly he who saved these people from annihilation. Full accounts of these affairs have been published in “The Life and Times of Rau-paraha,” and also in the Jour. Polynesian Soc. in a fine paper by Mr. S. Percy Smith, entitled “Wars of the Northern against the Southern Tribes”;* therefore little more need be said.

Before adding a few brief notes of these wars, some further details of fighting that occurred prior to these events can be given. “After the capture of Kiri-weka,” said Major Kemp, in evidence given before the Land Court at Whanga-nui, “my grandparent went with a war-party to a place called Opetaka, on the Rangi-tikei River, and there killed Taka-rere and Rau-awa, and made prisoners of Ro-onga, Te Maka-taha-hapa, Pu-ronga, and others of the Ngati Whiti, Ngati Tama, and Ngati Hau-iti tribes. Afterwards took place the expedition of Te Mawai, the ancestor of Mohi Matene. He and his people went to Awa-rua, and, as visitors, stayed a short time with the people there, until one day Tara-mai-nuku said to Te Mawai ‘Get out your weapons.’ By these words Te Mawai interpreted trouble, so he got up with his spear in one hand and a pouwhenua in the other, warned his company, and then advanced to the assault-at-arms. In the fray that followed, Te Mawai killed Tara-mai-nuku, and then killed all the people of the pa; and no payment was ever exacted from the Whanga-nui tribes for their victory.

[Footnote] * I am greatly indebted to Mr. Smith for the use of his notes, also for his many corrections and suggestions.

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“At Otairi, close to Ohingaiti, on the river-flats, some of Hakaraia's people were killed—namely, Rangi-kau, Kahu-aki, and others. Payment was obtained at Whaka-rau-wai, on the other side of the Rangi-tikei River, where the chiefs Ko-pare, Te Marama, and others were killed. The war-party then crossed the river to the west side of Rangi-tikei, and there Moeroa called out, ‘Who can reach up to heaven? Te Ope answered, ‘I can’; and he straightway put in a post as a sign to stop all quarrels (probably meaning that nothing could be gained by incessant fighting, and a better way to reach the desired goal would be to make peace). As a result of this fighting Ngati Tama fled from the district, and some settled at Kai-inanga, outside of the Rangi-tikei borders; but before doing so some of them went to Oroua and there killed Pourau.

“When they had settled at Kai-inanga, Moe-roa, who belonged half to Ngati Apa, and was there before they came, became alarmed, and thought, ‘Perhaps these people will become strong and take my land’; so he gathered his people, and fell on the Ngati Tama at Kia-inanga, and killed Rere-mai, Pokai-kaka, and Te Oti, as well as a great number of the people Tahataha made a prisoner of Hine-iti, whom he saved alive.”

So ends Kemp's version of the Kai-inanga fight; but the real cause seems to have been infringement of the sacred law of tapu. A chief named Poto died (Poto's wife Koipoa was Hori Kingi's sister), and, in order to have his head properly preserved, a man named Hia-kai cut it off and commenced operations upon it. While so engaged he was strictly tapu, and before this was removed by the tohungas he was accused of having fed himself with his own hands. Being unable to clear himself from the charge, both he and a man named Te Hopu were killed at Otawiri by Ngati Hau-iti. Te Hopu was not under the tapu at the time, but, as he warned Hia-kai, he was in some way mixed up in the quarrel, and had to pay the penalty with his life. As both men were connected with Ngati Apa, this tribe sent Te Ahuru to the pa where the Ngati Hau-iti and Ngati Tama were camped, on the pretext that he was the bearer of huia-feathers for the chief Pou-kaka. But his visit was a mere blind—he went to spy out the weak places of the pa; and when he returned with his report to the Ngati Apa they attacked in full force, and the battle of Kai-inanga ensued, in which the combined tribes were badly beaten with great slaughter. A fuller and better account of Te Ahuru's visit to the pa was related to me by Whatahoro, who said,—

“Te Ahuru's wife was in the pa before the attack, and, as he had previously arranged a call with her, he arrived at the place in advance of the Ngati Apa force, and when night fell he whistled across the gully for her to go to him. As he continued whistling the people of the pa said, ‘Listen to the wekas—surely bad weather is approaching’; and they thought no more, but turned over and went to sleep. When they were all asleep, Hine-rua, Te Ahuru's wife, quietly went out to meet her husband, and when they met he said to her, ‘Tell me which is the weakest part of the pa, and what do the people intend doing to-morrow.’ She replied, ‘The only unprotected part is by way of te paepae (i.e., place of public convenience), which is quite unguarded. And to-morrow the people divide into three parts, one party of men going to dig fern-root, another goint to the river to catch eels, and another, of women, going to the bush to gather hinau-berries.’

“Then Te Ahuru returned to his people, and showed them all these things; and on the morrow the Ngati Apa taua went round—first to the party who were down at the river engaged at their eel-spearing, whom they surprised and killed; then on to the place where the fern-root-digging

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was occupying the attention of the men, who also fell a prey to the taua; then they attacked the women who were gathering the hinau-berries: and so, when the Ngati Apa entered the pa by way of te paepae, there was no one there but the old and young to defend the place. Consequently Kai-manga fell, and great was the fall thereof.”

This greatly weakened them, for just before this fight Ngati Hau-iti had lost a great number of their people owing to a great makutu, the bewitching of the Ngati Hau-iti by the Ngati Apa. It seems the latter had fled for protection to Otara after Tu-whare's fight. The Otara (Ngati Hau-iti) were annoyed with them for staying, and consequently consuming their provisions, and spoke angrily to them about it; whereupon the Ngati Apa, in great wrath, bewitched them by their sorcerers Tu-mata-whiti and Moko, and then immediately left the district. My informant, Warena Hunia, of Parewa-nui, assures me that this man, Tu-mata-whiti, had an atua which had the wonderful power of shining like fire when consulted if the intended venture was likely to prove successful, otherwise it remained dull and motionless. The result was that many of the Ngati Hau-iti died of the spells laid upon them.

So far in this narrative an endeavour has been made to keep the various events in their proper chronological order, but dates have been avoided, for, although the dates have been assigned by Mr. S. Percy Smith and others to the principal raids and migrations from the north, when reference is made to these raids by Natives there is always a difficulty in knowing which one is meant; and, as events crowd together between the years 1820 and 1840, there is less chance of giving each its proper place in history; consequently it may be necessary to give a continuation of these notes as supplied by informants in narrative form, rather than cut them up endeavouring to obtain reliable order.

The fight at Kai-inanga, and also another at Pare-kaoa, took place after Whata-nui's raid. Kai-inanga was first, then came Pare-kaoa's death at Pou-kawa (near Napier), and Te Ao was killed some time after.

Chapter IV.

After the battle of Kai-inanga, the Ngati Apa returned to the outward part of Rangi-tikei—that is, the lower valley—but soon removed to Wairarapa for fear of an attack by the Ngati Tu-whare-toa; but from there they were quickly driven back by the Ngati Kahu-ngunu. They returned to Rangi-tikei, but on their arrival were met by the Ngati Hau-iti, who had returned to avenge their defeat at Kai-inanga. The Ngati Hauiti people mustered at Mokai Patea, where they were met by a Ngati Rau-kawa heke (migration) of four hundred men, besides women and children, under the chiefs Te Heuheu-nui, Te Rangi-mone-hurehu, and Te Whaka-rau. This was the second great heke from Taupo, but no particulars are available regarding the first (called Rua-mai-oro). At Patea the following tribes sent men to swell the numbers: Ngati Whiti, Ngati te Upoko-iri, Ngati Tama, and Ngati Tu-whare-toa. Then this great body journeyed down the river together till they came to Kai-inanga, where they spent some time making canoes to convey their provisions down the Rangitikei River.

On leaving Kai-inanga some of the party went by land, and others with the canoes. Following the course of the canoes, the first day they came to Pounga, where they camped, next day reaching Otara. “Here,” said

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the old man who gave the narrative, “we found no persons living, for the place had been abandoned for fear of witchcraft, by which many had died. We found bodies hung up in trees three and four together, and the survivors had scattered. We instituted a search for them, and on the Rangatira we captured thirty-one prisoners. We found O-tama-kapua, Te Weio, and Te Tai-nui, and the principal men caught at these places were Potaka and Te Rangi-tahua. This latter afterwards died by witchcraft, just as the others had done before him.

“Starting down the river from Otara, we reached Whaka-poka, and camped there, Ngati Hau-iti accompanying us. There we found a small pa, where some of Ngati Hau-iti were dwelling, and cultivating the land. Thence we reached Ma-karaka, and camped there for a time, finding people of the same tribe. Next we reached Te Mahoe, and then Te Pohue, where we camped at the mouth of the Pou-rewa Stream. There we divided, sending scouting parties to Oroua on our one side, and also in the opposite direction. One party came back the same day, bringing four people that they had captured, and next day our two reconnoitring parties returned bringing two more.”

According to another account, the day after these two prisoners were taken, a strong division of the heke struck the main body of Ngati Apa between the Rangi-tikei and Turakina Rivers. Here a battle was fought, in which the Ngati Rau-kawa were victorious, many of the Ngati Apa being killed, and their chief leader Ta-whiro captured. Then, at the feast in honour of the victory, all the dead bodies were brought into the camp and piled in a heap. On top of this ghastly pile the unfortunate Ta-whiro was bound, stretched, and then flayed alive by a lady named Pekenga, eventually being killed by Tanguru, who was of the Ngati Hau-iti, Ngati Whiti, and Hine-manu tribes. Then the combined tribes set to work, the ovens were kept at glowing heat, and the Ngati Apa required no further burial.

Continuing this narrative the old man said, “After Ta-whiro was killed we left Pou-rewa, passed Parewa-nui, and pushed on to the mouth of the Rangi-tikei River. As a gale was blowing, we hauled up our canoes and marched down the beach, only one canoe venturing out, and reaching Manawa-tu. When we reached this place we camped for the night, and, as the gale was increasing, we hauled up the one canoe that had reached us, and left it on the beach. Then we continued our march along the beach to Kapiti, where we saw Te Rau-paraha and Te Pehi. We stayed there about two months, while our leading men went on to Poneke to bring up Taiaha, of the Ngati Ira, and his people; and while they were away we captured several prisoners at Horo-whenua, among whom were Te Kowhai, Hunia's mother's brother, and a woman named Whaka-haunga, of the Mua-upoko. After some time we commenced our return journey to Taupo, by way of the Rangi-tikei. We came to Parewa-nui on that river, and there baked karaka-berries. Next day we commenced to eat the berries, and made ourselves very ill, like drunken men. We found no inhabitants there: if there had been any at the pa we should have killed them.

“Leaving Pàrewa-nui, we reached the mouth of the Ranga-taua, and camped there. There died that night the daughter of Te Heuheu and a Tu-whare-toa chief named Te Poka. We believe that they were bewitched by the Ngati Apa.” [As a matter of fact, they both died of wounds inflicted during a skirmish with a stray band of Ngati Apa. Huru-hia was

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the lady's name, and she was famed for her extreme beauty. A great tangi was held over her remains, at which Te Heuheu caused her head to be preserved, he himself calcining her brains, and strewing the ashes over the land, which he declared to be for ever tapu.]*

“Leaving the Ranga-taua we marched to Wai-tuna, and halted there while the heads of our dead were properly preserved.” [Wai-tuna was a pa about two miles above the Onepuhi Bridge over the Rangi-tikei River.] “Some of our party who were going overland captured prisoners at Oroua. We were travelling in such a manner as to catch anybody in the neighbourhood. Here at Wai-tuna our party from Manawa-tu joined us, bringing in one prisoner. Here we again divided into parties, some going up the Turakina Valley and the others remaining near the Rangi-tikei. The first-mentioned party took several prisoners, but we took none.

“From Wai-tuna we went on to Ma-karaka (at Kaka-riki), and from thence to Whaka-poka; from there on to Te Kiekie (Makohine), and from there to Otara. At this place we found Te Waha and Te Rangitahua, who had returned and resumed residence there, for the priest had exorcised the spot. Then we went on to Kawatau (a river on the east side of the Rangi-tikei, above Manga-weka), where we stayed for some time, as we buried the bodies of Te Poka and Heuheu's daughter there. From thence we proceeded to Kai-inanga, where we left our canoes, and continued on our way to Taupo.”

This journey, as described by our Maori friend, was called by him the “Heke Kariri Tahi” (Migration of one cartridge), from the circumstance of their having very little ammunition. According to Travers, Whata-nui accompanied this heke for the purpose of conferring with Te Rau-paraha; but, finding that chief absent, he returned to Taupo almost immediately to bring down his people. From the manner in which these strong armed bodies of men roamed over the Turakina, Rangi-tikei, and Manawa-tu districts, killing and making slaves of all the unfortunate Ngati Apa they met, one can form an idea of the state of the country at that time.

We have notes of two later Ngati Rau-kawa hekes, one of which came down before the fight known as Hao-whenua, and the other immediately after; but, as the first of these mentions the death of Taka-rangi at Kohuru-po, that event had better be related first, as well as civil and other troubles related by the Ngati Apa themselves.

Now, there was a battle fought at Tara-kite (near Rata), called Tawapara, and after this Rangi-whaka-pou was murdered by Ika-whaka-ariki, both of Ngati Apa. To revenge that murder, the Kauae, in conjunction with Ngati kahu-ngunu people, destroyed the whole hapu of Ika-whaka-ariki who were living at Huaki-tae-ore, across the Rangi-tikei, and at Rua-puta-uaki and O-weta-ra, down by the river (near Bull's).

When that war-party of the Ngati Kahu-ngunu came down to smite Ika-whaka-ariki, that chief fled to Whanga-nui, where he remained for some years, and when he thought he could return in safety he did so, and again took up his residence in his pa (below Bull's); but members of the Ngati Kahu-ngunu Tribe were still on the scene, and the Kauae people soon

[Footnote] * In Traver's “Life of Te Rau-paraha” this lady's name is given as Reremai, but his informant was apparently in error, for Reremai was one of the victims of the Kai-inanga fight.

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learned where Ika-whaka-ariki was hiding, and also his friend Orehu. So a raid was organized, and Ika-whaka-ariki captured without much trouble. When brought face to face with his captors he sang a song, and otherwise showed his bravery; but this availed him but little, for very soon he had to go the way of all flesh, and trod the dim and distant road to Hawaiki.

It was about this time that Rangi-iki-iki, after the death of his wife Kara, went away to Oroua, and Rangi-tuhaha went to reside at Te Whaau-rongo (near Halcombe).

The next affair that happened was the bewitching by Rangi-te-muri, which caused the death of a great number of Rangi-whaka-po's people, also many of the Ika-whaka-ariki and Kauae. They were all living at Paewa, and very often went to the mouth of the Rangi-tikei River fishing, when they would send large supplies of food to their own places, and also to Rangi-iki-iki (at Oroua). Rangi-te-muri noticed this, and set about bewitching the track which they had to pass over.

“It happened this way,” said my informant, when telling of the event: “This man Rangi-te-muri lived on the flat in front of the present Parewanui Schoolhouse, and the old track lay between the two swamps, where the road runs at present. Now, Rangi-te-muri looked out daily and saw the people passing and repassing with their loads of eels and fish, and, although they passed his door, they never gave him a present or left any of the fish hanging at his place. Then said Rangi-te-muri to himself, “I'll fix them.” And fix them he did, for he bewitched the track, and next time the fishermen passed that way (and they had to go that track, for there was no other) they travelled over it for the last time, and they received the punishment which was always meted out to those who touched bewitched things, and went to join their great ancestress, Hine-nui-te-po.

When Te Kai-whaka-taha saw so many of his people falling under this potent spell, in fear of his life he fled across the river, where he fell into the hands of a party of Ngati Kahu-ngunu who were on their way to make war with Ngati Apa. They quickly captured him, and, as he was a man of great avoirdupois, they made game by exhibiting him round, on account of his immense size and fatness. He was then duly killed and eaten, and the spot where the feast took place was named, in honour of the event, Tapu-iko-koneke—meaning “the fat thighs of the quail.”

After this, Rangi-tane came into the Rangi-tikei district, accompanied by Ngati Tauira. They went to Wai - tata - pia (now the homestead paddocks on Mr. Dalrymple's run at Parewa-nui), a pa to the west of Rae-tihi (a sand-ridge on the same farm), and there they fought with Ngariki and Tupa-taua. They were victorious, and, after having slain the chief Te Umu-o-te-hau, they went on to Te Awa-mate Pa seeking further quarrels. Nga-riki, after the loss of their chief, fled up the river. Then Hori Kingi sent two chiefs across the river, with full instructions to fetch some poha tuna (extra fine eels—i.e., the chiefs) home with them from Puke-puke Pa (a fortified pa on one of the lakes lying between the mouth of the Rangi-tikei River and Foxton, known to local residents as Humpy's Lake), held by Ngati Apa; but warning was sent, and the two chiefs Rangi-hau-tu and Ao-kehu went out with a party and waylaid Rangi-tane, who were one hundred strong, and cut off almost the whole party, as out of that strong taua Te Weta was the only man who escaped. This

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battle was known by the name of Tu-raki-awatea, and was fought on the site of the Turakina Railway-station. The Tu-raki-awatea Pa stood on the other side of the main road, near the Turakina Bridge. The old pa on the opposite side of the river was known as Kopiro. Flushed with victory, the Ngati Apa followed up another party of Rangi-tane to Papa-rata (Oroua Downs), and annihilated them there. These losses naturally aroused the riri of the Rangi-tane, who obtained aid from the Ngati Kahu-ngunu, Nga Pakapaka, and Nga Mutu-ahi, from Dannevirke, and came against Pukepuke, but were again repulsed. Then they resorted to stratagem, and made it appear as though they had retired; but not so—they were simply hiding. Then some of the Ngati Apa women and children went in a canoe over the river on to the flat to suck flax-blossoms, and before they discovered their perilous position they were captured. In this way Oko-rewa, Te Hakeke's mother, was taken, as well as others; but before Rangi-tane got away with their prisoners, one of the women managed to call out to Rangi-hau-tu to follow, as his wife was a captive. He did so, but did not come up to the retreating taua till they came to the Manawa-tu, where, instead of fighting, a peace was patched up, and Rangi-hau-tu was returning home in full confidence with the women, when he was set upon by his escort of Rangi-tane men, and cruelly murdered by Taka-wai. His body was left on a ridge called Te Ruahine (a sandridge lying between the fertile and waste lands on the southern side of the Rangi-tikei River), but the women and children got back to the Puke-puke Pa in safety.

A Waiata Composed on the Occasion of Rangi-Hau-Tu's Death, Sung by a Rangitane Woman of the Pakapaka Hapu (mo te Matenga o te Rangi-hau-tu i patua e Taka-wai me ona taina ki te Ruahine Manuka).

Me whakawai hoki e puanga akohu te patu tonu ai,
Ka rau-ai to ringa mo nga ringa kino
Kai te Ruahine mo Tanitia* tena kei roto mo te rangi Whititua,*
Tena kei roto mo te Rangi-tapu-ihi,*
Tena kei roto mo taku roraruhu kai Pukepuke,
Mo te rorotuna ki Kai-kokopu,
I me kata atu au e hika l konei i.

I waiatangia mai mo te Hakeke i le
whawhai ki kahutara
,

“So died the great chief Rangi-hau-tu (storm-wind standing in the heavens) by treachery foul and dark. The proud canoe was broken up, and his people were left stranded, with the raging sea all around them, but they were not engulfed”—for Ao-kehu quickly sent messengers to Whanga-nui and Manga-whero, telling them what had happened, and seeking aid, which was readily given; and the combined forces travelled to Manawa-tu, where they defeated Rangi-tane at the Hara-keke Pa with great slaughter. (The site of the Harakeke Pa was the place now known as the Sugarloaf Hill, below the Manawa-tu Railway-bridge.)

When this pa was first surrounded, word was hurriedly sent to Te Ahuru-o-te-rangi, who was then on a visit to the South Island. As soon as he received the message, he crossed over the Rau-kawa Strait with his war-party in canoes; but by the time he arrived the pa had been captured, and many of its people killed and eaten. Te Ahuru-o-te-rangi then

[Footnote] * Three Ngati Apa men killed previously.

[Footnote] * Three Ngati Apa men killed previously.

[Footnote] * Three Ngati Apa men killed previously.

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Map Illustrating Early History of Rangitikei.—Downes.

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Map of Lower Whangaehu and Turakina Valleys.—downes

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Reproduction of an Old Plan of Kai-Kokopu Lake-Downes.

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gathered all his people and attacked the Waipu Pa (on the Turakina Lake, the Maori name of which was Otiti: it lies on Mr. Lethbridge's property, about three hundred yards from the railway-station), where the Ngati Apa were expecting and awaiting the inevitable attack; but the pa was a strong one and its people many, consequently it withstood the siege for a long time, and eventually Te Kahu-te-rangi, who was related to Te Ahuru-o-te-rangi, came to Waipu and made peace, after which the various hapus in the pa returned to their own homes. So ended the trouble in this quarter for a time; but only for a very short time, for Ngati Apa next joined forces with Nga Rauru (Wai-totara Tribe), and, for some real or fancied injury in connection with Rangi-hau-tu's murder, they successfully attacked Pihaia, a pa on the sandhills between Putiki and the sea, on the Whanga-nui River. In payment, Whanga-nui travelled to Whanga-ehu, where they captured a large pa named O-hake-to, near the beach at that place, and here they killed O-take-hoke and others. Smarting under the defeat, a woman of the Ngati Wairiki went to Hawke's Bay to get help to revenge her people. When she reached Wai-rarapa she collected forces and returned, and her reinforcements joined with the men of Rangi-tikei, Turakina, and Whanga-ehu, and came on to the pa Tuke-a-maui, at Pari-kino, on the Whanga-nui River, which they besieged. The top end of the pa was defended by Manumanu's descendants, and the middle by Ma-ruru. The pa was surrounded and eventually taken, but the part which the Manumanu people were defending was not attacked.

Sam Woon, a well-known Whanga-ehu Native, has in his possession a mere pounamu taken by Ngati Apa at the fall of this pa.

Seeking further details regarding this fight at Tuke-a-maui, the writer was told the following interesting story by the grandson of one of the chiefs who took part in the attack:—

“Some of the Ngati Apa people were badly beaten by Rangi-tane at Pohangina, and among those who were taken was a Ngati Apa chief named Te Ahuru.” [Te Ahuru was the man who, with his wife, arranged the attack on the Kai-inanga Pa, as related some few pages back. He was afterwards killed at Kapiti, when the combined tribes made their unsuccessful atack on Te Rau-paraha at that place. (An account of this attack has been published in the Jour. Polynesian Soc., so will not be further referred to here.) Details relating to the death of Te Ahuru's daughter will be related later on.] “However, in their eagerness to make this man a prisoner, they allowed some of his men to escape, who immediately fled away to Rangi-tikei, where they raised a party to seek revenge.

“Now, Rangi-tane, having captured Te Ahuru and others, kept them for a few days, and then set them to work to carry stones for the umus in which they were to be cooked. After enough stones had been gathered, they made the unfortunate men gather firewood for the ovens, then the leaves, and last of all, they forced them to dig out the umus, and when all was ready the conquerors lined up for the haka which was to celebrate the victory; but, in the middle of the song, down came Ngati Apa—the party that the recent escapees had brought along. They smote left and right, and before many minutes were over the ovens were steaming, but they contained Rangi-tane instead of Ngati Apa.

“Te Ahuru was doubtless well pleased at his release, but he desired still further revenge. So he sent messengers to Wai-totara and Patea

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asking the Nga Rauru to bring kai and send men. The northern Natives heartily responded, sending two hundred fighting-men, besides many slaves bearing great quantities of the indispensable kai. When they came to the Whanga-nui River, Taka-rangi, the great Whanga-nui chief, who was after-wards killed at Kohuru-po, heard that the Nga Rauru people were in his territory, and he said ‘What are these people here? I will not allow them to carry food over me.’ So he sent out his men, and after a short skirmish Nga Rauru retire minus their kai. When Ngati Apa heard that Taka-rangi had intercepted those who were coming to give them assistance, they immediately started out, and took a large pa situated on the Kai-toke Lake” [about two miles from Whanga-nui No. 1 Line]. “Whanga-nui, not to be outdone, travelled to Rangi-tikei, where they besieged the pa at Pou-rewa, killed Te Haha-o-te-rangi, and then retired.

“Then up arose Te Ahuru and said to his people, ‘I hear there is a brave man called Te O-raunga of the Mua-upoko. I will go to him and see if he will lend a hand to help punish Whanga-nui and Rangi-tane.’ So he went to Wai-were, a pa at the south end of Lake Horo-whenua, and laid his views and intentions before Te O-raunga; but that careful chief said, ‘No, I am afraid I cannot help you, for this taniwha you wish to destroy has two heads—i.e., Whanga-nui and Rangi-tane. If it had only one I would willingly go. But go on to Pori-rua. Te Huke-o-tungia is there, and he will assist.’ So Te Ahuru went to Pori-rua as directed, but Huke-o-tungia said, ‘No, I cannot help; but let us go to Nga-kaka-waha-nui (the loquacious parrots), at Wai-rarapa.’ So they went on, and came to the pa” [near Mr. Bidwell's], “and there they found the two kakas famed for their great beaks, Te Whata-horo and Te Kaka-hou, and explained what they came for. After hearing all Te Ahuru and his friend had to say, the two great chiefs replied, ‘Yes, we will help you. Go home as fast as you can, gather all your people, and plenty of kai. We will follow in a few days.’ So Te Ahuru returned to Rangi-tikei; but as soon as he had gone; Whata-horo said to his friend, ‘Had we not better follow at once, before Whanga-nui hears of our approach and has time to gather?’ So they started off from Wai-rarapa with a great army of over three hundred men of the Rakai-whaka-iri, the Ngati Kahukura-a-whitia, the Hamua, and the Ngati-moe tribes, all branches of the Ngati Kahu-ngunu.

“When Te Ahuru left Wai-rarapa he arranged with his own people to have supplies of food ready, and with this purpose in view he came on to Whanga-ehu; but no sooner had he called his people together than a great war-party was seen approaching from the south. The people were much afraid, and said to Te Ahuru, ‘What is the meaning of this?’ Te Ahuru, although he felt considerable apprehension, replied, ‘Perhaps it is our friends from Wai-rarapa and Pori-rua. Let us go forward to meet them.’ (The Pori-rua people had also joined, although they had at first refused.) So the two parties met, and the apprehensions of the Ngati Apa were quickly set at rest by the joyful discovery that the taua was led by their Wairarapa friends. After the customary feast had been disposed of, a war-dance was executed, during the excitement of which some of the brave fellows advised going on to Whanga-nui that night. Te Ahuru opposed this, for he wished to have time to gather all his available Ngati Apa force. But Tui, the tohunga travelling with the taua, settled the dispute by saying, ‘We will go now, for even at this moment the Whanga-nui people are preparing to resist us, and to-morrow we will meet their party and be victorious.’”

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The Prophecy by Which Tui Excited the Taua to go On.

Tera ia te ata taua Takiri ana mai,
Kai Tongariro e, ko te mamaru,
E whakakaka ra i ona rau,
Kia riro mai ko Tu-kapua
Kai riro mai ana ko Huru-tara
Kia whakatauria iho te kohu ka kikimai
Ka titiro he ure ngorengore no Pakihi
No muri ka whati te piki
No tura kai te awatea,
Kua moea e au ki te po
E tu ana Kai-whara-whara
Ka nunumi kai Ota-aue
Kia tangi mai te karoro, aue!
Taku kai he piro tangata
E he wai ka kato te wai o Whanga-nui
Kai u kei uta ka huri Taikoria
Ka huri ki Waiwiri
Hara-mai ai ona rau
E rua, ki au kakari ai e
Ruru e. Ruru e, kai taraha e i.

[Translation.]

Lo ! the morn of wrath is dawning.
At Tongariro the hundred are being Incited to defeat Tu-kapua and Huru-tara.*
Enveloped by the mist they will assemble
For the fight. They will look on us with disdain,
Unworthy to fight against; but they will be
Defeated at daylight.
At night I dreamt—I beheld Another victory at Kai-whara-whara.†
They were also overwhelmed at Ota-aue,‡
Causing the sea-gull to scream, “Aue ! alas!
Oh! my meat is the stench of human corpses.”
Held back is the wave of Whanga-nui
Lest it should overflow Taikoria
And also flood Waiwiri.§
The hundred attacked me in vain.
Two to one against me, I defeated them.
And glorious was my victory.

So they started off that night, taking the road by the sea-beach, and just as day was breaking they ran right into the Whanga-nui war-party at Kai-whara-whara (the South Spit, Whanga-nui River). Still under the excitement of the recent haka, the invaders made short work of the surprised Whanga-nui-ites, and before very long the pair of kakas with great beaks were counting the spoil. They made a pile of the dead men four high, laying them crossways as children cross and recross their hands in play. “How long the row was,” said my informant, “I don't know—perhaps a mile, perhaps less—but, at any rate, as soon as the wall was built, Whatahoro and his companion said to Te Ahuru, ‘Here is payment for you. Is it enough?’ and so they gave the whole pile to Ngati Apa as a hakari for them. While the feast was going on, Tui, the tohunga, got up and sang another song, in which he described other places that would be taken, and told the names of the chiefs to be killed. So the party, taking his good

[Footnote] * Tu-kapua e Huru-tara-Men of the Wai-rarapa taua.

[Footnote] Kai-whara-whara-South Spit, Whanganui River.

[Footnote] Ota-aue—A pa on the Awarua Creek below Putiki

[Footnote] § Waiwiri—The lake usually known as Pa-pai-tonga.

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advice, advanced, bent on mischief. They attacked the pa Ota-aue” [on the Awa-rua Creek, about half a mile below Putiki], “where they captured all the inhabitants, and sent them as slaves under escort to Rangitikei. Then on again they went, determined to take the large pa at Parikino named Tuke-a-maui, which was known to be full of people. It took the war-party several days to effect an entrance, but they eventually dragged down parts of the palisading by tying flax ropes to the middle of short pieces of wood, throwing them over, and then pulling. After this victory the war-party retired, carrying with them many slaves, and satisfied that at least one of the taniwha's heads had been considerably damaged. The old pa Tuke-a-maui stood on the rising ground above Kai-tangata, the old name of the pa now known as Pari-kino. Pari-kino was a pa on the cliff side of the river, opposite Kai-tangata.

“Now for the other head: Flushed with their recent conquests, Te Ahuru now decided to give his friends a skirmish with Rangi-tane; so he again gathered his Ngati Apa force, and, joining with Wai-rarapa, they marched away, having previously sent out spies, two by two, who were to hunt the district, and let the main body know where the most people had congregated. Soon the scouts returned with their report to Orini (near Tahora-iti), which the taua had now reached, and informed the leaders that all the people in the district had vacated the small pas and fled to Rai-kapua, a strongly fortified pa on the Upper Manawa-tu River, having a high inaccessible cliff immediately behind it. So the war-party laid siege to this pa, and carried on the operations with such fury that in a very short space an entrance was gained, and the slaughter of the defenders commenced. Alto-gether two hundred poor wretches were killed, and one hundred taken as slaves; and again the dead were piled up in a row four deep, with the captives on top. Then said Whata-horo to Ahuru, ‘There is your second payment. Divide this pile into two equal parts, and bind the dead on the shoulders of the living.’ So he gave half of the captives to the Ngati Apa party and kept half himself, and the two tribes separated, each forcing their slaves to carry home their dead comrades, who were no doubt destined to grace the board at the first feast. Thus was the taniwha's second head destroyed. The descendants of the slaves captured on that occasion are still to be found at Pori-rua and Wai-rarapa.”

Ko Te Mata Tenei A Tui, Matenga I Tahuri Ai Rai-Kapua.
[Tui's Song before the Capture of Rai-kapua.]

Takoto paranga he matuku
Takoto paranga he matuku
Ka whaterotero mai te arero huare ki waho
Hora ana te huruhuru o tona ure
Te hokinga mai o te Parekura i te koru ra,
Aha ha he pane whiti, aha ha he pane taonga,
He niho tete mai i runga o te turuturu,
A taina a he aha ka nene ka tangi koe e.

This waiata is a vision and a prophecy as to what the result of the assault on Rai-kapua would be.

After this, a woman of rank belonging to Ngati Wairiki was killed near Turakina by Ngaiti Whiti, so Tama-te-kura collected people from Whanganui and Manga-whero to avenge her death. The party travelled to Rangitikei and took a pa called Toko-rangi (Whanga-ehu), where they killed the chief Poa-tawa and a great number of people, and after the usual celebrations returned home. After this Tawhero-haki was killed in retaliation;

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consequently Pehi Turoa, the great Whanga-nui chief, went to Manumanu's relatives and said, “We must have payment for this man's death.” So they gathered a force, and went to seek revenge at Muri-motu, where they killed Tama-te-kura, Te Kahu, Toetoe, and others belonging to Ngati Tu-whare-toa. They afterwards had another fight at Tiki-rere, where more people of this same tribe were killed. And so the quarrel went on; but, as the complicated law of utu entailed fighting among various tribes outside the Rangi-tikei district, these quarrels need not be followed further.

After this, more civil trouble arose owing to one of the Kauae people named Te Hina beating and otherwise ill-treating his wife. She objected to this, and fled across the river to her people to complain. They were angry with Te Hina for this, and to square matters they took from the woman a famous tiki belonging to her husband; and when she afterward returned without the tiki, he bethought him of ancient grievances (although up to this time Kauae and Maero had lived together as neighbours), and remembered the annihilation of his people by Rangi-te-muri; so he gathered some of his people, made a raid, and captured Maero, Tau-iri, Te Hanea, Mokomoko, and Pauhu, as well as many others. He also recovered his tiki and other property, and, to properly punish these people for taking his wife's part, or else taking his tiki, he made a great fire and scorched his prisoners over it, in much the same manner as eels are treated for fattening. (It was an old-time custom with the Maoris on this coast, when on an eel-fishing expedition, to gather together all the small and skinny eels caught, and then light a fire of fern down by the water's edge. Then the contents of the hinaki were emptied into the middle of the fire, and it was supposed that by this persuasive treatment the unfortunate eels that managed to crawl through and reach the water would eventually grow large and fat; and who would doubt it? This custom was called Tunutunu ki te ahi).

After the burning, Te Hina had his prisoners liberated and sent them away, and, as they were his wife's relatives, he acted kindly, and did not kill any of them except Pauhu; but they resented his kind treatment, and immediately commenced to make plans for avenging their insult. First they commenced going to Oroua, but eventually decided to go to Awa-mate. Soon after settling there they received a visit from a chief named Tama-whi-rangi, of Ngariki, who was connected with Maero, but who was also related to Te Hina. Him they took and killed as a first blow in revenge for their burning. When Te Hina heard how his relative had been received at Awa-mate, he left his pa at Tu-nuku, above Kara-riki, and hastened with a war-party to revenge that death; but he was himself killed, and his party driven home. When Wai-tene heard that Te Hina had been killed, he sought assistance to punish Maero, and was aided by the Muaupoko, Ngati Kahu-ngunu, Nga-wai-riki, and other hapus of Ngati Apa. This large force attacked Te Awa-mate, which was an island in a lake, but did not take it, not having canoes.

(The Awa-mate Lake is a long, narrow body of water, curved round something after the shape of a horse-shoe, lying on Mr. Dalrymple's property at Parewa-nui. When the writer first saw it, many years ago, the island referred to had a peculiar appearance, owing to a number of trees standing with their roots upwards—the remnats of ancient fortifications, called puwhara, upon which platforms were built. The same thing was noticed at other places when we were children, but not to the same extent; but these, like many other object of which we then took but little notice, have long since disappeared.)

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Finding they were unable to take the island, the war-party retreated, but almost immediately returned to the attack, and on this occasion they killed Kakaho, the daughter of Te Ahuru, and others; but again they were unsuccessful in taking the pa, and so again they retired.

“The murder of this poor girl,” said my informant, “was a very discreditable act”; and while he gave the following details, the old man's eyes filled with tears.

Before Te Ahuru went to fight Te Rau-paraha at Kapiti he had a presentiment that he would be killed at that battle, for in a vision (dream) he had seen his own head fixed on the top of a pole; so he gave to his daughter his mere pounamu called Te Rito-harakeke (young blade of the flax), with the instructions that she was never to part with it, and also that she was to wear it night and day, but in such a manner that the cord which held it round her neck was to be kept concealed beneath her mat.

When the poor girl was captured at Awa-mate, her captors formed a ring round her, and she was ordered to sit down in the enclosed space; but she refused, and said, “Why should I sit down to be killed? Allow me to stand and sing my death-song, after which I will be ready.” Then she asked Te Kahawai to give her his mat so that her body might be covered after she was dead, and Te Kahawai without a moment's thought complied with her request and laid down his mahiti (dog-skin mat) on the ground before her.

While she was singing Te Kahawai noticed the tears trickling down her cheeks, and when the tangi was finished he said to her, “Why were you crying just now?” Kakaho replied, “Do you ask me why I was crying? If you were a woman, as I am, you would know very well why I was crying.” Continuing, she said, “I, like you, am going to be a fish of the sea, for I am a woman of much blood; and may this thought carry you to death, for you are not a man of your word.” (Some reference to the fact that the kahawai fish, when caught, bleeds more freely than any other fish known to the Maori.)

Then one of the party took a tokotoko, and, giving it to another chief, he said, “Kill her with this.” Kakaho overheard the order, and immediately cried out, “Let me not die by such a mean weapon. If die I must, kill me with this.” And as she spoke she drew from her bosom the mere Te Rito-harakeke, and held it aloft. The man who had the tokotoko seized the mere, calling out, “Yes, it is a good weapon, and a good girl,” at the same time striking her a blow that laid her low for ever.

Then it was noticed that her body was tapu, being protected by the mahiti, which by this time was wet with blood welling from the death-wound; consequently she was not eaten, but buried as befitted a chief's daughter.

As soon as it was discovered that the girl was dead, Te Kahawai turned to Paihure, the man who had killed her, and said, “Why did you kill her in defiance of my protection?” and, receiving no satisfactory answer, he took the mere, and Paihure also fell to the ground, a dead man.

After the siege, Maero and Tau-iri were so worried by the appearance of the Ngati Apa almost daily, and also by the shortage of their food-supply, that they determined to evacuate the pa and go to Ao-rangi. So they quietly left Te Awa-mate and went to Oroua; but the Ngati Apa people followed them up and killed several, but the chief person killed was a woman named Hiango, and she was killed by Wai-tene. After this the Maero people resolved to scatter; so Hura, Rihi-mona, and Rene-hura went to Horo-whenua for safety, the others all going to different places.

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Chapter V.

Now, when Te Hakeke grew up he desired to obtain further revenge for the death of his father Rangi-hau-tu; so he went up the Rangi-tikei River and conferred with some of the chiefs there, with the result that a war-party of the Tupa-taua and Nga-riki hapus journeyed to Manawa-tu, where they surrounded the Pahutu Pa (near the bridge at Palmerston North), at which place Rangi-hau-tu's murderers were living. The invaders were fairly successful in this little tribute to the dead chief's memory, for two of the chief culprits (brothers to Taka-wai, the real murderer) suffered for their relationship, and their spirits fled to the Rerenga Wairua (spirits' leaping-place), and Te Hakeke himself had the satisfaction of killing the man who had held his father down while he was being murdered. However, justice was not always meted out to the ill-doers in those days, as now, for the real cause of all the trouble, Taka-wai, escaped, and so the party had to return to their pas with the lust for blood in their throats only partially satisfied.

Table 7. -Showing The Ancestor Kauae, from Whom the Subtribe Take their Name.

It will be remembered that after Te Hiango was killed, Rihi-mona, Hura, and others went to Horo-whenua for safety, and after a time the Mua-upoko people, with whom they dwelt, thought that Hura's wrongs should be more fully avenged, so they came with Rihi-mona back to Lower Rangi-tikei to make war on Ngati Apa. They arrived, and halted just

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below Parewa-nui, and sent out scouts to reconnoitre. The only person the scouts discovered was Kaewa (Te Hakeke's wife), whom they found with a companion gathering tutu-berries. She was uncertain whether she would be killed or not, but the scouts contented themselves by stating their object and asking for Hakeke, who was away at Turakina mustering a war-party to fight Rangi-tane. Leaving Kaewa unhurt, the scouts continued their search, and soon after found Ngoki, Kaewa's sister, who was surprised and killed at O-taka-po, close to where the township of Bull's now stands. As soon as Hakeke returned from Turakina, he discovered what had taken place, and made all haste to follow up the retreating war-party, and fell in with them accidentally at Wha-rangi (Manawa-tu), where they were busy in the swamps catching eels. Although thus engaged, they were working “with one eye open,” for they judged by the flight of some seagulls that they might be surprised by a pursuing party; so Tu-ranga-pito was ready with a long-handled tomahawk, and Hakaraia was also near to bear the brunt of the attack, and these two sought to engage the enemy while the rest of the Mua-upoko drew together. Then Hakeke rememberd that these people whom he had come out against were his own connections,*. so he sought a truce, and to do so ran up and threw his dog-skin mat over Rihi-mona. Tu-ranga-pito was angry at thus being baulked of the excitement of a fight, so he tried to make trouble, and cried out, “Who is that tupapaku (dead body) you have there?” apparently endeavouring to excite them by reference to the late murder. But Hakeke seems to have been a man of peace, for, although Ngoki was Hakeke's sister-in-law, she was also a connection (whaea) of Tu-ranga-pito's. Notwithstanding Hakeke's command, Waitene (Ngoki's brother) still endeavoured to kill Hura and Rihi-mona, but was checked by the others. Eventually the Mua-upoko people crossed the Mikihi Stream, but while they were crossing some one called out “Ko Ngoki tonu”; but it was too late to cause further trouble, for by that time Mua-upoko were on the other side of the Manawa-tu. Hura and Rihi-mona never returned to Rangi-tikei.

After these things Pouhu was killed by some of the Nga Riki and Tupataua people. Pouhu, it will be remembered, was one of those who suffered scorching at the hands of Te Hina, but who recovered from his wounds. He was one of the Maero hapu, and he was killed by Tahataha and Maru-maru in revenge for the death of Te Hina, who was killed in assaulting Te Awa-mate pa, and also in revenge for Tama-whi-rangi, the visitor who was killed at the same place. It may be mentioned that this tribe, the Nga Riki, was a hapu toa, Hakeke and all the other leading chiefs of Ngati Apa being connected with it. As utu for Pouhu's death, Hori-te-hania and his companions killed one of the Rangaranga-tu people at Oroua. He thought first of all that he would kill Te Haena, who was an old man of Nga Riki living at Totara-tai-apa (Sandon), but he did not carry out that idea, as he was afraid of Te Hakeke; so he went on to Oroua, where he killed Pokana, of the Rangaranga-tu hapu, but spared his sister, who was connected with him by marriage. This murder was, even according to Maori ethics, a very discreditable transaction (he kanohi i pania ki te toto). The next item was that the Ngati Apa sought revenge for this, and went to Hakupu-rua (Oroua), where they killed, of the Ngati Tauira and Ngati Maero, the following persons: Mokomoko, Rereopa, Te Rangi-ta-koru, and Tara-wehi, who was a daughter of Hura, and also her brother Tahu-potiki;

[Footnote] * Kaewa, Te Hakeke's wife, was a Mua-upoko woman

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besides, there were a number of women taken prisoners, but none of them of any great name. Te Waitene wanted to kill Hura's two children in revenge for his sister Ngoki; but Rangi-te-ika, of the Nga Wairiki, would not consent to this; so they were spared, and sparing their lives saved further trouble on that occasion. But rest was not yet. Ngati Maero, Ngati Tauira, and Rangi-tane combined to attack Ngati Apa, so they came to Te Puru, near Kaka-riki, on the Rangi-tikei River, where they met their foe; but they also met defeat and disaster, for at that siege two of their leaders—namely, Umupo and Rongo-mai-tai—were killed; but Kakapa, of Tauira, and Ropiha Piriha, who were both captured, were spared. The leaders of the victorious Ngati Apa were Hura and Rihi-mona, who had come up from Horo-whenua on a visit, but who afterwards returned to their Mua-upoko.

It was about this time that Te Rau-paraha settled for the second time on Kapiti (Te Rau-paraha actually settled on Kapiti in 1824, but he came down the second time from Kawhia in 1821), and when he was established there he fought against Rangi-tane and afterwards against Ngati Apa. Then other of the Taranaki, Ngati Awa, and Ngati Toa tribes shifted down to Kapiti, so as to get out of the road of the Wai-kato and Ngati Mania-poto tauas. Some of these hekes went by the sea-shore, others travelled inland searching for food, so all the hapus along the coast stayed in their various places, but for a short time endeavouring to evade these migrating parties.

Rangi-tane and Ngati Kahu-ngunu now sought revenge for the death of Rongo-mai-tai; so, when Te Hakeke found that they were on the way to Turakina, he decided to gather all the available Ngati Apa together and meet the enemy there. With this purpose in view he hurried to Turakina; but before he reached that place he fell in with a taua from Whanga-nui, who were travelling by canoe to Kapiti, but who had landed on account of bad weather. They caught him, and carried him on to one of their canoes, where they held him down, endeavouring to kill him by cutting his throat with a shark's-tooth knife; but he strove with his great strength, made a gigantic effort, and threw them aside as little children, and so broke clean away from them; and then, when at some little distance, he called back to his pursuers, “I am Hakeke, the great Hakeke. You cannot capture me.” They could not, although they tried; and Te Hakeke ran back to Rangi-tikei.

The Rangi-tane party went on to Turakina without knowing anything of this, and, as the Ngati Apa there had not received Te Hakeke's warning, they were quite unprepared. When the taua consisting of the Ngati Kahu-ngunu, Rangi-tane, and Mua-upoko hapus, under the chiefs Te Wheta, Te Aweawe, and Hori Kingi, in all 340 persons, were travelling down the coast to the attack, they were discovered by Te Wai-tene, who immediately warned his people. Only a small party of defenders could be raised at a moment's notice, but these few were angry and desperate men, and so, nothing daunted, Te Wai-tene the brave and his six companions of the Nga Riki attacked that great combined army; but, although brave and strong, these seven were but as a few grains of sand before the whirlwind, and soon Wai-tene and his brother Te Hokinga were speeding to meet their ancestors on the dim shores of the spirit-land. But Hori-te-mohi and his elder brother escaped—all the aries of the world were not strong enough to take them.* This affair is known to the Maori as the Turaki-awatea

[Footnote] * The sper with which Wai-tene was killed is now in the hands of Wirihana Hunia, of Otaki.

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fight, and it took place at Te Kopiri, near the railway-station, Turakina. After this, peace was made. Te Rangi-te-ika conferred with Mua-upoko and Rangi-tane, and they returned home; but on their way, when near Te Ara-tau-mahi (Bull's), their good resolutions melted away. The opportunity to kill some one could not be resisted. Was not the excitement of the fight the very spice and essence of expectance? So they killed Hatoa, of the Ngati Apa, at that place. The hue and cry was quickly raised, Ngati Apa follwed them up, and at the Manawa-tu River they came upon them. There a skirmish took place, with the result that Pa-anga, of the Rangi-tane, and others were killed, though Te Weta, whom they were anxious to take, escaped up the river, though badly wounded by a spear-thrust in the thigh. (This as the same man who escaped on a previous occasion when attacked by Rangi-hau-tu and Ao-kehu.) Ngati Apa then returned home satisfied, having avenged both their late defeat at Turakina and the murder at Te Ara-tau-mahi (Bull's).

Chapter VI.

It seems to have been about this time that the battle of Manga-toetoe took place, in Hawke's Bay, between the Manumanu people and Ngati Kahu-ngunu, at Manga-toetoe, where Rewharewha and other chiefs of Ngati Kahu-ngunu fell, some thirty in all; and again they were defeated at Pou-taka, where the Ngati Apa and Koiri people killed Tua-whitu. For payment Ngati Kahu-ngunu obtained help from the Ngati Apa and Ngati Maru tribes, who assembled at Here-taunga under the command of Tangi-te-rur, Roro, Rangi-nui-kap, and Te Rei.

The combined forces then travelled to Mokai Patea, where they found Pokai-tara, of Ngati Whiti, living at Whiringa-o-tau; so they killed him, and then crossed the Rangi-tikei River, where they killed Te Rahui, who belonged to the people living on that side of the river. When Pehi Turoa heard that the Ngati Kahu-ngunu were in the Rangi-tikei district, he wished to assist them, so he and Kaeaea (usually known as Taringa Kuri), of Ngati Tama, raised a party andwent to help. As soon as Ngati Wai-riki heard of this great army advancing, they sent messengers to Rangi-tikei, Whangaehu, Turakina, Manga-whero, and O-takapo, and raised a force to check the advance of the combined tribes, who had now joined. They met the enemy at the place where the town of Marton now stands, and, after a challenge to single combat had been given the chiefs Kapia, of Ngati Wai-riki, and Rangi-nui, of Ngati Kahu-ngunu, met, and after a hand-to-hand conflict Rangi-nui was killed. Upon seeing the fall of their chief leader, the Ngati Kahu-nugnu lost heart and fled. In this battle, which was called Taku-te-rangi, the Ngati Kahu-ngunu numbered 1,600 men (probably greatly exaggereated, for our friend is speaking à la Maori), while their victorious opponnents mustered only about 340.

After this the taua reconstructed, and went on the Here-taunga, whence they had come, still determined on mischief. When they arrived at Makaroro (head-waters of Wai-pawa River) they found the Ngati Upoko-iri and and ngati Hine-manu living there. so they attacked the pa and defeated its inmates, killing twenty-two of them. Some of the survivors from Pona-pona fled across the Wai-pawa River where they rallied, and in turn defeated their enemy at Wai-pohue, Pou-kawa, near Wai-pawa (Jour. Polynesian Soc., vol. ix, p. 74), and killed Rangi-maona-ariki, one of the chiefs of Tangi-te-ruru's war-party. After this defeat Tangi-te-ruru hastily returned home.

– 107 –

The next item in the chain of events was another heke, which the narrator affirms took place before the battle known as Hao-whenua, which was fought at Pakakutu, near Otaki, in 1833. The description of the journey was obtained from one of those who took part in it, as also was the previous one recorded. So the story may be given for the most part in our friend's own words.

“Wai-kato came down, a great migration of eight hundred strong. We came by way of Taupo, and joined the Turakina River at its head-waters, and were two days travelling down-stream. Then we stuck over to the Rangi-tikei, and at Wai-tuna, on the farther side of the river, we caught Makere-rua, Moekau, and others of the Ngati Apa. Before this, when travelling from the Turakina Valley to Pou-rewa, at the mouth of the Mangaraupi, we found other people of the same tribe, whom we caught, and carried along with us to kapiti. They were Tai-hapara and Mohi. Further on, at the Whaka-moe-takapau bush, we captured Tumata-whiti and others. They were busy preserving birds when we surprised and captured them. This man Tumata-whiti ws a sorcerer. His own wife said he was an ahi-taraiti” [probably this word means “firelight”; ahi=fire, taraiti = Maori mode of pronouncing “light”]. “So we killed him, and took the woman along with us. At Kiwitea we took Te Kiore prisoner; but Kaka-raia, Pouri, and other escaped. Afterwards, when we reached Kapiti, we released Kiore, and sent him back to assemble the hapu for the purpose of making an alliance with them. At Kai-kokopu” [one of the numerous lagoons lying on the sand between the lower Rangi-tikei and Foxton districts, about a mile from the sea, now known to sportsmen as Hunia's Lake] “Te Kiore found Te Hakeke, who acquiesced in the proposal. Te Kiore then came down the Rangi-tikei to Parewa-nui and other places. The tribes first met at Kai-kokopu, where the Ngati Rau-kawa chiefs met Te Hakeke, and the alliance was made.

“Soon after we comenced our journey down the Turakina Valley we came upon a hunting-party capturing and preserving birds. Of these we took ten prisoners, one of the principal captives being Amiria, the wife of Hirea. Also, at Manga-raupi, by the Pourewa Stream—that is, between the Tutae-nui and Pou-rewa streams—we took six more of the Ngati Apa, who were also preserving birds when we came upon them.

“We came out on to the river-beach Kokako-tahi, and travelled along the seaside to Otaki, from whichplace we sent a messenger back to Hakeke, who came and joined us, and after that came the fight at Hao-whenua. Immediately after that fight we returned to Wai-kawa, fifteen miles from Otaki, and we stayed there for some time. While we wer living there we heard that Hakeke had concentrated the Ngati Apa at Parewa-nui, so we went along to that place and found a pa built, where a great number of the Ngati Apa were residing with hakeke. We were then for hundred strong. Nepia's pa was on the other side of the Rangi-tikei, opposite to Parewa-nui. The Ngati Rau-kawa went into it and occupied it by force. This would be about the year 1830” [1833].

“We went straight on from Parewa-nui to Tu-rangi-wai-kani, on the other side of the Manuka bush inland” [an old pa on the flat below the Bull's racecourse]. “We went there for food, as the plantations of the Ngati Apa were very extensive. Tu-rangi-wai-kani was then very large settlement, about the same size as Putiki of the present day (1875). We stayed there for fully a month, the prisoners we had taken staying with us. Some of them we had returned to their tribes previous to Hao-whenua.

– 108 –

“Coming up the river form there, we came to Te Ana and Te Karaka, at both of which places the Ngati Apa were living in force. From there we went up to Te Pohue, and stayed there for two years and a half. There were three settlemnts between these places, full of Ngati Apa, for they were a very numerous people in those days. The reason why we stayed so long at Te Pohue was that we had taken a great liking to the land in consequence of the abundance of kakas. A whakatauki arose from this—namely, ‘Noku tenei whenua ko rangatira’; meaning, ‘This my land is the chief of lands.’ After we left Te Pohue we proceeded home.”

This may have been the migration known as the Heke Mai-raro, or “migration from below,” the north point being always referred to as down-ward. Another war is known as the Heke Whiri-nui, called by this name owing to the fact that the whiri or plaited collars of thier mats were made very large for journey. This is the name given by Travers, in the ‘Life of Te Rau-paraha,’ to the heke previously described, but called by the Maori narrator the heke Kariri-tahi; and the Kariri-tahi migration is described by him (Travers) as having come down later, under Tara-toa; but we are inclined to think the account given by our dark friend is the correct one, though it is difficult at this date to be certain, for after Te Rau-paraha was firmly established in his newly acquired land these hekes were constantly occurring, both to help him and also to participate in his newly acquired wealth.

Regarding the battle of Hao-whenua, to which some reference has been made, it appears that one of Te Rau-paraha's sons, named Tupoa, was killed by Ngati Parere, a hapu of Mua-upoko. He was discovered lighting a fire (probably figurative languag) at Kereru, so was waylaid and slain.

Knowing full well the storm that this action would bring about their ears, Mua-upoko prepared for battle. Invitations were sent out to Rangi-tane, Ngati Apa, Whanga-nui, and Nga Rauru, all of whom responded and sent their contingents; and all the old people women, and children of the Mua-upoko were sent to the pa at Papai-tonga for safety.

The battle was fought at Otaki, at the rear of the present hotel, about half a mile from the mouth of the river; Ngati Toa, in combination with Ngati Awa, Ngati Rau-kawa, and Ngati Tama, being victorious. It is said that seven hundred men were killed in this fight, and after it was over Te Rau-paraha attacked Papai-tonga, where he killed a hundred more.

When Te Rau-paraha reached Waikanae he noticed a black cloud hanging over Kapiti, and, seeing in this sign an omen of further success, he again attacked the combined tribes at Horo-whenua, where he seems to have had but indifferent success, for he was driven to Kapiti by Mua-upoko, Ngati Apa, Rangi-tana, and Pehi Turoa, of Whanga-nui, with his three hundred men. Between Hao-whenua and the next heke, which we are able to describe, occurred the death of Taka-rangi at Kohur-po. An account to has appeared in the Jour. Polynesian Soc.; but, as we have additional notes, we will proceed to describe the events that led up to that battle and other afairs; so we will retrace our steps to the time of Kawana Hunia's birth.

Kawana Hunia, Hakeke's son, was born at Wai-tapu, a pa far up the Rangi-tikei River, and when he had grown out of childhood his father took him to Oroua, and placed him in the care of Hamiora, who arranged to look after him. He did this with the idea of creating a friendship, and to prevent his people of the Ngati Apa molesting Ngati Tauira and Maero, who had ceased to reside at Te Awa-mate and that neighbourhood, and had taken up their abode at Oroua, on account of the strained relationship which had for a long time existed between these hapus.

– 109 –

There was a song, a sort of lullaby, composed by two old men named Te Kowa-kura and Taku-te-rangi about the event, a translation of which we have endeavoured to render into rhyme:—

Kaati e tama te noho i to whare,
E puta ki waho ra ka haere taua,
Nga parae ka tokoto ki waho o Whaka-aii*
He uia mai koe kowai to ingoa,
Mau e ki atu, ko te Raro-o-te-rangi,
Kai ki mai te wareware,
Ka pau te whakánoa e te tini e te mano,
Naku ia nei na te Kahu-pepe, te Roa-wai-rerewa
Kai whea o Tupuna hei whakawehi mai i muri ano Whaka-tau-potiki,§
Nana tokotoko te rangi runga nei,
Ka puta koe ki te whaiao ki te whaiao ki te aomarama
Hikaka te haere ki runga Taikoria,
Pukana o karu, ki roto Manawa-tu,
Kei o matua e tu mai ra i te one o te riri ka ngaro te tangata,
Aronui te haere ki roto o Horo-whenua,
Kia Powhiri mai koia e whaea,
E rau a te waka kia paua to rangi,
Te rau o te huia e noa te tinana tera to piki te hokio runga,
Nga manu hunahuna, kaore i kitea,
E te tini e te mano
Kia takaro koe nga takutai e takato i waho Wai-wiri,
I roto o Wai-kawa**
Ka eke koe ki runga o Puke-hou,**
Ka whakamau e tama ki waho Rau-kawa††
Ko nga moana ra e whakawhana noa ra o Tipuna i te kakau o te hoe
Ngaro rawa tu ki Hawaiki.

[Translation.]

Arise, my son, and leave thy home;
O'er Whaka-ari's plains let's roam.
If common folk inquire of thee
Regarding name and ancestry,
Then proudly thou shalt make reply,
“The Rib of Heaven above am I,
Sprung from line of warriors bold,
Descended from ancestor old,
Name known in mythology,
Whaka-tau-potiki.”
He upraised to the sky
Up from earth the heaven high;
Thereby making all things bright,
For thee creating world of light.
Hasten, hasten, let us wend,
And Mount Taikoria ascend;
There wrathful gaze on Manawa-tu
Where thy sires with courage true
Bravely fought; and, sad to tell,
Upon its sands there many fell:
Ah! for their fall to payment gain
Let not their spirits call in vain.
To Horo-whenua, far away,
Let us go without delay.

[Footnote] * whaka-ari—The Sandon district.

[Footnote] † Kahui-pepe—The family of the Pepe (pepe-mua, Pepe-roto, &c.), who were actors in the drams of Apa-kura in far Hawaiki

[Footnote] Roa-wai-rerewa—All tall men, like the offspring of Wai-rerewa, also connected with Apa-kura.

[Footnote] § Whaka-tau-potiki—Apa-kura's son.

[Footnote] ∥ Taikoria—A hill at Carnarvon, overlooking Manawa-tu.

[Footnote] ¶ Wai-wiri—The lake usually known as Pa-pai-tonga. Pa-pai-tonga is the island in the lake.

[Footnote] ** Wai-kawa and Puke-hou—Both at Otaki.

[Footnote] ** Wai-kawa and Puke-hou—Both at Otaki.

[Footnote] †† Rau-kawa—Cook strait.

– 110 –

There grand the greeting it will be
Of thy female ancestry
When their chief again they see.
All the tribe, with joy elate,
The war-canoe will decorate.
The hokio feather thou must wear
Because it is extermely reare;
The huia's common everywhere.
On the joyful meeting-day
You must you dignity display
In fitting action, fitting speech,
On Wai-wiri's adjacent beach,
Near Wai-kawa. Ascend thou Puke-hou,
Beyond Rau-kawa gaze o'er depths below.
On it thy ancestors, in days gone by,
Their paddles grasped and made their wakas fly;
But they departed, to return no more,
Unto Hawaiki's dim and distant shore.

After making this arrangement, Te Hakeke did what he could to carry it out, so he abandoned his place up the Rangi-tikei River, and buit two pas at Oroua. Then, determined on peace, he went to Manawa-tu, and sought an interview with his old enemies; and so successful was he that a two great tribes, the Ngati Apa and Rangi-tane, had now met together for the first time in peace. The song commences,—

Kaua te Hakeke e ra konei mai, titaha tonu atu ma te hori
Ki waho ra i, kai peka mai ki konei kai kamua
Hoki koe e taku hokowhitu e taku rua te rau e i.

[Translation.]

Let not Te Hakeke come near;
Let him keep away, lest he be destroyed
By my hokowhitu (140) and my two hundred. O!

(This was probably the conference of chiefs referred to in the heke lately narrated.)

After leaving his pa at Oroua, Te Hakeke went to Kai-kokopu, near the sea, while Maero, Rangi-waho, and Nga-potiki hapus took up thier adode at Pukepuke. The chief did not stay long at Kai-kokopu, but returned to Oroua; but soon again he left that place, on hearing that Nepia Tara-toa and Nga Maunga, of Ngati Rau-kawa, were occupying Pae-roa, and under-scrubbing bush there with a view to settlement, and that they were also using the Awa-mate eel-weirs. So he abandoned Oroua, and gathered together some of the scattered hapus of Ngati Apa, and again camt to Parewa-nui, accompanied by the Kauae, Ngati Apa, and Ngati Tau-ira people, where they took up the clearings made by Ngati Rau-kawa, who had moved across the river to Piri-rau and Tara-toa as soon as they heard that Te Hakeke was on his way thither. As soon as Ngati Apa were once more settled at Parewa-nui, Ta-whito, the father of Paipai, of Whanga-nui (and grandfather of Hori Kerei, now living), came to Hakeke asking for aid. Hakeke responded, and sent messengers to Ngati Kauwhata and Ngati Upoko-iri, both of which tribes sent their men to aid in avenging Ta-whito's people, the Rangi Waho Tribe, some of whose men had been cut off by the Nga Raurus. So this tribe was duly attacked and defeated; but not downcast, for they came round inland seeking utu, and travelled to Poko-wharo, where thy found it in the person of Wai-ina, the wife of Rawiri-te-mana-o-Tawhaki.

– 111 –

In the meantime Pehi Turoa came down to Whanga-ehu to cultivate Ngati Apa's land there, and Te Hakeke asked assistance from Ngati Raukawa to drive him of. They consented, and the combined war-party went to Whanga-ehu by way of a road called Pehipehi, which went along close below the Poko-wharo Block, and so they arrived at Mata-tero, where they set fire to the house of Pehi Turoa, destroyed all his seed, and then retired to Kay-anga-roa, expecting an attack; but, as they were unmolested, they returned to Rangi-tikei. As Pehi Turoa had gone back to Whanga-nui after leaving his seed-kumaras at Whanga-ehu, he did not return immediately, although he had received word as to his loss by the hands of the Ngati Apa. But, while the other party killed Wai-ina, the Ngati Apa people naturally thought that Pehi Turoa had done this; so they built a pa, called Kohuru-po, a little below Mata-tero, on the Whanga-nui side of the Whanga-ehu River, and there they waited for the expected attack with a strong garrison of Ngati Apa, Nga-riki, and Tupa-taua, under the command of Tu-ranga-pito. They had not long to wait. A large party of Ngati Rongomai-tawhiri, Nga Pae-rangi, and other Whanga-nui tribes, under the leader-ship of Taka-rangi and Tauria, travelled to Whanga-ehu, where they commenced a night attack. They fought all night, and in the early morning Whanga-nui's great chief Taka-rangi was killed. When the Whanga-nui people saw their leader had fallen they lost heart and fled, theough up to this time they had been getting the best of it. Other chiefs of the Ngati Apa taking part in the fight were Aperahama Tipae, Hakaraia, and Rangipouri. After the victory Tu-ranga-pito climbed on the palisading of the pa, and sang the following song:—

Kahei koutou i haere mai ki te riri
I haere mai koutou ke te patiti ahi
Hei whakahoki riri, ta turikutia i
Ngati Rongo-mai-tawhiri e
Whai roroa i te riri e,
Whaka rongo ma ra,
Tenei te hanga kiro kei a au anake
Hua noa i a wai, he mea purotu koe,
No maua nei hoki tahi hiki ra
Nana ra i waiwaha,
He waka pakaru kino ki te akau raia ra, i.

[Translation.]

You came not hither to battle—
You came to enjoy the fire;
But, being weary,
You could not stem the battle's tide.
You should not follow up warfare,
For you are only fit
To sit around a fire
And feel its glowing heat.
Hearken unto me
And look upon my face,
For I am grieved at this man's death
I thought within myself
He would remain with me
As my beloved fried;
He taught me all my ways;
But now
He is but as a proud canoe
Tossed ashore by restless waves.

This translation gives but a feeble idea of the grim satir of the original, which was yelled and shouted at the top of the voice as a defiant battle-cry.

– 112 –
Table 8.

After this victory Te Hakeke expected that, with the death of such a proninent man, there would be a strong combination against Ngati Apa, so he assembled all the brances of the tribe at Paewa, and all the rest of the country was deserted. Whanga-nui expected from these preparations that there would be a great war-party from Ngati Rau-kawa, who were by this time firm friends with Ngati Apa, and were living at Poutu, just across the river from Paewa. So Hori Kingi Te Ana-ua sent his brother Te Mawai to Hakeke to make peace—or, rather, to prevent a war; for the influence of Europeans was now being felt, and the Natives saw how their constant internal troubles were thinning their ranks. So peace was made at Paewa, and the Whanga-nui messengers returned home.

After the victory at Kohuru-po the death of Ao-kehu occurred. Once more the war-cloud gathered, when Rangi-tana came to Whanga-ehu and Turakina to kill the people of those places, and when they thought they had killed all the people they went away. Tawai-whea, a great chief of Ngati Kahu-ngunu, was the chief man of that party.

Now, when Te Ao-kehu heard that all the people of Whanga-ehu and Turakina had been killed, he pursued Rangi-tane, and overtook and killed them all on the sea-beach. Koko-pirangi also met that war-party at O-takapo (a well-known station between Bull's and Turakina), and again defeated them. (Here an effort was made to impress upon the narrator the fact that it must have been the ghosts of that war-party that Koko-priangi met, as they were kua mate; but he failed to see it.) These war-parties came straight to Turakina and Whanga-ehu from Here-taunga.

Then Rangi-haeata, or Mokau, as he was sometimes called, of Ngati Toa, Te Ratu, and others came down on the Rangi-waho and Maero people who were living at the Awa-mate Pa, and defeated them there, and then came on to Waipu. Here Te Ao-kehu, who was Hakeke's grand-uncle, fell in with them as he was travelling from Rangi-tikei to Whanga-nui. When the Wai-riki people heard the guns of the invaders they rushed to Rangi-tikei, leaving Te Ao-kehu and a few others to fight, and so by evening Te Ao-kehu and all his people had been killed.

When word was brought in that Te Ao-kehu had been killed, the whole of the hapus went to Oroua and to different places of the Rangi-tikei River, with the exception of one party who went up the Turakina to their pa Puke-ahua, where they lived with the Ngati Tupa-taua. Ngati Toa followed the fugitives, and some of the old men were caught at Oroua. Whare-peta and Hira were both caught there, as well as others whose names are forgotten.

– 113 –

After this a war-party from Wai-kato came down under Te Horita, of Ngati Wha-naunga,* but in the meantime the Ngati Apa who had scattered before the Ngati Toa guns had come back to their own places. They fought wai-kato at the Te Ara Pa, where for a time Ngati Apa had some measure of success, but in the end they were worsted.

After Hao-whenua and Kohuru-po, came another heke from Taupo, the last of which we have any details. The journey was described by the same native that narrated the “Kariri-tahi” journey, and is as follows: “After we returned from Kapiti we remained a long time at taupo, and then came down again after Hao-whenua. We came down by the Mokai Patea road, mustering five hundred strong. At Mokai Patea a few of the Ngati Tama met us, and came on with us to Kawa-tau. We travelled overland this time, and did not canoe down the river, but travelled the track by the river, calling at Te Pounga, Otara and Mako-hine, Te Pohue, and Te Ana. Near here we found the whole of the Ngati Apa living in two separate fightingpas, put up in defence of Whanga-nui. We had heard of the death of Taka-rangi at Whanga-ehu, and found they had thrown these pas up in consequence of an expected attack. Their principal chiefs with them were Marumaru, Tahataha, Tu-ranga-pito, and Aperahama Tipae. All the Ngati Apa chiefs were there with the exception of Hakeke. Leaving Te Ana, we pushed on to the mouth of the Rangi-tikei. Here we found Ngati Mania-poto returning from Hao-whenua. Ngati Tu-whare-toa and Whanga-nui had been with them, but they parted at the mouth of the Rangi-tikei, the latter travelling along the coast on their way home, while Ngati Mania-poto returned by way of the Rangi-tikei River, with the intention of attacking Ngati Hau-iti and Ngati Hine-manu on their way, because the latter tribes had neglected the Maori custom of sending presents of birds and food to Te Heuheu when he had passed through them on a former occasion” [apparently as a king of tribute to his supreme position]. “These people had in consequence fled into the bush, and Ngati Mani-poto searched the neighbourhood for them, but in vain. From the Rangi-tikei River we pushed on, passed the Manawa-tu, and reached Otaki. The main body did not remain there long, and the rest stayed for about a year and a half, when they also returned by way of Manawa-tu, struck the river at Te Ana, and so returned home. This journey was called ‘Hou hou rongo ki Hao-whenua’—thatis, ‘The peacemaking of Hao-whenua,’ and took place about five years before Te Kuiti-tanga.” (Kuiti-tanga, 1839, took place the day before the arrival of the “Tory,” and is described in Wakefield's “Adventures in New Zealand.”)

“And now, after all this fighting and feasting, there came yet another army, few in number but mighty in power, armed not with guns, but books; and soon the last fight was fought, the last banquet finished, our captives were liberated and returned to their homes at Parewa-nui and Rangi-tikei, and we also sent those home whom we had captured.” (There is a song existing that refers to the returning captives. Hura is mentioned in it, and he is connected with Pukepuke: “Katahi te huhure ka tiketike.”) Parewa-nui became the assembling-place of all the people, and Te Hakeke was the first teacher appointed there. But with the desire for knowledge came also the desire for guns. So Ngati Apa went on a visit to their distant relatives the Kiki-rongo, to try to obtain these coveted weapons; and while

[Footnote] * Te Horita-te-Taniwha, of Ngati Wha-naunga, came from Coromandel, which was his home.

– 114 –

there some of the Ngati Apa people plundered food from the Ngati Kahungunu, who resented it, and retaliated by firing on the Ngati Apa. There upon a fight ensued, but neither side gained ground, so peace was made. But troubles were not yet quite over on all sides. There was a skirmish at Kiwitea known as Oiroa, where a young chieftainess of this name was taken prisoner, two persons being killed on the Ngati Hau-iti side. Then Ngati Hine-manu and Ngati Upoko-iri came from Ka-iri-take, on the Oroua. As soon as Ngati Apa heard of this, they defied them and threatened them with death; but, through the mediation of many chiefs present at a meeting held to arrange the expedition, no fighting took place, and peace was made—this time a lasting peace. Only one other murder took place to mar the union that has since existed, and this was the killing of a chief named Te Ngangi; but this was not revenged, and the chieftainess Ruta was given as a pledge of peace to Kawana Hunia of Ngati Apa (Hakeke's son).

And now the gospel of peace and goodwill to man was proclaimed, accepted, and carried out—yes, lived for many a year with far more interest and zeal than in many a so-called Christian country.

List of Hapus (Sub-Tribes) of the Ngati Apa Tribe Between the Whanga-Ehu and Rangi-Tikei Rivers.

(Kindly supplied by A. McDonell, Esq., of Lower Rangitikei.)

1.

Ngati Kauae.

2.

Ngati Rangiwaho.

3.

Ngati Tauira.

4.

Ngati Apu.

5.

Ngati Tai.

6.

Ngati Tupua.

7.

Nga Potiki.

8.

Ngati Tupa-taua.

9.

Tama-kuia.

10.

Ngati Rakei.

11.

Nga Riki.

12.

Ngati Tika.

13.

Ngati Ratua.

14.

Ngati Tu-moe-tere.

15.

Ngati Tamatea.

16.

Kiri-wheke.

17.

Ngati Kahu-wai-rua.

18.

Ngati Tamaea.

19.

Ngati Rangi-pokini.

20.

Rangi-puhi.

Art. XII.—The Waterloo of the Waikato, fought in 1830, and its Effects on the After-enacted Land Laws of that Part of the North Island.

[Read before the Manawatu Philosophical Society, 29th April, 1909.]

The Battle of Taumatawiwi, fought in 1830, may well be termed the Waterloo of the Waikato. A few words will explain the importance of the battle.

The Maori tribes north of Auckland, collectively known as Ngapuhi, were the first to obtain firearms in quantity. With the new weapon these tribes overran the North Island, slaughtering and capturing prisoners almost with impunity. Their incursions into the Waikato culminated in the storm and massacre of Matakitaki Pa in 1822.

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Ngapuhi, however, formed no permanent settlements south of Auckland; they only depopulated the Waikato and Waipa districts.

The tribes collectively called Ngatimaru and Ngatipaoa, of the lower Thames and south coast of Hauraki Gulf, were also by this time (1822) becoming well supplied with firearms, and they invaded, with intention of permanent settlement, the almost wholly depopulated great triangle formed on the west and east by the Waipa and Waikato Rivers, and by the Maungatautari Mountain and Range in the south.

Between the years 1814 and 1822, Ngatihaua, under their politic and warrior chief Te Waharoa, driven from their proper homes on the Waikato, maintained by sheer talent and bravery their tribal individuality and independence in the inland country north of Rotorua and between the Waikato and Thames Rivers. They established friendly relations with the Tauranga

Picture icon

Battle of Taumatawiwi.

tribes, collectively known as Ngaiterangi. Through these latter tribes Te Waharoa contrived to obtain a considerable number of firearms, and had greatly distinguished himself on behalf of Ngaiterangi against the Arawa and Rotorua Tribes.

Up to this time, however (1830), he had been quite unable to make any attempt to recover the ancestral lands of Ngatihaua in the Waikato; but now (1830) he learned that the other remnants of Waikato tribes, having obtained firearms through the ports of Manukau, Kawhia, and Mokau, were forming plans to attack the Ngatimaru and Ngatipaoa, who had taken permanent possession of the triangular district above mentioned. Now, it would, according to Maori custom, be very derogatory to the prestige (mana) of Ngatihaua and their chief Te Waharoa if that district was reconquered by any one other than themselves, for, although, supposing the Waikato

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tribes were successful in expelling Ngatimaru and Ngatipaoa, Ngatihaua would certainly be allowed to return to their ancestral possessions, yet they would under such circumstances do so in a subordinate position.

Ngatihaua at this time mustered three hundred first-class warriors, ninety per cent. of whom had a firearm of some kind, and they had been disciplined by Te Waharoa, who for the previous eight years had taught every man of them to look forward to the time when they could burst into the Waikato, and by sheer valour recover their ancestral homes from the numerous enemy in possession.

News now came that the Waikato tribes had got together eight hundred well-armed men in the Hunua and Manukau Ranges. These now, under several chiefs, proposed to proceed up the Waikato and Waipa Rivers, while other parties were preparing to join them from the Pirongia Range on the west and Mokau on the south. It was time, therefore, for Ngatihaua to act, or leave to others the recovery of the land.

In this emergency Te Waharoa appealed to his friends (Ngaiterangi, of Tauranga) to lend him a thousand men, not to be exposed to imminent risk, but merely to make a show of force. Ngaiterangi consented. Te Waharoa got the thousand show allies, and the sketch on the preceding page will, I hope, illustrate the great battle that ensued while the Waikato war-parties were still several days distant.

The address of Te Waharoa to his people before leaving the Thames hills was short, and altogether to the point. “Our women and children,” he said, “go with us, for we go to stay. If we cannot conquer, we can die. And our women and children shall be with us in either case. Any of you who have had ‘omens’ can remain here and join Ngaiterangi. At dawn of day we march. The women and children will follow. Enough! You are each as good a man as I, and it is my fixed intention to conquer before the Waikato tribes come up.” There were no bad omens, and not a soul of Ngatihaua remained behind. In the afternoon of the following day they junctioned with their Ngaiterangi allies, and together they crossed the Waikato River a little above where the Town of Cambridge now stands.

The Ngatimaru and Ngatipaoa were formed along the brow of the gully and terrace, their left resting on their strong pa, their right on the perpendicular cliff of the Waikato River. Their whole line formed nearly a right angle, but they neglected to occupy the mass of loose rocks in the angle formed by the river-cliff and the steep terrace. These rocks, or mass of separate boulders, lay a few yards from the foot of the terrace. Te Waharoa noticed this, and these rocks became a distinct feature in his dispositions. He first of all disposed his thousand Ngaiterangi allies along the gully, with orders merely to keep up as hot a fire as they could across the gully, but he neither asked nor professed to expect from them any actual charge or hand-to-hand conflict. He, however, placed twenty picked men of his own Ngatihaua on the extreme right of his allies, with orders, on a given signal, to charge across the gully regardless of the number opposed to them, and to incite by their example as many as possible of their allies to follow. He then divided the remaining Ngatihaua into two bodies of 140 men each. The left detachment had no leader, as it was extremely uncertain which of them would reach their destined point of attack; but every man of this 140 knew the orders—viz., that they were to creep through the fern to the edge of the chasm, and lower themselves by ropes to the bottom. Five women were detailed to creep after the column and let the ropes go when all the

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men had got to the bottom. The men were then, by means of notches cut in the papa cliff, to get at least one man and a rope to the top; then by means of the ropes they all could get up more speedily, taking cover in the little clump of trees until all were on the upper level; then at a given signal all were to run at best speed, and in the loosest possible order, to the rocks at the end of the level. There for a moment they were to halt and get together, and then charge with all their might on to the extreme end of the enemy's line.

While this operation was in progress, the right-hand 140 Ngatihaua advanced close to the waterfall, and kept up a hot fire on the angle formed by the terrace and the gully. Te Waharoa himself kept a little farther back, on the slope of Pukekura Hill, until he saw the attack from the rocks on the enemy's right taking effect. Then, shouting his battle-cry, he made the signal to his twenty men on the extreme right of his allies, and charged with the whole weight of his 140 men on the angle of the enemy's line, just over the waterfall. At the same moment the twenty Ngatihaua on his extreme right charged across the gully, and in the enthusiasm of the moment and the natural love of a Maori for battle many of the Ngaiterangi allies followed them.

About forty of the left column of Ngatihaua had fallen in the 500-yards race from the little clump of trees to the rocks, but the remaining hundred now came storming furiously and irresistibly along the enemy's long line. The determined charge of Te Waharoa, with his 140 men, on to the centre of the enemy kept them pretty well employed until the cry arose among the enemy that they were being cut off from their pa and their women by the desperate charge of the Ngatihaua twenty on the extreme right (left) of the enemy. This charge, too, was momentarily increasing in weight by parties of Ngaiterangi crossing the gully.

The left column of Ngatihaua from the rocks actually rolled up the enemy's line until the two parties of Ngatihaua met at the angle. Then the united columns, still holding the flank of the enemy, continued the charge, until the cry arose among the enemy that they were being cut off from their pa; then the fight became a rout.

The ten survivors of the right-flank Ngatihaua detachment stood as rocks, back to back, amid the deluge of the retreating enemy, until the last of these got within the pa. Ngatihaua and allies then immediately retired out of “Brown Bess” range—for there were no 1,000-yards rifles in those days.

Ngatihaua lost altogether seventy men killed and ninety wounded. The enemy lost 440 killed and about as many wounded. Those slightly wounded escaped to the pa. The enemy, however, had still considerably over two thousand men, and Te Waharoa could not implicity depend on his allies. The Ngatihaua dead were therefore carefully collected, and the bodies forthwith cremated, in case they might fall into the hands of the enemy. When the writer last saw the place, in 1880, a small flagstaff still marked the spot where the bodies were burned.

During the night after the battle negotiations were opened—at first between Te Waharoa's Ngaiterangi allies and the enemy in the pa. Next day the matter was referred to Te Waharoa, and that wise and politic chief readily agreed to cease hostilities, provided the Ngatimaru and Ngatipaoa retired at once, “bag and baggage,” from Waikato, and returned to their own proper district. This they accordingly did, escorted by Te Waharoa's Ngaiterangi allies and fifty Ngatihaua.

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Te Waharoa, with the remaining 180 Ngatihaua (half of them wounded), and the women and children, took possession of the enemy's pa, and remained there to receive the advancing Waikato parties from south-west and south.

The reason I have termed this battle the Waterloo of the Waikato is that in our time the Native Land Court has held that all that region was completely conquered and occupied by Ngatimaru and Ngatipaoa, and reconquered by Te Waharoa and Ngatihaua; consequently, all land titles in that region date from the Battle of Taumatawiwi.

[I am much indebted to Mr. A. McDonald, of Palmerston North, for his valuable assistance in getting the facts required for this paper.]

Art. XIII.—The Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 6th October, 1909.]

Contents.

I.

Introduction.

II.

History of Botanical Investigation.

III.

Geology.

IV.

Climate.

V.

Intoduced Animals and Plants.

VI.

The Plant Formations.

1.

Coastal Formations.

(a.)

Rocks.

(b.)

Mariscus Slopes.

(c.)

Ngaio Scrub.

(d.)

Sand Dunes.

(e.)

Gravel Flat.

2.

Inland Edaphic Formations.

(a.)

Rocks and Cliffs.

(b.)

Swamp.

(c.)

Lakes.

3.

Forest Formations.

(a.)

General Remarks.

(b.)

Leading Physiogomic Plants and their Life-forms.

(c.)

Ecology.

(d.)

Physiognomy.

(1.)

Dry Forest.

(2.)

Wet Forest.

4.

Young Formations.

(a.)

Landslip.

(b.)

Tutu Scrub.

(c.)

Pohutukawa Forest.

5.

Introduced Formations.

(a.)

Ageratum Meadow.

(b.)

Buffalo-grass Meadow.

(c.)

Beard-grass Meadow.

VII.

Geographical Distribution.

(a.)

The Species.

(b.)

The Subtropical Islands Province.

(c.)

The Formations.

(d.)

Dispersal.

VIII.

List of Indigenous Pteridophytes and Spermophytes.

IX.

List of Introduced Plants.

X.

Bibliography.

I. Introduction.

In area such as the south-western Pacific, where any one island does not include parts of two biological regions, one might imagine the limits of each region could be easily defined. Yet such is not the case. True, it is generally agreed that the several islands to the south and east of New Zealand—

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Auckland, Campbell, Macquarie, Antipodes, Bounty, Chathams—unquestionably belong to the New Zealand region, as not only do their natural productions closely resemble those of New Zealand, but the geological structure of some suggests the probability of a former land connection with that country. To the north of New Zealand, however, there are three islands or groups of islands possessing floras and faunas as to whose relationships botanists and zoologists are not agreed. I refer to Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, and the Kermadecs. Being all of volcanic origin, they bear no geological evidence of having ever been directly connected with any land-mass. Sunday Island is perhaps an exception, as the pumice tuffs on the north coast include some fragments of hornblende-granite.

Picture icon

Botanical Map of Sunday Island.

Lord Howe Island is included under New South Wales in Mr. Bentham's “Flora Australiensis,” and in Baron von Mueller's “Census of Australian Plants” Norfolk as well is included in the Australian region. Professor R. Tate has pointed out (18; p. 205) that the floras of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands are allied to that of New Zealand; but these islands are not included in the New Zealand area by Mr. Cheeseman in his “Manual of the New Zealand Flora,” though he enumerates the plants of the Kermadecs.

There is as little agreement among zoologists as among botanists respecting the region to which these islands belong. Australian zoologists claim them apparently because they are most easily worked from Sydney, but Dr. A. R. Wallace has shown (19; p. 453) that their faunas are really allied to that of New Zealand; and Messrs. Parker and Haswell (15; p. 596)

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follow Wallace in including them in the New Zealand region. Mr. W. L. Sclater draws the line between Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands.

If the contour of the ocean-floor be taken into account, the three above-mentioned islands fall without the boundaries of the Australian region, for Lord Howe Island is separated form the continent of Australia by an ocean over 4,000 m. deep, but is connected with New Zealand by a submarine ridge less than 1,800m. below the surface; whilst Norfolk Island and the Kermadecs are much nearer to New Zealand than to Australia, and lie on submarine ridges stretching form New Zealand to Polynesia, though deeper than that reaching to Lord Howe Island.

As regards the claim of these islands to be included in the Polynesian region, although some Polynesian species and genera of plants reach their southern limit in one or more of them, the proportion is not large enough to warrant the inclusion of the islands in that biological region.

The New Zealand biological region may be defined as including all those islands in the south-west Pacific Ocean lying between the parallels of 25° and 60° S. lat. and the meridians of 155° E. and 175° W. long. From a consideration of the distribution of the plants in New Zealand, Dr. Cockayne has divided the two main islands and Stewart Island into provinces, each characterized by certain floristic and ecological features (5; p. 313). North of latitude 38° is the northern, south of latitude 42° the southern, while the intermediate parts he calls the central botanical province. The islands to the south of New Zealand form his subantarctic islands botanical province, while the Chathams and Kermadecs each form a separate province. In the section of this paper dealing with geographical distribution I have endeavoured to show that Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, and the Kermadecs together form a natural division, for which I propose the name “subtropical islands province.”

Situated as the Kermadecs are, midway between New Zealand and the Tonga Group on the southern boundary of the Polynesian region, their fauna and flora are of interest alike to New Zealand biologists and students of geographical distribution. The geological structure of the islands, too, may indicate the route and date certain Polynesian species of plants entered New Zealand. The present islands do not seem to have acted as stepping-stones for the passage of many plants between Tonga and New Zealand, or vice versa. Hymenophyllum demissum and Ascarina lucida may be examples of migrants in the first direction, while Melicytus ramiflorus has reached Eua either from Norfolk or Sunday Island. The Kermadecs are the most easterly of the three groups of islands which mark the northern limit of the New Zealand region, and, as they lie far from any land whence they could derive their stock of plants and animals, a knowledge of their flora and fauna will be interesting as showing which organisms are capable of crossing wide stretches of ocean. As to the means of making the journey, some remarks are made under the heading “Geographical Distribution.”

It was my intention to confine myself to a description of the plant covering of the Kermadec Group, and an enumeration of the species found therein; but the affinity of the flora to that of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands appeared to me striking, and not without significance, hence I thought it advisable to preface my account with a statement of what I believe to be the true position of the Kermadec Islands in the New Zealand biological region, which expression in this paper will include Lord Howe

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Island and Norfolk Island. The floras of these two islands will only be mentioned in so far as they are related to that of the Kermadecs.

Before closing this introduction I wish to express my sincere thanks to those who in one way or another made it possible for this paper to be written: firstly, to those who helped the expedition before leaving New Zealand, and especially to Dr. Hilgendorf, M.A. (then President of the Canterbury Philosophical Institute), Dr. Cockayne, Professor C. Chilton, M.A., D.Sc., and Mr. E. R. Waite, F.L.S.; to the Councils of the Otago Institute and Canterbury Philosophical Institute for grants of money to help defray expenses; to the Marine Department for the loan of meteorological instruments; to Lieutenant Sir Ernest Shackleton for the gift of a boat; and, finally, to those who so readily gave assistance while I was writing the paper—to Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., who looked over one of the collections of plants made by me in the Kermadecs and named the specimens; to Mr. J. H. Maiden, of Sydney, who kindly compared some of my specimens with plants from Norfolk Island; to Dr. Cockayne for many valuable suggestions; and to Mr. R. Speight, M.A., B.Sc., who gave advice on geological matters.

II. History of Botanical Investigation.

In 1854 Captain H. M. Denham, in H.M.S. “Herald,” made a survey of Sunday Island and the neighbouring seas (17; p. 14). He arrived on the 2nd and was occupied till the 24th July, during which time he frequently had to move his vessel on account of the rough weather experienced. Messrs. J. Milne and W. MacGillivray, naturalists on board the “Herald,” made a small collection of plants on Sunday Island. This was forwarded by Captain Denham to Sir W. Hooker, and was described by Sir Joseph Hooker in the Journal of the Linnean Society for 1857 (10; p. 125).

The number of species collected was 41, of which 21 were pteridophytes and 20 spermophytes. Four species were described as new—Coprosma petiolata, C. acutifolia, Scævola gracilis, and Ascarina lanceolata.

In the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora” (1864-66) 40 species of vascular plants are mentioned as occurring in the Kermadecs. Of those recorded in the Journal of the Linnean Society, four are omitted, doubtless unintentionally, while three species are added—namely, Nephrodium molle, Coriaria thymifolia, and Acæna Sanguisorbæ. These must have crept in by accident, for no one is known to have collected plants on Sunday Island between 1854 and 1864. Two of them do not occur in the Kermadecs; the third, however, Dryopteris parasitica (= N. molle), is a common plant on Sunday Island.

In 1887 the New Zealand Government despatched the colonial steamer “Stella” to the Kermadec Islands for the purpose of formally annexing the group to the colony. Captain Fairchild left Russell on the 12th August, and after a stormy passage to and from the islands, anchored under Cape Maria van Diemen on the 27th August. Landings were effected on Sunday, Macauley, and Curtis Islands. Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, Curator of the Auckland Museum, accompanied the expedition, and being interested chiefly in botany, made a large collection of plants on Sunday Island, the result of his investigations being published in vol. xx of the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” (1; p. 151). In the catalogue he gives of phanerogamic plants and ferns inhabiting the Kermadecs, 115 are enumerated-

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but in seven cases the species could not be determined. Mr. Cheeseman's conclusions are,—(1) The Kermadec Islands have received their plants from two sources: there have been two opposite streams of colonisation—one, much the larger and more important, from New Zealand; the other, much less conspicuous, from the Polynesian islands. (2.) The nature and composition of the flora, the relationship to those of New Zealand and Polynesia, and the peculiarities generally, are best explained on the supposition that the islands have been slowly stocked with their plants by chance migrations across the ocean.

Since the publication of the above, two other paper dealing with the flora of the Kermadecs have appeared in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” (2 and 7), in which four new species are described. Only one, however, Poa polyphylla, is an addition to the flora, the others being included in Mr. Cheeseman's list.

Mr. Cheeseman in his “Manual of the New Zealand Flora” includes the names of 104 species of plants as occurring in the Kermadec Islands. From the list given in vol. xx of the Transactions he omits one as being introduced (Polypogon monspeliensis), and seven others, the omission of three of which (Mariscus ustulatus, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Dichelachne sciurea) is probably due to an oversight. Diplazium japonicum, and three species (including Poa polyphylla) collected by Miss Shakespear, are added. This brings the number of species recorded to 107, if the three above omissions be included.

Early in 1907 Mr. W. L. Wallace, of Timaru, and myself made arrangements to visit and stay for a year on Sunday Island for the purpose of studying plant and animal life. Subsequently Messrs. T. Iredale, C. E. Warden, and S. R. Oliver joined the expedition. We left Auckland in the New Zealand Government steamer “Hinemoa” on the 28th December, 1907, and landed our provisions, instruments, &c., in Denham Bay on the 31st December. From a camp in Denham Bay and another near Fleetwood Bluff as bases the whole island was explored, while a motor-launch was used to visit the outlying rocks. The “Hinemoa” called again on the 7th November, 1908, but owing to bad weather we were not able to ship our goods until the 11th. We landed on Macauley Island, Curtis Island, and French Rock on the voyage back, and reached Auckland on the 16th November.

The Kermadec Islands were chosen as the object of our investigation on account of their being in certain respects a little-known portion of the New Zealand biological region. Our collections included specimens of rocks, plants, and animals; while meteorological observations were taken daily for a period of nine months. Besides collecting specimens, I paid much attention to the plant formations existing on the islands. Following are some of the results of my investigations.

The number of species of plants added to the flora is fourteen:—

Trichomanes humile, Dichelachne crinita,
Hymenophyllum flabellatum, Heleocharis acuta,
Cyathea kermadecensis, n. sp., Kyllinga brevifolia,
Nephrolepis cordifolia, Carex lucida,
Histiopteris incisa, Juncus eflusus,
Lycopodium volubile, J. pauciflorus,
Danthonia pilosa, Erechthites prenanthoides.
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Two species hitherto incorrectly indentified, owing to the imperfect nature of the specimens, I am now able to name,—

Dryopteris glabella (A. Cunn), C. Chr. =Nephrodium decompositum, Hook. f., Jour. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), vol. i, p. 129 (not of R. Br.): Veronica breviracemosa, R. B. Oliver= V. salicifolia, Cheeseman, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx, p. 171 (not of Vahl).

Five species are transferred to the list of introduced plants,—

Cordyline terminalis, Ageratum conyzoides,
Geranium molle, Sonchus oleraceus;
Aleurites moluccana,

and three do not occur in the islands,—

Agropyrum scabrum, Coprosma Baueri.
Acæna Sanguisorbœ,

Asplenum Shuttleworthianum is here restored to specific rank; so that the total now stands at 114 species.

III. Geology

The Kermadec Islands, four in number, lie in a line extending from Sunday Island, in S. lat. 29° 15 W. long. 177° 59, about S. 22° W. to French Rock, in S. lat. 31° 24′, W. long. 178° 51′. They are situated on a submerged plateau, part of the submarine ridge connecting New Zealand with Tonga. This plateau, which is surrounded on all sides by water more than 2,700m. in depth, is now probably rising, as the last movement of which there is any evidence was an upheaval of Sunday Island to the extent of about 60 m.

Sunday Island, the largest of the group, is distant about 950 km. from Tongatabu, and 1,000 km. from the North or East Capes of New Zealand. Its greatest length is 10.3 km., and its area 29.25 sq. km.; Moumoukai, the highest point, is 524 m. above sea-level.

Sunday Island is composed chiefly of pumiceous and others tuffs. There are a few lava-streams, but these have little effect upon the vegetation other than forming the substratum for certain of the coastal and inland rock formations. The tuffs, being of a more or less loose nature, suffer severely from the action of sea and atmosphere. The whole island is of a mountainous character, and the surface has been formed by subaerial denudation into a series of narrow spurs separating deep ravines. Towards the coast these spurs usually terminate abruptly in cliffs with a sheer drop to the sea of from 200m. to 300m. The crater occupies a large portion of the island. The rim is low and narrow on the north, the lowest point being only 55m. above sea-level; elsewhere it is high, averaging over 300m. From it there branch off three main ridges: one runs north-west from Expedition Hill to Hutchison Bluff, another south-west from Mount Junction to Smith Bluff, and the third south-east from Moumoukai to the east coast. Level ground occurs in Denham Bay, in the crater, and on Low Flat and the adjoining terraces. There is a swamp in Denham Bay, and three lakes in the crater.

Except for a gravelly beach in Denham Bay, and a-sandy one on the north side of the island, the coast is rocky—sometimes boulder beaches; more often cliff-débris, consisting of large and small angular blocks of lava

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or tuff. Hence the variety of stations afforded for salt-loving plants is limited.

Through the kindness of Captain Bollons I was able to land on all the islands visited on the voyage from Sunday Island to New Zealand. I am therefore able to give some account of the geology and botany of the three islands of the Kermadec Group lying to the south-south-west of Sunday Island.

Macauley Island, distant 109km. from Sunday, is 2 km. long and 3 sq. km.in extent. The highest point, 237 m. above sea-level, is near the western end, and from here the land slopes away gradually to the eastward, terminating everywhere in cliffs which can be scaled at one place only—the Lava Cascade. The island is composed of beds of pumice overlying lava, and covered with some vesicular scoria and àsh, which forms the soil.

Curtis Islands, 35 km. from Macauley, consist of two rocky islets—detached portions of a crater in a state of thermal activity. The total area is about 0.6 sq. km., and the highest point 100m. above sea-level. The crater-floor contains much hot mud and sulphur, while numerous holes filled with boiling water are dotted. about. Apparently the islands are composed of a kind of tuff. In the short time I was there I saw no lava.

French Rock is distant 83km. from Curtis Islands. It is composed entirely of lava rocks, and is about 250 m. in length and 50m. in height.

The geological evidence of the age of the islands is conflicting. As pointed out by Mr. Speight,* the occurrence of fragments of hornblendegranite indicates the presence of a continental area. On the other hand, any land connection with either Tonga or New Zealand must have been very remote, as deep water now entirely surrounds the Kermadec Group. The structure of Sunday Island is that of a tuff cone built up on a base which at the time of the first deposits was submerged. The oldest visible beds, which fortunately contain fossils, are of submarine origin, and do not, I think, date back further than the Pliocene age. The character of the flora, and the small proportion of endemic species of plants, are further evidence of the recent appearance of the present islands above the surface of the sea. That the Kermadec plateau once formed part of a continent extending in a north-and-south direction is probable; but the fragmentary nature of the productions of the group demands that this land should be submerged before the present islands came into existence (see 1; p. 161).

IV. Climate.

The Kermadec Island are situated near the southern edge of a belt of calms and variable winds lying between the south-east trades and the region of westerly winds. This belt moves slightly northward during the southern winter, so that the weather experienced on Sunday Island in 1908 included many westerly gales during the winter months, but for the remainder of the year was changeable, with some settled weather in March and April. Generally speaking, the climate is mild and equable, with many rainy days, considerable precipitation, much wind, especially in the winter months, and a constantly humid atmosphere.

[Footnote] * “Petrological Notes on Rocks from the Kermadec Islands, and some Geological Evidence of a Former Subtropical Pacific Continent.” (See p. 241 of this volume.)

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Neither a drought nor a hurricane was experienced during my stay on Sunday Island, though both are known to occur there. On one occasion, according to Mrs. T. Bell, who has lived on Sunday Island for the past thirty years, no rain fell for a period of five months; while hurricanes have visited the island about nine times since 1878. The effect of a hurricane is to be seen in one place in Denham Bay, where every tree in its path is blown down. In the forest generally a leaning tree here and there, and the prostrate habit of the large trees of Metrosideros villosa on the ridges, are the only signs of the effect of hurricanes. The trees affected are usually leaning in a northerly direction—that is, away from the quarter (south-east) whence the hurricanes are said invariably to blow.

The temperature during the nine months, February to October, 1908, varied between the extreme limits of 8.7° C. on the 4th August and 29.4° C. on the 1st February, though days hotter than this occurred in January before regular observations were taken. A note in my diary shows a maximum reading of 31.7° C. for the 29th January.

The rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year, and for the nine months totalled 1;716 mm. In cloudy and rainy weather a mist continually hangs about the hilltops, hence the upper portion of the island receives a considerable amount of moisture more than the lower-lying ground. As a consequence, the upper forest of Sunday Island is quite different from the lower, though the one imperceptibly passes over to the other at an altitude of 200m. to 300 m.

Calm days are rare, and the wind often blows with great violence. On the 2nd April no horizontal movement of the air was recorded by the anemometer; on the 9th March the instrument registered 1,087 km.

On 76 out of 274 days covered by the nine months during which readings were taken the air was saturated. The driest day was the 3rd February, when the degree of relative humidity was 51.

The amount of cloudiness (observations taken at 9 a.m.) averaged 0.6 of the visible sky.

I give two tables showing the weather-conditions at Denham Bay, Sunday Island, for 1908. The observations were taken by Mr. C. E. Warden, but I am entirely responsible for the figures as they appear here corrected and tabulated. Table I shows the weather month by month, while Table II shows the duration of each kind of weather.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Table I.
Month, 1908. Temperature, c0. Rainfall. Wind. Relative Humidity.
Min Max Mean. Mm Days. Km per Day
February 20.3 25.9 23.1 198 16 364 81
March 19.0 25.8 22.4 175 14 354 90
April 16.8 24.2 20.5 287 16 209 95
May 15.6 21.4 18.5 172 21 200 96
June 15.0 20.1 17.6 151 21 275 93
July 13.3 19.4 16.3 170 27 467 97
August 13.3 18.2 15.7 237 19 401 91
September 12.6 19.2 15.9 100 18 256 84
October 14.9 20.9 17.9 226 24 425 89
Means and totals 15.7 21.7 18.7 1,716 176 328 91
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Table II
Direction of Wind. Temperature, co Rainfall. Wind Relative Humidity Per Cent.
Min. Max Mean. Mm. Days. Km.per Day. Days.
S.E. 14.4 20.6 17.5 27 14 195 30 87
E. 17.2 23.7 20.4 154 29 249 60 88
N.E. 16.3 21.6 18.9 597 20 372 26 94
N. 15.3 20.7 18.0 304 15 344 19 93
N.W. 16.0 21.3 18.6 411 27 404 30 95
W. 15.0 22.1 18.5 100 43 346 63 93
S.W. 14.7 21.0 17.8 73 17 448 29 88
S. 15.0 20.2 17.6 50 11 356 17 88

V. Introduced Animals and Plants.

The effect of animals and plants introduced intentionally and accidentally through the agency of man is most marked on the vegetation of Sunday and Macauley Islands. It amounts to an alteration of the forest formation on Sunday Island; and the occupation of ground cleared of forest or scrub, by meadow formations on both Sunday and Macauley Islands. During the early part of last century Sunday Island was the headquarters of an extensive whaling industry carried on in the south-western Pacific. In order to afford means of subsistence for possible castaways the whalers liberated goats on Sunday and Macauley Islands, and, to provide the goats with pasture on Macauley Island, burnt the scrub so that grass might grow. The goats increased rapidly in their new home, and did not suffer from the lack of water on the islands, as these animals are satisfied with the moisture taken with the herbage. On Macauley Island they effectually prevented the regrowth of scrub, so that now in all places accessible to them no more vegetation is to be found than a close-cropped beard-grass (Polypogon monspeliensis) meadow.

On Sunday Island, as their numbers increased the goats spread to all parts, and, being expert cliff-climbers, little vegetation was beyond their reach. They wander about through the forest in herds of twenty or more, and eat a wonderful variety of vegetable substances—bark and leaves of trees, seedlings, and ferns—thus thinning the undergrowth considerably.

Certain plants once common have been almost exterminated by them, and are now found only on cliffs and other inaccessible places. Conspicuous examples are Homolanthus polyandrus, Veronica breviracemosa, Asplenium lucidum, and A. Shuttleworthianum.

The seedlings of other species are seldom allowed to grow up, and hence only such plants as begin their existence on Cyathea trunks, and, growing downwards and often strangling their host, take root in the ground, are able to reach maturity. This commonly happens with Nothopanax arboreum, which promises to become very rare or even extinct on Sunday Island; and often with Metrosideros villosa.

Young plants of Cyathea kermadecensis are greedily eaten, and, though mature plants of this magnificent fern are plentiful, young ones are extremely rare.

With Rhopalostylis Baueri a fair number of the seedlings grow up, as goats merely browse on the young palms, which are everywhere abundant.

The bark is stripped from the trunks of Pisonia Brunoniana and Nothopanax arboreum as far as goats can reach. This operation, however, kills

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Homolanthus polyandrus, which plant Mr. Cheeseman in 1887 (1; p. 172) recorded as “not uncommon.” The species is now almost extinct.

In Denham Bay sheep eat down Scævola gracilis, and in its place Stellaria media and Cerastium viscosum have become abundant.

The invasion of a number of European and other plants has not in itself much altered the physiognomy of the plant formations, but where ground has been disturbed introduced plants are quicker than indigenous species in taking possession. Introduced species do not readily spread far into the forest except in such places where the larger plants have deliberately been cleared away, and here three new and distinct formations have been created. These are the meadows described below.

Ageratum conyzoides was introduced thirty years ago, and is now abundant in several parts of the island. Possibly goats have assisted in spreading this species, which is the only introduced plant taking a prominent part in several of the plant associations.

VI. The Plant Formations.

All the plant formations on Sunday and Macauley Islands are more or less modified through the depredations of introduced goats, which have not only directly expunged certain plants from the forest, but in so doing have made openings which have been partly filled by introduced species. Hence in places it is difficult to imagine what the original forest was like, especially as it is known that a handsome tree, Homolanthus polyandrus, now absent, was once abundant in many places. The undergrowth perhaps suffers most from the introduction of goats, which search out particular plants whose elimination changes its appearance; also, by the extermination of Homolanthus polyandrus, and the suppression of young plants of Pisonia Brunoniana, Nothopanax arboreum, and Cyathea kermadecensis, the physiognomy of the forest may be entirely altered.

In the Kermadec Islands climatic conditions favour the growth of forest; all other plant formations except meadow occurring there may be classed as edaphic. The meadow formations owe their existence to the interference of man, and are gradually being superseded by forest; the swamp in Denham Bay, also, appears to be drying up, and forest taking its place.

The plant formations, then, naturally fall into two groups—the climatic, the character of whose vegetation is governed by atmospheric precipitations, and the edaphic, whose vegetation is chiefly determined by the nature of the soil (16; p. 161). In this paper the plant formations of the Kermadecs are arranged according to their possible evolution, and are divided for purposes of description into five groups—(1) coastal, (2) inland edaphic, (3) forest, (4) young, (5) introduced. The climatic formations are included in the third group, while groups (1) and (2) are edaphic. The last two groups may be termed unstable formations.

Supposing we go back to early Pliocene times, when the Kermadecs were just appearing above the sea-surface, and try to imagine what the conditions would be. The first plants to gain a footing on the new land would be those able to stand wetting with sea-water, such as are now found among coastal rocks.* Thus the coastal formations would be the first

[Footnote] * On Krakatoa the first plants to appear after the destruction of the vegetation in 1883 were chiefly ferns (Treub., quoted by Schimper, 16; p. 185), but the island which remained after the eruption was of some considerable area.

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to appear on small oceanic islands, and the order would be the vegetation of rocks, scrub, sand dunes. Examples of islands in this stage are French Rock and Curtis Island. Next, as the land increased in area there would be more ground beyond the reach of salt spray, and stations for land-plants would appear, the order being rocks, perhaps swamp and lake, and finally forest. The destruction of areas of forest by volcanic eruptions or landshlips would create new ground where the process of colonising would begin anew, but under entirely different conditions, as the devastated area would be surrounded by forest, which would only be hindered from spreading by the barren nature of the soil; and a new factor so far as the formations here described are concerned is the presence of species of introduced plants and animals. On Sunday Island we are able to watch this actually going on, there being two such areas in process of being reforested. One was caused by a large landslip about four years ago, the other by a volcanic outburst in 1872.

The last period in the history of the plant formations began with the advent of man. Hardy cosmopolitan plants were introduced, the original formations cleared, and the ground immediately occupied by the new-comers.

1. Coastal Formations.

Only such formations as can be called “coastal” in the narrowest sense of the term are included in this section. Coastal conditions (see 5; p. 316) depend upon the distance sea-spray may be carried inland regularly and in large quantities by air-currents, which along the shore almost invariably blow towards the land. For instance, in Denham Bay, which is on the west side of Sunday Island, easterly winds coming over the top of the high cliffs have the effect of causing an inrush of air along the beach to compensate for the withdrawal of air from near the cliff-face. Other factors making coastal conditions are salt in the soil, and the little water-holding capacity of the substratum, which in the Kermadecs is rocks, sand, or pumice.

(a.) Rocks.—Under this heading I will include the vegetation of rocky shores and shingle beaches. All the coast-lines of the Kermadec Islands, with the exception of Denham Bay and Low Flat beaches on Sunday Island, are rocky, and differ but little in their vegetation. As in the winter months gales are frequent, the vegetation is often drenched with salt water, while during hurricanes the waves break over a considerable tract of land all round the coasts. The smallest quantity of soil on a ledge or in a crevice seems sufficient to support vegetation, which must rely for its existence chiefly on the abundant rainfall, which, besides supplying moisture, washes down earth from the cliffs above. Plants of Asplenium obtusatum were noticed on the roofs of caves, in which position they depend entirely on the percolation of rain-water carrying sediment through rock-crevices.

The principal plants composing the coastal rock vegetation are Mesembryanthemum australe, Asplenium obtusatum, Poa polyphylla, Coprosma petiolata, Samolus repens stricta, Lobelia anceps, Tetragonia expansa, Apium prostratum, Mariscus ustulatus, Parietaria debilis, and Scirpus nodosus.

Coprosma petiolata occurs as a low prostrate shrub closely hugging the cliff. On Dayrell Islet, where the vegetation is much exposed, the plants are stunted and about I m. high, with exceedingly dense foliage of small rolled leaves. On Fleetwood Bluff the leaf-blades of a male plant measured 53 × 24 mm., 54 × 26mm., 51 × 28mm., were shining, light green, cori-

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.—Oliver.

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aceous, with the margins recurved or more or less rolled. Leaves of young shoot, 70 × 34 mm., 73 × 34 mm. In exposed places on the east coast of Sunday Island the leaves were usually much rolled, the two parts of the upper surface sometimes touching underneath.

Poa polyphylla forms small tussocks of fine, drooping foliage, with abundant small, moderately dense, drooping panicles projecting beyond the foliage. Leaves narrow, –20 cm. long, 1.5–2 mm. broad, coriaceous, scabrid on the margins and keel. Culm crowded, length to end of panicle ± 35 cm.

Samolus repens stricta is a small subshrub with usually few erect branching stems –30 cm. high, bearing near their extremities small axillary white or pinkish flowers. Leaves small, 10 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, coriaceous, obovate, ending in small points.

Where a lava cliff forms the coast-line, as at the north end of Denham Bay, the plants occur in crevices or on ledges of the cliff-face. In such situations are found Asplenium obtusatum, Samolus repens stricta, Mesembryanthemum australe, Poa polyphylla, Coprosma petiolata, and Lobelia anceps.

On the north coast of Sunday Island, where the cliffs are of a loose material, and fragments are continually falling, a heap of rocks and rubble is formed at the foot. Here occur Asplenium obtusatum, Mesembryanthemum australe, Lobelia anceps, and Samolus repens stricta; while at Rayner Point Parietaria debilis, Apium prostratum, Tetragonia expansa, Rhagodia nutans, and Mesembryanthemum australe are most abundant, with a few plants of Calystegia Soldanella and Mariscus ustulatus. On slopes of tuff at the base of Fleetwood Bluff and the Terraces Scœvola gracilis, Ipomœa pes caprœ, and Imperata Cheesemani occur, also Coprosma petiolata and small prostrate shrubs of Myoporum lœtum.

The coastal rocks on Meyer Island are particularly bare and exposed. Two or three species of lichen are abundant, and in crevices and lodgmentplaces for small quantities of soil the following plants are found: Mesembryanthemum australe, Scirpus nodosus, Asplenium obtusatum, Coprosma petiolata, Mariscus ustulatus, Tetragonia expansa.

Napier Islet is a mere rock rising 60 m. above sea-level. Here and there a crevice contains a little soil, and a few ledges on the western slope support some stunted straggling trees of Metrosideros villosa and Myoporum lœtum. All these little patches of ground are being continually overturned by burrowing shearwaters and petrels, and consequently are for the most part bare. The winter mutton-bird (Œstrelata neglecta) also occupies a portion of the available surface for its nesting-ground. The plants collected were Canavalia obtusifolia, Asplenium obtusatum, Mesembryanthemum australe, Sonchus oleraceus, Rhagodia nutans, Lobelia anceps, Solanum nigrum, Cotula australis, Panicum sanguinale microbachne, and Erigeron canadense.

On Dayrell Islet Mariscus ustulatus, Asplenium obtusatum, Mesembryanthemum australe, Samolus repens stricta, Rhagodia nutans, Tetragonia expansa, and a few others occur.

The nearest land to French Rock is Curtis Island, distant 83 km. I therefore considered myself extremely fortunate in being able to land on this rock, the most southern member of the Kermadec Group, for half an hour (14th November, 1908) during the voyage back from Sunday Island. It is a mere rock, exposed in all its parts to the winds carrying salt spray, while during a hurricane the waves probably dash right over it. Mesembryanthemum australe was abundant near the summit, forming large green patches visible from the ship at some distance, while Asplenium obtusatum

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was also fairly common. Three other species were collected—Senecio lautus, a much-branched, erect, glabrous herb 25 cm. tall, with lanceolate, fleshy, lobed leaves, and rather dense many-flowered corymbs; Deyeuxia Forsteri littoralis, a stunted form with small short panicles; and Parietaria debilis.

(b.) Mariscus Slopes.—Talus slopes at the foot of sea-cliffs, and other steep slopes along the coasts, are usually covered with close-growing tussocks of Mariscus ustulatus, among which other plants occur in greater or lesser numbers. Next in importance to Mariscus ustulatus are Carex Forsteri insularis, Pteris comans, Hypolepis tenuifolia, Scirpus nodosus, and shrubby forms of Myoporum lœtum.

Carex Forsteri insularis forms small tussocks, ½-1 m. high, with crowded, drooping leaves, and many semi-erect slender culms bearing numerous compound spikelets, the upper ones sessile, approximate, the lower on long erect peduncles. Leaves 1 m. long, 1 cm. broad, yellowish-green, coriaceous, margins and keel scabrid.

Talus slopes are composed of débris weathered off the cliff-face. The soil is thus of a loose moving nature, and, having a large proportion of stones, is not touched by burrowing birds. Other coastal slopes, however, having no cliff above them, and hence with a more stable soil, composed of the weathered surface of volcanic tuffs, are used by burrowing petrels and shearwaters for breeding-grounds during the summer months. The soil is thus everywhere being turned over for many months of the year, and in this respect resembles the moving soil of the talus slopes. Hence a similar type of vegetation is found in both stations. Mariscus ustulatus, whose large tussocks cannot be easily rooted up by the birds, is the principal plant, and in many places the sole occupier, of these slopes.

Talus slopes in Denham Bay support a dense covering of vegetation ± 1 m. high, composed chiefly of Mariscus ustulatus, Ageratum conyzoides, Pteris comans, Carex Forsteri insularis, and Sicyos australis. Scirpus nodosus grows in tufts along the base of the slopes just above the reach of the waves.

The steep slopes of Titi Knob, where not covered by forest, form the breeding-ground of large colonies of black-burrowers (Puffinus chlororhynchus) and short-billed titi (Œstrelata nigripennis). The whole surface not occupied by rock is disturbed every year by these two species of sea-birds. Yet it is densely covered with large tussocks of Mariscus ustulatus, with only here and there, except on rocky ground and cliffs, a few plants of Hypolepis tenuifolia, Pteris comans, Carex Forsteri insularis, Myoporum lœtum, and perhaps some others.

The vegetation of Curtis Island is best described under the present heading. The inner slopes and top of the crater-ridge are covered either with Mariscus ustulatus or Mesembryanthemum australe, the two plants generally keeping separate, and each occupying a large share of the surface. Large numbers of sea-birds breed on the island. Black-burrowers and shortbilled titi burrow wherever the soil is loose enough for them to move, while the masked gannet (Sula cyanops) lays on the surface, trampling down the Mesembryanthemum about its nest. When the birds leave at the end of the breeding season the vegetation profits by the amount of guano mixed with the soil, hence a rank growth covers the ground wherever the birds are able to breed. Not uncommon among the Mariscus tussocks on the erater-ridge were plants of Lepidium oleraceum frondosum. This plant occurred in the form of much-branched, rounded bushes, ½ m. or more

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high, with the periphery of dense foliage and numerous clusters of racemes of many small white flowers. Leaves 6–8 cm. long, rhomboid-oblong, the distal half deeply serrate. Other plants noticed on the slopes were Scirpus nodosus, Rhagodia nutans, Parietaria debilis, Deyeuxia Forsteri, Solanum nigrum (pubescent form), and Sonchus oleraceus.

(c.) Ngaio (Myoporum) Scrub.—Next to forest this is perhaps the most important plant association in the Kermadecs. It is essentially coastal, occupying a belt above high-water mark, from which Metrosideros villosa is absent. It is well developed where there is a space between the cliffs and the water's edge, as on the east coast of Sunday Island. It is found at a height of 25 m. above sea-level on the Terraces, and forms most of the vegetation of Meyer Island (highest point, 100 m. above sea-level). The original vegetation of Macauley Island was in all probability nagaio scrub, but no trace of it now remains, it having been burnt by whalers during last century, when goats were liberated for the benefit of castaways. The narrative of the discovery of the island by Captain Sever, in 1788, says, “The top of the land was covered with a coarse kind of grass, and the place affords great plenty of the wild mangrove.” The coarse grass is probably Mariscus ustulatus, and the wild mangrove Myoporum lœtum. In 1887 Mr. Percy Smith observed the charred stumps of some ngaio (Myoporum lœtum), as well as a few living shrubs of the same plant (17; p. 26).

The principal members of the ngaio scrub are Myoporum lœtum, Pteris comans, Macropiper excelsum major, Sicyos australis, Mariscus ustulatus, Carex Forsteri insularis, and Canavalia obtusifolia.

Myoporum lœtum in the scrub formation is a low, spreading, irregularly branched shrub, with the trunk and branches often more or less horizontal. Foliage usually dense, with the upper surface, through which project numerous dead twigs, sloping towards the sea. Leaves –14.5 cm. long,3-4.5 cm. broad, light green, thick, almost fleshy, often deeply serrate; pellucid glands scarcely visible.

The ngaio scrub is exposed to constant winds bearing salt spray. The upper surface of the foliage, therefore, slopes gradually upwards from the outer edge of the scrub, where it reaches the ground. The soil is of the driest character, and in several places completely undermined by burrowing shearwaters. On Meyer Island one colony of birds succeeds another, so that the soil never has a rest.

On the east coast of Sunday Island a belt of ngaio scrub extends from the rocky shore back for several metres to the base of the cliffs, or, in Coral Bay, to the forest proper, which begins at –15 m. from the shingle beach. The effect of the easterly winds on this belt is most pronounced in Coral Bay. The Myoporum forms a close, compact mass, beginning with plants appearing among the rocks and only a few centimetres tall, and gradually getting higher towards the forest, where the adjoining Metrosideros trees have the wind-shorn habit of the Myoporum. At 10 m. from the shingle the average height would be about 1.5 m. All twigs appearing above the general level of the foliage are killed by the wind. Intermixed among the Myoporum are Macropiper excelsum major, Pteris comans, Carex Forsteri insularis, Sicyos australis, and Canavalia obtusifolia. The scrub in Coral Bay extends to the limits of vegetation along the shore, so that no line can be drawn between it and rock vegetation.

The western Terrace is covered with ngaio scrub, which increases in height from the top of the sea-cliffs towards the base of the higher cliffs

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at the back. The soil is completely overturned once a year by blackburrowers (Puffinus chlororhynchus), and this has the effect of almost killing the vegetation. The plants die down so much that there is hardly a green leaf left, and they have the appearance of being dead. When the birds depart, a fresh rank growth of foliage results from the large amount of guano left in the soil. In August a dense growth of young shoots covers the stems of Myoporum lœtum and Melicope ternata; the tops of the trees, however, are quite dead, and never recover. The undergrowth is a rank mass of Macropiper excelsum major about 1 m. high, and which, judging by the number of dead stems present, appears to have been killed right down to the roots. With it occur a few other plants—Mariscus ustulatus, Pteris comans, Solanum nigrum, Carex Forsteri insularis, Sicyos australis, Hypolepis tenuifolia, Ageratum conyzoides.

Growing in highly manured ground vacated by the shearwater above mentioned, Sicyos australis frequently produces abnormal male flowers, in which the petals turn green, and assume more or less the shape and character of young foliage-leaves.

The vegetation on Meyer Island takes the form of open ngaio (Myoporum) scrub up to about 8 m. high, and including some other trees not characteristic of this formation—Metrosideros villosa, Corynocarpus lœvigata, Pisonia Brunoniana, Rapanea kermadecensis.

Pisonia Brunoniana branches in an extremely irregular, not to say fantastic, manner. The trunk is stout, gnarled, and divided half a metre or so above the ground. The stems spread out in all directions, and, branching but few times, bear a rosette of large leaves at the extremity of each twig. Often large branches are dead. The Pisonia appears to have a hard struggle to live on this exposed arid islet. On every possible spot a whitecap noddy (Micranous leucocapillus) has placed its nest, built of Pisonia and other leaves. Whether or not the bird plucks leaves from the trees for its nest I cannot say.

There are a few small plants of Corynocarpus lœvigata growing in the most sheltered places on Meyer Island. They have erect stems, small, dark, yellowish-green upper leaves and larger lower ones, and, never rising higher than the surrounding ngaio scrub, their uppermost twigs are dead.

Asplenium Shuttleworthianum on Meyer Island is a low densely tufted fern. Rhizome stout, brownish-black, forming a mass –20 cm. in diameter. Fronds crowded, much divided, the pinnæ usually overlapping, with short segments, yellowish-green, the tips usually dead.

The soil on Meyer Island is the loose, shifting, yellowish, weathered surface of the tuffs of which the island is composed. It is continually being overturned by burrowing species of shearwater. During the summer months the burrows are occupied by Puffinus chlororhynchus, in company with a small petrel (Œstrelata nigripennis), while for the remainder of the year their place is taken by P. assimilis. It is only in crevices of rocks and other places where the birds are unable to burrow that any small plants occur. Here are found Sicyos australis, Canavalia obtusifolia, Parietaria debilis, Mariscus ustulatus, Solanum nigrum (pubescent form), Asplenium Shuttleworthianum, and Siegesbeckia orientalis.

The scrub, owing to the steep rocky nature of the surface, is rather open. The Myoporum itself appears to be as much dead as alive. Looking at it from above, one sees a forest of straggly dead brushwood, among which living branches are struggling for existence. The constant winds laden

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with salt spray are too severe, the result being that the upper exposed twigs of all the trees are dead.

The top of Dayrell Islet supports a very scanty vegetation. The soil is everywhere undermined by burrowing shearwaters, and is in every way similar to the steep slopes of Meyer Island. There are a few small trees of Metrosideros villosa of a straggly habit, while Myoporum lœtum and Coprosma petiolata form low dense bushes about 1 m. high.

(d.) Sand Dunes.—The only true sand dunes on Sunday Island form a single line fringing Low Flat Beach on the north coast. They are low, and consist of the fine sand of which the beach is composed, heaped up by wind against the land. They are covered with Ipomœa pes caprœ, which sends its runners two or three metres on to the beach itself, and its long white roots still further under the beach. Among the Ipomœa are found chiefly Imperata Cheesemani, Scirpus nodosus, Eleusine indica, and Apium prostratum.

(e.) Gravel Flat.—A flat extends along the beach in Denham Bay for about 2 km., and has an average width of 75 m. Its outer edge coincides with the limit of storm seas and shifting gravel; along its inner edge is forest. The vegetation of this flat forms an important plant formation, as in Denham Bay seeds of plants brought by ocean-currents and washed ashore are most likely to find a suitable place for germinating.

The principal plants of the gravel flat are Ipomœa pes caprœ, Mariscus ustulatus, Scirpus nodosus, Scœvola gracilis, Myoporum lœtum, Ageratum conyzoides, Stellaria media, Euphorbia Peplus, Cynodon Dactylon, Calystegia Soldanella, Tetragonia expansa, Deyeuxia Forsteri, Imperata Cheesemani, and Erechthites prenanthoides.

Ipomœa pes caprœ has long, branched, trailing stems, which lie along the ground, rooting here and there at the nodes. Leaves large, 2-lobed, dark yellowish-green, firm in texture, forming a mass of vegetation covering the ground to a height of 30 cm. Flowers large and conspicuous, pale lilac, produced in abundance.

Scœvola gracilis is a procumbent undershrub with long, spreading, hairy branches, and rather dense hairy foliage, covering the ground to a height of about half a metre. Leaves 114 x 39 mm., 110 x 42 mm., 97 x 35 mm., 80 x 25 mm., yellowish-green, firm in texture, covered with short stiff hairs. Flowers small, axillary, white with a yellow centre, produced abundantly throughout the year. Fruit fleshy, white.

Myoporum lœtum occurs on the gravel flat as low shrubs, 1–3 m. tall, with dense light-green foliage, through which project numerous dead twigs. Detached plants only are found, with the foliage on the seaward side reaching the ground.

The gravel flat is said to be covered by hurricane seas only, though other heavy seas sometimes break over parts of it, killing some of the vegetation. In July, 1908, the sea flooded part of the flat, and killed Ipomœa pes caprœ, and some of the leaves and twigs of Myoporum lœtum.

The soil is gravel, similar to that of which the beach is composed. During westerly weather it is continually drenched with salt spray.

From October till April, wideawake terns (Sterna fuliginosa) occupy the front portion of the gravel flat, and keep the vegetation well trampled down. When they depart, however, the Ipomœa pes caprœ grows up tall and rank, covering the ground with dense dark-green foliage to a height of –50 cm., and elsewhere a host of weeds, chiefly Stellaria media and Euphorbia Peplus, soon springs up.

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Three plants occupy practically the whole of the flat—viz., Mariscus ustulatus, Scirpus nodosus, and Ipomœa pes caprœ. Mariscus ustulatus occurs all over the flat, but more sparingly near the forest, where it is replaced by Scirpus nodosus and Ageratum conyzoides. Ipomœa pes caprœ grows almost everywhere, mixing with both Mariscus and Scirpus. Its long trailing stems are only driven back by the waves on one side and by the shade of the forest on the other. A few shrubs of Myoporum lœtum occur here and there, while there is an undergrowth among the Mariscus and Ipomœa, chiefly composed of Stellaria media, Euphorbia Peplus, and Cynodon Dactylon. Along the sea-edge, where the gravel takes the nature of a dune, Calystegia Soldanella and Tetragonia expansa occur.

There is evidence that another plant—Scœvola gracilis—now almost entirely killed by introduced sheep and cattle, formerly took an important part in the formation. In an enclosure at the south end of Denham Bay, where these animals are not allowed, the vegetation is dense, about half a metre high, and composed principally of Scœvola gracilis and Scirpus nodosus, with Ipomœa pes caprœ growing among them. Here also are found Imperata Cheesemani and Danthonia pilosa.

2. Inland Edaphic Formations.

The plant formations occurring in all places on Sunday Island where the nature of the soil inhibits the growth of forest (except the areas occupied by the coastal, young, and introduced formations) are included under this heading, and naturally fall into three groups, which will be described in the order of their probable appearance. Forest, being the only climatic formation, is kept under a separate heading, though true forest possibly existed on Sunday Island before there were any swamps or lakes.

(a.) Rocks and Cliffs.—On Sunday Island it may be said with regard to cliff vegetation that some of the plants now most characteristic of it are those which goats search out and suppress in the forest. This is certainly the case with Asplenium Shuttleworthianum and Veronica breviracemosa. Certain plants, however, such as Lagenophora petiolata and Lobelia anceps, are found in nearly all rocky places in the forest. Other species usually occurring in rocky situations are Hydrocotyle moschata, Coprosma petiolata, Carex Forsteri insularis, Scœvola gracilis, Cyclophorus serpens, Peperomia Endlicheri, Poa polyphylla, Mesembryanthemum australe, and Psilotum triquetrum.

The rock-vegetation is well developed on the cliffs at the back of the Terraces. These cliffs are of an exceptionally dry character, face north, and are inaccessible to goats. Where there is a crevice or ledge affording the slightest hold for soil, plants will be found. The chief members are Cyclophorus serpens, Lobelia anceps, Asplenium Shuttleworthianum, Poa polyphylla, Peperomia Endlicheri, and Mesembryanthemum australe. A plant of Coprosma petiolata was also seen.

On the cliffs above Denham Bay, now, owing to the presence of inhabitants in the bay, practically free from goats, are found Veronica breviracemosa, Coprosma petiolata, Lobelia anceps, Lagenophora Forsteri, and Carex Forsteri insularis, besides Hydrocotyle moschata in damp places. On an open rocky slope Scœvola gracilis covers the ground; mixed with it is a little Danthonia pilosa.

A cliff in the crater at the base of Moumoukai contains the following plants: Poa polyphylla, Cyclophorus serpens, Scœvola gracilis, Erechtites

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prenanthoides, Nephrolepis cordifolia, Adiantum hispidulum, Pellœa falcata, Ageratum conyzoides, and dwarf plants of Myoporum lœtum and Coriaria sarmentosa. This part was included in the area destroyed by a volcanic eruption in 1872.

At the foot of the cliffs in Denham Bay steam escapes in several places, killing the vegetation where it issues from the ground. Near by, on the warm ground, is a dense growth of plants ½-1 m. high, consisting chiefly of Nephrolepis exaltata, Polypodium diversifolium, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Lycopodium cernuum, and Psilotum triquetrum. The Polypodium and Lycopodium have tall erect fronds, the former measuring up to 105 cm., the latter to 83 cm., in height.

On Macauley Island deep ravines, cut through volcanic tuffs by the action of rain-water, support on their precipitous sides a little vegetation. Goats are unable to reach certain parts, and hence possibly a remnant of the original vegetation is found here. These gullies afford shelter from wind, but the porous nature of the ground allows water to percolate freely; hence the soil is usually particularly dry. The list of plants noticed in these ravines is as follows: Boehmeria dealbata, Carex Forsteri insularis, Asplenium lucidum, A. obtusatum, Hypolepis tenuifolia, Poa polyphylla, Lobelia anceps, Gnaphalium luteo-album, Scirpus nodosus, Mariscus ustulatus, and Mesembryanthemum australe.

(b.)Swamp.—Swamp occurs in Denham Bay and round the Blue Lake in the crater. Typha angustifolia grows along the edges of Tui Lake and the Green Lake, but there is no swamp formation.

The swamp in Denham Bay is situated opposite the middle of the bay, between the gravel flat and the high perpendicular cliffs some 300 m. further back. It is somewhat oblong in shape, about 600 m. long and 200 m. broad. The ground round the swamp is composed of pumiceous tuffs and gravel, derived from the cliffs, which no doubt slipped down into the bay when the sea washed their bases. The sea has since retired, being now some 400 m. from the cliffs at this part. Rain-water percolates these tuffs very quickly, but under the swamp is a layer of blue and yellow sandy clay which holds water for a considerable time, thus making possible the existence of a swamp. The surface is everywhere spongy and gives under the feet. In places, more especially after rain, water lies to a depth of 20 cm.

The principal swamp-plant is Typha angustifolia. Its height varies. Over the greater part of the swamp it lies between 1 m. and 1.5 m., and here the ground, though springy, will support the weight of a man. In places, however, it is tall, up to 2.6 m., and here one's legs sink in up to the knees or deeper. After the Typha, Juncus effusus is the most important plant. It grows in tufts, 1.5 m. high, and covers large patches in the drier parts of the swamp. Blechnum capense (75 cm. tall), Histiopteris incisa, and Paspalum scrobiculatum occur in small patches in several places. The Histiopteris forms rather dense patches ± 1 m. high, with much decayed vegetable matter underneath. Other swamp-plants noticed were Juncus pauciflorus near the edge, and Heleocharis acuta in water.

The character of the vegetation in the Denham Bay swamp appears to be altering, forest-plants taking the place of swamp-plants. In fact, a swamp formation is here in process of being changed into forest. Thirty years ago there was an open sheet of water with Typha angustifolia growing along the edge, from where gradually it spread until now there is no open water. Parts, however, are much wetter than the rest, and here the Typha

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is tallest. In the greater part of the swamp the following appear to be sings of drying up: Typha angustifolia is of small size; Juncus effusus is abundant; various other plants, such as Mariscus ustulatus, Ageratum conyzoides, and Polypodium diversifolium, are appearing; and, finally, plants of Metrosideros villosa up to 2 m. in height occur in various places, chiefly on the higher ground, where water does not actually lie on the surface. The cause of this change is probably the filling-in of the swamp by material washed into it by rains.

The swamp surrounding the Blue Lake is similar to that in Denham Bay, but contains fewer species of plants. Besides Typha angustifolia, Mariscus ustulatus and Paspalum scrobiculatum are the chief plants. This swamp is of recent origin, as the water in the Blue Lake was probably boiling during the eruption of 1872, there being a number of standing dead trees near its shores.

(c.) Lakes.—From the edge of the Green Lake the bottom slopes steeply into deep water. In places, however, there is a shelf just submerged, and here Typha angustifolia finds a foothold; but in all cases there is a space of about a metre between it and the water's edge, this being the distance goats are able to reach when standing in shallow water.

Tui Lake is a small sheet of fresh water surrounded by forest, and lies on the edge of the area affected by the eruption of 1872. A little Typha angustifolia occurs, and Callitriche Muelleri grows either entirely submerged or on the bank close to the water's edge.

3. Forest Formations.

(a.) General Remarks.—Practically the whole of Sunday Island is covered with forest, this being the true climatic plant formation. The proportion of ground occupied by other formations would be insignificant when compared to that under forest, which reaches from the water's edge to the tops of the highest hills, were it not for certain disturbing influences which may be termed accidental, and which have led to the existence of the plant formations described below as “young” and “introduced.” But climate, being a permanent unchanging factor, must in the long-run overcome any temporary disturbing influences, and consequently forest will gradually replace the new formations. This process is certainly going on with regard to the young formations, which might appropriately be called young forests; but the occupation of man, which is responsible for the existence of the introduced formations, may become a permanent factor ever preventing the forest regaining its lost ground. I have already mentioned the change which is apparently taking place in the swamp in Denham Bay; but this is a slow, natural process consequent on the filling-in of the swamp by material washed into it by rains, and, possibly, the gradual upheaval of the Kermadec Islands plateau.

Though small, Sunday Island is hilly in the character of its surface, and a considerable area is over 300 m. above sea-level; hence the amount of atmospheric precipitation is not the same in all parts, and consequently the character of the forest varies. The soil is everywhere extremely permeable, so that it may be disregarded as a factor determining the distribution of the main types of forest. The more elevated parts of the island undoubtedly receive a much greater amount of moisture than the lower parts. In northerly weather everywhere above an altitude of about 300 m. is enveloped in clouds, while the lower ground receives moisture only while it is

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actually raining, and between showers may even be suffering from the desiccating effect of the wind.

The forest, then, may be divided into two main types, determined by the amount of moisture received. To these I apply the terms “dry” and “wet.” I might also refer to them as “upper” and “lower”; but, though the wet forest is confined to the upper parts of the island, its existence as a distinct formation is not due directly to its altitude, but to its abundant supply of moisture.

Generally speaking, the wet forest occurs on ground more than 250 m. above sea-level, though no sharp line of demarcation can be drawn between the wet and dry forests, the one passing gradually into the other at an altitude varying between 200 m. and 300 m. It differs from dry forest in its much more luxuriant growth, and in the abundance of cryptogamic epiphytes.

(b.) Leading Physiognomic Plants and their Life-forms.—(1) Trees and shrubs: Metrosideros villosa occurs in two principal forms. Its ordinary state is a lofty forest-tree, 20 m. tall, with an erect, more or less crooked or twisted trunk ½—1 m. in diameter at the base, and branching, chiefly in its upper part, in a most irregular manner. Aerial rootlets are usually given out from the lower part of the trunk. These grow downwards, increasing in size and branching till they reach the ground, where they take root, and, still growing larger, act like additional stems.

The larger trees on the ridges and in exposed places usually have immense prostrate trunks, sending up several branches each the size of a large tree. Aerial roots are given off from the under-side of the trunk until the base of the tree becomes a mass of entangled roots and stems of all sizes. In leaning trees they form supports for the trunk, which thus spreads in the direction in which it is leaning—usually downhill or in a northerly direction—that is, away from the point whence come the hurricanes.*

Corynocarpus lœvigata is a lofty forest-tree, 20 m. tall, with one to three erect stems, branching chiefly about 8–10 m. above the ground. The three trunks of one tree measured 115 cm., 135 cm., and 150 cm. in circumference respectively. Bark dark brown, rather rough, with small lenticels. Foliage dense.

Myoporum lœtum is a lofty forest-tree, 20 m. tall, with a trunk 2 m. in circumference at the base, branching near the top, and with lax foliage. Bark rough, grey. Leaves serrate, light green, pellucid glands scarcely visible. Usually in the forest Myoporum lœtum is a small tree of the second tier, with an erect stem and lax foliage.

Melicytus ramiflorus in dry forest is usually a small tree with an erect branching stem and lax foliage. In wet forest, however, it is a tree of large proportions, consisting of a great many stems spreading from the base, and with the moderately dense foliage borne principally at the top. Bark nearly smooth, and of a light-grey colour.

Rapanea kermadecensis is a small glabrous tree, 6–10 m. tall, with an erect stem bearing numerous horizontal branches. Bark rather smooth, with small lenticels, reddish-grey. Wood extremely hard. Foliage dense. Leaves elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, dark green, margins wavy, more or less rolled; laminæ 42 x 20 mm., 45 x 25 mm., 60 x 27 mm., 70 x 33 mm.

[Footnote] * Dr. Cockayne is of opinion (Report Bot. Surv. Stewart Island, 1909, p. 10) that Metrosideros lucida has under certain stimuli an hereditary tendency towards a prostrate habit.

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Flowers small, in fascicles on the twigs among and below the leaves. Fruit fleshy.

Ascarina lanceolata is a tall shrub or small slender tree, with bark of a dark reddish-brown cólour, and rather rough, with close lenticels. Foliage dense; leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, deeply serrate, firm in texture, aromatic: laminæ 55 x 18 mm., 62 x 24 mm., 65 x 20 mm., 65 x 22 mm. Flowers unisexual, in compound spikes. Fruit a small drupe, 3 mm. long.

Melicope ternata is a small erect tree, 10 m. tall. Bark rather rough, with numerous lenticels, reddish. Leaves trifoliate, in bunches at the end of the twigs; leaflets large, the central ones 15 cm. long, 7.5 cm. broad, shining, flaccid, or the older ones firm.

Coprosma acutifolia is a small, erect, often slender tree, 7–10 m. tall, and with a trunk sometimes 140 cm. in circumference near the base. Bark quite smooth, grey to greenish. Branches ending in numerous slender twigs bearing moderately dense foliage. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to ellipticovate, acuminate, variable in size and shape; laminæ 43 x 18 mm., 63 x 22 mm., 75 x 35 mm. Fruit small orange-red drupes, produced copiously.

Macropiper excelsum major is a small shrub, 2–3 m. tall, with usually several stems springing from the same base. Stems smooth, greenish, terete, with large nodes. Foliage lax. Leaves large, cordate, with 7–13 ribs radiating from the base, flaccid or moderately firm in texture; laminæ 12 x 11 cm. to 16 x 19 cm. (largest leaf measured 17 x 22 cm.). Flowers diœcious; male spikes –23 cm. long, female spikes 8–10 cm. long. Fruit fleshy.

(2.) Palms: Rhopalostylis Baueri has a stout, erect, terete, greenish trunk, marked by conspicuous regular rings representing leaf-scars. Base of stem enlarged, bearing densely crowded short roots. Height to flowers 7–10 m. Flowers borne at the base of the leaf-sheaths, several succeeding one another in a season. Leaves pinnate; length without sheath 3.5 m., longest pinnæ 1–1.2m., forming a crown at the top of the stem spreading at an angle of ± 130°.

(3.) Tree-ferns: Cyathea kermadecensis has a trunk –20 m. tall, the base large, 1–2 m. in diameter, formed of adventitious rootlets and rapidly narrowing into a slender upper part which is comparatively smooth, as the fallen fronds leave clean scars.

Cyathea Milnei has a stout erect trunk 4–8 m. tall, slightly thickened by adventitious rootlets at the base. Fronds after withering hang down the stem for a considerable time, hence there is always a cluster of dead fronds round the top. When they do fall they break off short, leaving the broken stipes attached to the trunk, which consequently is rough and untidy.

(4.) Small ferns: Pteris comans forms tufts about 2 m. tall, containing many dead stipes besides the living fronds.

Nephrolepis exaltata has a short erect rhizome from which fronds and roots spring crossing one another. Height 1–2 m. A frond measured—stipe, 100 cm.; frond, 113 cm.; total length, 213 cm.; longest pinna, 175 x 17 mm. Pinnæ easily broken, so that perfect specimens are rare.

Nephrolepis cordifolia is a low fern with a tufted rhizome bearing 6–10 live and many dead fronds, and numerous roots forming a tangled mat. Fronds linear, –60 cm. long, 5–6 cm. broad, with the pinnæ usually broken near their tips.

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Polystichum aristatum has a long creeping rhizome bearing at short intervals erect, hard, dark-green, deltoid fronds, 1 m. tall.

Dryopteris setigera is a tall fern, 1–2 m. high, with a short tufted rhizome and few, light-green, delicate, compound, deltoid fronds.

Diplazium japonicum is a low tufted fern, about ½ m. tall, with few light-green, delicate, pinnate fronds.

Blechnum capense varies very much in its size and habit. It may be a tall fern with erect fronds 2–2.5 m. high, or a low fern, ½m. tall, with broadly ovate or nearly orbicular spreading fronds.

(c.) Ecology.—(1.) Ecological factors: First in importance of factors determining both the existence and character of the forest is climate. An abundant supply of rain spread throughout the year produces a forest formation whose physiognomy alters in accordance with the amount of moisture received. A full account of the climate has already been given. The annual rainfall, amounting to over 1,700 mm. for nine months, and high average degree of relative humidity, with a temperature never falling below 8°C., and averaging more than 18°C., is ample to produce hygrophytic vegetation (16; p. 168), while the desiccating effect of the constant winds is to a certain extent counterbalanced by the moisture-laden atmosphere. The winds are most felt near the sea-shore and at the top of sea-cliffs, where the vegetation is shorn down to a certain height, above which nothing but dead twigs project.

The general effect of the warm and humid climate on the vegetation is to promote a luxuriant growth. This is exemplified in the case of New Zealand plants extending to the Kermadecs. Macropiper excelsum and Melicope ternata are each represented by varieties characterized by larger leaves. Corynocarpus lœvigata and Myoporum lœtum, small trees in New Zealand, are on Sunday Island lofty forest-trees 20 m. tall. The habit of two plants—Calystegia Soldanella and Ipomœa palmata—of flowering but not fruiting (according to my observation) is perhaps occasioned by the climate. Some mosses rarely bear fruiting capsules.

A number of plants flower immediately after fruiting. In the case of Rapanea kermadecensis both flowers and ripe fruit are sometimes seen on the same twig. Besides this species, Coprosma petiolata, C. acutifolia, Macropiper excelsum major, Ascarina lanceolata, and Melicope ternata flower during the winter months. The slight fall in temperature, rather than interfering with, seems to favour the development of the reproductive organs (see 16; p. 48).

In the list of indigenous plants I have recorded the measurements of large specimens of several plants.

The most noticeable effect of winds is to limit the general level of the vegetation in exposed places. Myoporum lœtum, which is the principal plant in the coastal scrub, adapts itself precisely so as to offer least resistance to the prevailing winds. Its slanting flat top is maintained by the constant winds, which, laden with salt spray, kill every twig above a certain level, determined by the density of the foliage. On the tops of cliffs, where the wind strikes with full force, the foliage is shorn down to a certain height, above which only dead twigs project.

Soil is a factor second in importance only to climate. There is little variety of soils on Sunday Island, any difference between one and another consisting in the proportions of vegetable matter contained in each. The soil everywhere consists of the more or less altered—by weathering and

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admixture of vegetable humus—surface of tuffs composed for the most part of pumice. The tuffs themselves are of an extremely porous character, and any noticeable water-holding capacity the soil may possess is due to the addition of humus. The nature of the soil, then, is such as to hinder the growth of forest, which depends as a formation on an abundant supply of atmospheric moisture.

On the lower more level ground a layer of black loam –20 cm. deep rests on pumice tuffs. Water percolates freely; hence the ground is usually more or less parched. On the hilltops, however, the more abundant supply of moisture promotes a luxuriant growth, and the consequent decay of vegetation adding humus to the soil increases its water-holding capacity. No water lies on the surface, though the soil is usually moist, and a layer of dead leaves prevents it rapidly becoming dry. On the hillsides the weathered surface of the tuffs forms the soil.

The density of the forest-roof, by regulating the supply of rain and light, has a direct bearing on the distribution of the undergrowth. The vegetation on the forest-floor varies from a dense growth of ferns 2 m. high to a few scattered ferns and seedlings, whilst in places it is entirely absent, there being only dead leaves and branches lying about. As a general rule, where the foliage is most dense there is little undergrowth, but where a break occurs ferns and other plants are abundant. On the hilltops, however, where clouds hang about in northerly weather, more moisture will be supplied to the undergrowth, which is therefore usually most luxuriant, notwithstanding the fact that the forest-roof may be not less dense than it is on the lower ground. In Denham Bay there is everywhere a dense undergrowth. Climatological Table II shows that on Sunday Island three-fourths of the rainfall occurs during northerly weather. Rain-clouds impinging against Big and Expedition Hills drop their moisture on the summits of these hills and on the flat in Denham Bay directly below.

(2.) Trees: The trees are all evergreens. One only exhibits partial defoliation. In the winter months Homolanthus polyandrus has appreciably fewer leaves on it than it has in the spring and summer. The older leaves fall away in the autumn, leaving only those on the young shoots, and usually less than 10 cm. across.

Two sizes of trees are distinguishable in the dry forest—those which form the upper or third tier of vegetation, which varies from 15 m. to 20 m. in height, and those growing in the shade of these, and forming a second tier of vegetation. Four trees are included in the first category—Metrosideros villosa, Corynocarpus lœvigata, Myoporum lœtum, Melicytus ramiflorus. In the wet forest a third tier of vegetation cannot be distinguished, the general height of the formation being about 10 m.

Over the greater portion of Sunday Island a moist climate and dry soil require that the trees should be able to endure frequent short droughts, and at the same time hold their own against hygrophytes. The soil decides the battle in favour of the plants least affected by drought. Rolled leaves, which I suspect are an adaptation to situations exhibiting alternately wet and dry conditions, are a conspicuous feature in the Sunday Island vegetation, not on account of the number of species, but because of the preponderance of individual plants, possessing them. In Rapanea kermadecensis, an important plant in dry forest, and Coprosma petiolata, a characteristic shrub of the coastal formations, the whole leaf rolls inwards so that opposite sides of the upper surface may be touching. Both these plants are endemic; hence the adjustment of their organs to the environment is complete.

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In Metrosideros villosa the margins of the leaves are more or less recurved. The leaves of the three above plants agree very closely in size, shape, and texture. They are small, entire, oblong, coriaceous, with their margins recurved or more or less rolled.

In wet forest, where more hygrophytic conditions prevail, Metrosideros and Rapanea cease to be the dominant plants, and the leaves are of a less pronounced xerophilous character.

Leaf-buds are protected, probably against desiccation, in various ways. In Homolanthus polyandrus two imbricate bracts enclose each of the delicate young leaves until they expand. In Macropiper excelsum the sheathing base of the petiole of the terminal leaf contains the leaf-bud. In Nothopanax arboreum the bud is covered with mucilage. Metrosideros villosa and Pittosporum crassifolium have the buds covered with dense white tomentum.

Partial cauliflory is exhibited in Rapanea kermadecensis and Melicytus ramiflorus.

Diœcious flowers occur in Melicytus ramiflorus, Macropiper excelsum major, Coprosma acutifolia, C. petiolata, and Nothopanax arboreum.

Aerial roots are produced abundantly in Metrosideros villosa. The wetter the situation the greater the profusion of roots. In wet forest the prostrate trunk of a tree may be a metre above ground, supported by hundreds of large and small root props, and sending up large branches like distinct trees.

Ornithophily is exhibited especially in Metrosideros villosa, which has flowers with a brushlike polyandrous andrœcium, and a supply of nectar at the base. The tui (Prosthemadera novœ zealandiœ) is certainly instrumental in effecting cross-pollination for this species. These birds are abundant on Sunday Island, and may frequently be seen, with a yellow patch of pollen at the bases of their bills, visiting the flowers of the Metrosideros.

Entomophily occurs with Melicytus ramiflorus. Lacewings were observed visiting the flowers of both male and female plants, apparently searching for nectar, which I suspect is secreted by the glandular organs at the base of the petals. The lacewing thus unintentionally carries away from the male flowers pollen adhering to the under-side of the thorax. Should the insects afterwards visit female flowers, the pollen would cling to the viscid surface of the stigma, and fertilisation be effected.

The reproductive organs of Macropiper excelsum major, Homolanthus polyandrus, Coprosma acutifolia, and C. petiolata are adapted for wind pollination.

(3.) Epiphytes: With one or two unimportant exceptions the epiphytes on Sunday Island are cryptogams. They are a conspicuous feature of wet forest, where almost every available space on trees, palms, and tree-ferns is covered with mosses and ferns. Elsewhere they are much less abundant. The large leaning stems and horizontal branches of Metrosideros villosa support a thick covering of mosses, among which grow a variety of ferns. In the wet forest the rough stems of tree-ferns (Cyathea) are often clothed with filmy ferns and mosses, whilst even the smooth stem of Rhopalostylis Baueri is sometimes hidden by a mantle of mosses and ferns.

The principal epiphytes are Cyclophorus serpens, Polypodium diversifolium, Asplenium flaccidum, A. caudatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia, Trichomanes venosum, Hymenophyllum demissum, H. flabellatum, Tmesipteris tannensis, Lycopodium Billardieri, Acianthus Sinclairi, and Peperomia Endlicheri.

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Mention has already been made of two plants (Metrosideros villosa and Nothopanax arboreum) which frequently pass through the first stages of their development on tree-fern stems, but subsequently become connected with the ground by their roots.

(4.) Ferns: Ferns may conveniently be divided into three ecological groups—tree-ferns, filmy ferns, and other kinds.

The first group is represented on Sunday Island by two endemic species, which, however, differ in many important points.

Cyathea kermadecensis is characteristic of the wet forest, and in places is the dominant plant. What may be termed a Cyathea forest exists in places, where magnificent tree-ferns, 20m. tall, form a distinct plant association, forest-trees taking but a subordinate part. The fronds are rather flaccid in texture, and in dry weather curl up their pinna-segments. As they wither they fall, leaving the top of the trunk bare, and this habit gives the fern its graceful appearance. Adventitious roots are developed at the base of the trunk until it assumes large dimensions. Growing on hillsides the plants are usually leaning, and the adventitious roots are given out most abundantly on the under-side, where most of the rain-water running down the stem naturally flows before reaching the ground. Here the base of the trunk forms an acute angle, and a cross-section would be somewhat kite-shaped, about 2m. one way and 1m. the other.

Cyathea Milnei, the more common tree-fern in dry forest, has hard coriaceous fronds, which clothe the top of the trunk as they wither. Adventitious roots form a conical base sometimes nearly 1m. in diameter.

The filmy ferns, of which there are four species on Sunday Island, have delicate fronds formed of but a single layer of cells. In dry weather the fronds curl up and the tips wither to a certain extent, and, if the drought be lasting, do not recover; hence it is a common thing to see these ferns with the edges of their fronds dead.

Hymenophyllum demissum is abundant everywhere in wet forest, on branches of trees, tree-fern stems, and on the ground. Large fronds measure, including the stipes, 36cm. in length. In dry forest a few small sickly-looking plants were noticed on a log in Denham Bay. H. flabellatum was found in one place only—the matted roots and close fronds covering the under-side of a leaning trunk of Metrosideros villosa on the summit of Moumoukai. The fronds were small, 6–7cm. long, with close overlapping segments, dead at the tips, and filiform stipes, 1–14cm. in length.

Trichomanes humile, with fronds 7–11cm. long, was extremely rare, being found only on wet banks and fallen trunks of tree-ferns in deep shady ravines. T. venosum is an epiphyte of the wet forest found only on the under-side of leaning trunks of Cyathea kermadecensis. In its ordinary state the frond is broadly ovate, 7–8cm. long, 3–5cm. broad, with a short filiform stipe 2–3cm. long; but when growing far in under a trunk it is linear, –14cm. long, 1.5-2cm. broad, with a stipe 2.5-5cm. long. One frond, including stipe, measured 17.5cm. in length, 2cm. in breadth.

Of other kinds of ferns entering largely into the forest formation Pteris comans, Polystichum aristatum, and Nephrolepis exaltata are the chief in dry forest. All have coriaceous fronds. In wet forest Dryopteris glabella and Blechnum norfolkianum are abundant. The texture of their fronds is firm but scarcely coriaceous, and in their young states very delicate. B. norfolkianum often has a small erect rhizome 10cm. high, bearing the fronds in a tuft near the top.

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(d.) Physiognomy.—The wet-forest formation covers the top of the crater-ridge from Moumoukai to Expedition Hill, and the ridges running south-west from Mount Junction to Bollons Peak, and north-west from Expedition Hill, over Big Hill, towards Hutchison Bluff. The height of this area above sea-level is mostly over 300m., but wet forest extends below this limit on the southern sides of the ridges and in deep gullies. The remainder of the forest on Sunday Island is of the dry type. There is no sudden change noticed in ascending the hills from sea-level to their summits, as dry forest passes gradually over into wet forest. Between typical wet forest and ordinary dry forest, however, there is a marked difference. In the transition forest a mixture of plants occurs, and Ascarina lanceolata is found in company with Rapanea kermadecensis shaded by tall Metrosideros villosa.

(1.) Dry forest: Viewed from above, the dry forest presents a sombre appearance, the dark-green foliage of Metrosideros villosa alone being visible. By about June the monotony is relieved by the appearance of young shoots covered with white tomentum, and later, in October, some trees begin to flower, but not till late in November is the flowering general. Then the forest must be a blaze of red, for the scarlet flowers are produced in great profusion, but by the end of the year they are mostly over, and dull-green foliage again dominates the landscape.

The general height of the dry forest is about 20m., and three tiers of vegetation may be distinguished. In places the forest-floor is strewn only with dead leaves and twigs, and there is no undergrowth. Usually, however, an undergrowth is present, varying in its composition in different parts. A dense growth of Pteris comans 2m. high forms the lowest tier of vegetation in many portions of the island. Intermixed with this fern are Macropiper excelsum major, Polystichum aristatum, Doodia media Milnei, Oplismenus undulatifolius, Adiantum hispidulum, Blechnum capense, Dryopteris setigera, and other plants.

On Low Flat Cenchrus calyculatus is abundant, and at the base of the cliffs in Denham Bay Hypolepis tenuifolia, with fronds 3–4m. tall, is plentiful.

In Denham Bay Nephrolepis exaltata forms an almost impenetrable mass of vegetation 1–2m. high, with few other plants intermixed. Polystichum aristatum also forms the undergrowth in various parts of the island, and in Denham Bay Nephrolepis cordifolia claims areas to the exclusion of all other plants, its matted roots spreading over the ground, over fallen logs, and ascending the stems of tree-ferns.

Seedlings of trees, notably Corynocarpus lœvigata, and the palm Rhopalostylis Baueri, often form thick patches on the forest-flocr.

In Coral Bay the undergrowth is a more or less dense growth of Macropiper excelsum major, difficult to get through. Mixed with it is a fair proportion of Pteris comans. The Macropiper plants have each several stems, sometimes 5m. long and 23cm. in circumference at the base, and arched in a more or less horizontal direction.

Thus several distinct plant-communities contribute to the undergrowth in the dry forest of Sunday Island.

The second tier of vegetation is composed of small trees, plams, and tree-ferns growing in the shade of Metrosideros villosa. The trees are usually erect, 6–10m. tall, branch little, and have lax foliage. They are not close together, and are altogether not so numerous as the stems of the Metro-

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sideros among which they grow. The principal plants of this tier are Melicytus ramiflorus, Rapanea kermadecensis, Coprosma acutifolia, Melicope ternata, Corynocarpus lœvigata, Myoporum lœtum, Coriaria sarmentosa, Boehmeria dealbata, Rhopalostylis Baueri, and Cyathea Milnei.

Near the coast, on Low Flat and other places, Pittosporum crassifolium occurs, while in Coral Bay and elsewhere are clumps of Pisonia Brunoniana, each tree stripped of its bark as far as goats can reach.

In the more sheltered places Rhopalostylis Baueri forms picturesque groves. There is seldom much undergrowth where these palms are plentiful.

The third tier of vegetation in the dry forest is composed almost exclusively of Metrosideros villosa 20m. tall. Two other trees, Corynocarpus lœvigata and Myoporum lœtum, occasionally equal the Metrosideros in height; while one, Melicytus ramiflorus, although not more than 15m. tall, sometimes claims a share in the upper tier of foliage. There are large Corynocarpus trees in several places, but the giant Myopora were only seen in the crater and on the Terraces. A large Melicytus on the Terraces measured 15m. in height, and had four principal stems, 80cm., 110cm., 110cm., and 125cm. in circumference respectively.

The forest-roof is usually fairly dense, and this factor determines the slender habit of the trees forming the second tier and regulates the distribution of the undergrowth.

Epiphytes are not a conspicuous feature in dry forest. The trunks of Cyatheœ occasionally support Tmesipteris tennensis, Asplenium caudatum, and Nephrolepis cordifolia. Branches of trees, especially the larger horizontal ones, and leaning stems, too, afford situations for a little moss, Cyclophorus serpens, Polypodium diversifolium, and Asplenium flaccidum (small erect form).

(2.) Wet forest: Unlike the dry forest, the wet forest is composed of a mixture of trees no one of which is predominant. Its appearance from above is varied by its different shades of green, while the graceful heads of palms and tree-ferns are thickly scattered about among the foliage. The average height on the summits of the hills is about 10m., but in valleys and on sheltered slopes the tree-ferns (Cyathea kermadecensis) are –20m. tall, and the forest-trees rather less.

On Moumoukai, the highest and wettest portion of the island, the forestfloor is everywhere covered with (1) mosses; (2) low ferns—Dryopteris glabella, Blechnum norfolkianum, Polypodium diversifolium, Hymenophyllum demissum; (3) dead leaves—notably Cyathea fronds and palm-leaves—and sticks; (4) roots of trees, fallen tree-fern stems, logs, &c., covered with mosses and the above four ferns.

Fallen trunks of tree-ferns are plentiful on the floor of the wet forest. These are invariably covered with mosses, Hymenophyllum demissum, Polypodium diversifolium, and on the under-side Trichomanes venosum, or perhaps T. humile.

On Big Hill the undergrowth is most dense, and there is a smell of rotting vegetation. Pteris comans is the principal plant, and its general height is 2m. Under the Pteris grow Dryopteris glabella and Blechnum norfolkianum.

The trees of the upper forest grow close together, average 10m. or more in height, and have much-branched heads of dense foliage.

Metrosideros villosa is here not the dominant tree, but is usually of large proportions, with immense prostrate trunks supported by numerous root props. The direction in which the trunk is lying is almost invariably north

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to north-west, and is undoubtedly the result of hurricanes which visit the islands occasionally and blow with great violence from the south-east. Rhopalostylis Baueri and Cyathea kermadecensis are abundant, and characteristic of wet forest. The principal trees are Melicytus ranuflorus, Ascarina lanceolata, Nothopanax arboreum, Coprosma acutifolia, and Rapanea kermadecensis. In a deep gully on Bollons Peak a single tree each of Homolanthus polyandrus and Boehmeria dealbata were noticed.

In a limited sense the plants of the wet forest group themselves into associations in which a single species is dominant. On Big Hill immense Melicytus ramiflorus trees, each with numerous stems, are most plentiful. On Expedition Hill and other places Ascarina lanceolata forms an association of tall slender trees, 8m. in height, bearing foliage and flowers at the top only.

But the most important and distinct of the subformations is that of Cyathea kermadecensis. On Bollons Peak a large area is occupied by this tree-fern, associated with a few forest-trees—Melicytus ramiflorus, Nothopanax arboreum, Ascarina lanceolata, and Metrosideros villosa. The treeferns are growing close together, and average about 20m. in height. The bases, composed of adventitious roots, are 1–2m. in diameter, and often three or four unite, forming a mass 3m. or 4m. through. Lying about the ground are numerous fallen trunks of tree-ferns and trees, all covered, like the standing tree-ferns, with mosses and ferns. The tree-fern trunks are thickly clothed with Hymenophyllum demissum, Trichomanes venosum, Asplenium flaccidum, A. caudatum, Polypodium diversifolium, and mosses. Pteris comans and Dryopteris glabella form what little undergrowth there is.

The luxuriant growth of epiphytic vegetation is the main feature which stamps the physiognomy of the wet forest. A third of the species of plants noted in wet forest are epiphytes, and only two of this number (11) also occur there on the ground. The trunks and branches of forest-trees and the stems of tree-ferns and palms are clothed with mosses and ferns. Even where the forest-floor is bare of vegetation, epiphytes are not any the less abundant.

Leaning trunks and horizontal branches of trees collect a lot of soil, on which several kinds of mosses and lichens, as well as a variety of ferns and two spermophytes, flourish. The following were observed in such situations: Polypodium diversifolium, Cyclophorus serpens, Asplenium flaccidum (two forms), Lycopodium Billardieri, Acianthus Sinclairi, Peperomia Endlicheri, Hymenophyllum demissum.

The trunks of tree-ferns are erect but rough. As a substratum for plants they become very dry in fine weather, while no soil was observed to collect on them. In the wet forest they are nevertheless invariably clothed with various species of mosses, Hymenophyllum demissum, Cyclophorus serpens, Asplenium caudatum, A. flaccidum (two forms), and Tmesipteris tannensis.

On the under-side of leaning fern-trunks where rain-water does not flow none of the above plants occur, but in such places Trichomanes venosum is found. It alone appears to be able to obtain sufficient moisture from the atmosphere to sustain life, while in places exposed to the weather it is apparently not able to hold its own against more hardy ferns.

Palm-stems, being smooth, do not afford stations readily occupied by epiphytes. In wet forest, however, they are usually clothed with mosses, Polypodium diversifolium, and Cyclophorus serpens.

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4. Young Formations.

In two places on Sunday Island the original dry forest has been destroyed, and young scrub or forest now occupies the ground. In Denham Bay a laergelandslip occurred about four years previous to my arrival. The whole face of the cliff up to 300 m. in height fell bodily forward on to the forest covered flat below, and vuried under about 10 m. of earth and rocks and area of 0.05 sq. km. About 1872—the date is uncertain—Sunday Island was in a state of eruption. From the Green Lake ashes, pumice, and boiling water ejected, and, falling upon the forest-covered crater-floor, destroyed the vegetation. Beyond the crater it extended over Mount Campbell on to Low Flat, and altogether covered an area of about 3 sq. km.

The formation belonging to this section, here called “young” formations, arse reversions (6; p. 26) to the first stages of the forest formations, with this difference: that some introduced species of plants enter into their composition, whilw introduced animals prevent the appearance of certain species of indigenous plants. In the next section the dominant speices of plant in each formation is itself introduced.

(a). Landslip.—The surfacse of thse Denham Bay landslip is extremely rough, being for the most part composed of large and small blocks of lava tufs idiscriminately piled one above another. Among these are patches of smaller stuff, gravel, &c., and it is in such places that plants obtain a footing. Everywhere except in one place, where there is a small pool in wet weather, water sinks in quickly. Logs are lying here and there, while round the edge is a belt of fallen dead trees.

The landslip is sparsely covered with vegetation—some of it with rounded shreubs, 4–6 m. tall, of Myoporum lætum and Coriaria sarmentosa, with a few small trees of Homolanthus polyandrus and Boehmeria dealbata; the remainder quite bare, of with a covering of Ageratum conyzoides, Scævola gracilis, Mariscus ustulatus, and small deedling Metrosideros villosa. Other plants noticed on the landslip were Halorrhagis erecta, Veronica breviracemosa, Coprosma petiolata, and Poa polyphylla.

(b.) Tutu (Coriaria) Scrub.—The soil in that portion of Sunday Island affected by the eruption of 1872 is the surface of the newly deposited pumice tuffs. It may consist purely of fragments of pumice, or a certain amount of finer volcanic ash may be present. Near the Green Lake it is a bluish-yellow clay, mostly covered with rounded pumice stones. Logs of trees are lyinig about here and there, while some dead stumps are still standing.

Tutu (Coriaria sai mentosa) scrub covers considerable areas in the crater, occupying land of the very poorest and driest king. It is a more or less open formation, and consists principally of rounded Coriaria shrubs 3–5 m. tall. Near the Green Lake shrebby Metrosideros villosa, 1–2 m. in height, occurs. Flowering-plants ½ m. tall were observed on Naked Spur.

The ground is quite bare in places; elsewhere the vegetation in scanty. Scirpus nodosus, Microtis unifolia, Scævola gracilis, Gnaphalium luteo-album, Ophioglossum coriaceum, and Imperata Cheesemam are perhaps the plants most commonly met with, while near the Green Lake Lycopodium cernuum adn L. volubile are abundant. The last plant is much sought after by goats, which eat it down close to the ground.

In a small gully from which steam was escaping in several places were found Dryopteris parasitica and D. setigera, whilst Nephrolepis exaltata occured on warm ground at the foot of some cliffs.

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(c.) Pohutukawa (metrosideros) Forest.—Metorosideros villosa in the eruption area is a slender tree, usually with several stems springing from the same root; the lower branchlets are dead, and the foliage chiefly borne at the top; height, 8 m.; circumference of stems, –46 cm.]

On the inner crater ridge the forest is composed almost exclusively of metrosideros saplings 8 m. tall, growing close together. The groud is quite bare of vegetation nearly everywhere, but dead leaves and sticks are thickly strewn about. Where there is a break in the forest, Ageratum conyzoides, Oplismenus undulatifolius, &c., are found.

The gulies between this ridge and Mount Campbell are filled with ferns, chiefly young Cyathea Milnei and Pteris comans.

On the flat ground at the base of Mounmoukai Coriaria sarmentosa, Cooprosma acutifolia, Myoporum lætum, and Cyathea Milnei occur with Metrosideros villosa, while Cyclophorus serpens is occasionally present as an epiphyte. The undergrowth whe present contains Polystichum aristatum, Pellæa falcata, and Nephrolepis cordifolia.

5. Introduced Formations.

I apply the term “introduced” to the three meadows occurring in the Kermadec Islands because in each the principal plant is an imported species. In all cases these meadows occupy ground cleared of its original scrub or forest by man. The soil, unlike that of the “young” formations, was at the time of the clearing of the forest in a fit statse to receive new plants, and the existence of these fromations is, in my opinion, good evidence of the superiority of plants of widespread occurrence over indigenous plants in a confined area where competition has not been keen. But climatic conditions on Sunday Island favour the growth of forest, so that, though the newcomers quickly take possession of the ground, they must eventually retreat before the encroaching forest. With regard to ground occupied by the young formations, it is in its nature so barren that indigenous species of trees (metrosideros villosa, Myoporum lætum, Coriaria sarmentosa) grow as fast as introduced plants; hence the latter suffering from the shade of the former, have not a chance of monopolizing the ground. In any case, if let alone forest will ultimately cover both areas, with introduced plants as unimportant members only.

(a.) Ageratum Madow.—Ageratum meadow occupies all the clearings in the forest in Denham Bay. The chief plant is Ageratum conyzoides, which covers the ground to a height of about ½ m. The leaves are light green or yellowish-green; lilac-blue flowers are produced profusely throughout the year. All other plants in this formation occur more or less sporadically. The following are most commonly met with: Dryopteris parasitica, Kyllinga brevifolia, Carex lucida, Sida rhombifolia, Vinca rosea, and Anthoxanthum odortum.

(b.) BLuffalo-grass (Stenotaphrum) Meadow.—Buffalo-grass meadow occurs on the Terraces, on Low Flat and the adjoining crater-ridge, and in one place on the east coast. It forms a dense impenetrable mass, ½-2 m. high, wiht an uneven surface. It ha taken almost entire possession of the ground, as only a few other plants struggle for a bare existence amongst it.

So much do the culms of the buffalo-grass (Stenotaphrum glabrum) intertwine, and so dense in the resulting mass, that it is only with the greatest difficulty that one can scramble over it, while walking through it is quite impossible. It is shunned by every one who has been unfortunate enough

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to make its acuaintance, and even goats keep clear of it, tempting though its young fresh green leaves may look. Underneath the surface is a mass of rottig leaves, damp and evil-smelling. Seedlings of other plants have little chance of growing to any size, being soon smothered by the relentless buffalo-grass. Though thousands of berrises yearly fall from the plams (Rhopalostylis Baueri) which the grass has surrounded, there are no young plants, but rotting berries may be found in abundance.

Over parts of the Terraces one plant seems to flourish in spite of the buffalo-grass. I refer to Ipomæa plamata, whose long stems penetrate the dense matted grass, and, reaching the open air, trail along the surface, bearing leaves and flowers in profusion.

Certain other plants are found in the formatio. Chief among these are young Myoporum lætum and Metrosideros villosa trees, the forerunners of a forest which will ultimately replace the buffalo-grass.

A few plants of Homolanthus polyandrus, with their upper leaves much torn by wind, are protected from goats by the very grass which almost smothers them. The leaves are large, and have much purplish-red about them; laminæ 19.5x21 cm.; petioles 21 cm. and 26.5 cm. respectively.

Spaces more or less clear of buffalo-grass are occupied by such plants as Scirupus nodosus, Ageratum conyzoides, Mariscus ustualtus, Macropiper excelsum major, and Hypolepis tenuifolia.

On Low Flat buffalo-grass meadow reches the coast, and, partly covering some sand-dunes, includes such plants as Ipomæa pes capræ, Cenchrus calycualtus, Scævola gracilis, and Pteridium esculentum replaces buffalo-grass.

The buffalo-grass (Stsenotaphrum glabrum) does not spread into the forest, as want of light effectively stops progress in that direction. Like Ageratum conyzoides, it takes possession of the ground quicker than forest, yet there is little doubt that now, after twenty years' occupation, the grass is being driven back by forest. Young Metrosideros and Myoporum trees are springing up everywhere; Cordyline termnalis ±2 m. tall, with wind-torn yellow or yellowish-green leaves, is also growing thickly in places. Where these plants, especially metrosideros, are growing close together the buffalo-grass is dying; it is, indeed, being killed by the shadow of the trees.

(c.) Beard-grass (Polypogon) Meadow.—Macauley Island, once covered with Myoporum lætum and Marisus ustulatus (see ante, p. 131) is now clothed only with a closely cropped and scanty mantle of grasses. No trace of the original scrub remains. The soil is formed of ashes and scoria resting on pumice. It is exposed to all winds, and consequently, except in wet weather, is usually in a parched state. At the north-east corner of the island, where the ground is a loose scoria, there is no vegetation at all.

The grass is everywhere closely cropped by the thousands of goats now roaming about the island. Nowhere is it more than a few centimeters in height. Three species were collected: Polypogon monspeliensis (beard-grass) appeared to be most plentiful, though Festuca bromoides and Danthonia pilosa were abundant. A few other plants only were noticed among the grass—Oxalis corniculata, Cotula australis, and Wahlenbergia gracilis with peduncles about 10 cm. high.

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VII. Geographical Distribution.

(a.) The Species.

In the list of pteidophytes and spermophytes given in this paper 114 species are admitted as indigenous to the Kermadec Islands. Of these, 76, or 67 per cent., are flowering-plants, and 38, or 33 per cent., ferns and fern-alles.

The 114 species are referred to 88 genera, belonging to 42 families. The flora is thus most fragmentary, and characteristic of oceanic islands, whither plants are accidentally carried by ocean and air currents, and possibly other means. Twelve species, or 11 per cent., are endemic. The age of the island, therefore, will not be so great as that of Norflok Island or Lord Howe Island, where the proportion of peculiar forms is about one-fifth and one-fourth respectively.

The relations of the Kermades Islands plants to those of Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, and Polynesia are expressed in the following table:-

Per Cent. H., N. New Zealand. Australia. Polynesia. Endemic.
6 7 4
14 16 2
2 2 1
1 1 1
1 1 1 1
3 3 3 1
4 5 5 5
3 4 4 1
3 3 3 1
4 5 5 5 1
3 3 3 3
10 11 11
17 19 19 19
30 34 34 34 34
68 95 78 62 12

The first column shows the percentage of the different constituents to the whole flora. The extensions of the plants to Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands (one or both) are shown in the second column. “Australia” means the eastern portion of the continent and Tasmania. Polynesia includes New Caledonia.

In the four central columns of the above table every species is taken into account. If a species is endemic it is counted under the headings in which its nearest related species falls. Thus Poa polyhylla, being closely allied to P. anceps, a peculiar New Zealand form, is included in the 16 shown under “New Zealand,” and, as this number stands in a row by itself, it signifies that 16 species of Kermadec Islands plants, or 14 per cent. of the flora, are identical with or related to endemic New Zealand forms. Similarly Rapanea kermadecensis, which is related to R. crassifolia, occurring in Norfolk Island and Australia, is the species represented by the fifth row. The seventh row of figures shows that five species of Kermadec Islands plants are identical

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with species occurring in Lord Howe and Norflok Islands (one or both), Australia, and Polynesia, but not in New Zealand. The last row shows that 34 species, or 30 per cent. of the flora, are found in all four regions named in the table; and so on. The number of species extending to each of the four regions is shown at the foot, whilst the total number occurring in the Kermadecs—namely, 114—may be obtained by adding together the numbers for each row.

The last column shows where the 12 endemic species are included in the table, and the following list is in the order in which they appear:-

  • Cyathea kermadecensis,

  • Imperata Cheesemani,

  • Ascarina lanceolata,

  • Homolanthus polyandrus,

  • Poa polyphylla,

  • Veronica breviracemosa,

  • Boehmeria dealbata,

  • Rapanea kermadecensis,

  • Scævola gracilis,

  • Coprosma acutifolia,

  • C. petiolata,

  • Cyathca Milnei.

The large Polynesian element represented in the above species seems to indicate that arrivals are less frequent from the north than from New Zealand.

Before going into details regarding the geographical relationships of the plants of the Kermadec Islands, a few remarks are necessary to clear the way. The figures given above include 38 ferns and fern-allies, which, on account of the lightness and abundance of the spores they produce, are of little value in estimating the amount of affinity of the flora with those of the surroundings lands. Again, I consider plants taking essential parts in the different formations are of more importance than those occuring sporadically, and sometimes having the appearance of having been introduced, but in the absence of direct evidence retained in the flora. As belonging to the latter category I should name Rumex, flexuosus, Eleusine indica, Kyllinga brevifolia, Halorrhagis erecta, Calystegia ssepium, Oxalis corniculata, Solanum nigrum, Bidens pilosa, and several others. The Australian element may be disposed of at once. and will be desregarded when considering the relationships of the plants. Of the 78 species, all but 9 are found in New Zealand, and not one Australian species does not occur in one or more of the other three regions named in the table. It is probable that no plants have reached the Kermadecs from Australia direct—a conclusion arrived at by Mr. Cheeseman after his visit to the group in 1887 (1; p. 160).

In the following remarks an endemic species is cosidered as equivalent in its distribution to its most closely allied species.

The 34 species of Kermadec Islands plants common to the four regions named in the above table need not be further considered. They include Pisonia Brunoniana, some coastal plants such as Mesembryanthemum australe, Tetraonia expansa, Apium prostratum, and Sicyos australis, 19 ferns and fern-allies, and 10 others.

As pointed out in the introduction to this paper, the Kermadec Islands form part of the New Zealand biological region. The figures given in the table leave no room for doubt on this point. To the 16 species confined to the Kermadecs and New Zealand must be added the 11 also found in Australia, making in all 24 per cent. of the flora; and assuming Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands to be part of the New Zealand region the proportion would be 47 per cent. The New Zealand species include six forest-trees (Myoporum lætum, Coriaria sarmentosa, Corynocarpus lævigata, Melicope ternata, Nothopanax arboreum, Pittosporum crassifolium), Poa polyphylla

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(end.), Veronica breviracemosa (end.), mariscus ustulatus, Lepidium oleracum frondosum, Carex Forsteri insularis, and 16 plants of leser importance, one of which is a fern.

The Polynesian element in the Kermadec Islands flora is considerable, and characterizes the group as belonging to a distinct province of the New Zealand biological region. Of the 28 species not common to all the regions under consideration, 6 extend to Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands (one or both), 9 to New Zealand, and 3 to both places. This leaves 10 purely Polynesian specieś, of which 4 are ferns (including Cyathea kermadecensis). The remaining 6 are Homolanthus polyandrus (end.), Ascarina lanceolata (end.), Scævola gracilis (end., but affinities uncertain), and 3 grasses—Imperata Cheesemani (end.), Eleusine indica, Cenchrus calyculatus. Of the 9 species extending to New Zealand, 7 are ferns, 1 is Coprosma acutifolia (end.), and the other Kyllinga brevifolia (possibly introduced). Compared with the New Zealand species, the Polynesian forms in the Kermadecs must be considered weak.

(b.) The Subtropical Islands Province.

It remains to point out the relation of the Kermadec Islands plants to those of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands. Excluding the 34 widely spread species, 34 Kermadec Islands plants are found in Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands (one or both). Of these, 22 occur in New Zealand, 6 in Polynesia, and 3 in both of these regions. The remaining 3 species are confined to the three groups of islands forming the northern province of the New Zealand region. They are Rhopalostylis Baueri, Rapanea kermadecensis, and Boehmeria dealbata. These plants enter largely into the forest on Sunday Island, and, while Rhopalostylis Baueri is found on Norfolk Island, the others are endemic, but closely related to Norfolk Island forms. The New Zealand species include Coprosma petiolata (end.), 4 ferns, Scirpus nodosus, Heleocharis acuta, Microtis unifolia, Parietaria debilis, Peperomia Endlicheri, and 12 others not taking prominent parts in the plant formations of Sunday Island. The 6 Polynesian species are Metrosideros villosa, Ipomæa pes capræ, Canavalia obtusifolia, 2 ferns, and Panicum sanguinale microbachne. Those common to both New Zealand and Polynesia are Melicytus ramiflorus, Macropiper excelsum, and Diplazium japonicum.

The greater part of the vegetation on Sunday Island is thus composed of plants extending to (or closely related to species in) Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands (one or both), and, of these, Metrosideros villosa, Rhopalostylis Baueri, Rapanea kermadecensis, Boehmeria dealbata, Ipomæa pes capræ, and others do not occur in New Zealand. Dr. Cockayne has drawn my attention to the large proportion of Norfolk Island forms in the New Zealand species found in the Kermadecs. Of the New Zealand plants on Sunday Island, 54 per cent. are also found in Norfolk Island, but of the total number of species in New Zealand only 8 per cent. extend to Norfolk Island, It is probable, then, that a number of the Kermadec Islands plants occurring in both Norfolk Island and New Zealand arrived from Norfolk Island direct; but the above figures do not express the relations quite correctly, as the whole of the New Zealand flora is made the basis of the calculation, instead of the North Island, whence only New Zealand plants could be expected to migrate to the Kermadecs.

No doubt climate determines which species shall establish themselves; hence in Lord Howe, Norfolk, and Sunday Islands, which are in nearly the same latitude, a large number of the species (48 to 60 per cent.) in each

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island are identical with or representative of species in the other two islands. I therefore consider the three groups of islands to form a natural province or subregion.

The numerical distribution of the plants of the Kermadec, Norfolk, and Lord Howe Islands is shown in the following tables:— Kermadec, 114 Species.

Per Cent. New Zealand. Australia. Polynesia. N., L.H.
8 9 2
1 1 1
19 20 5
6 7 7 3
26 30 30 19
6 8 8 5
34 39 39 39 34
96 78 63 69
Norfolk, 208 Species.
Per Cent. New Zealand. Australia. Polynesia. K., L.H.
5 10 4
13 27 6
7 15 5
3 7 7 4
19 40 40 25
26 54 54 29
26 55 55 55 45
117 176 126 121
Lord Howe, 212 Species.
Per Cent. New Zealand. Australia. Polynesia. K., N.
5 11 5
23 48 6
8 17 4
1 3 3 2
17 37 37 19
23 48 48 25
23 48 48 48 40
105 181 110 101

As before, the first column shows percentages, and every species is taken into account in the three central columns. The last column shows the

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extensions of the plants of each island to the other two islands whose plants are tabulated.

The figures for Lord Howe and Norfolk Island plants are compiled from the lists published by Mr. W. B. Hemsley (9; p. 221) and Mr. J. H. Maiden (13 and 14), and corrected with the further notes by Mr. Maiden in the Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W.

A comparison of the three tables reveals certain facts which I think can be explained by the geographical position of the islands and the known direction of prevailing winds and ocean-currents in this portion of the Pacific Ocean.

The proportion of New Zealand species decreases from east to west, while there is a corresponding increase of Australian forms in the same direction. In all cases the Polynesian element is not so important as that of either New Zealand or Australia, the proportion of Polynesian plants not extending to either of the latter regions being small. The large number of Australian plants on Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands is due to the nearness and extent of coast-line of the continent in a north-and-south direction, and consequently plants have had frequent chances of reaching, and now outnumber the New Zealand species in, these islands. The tables show that, of the 27 and 48 purely Australian forms in Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands respectively, only 6 in each case extend to the other island or the Kermadecs. It is evident that the Australian species are more of the nature of stragglers which have accidentally found their way across the ocean.

The endemic species appear to be more closely allied to New Zealand and New Caledonian than to Australian forms. Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands are in the line of migration of plants and animals (8; p. 397: 12; p. 19) between Malaya and New Zealand.

In considering the distribution and relationships of the floras of Lord Howe, Norfolk, and the Kermadec Islands certain species may be disregarded—for instance, all the sporiferous plants, and a host of Australian and other species belonging to widely distributed genera. The remaining genera are here enumerated for the purpose of showing the true affinities of these insular floras.

Araucaria excelsa, R. Br., of Norfolk Island, resembles A. Cookii, R. Br., of New Caledonia, and A. Cunninghamii, Ait., of Queensland and New South Wales.

Pandanus Forsteri, C. Moore and F. v. Muell., in Lord Howe Island, is allied to a Malayan species (P. odoratissimus).

Freycinetia and Cordyline are Oriental genera reaching as far as Queensland and New South Wales in one direction, and Norfolk Island and New Zealand in another.

Howea, a genus of two species confined to Lord Howe Island, is apparently related to Australian and Malayan forms. Clinostigma contains one species in Lord Howe Island, and three or four in New Caledonia and Samoa.

Rhopalostylis includes two species—one in New Zealand, the other confined to Sunday and Norfolk Islands. Hedyscepe, monotypic in Lord Howe Island, is related to Rhopalostylis.

Phormium is confined to New Zealand and Norfolk Island.

The tropical genus Boehmeria has three closely allied endemic species in Lord Howe, Norfolk, and the Kermadec Islands (one in each group), but does not extend to either New Zealand or Australia.

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Colmeiroa, a monotypic genus confined to Lord Howe Island, is allied to the endemic monotypic Carpodetus of New Zealand.

Carmichaelia, a characteristic New Zealand genus of nineteen species, has a twentieth in Lord Howe Island. Streblorhiza, endemic in Norfolk Island, is related to Carmichaelia.

Homolanthus is a Malayan and Polynesian genus. It extends down the east coast of Australia, to New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island, and in a peculiar species to the Kermadecs.

Corynocarpus contains two species—one in New Zealand and the Kermedecs, the other in New Caledonia and the adjacent islands.

The Norfolk Island endemic genus Ungeria is related to Reevesia of the Oriental region.

Melicytus has four species in New Zealand, one of which extends to Norfolk and Sunday Islands and Eua (a small islet in the Tonga Group).

Acicalyptus has one species in Lord Howe Island, another in Fiji, and three in New Caledonia.

Metrosideros is a Malayan and New Zealand genus. The Polynesian species, M. villosa, extends to New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island, and the Kermadecs.

Meryta has ten species in New Caledonia, two in Norfolk Island, one in New Zealand, and two or three in the Pacific islands.

Negria, a monotypic genus confined to Lord Howe Island, is allied to Rhabdothamnus, monotypic in New Zealand, and both are near Coronanthera of New Caledonia.

Coprosma, a characteristic New Zealand genus, is represented in Lord Howe Island by three species, in Norfolk Island by three species, and in the Kermadecs by two. C. petiolata of the Kermadecs is closely allied to C. Baueri of Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, and New Zealand.

Lagunaria (scarcely distinct from Hibiscus) is monotypic in Queensland, Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands. Besides this genus only three others strictly Australian extend to Lord Howe Island. These are Smilax, Notolæa, and Westringia, each represented by one species, of which the Notolæa is peculiar. It should be pointed out that the most characteristic Australian genera are eiter entirely absent, or represented by one or two species only. For instance, Acacia, Eucalyptus, Melalauca, Leucopogon, Grevillea, and Hakea together contain about 900 species, and form a large part of the vegetation in the eastern portion of the continent, yet only two species (Melaleuca ericifolia and Leucopogon Richei) have found their way to Lord Howe Island.

The floras of the three islands under consideration are fragmentary, but on account of the isolated positions of the islands this would be expected. Further, the geological structure does not suport the supposition that the islands are the remnants of a large land-mass, nor does there appear to be a plant formation on any one of them that one might suspect to be a fragment of a once more extensive forest. At the same time it is impossible to believe that all the plants populating these islands have crossed the wide stretches of ocean now separating them from the nearest land-masses.

In view of the presence of the genera above enumerated, of the community of genera and species of each island with the other two, and the relation of the same to those found in the three adjacent biological regions as expressed in the foregoing tables, the following are suggested in explanation of the origin of these insular floras.

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The floras of Lord Howe and Norflolk Islands are fragments of the larger one which migrated from Malaya by this way to New Zealand, received from the continental bridge stretching between New Caledonia and New Zealand, before it disappeared beneath the surface of the sea; together with a number of Australian forms which have arrived from time to time across the intervening space of ocean.

The Kermadec Islands have received their plants by transoceanic migration mainly from New Zealand, but also from Norfolk Island and Polynesia (see 1; p. 163). They are younger than Norfolk or Lord Howe Islands, but are attached to them because of the large community of species of plants with, and the possession of genera and species characteristic of, those islands.

The three groups of islands possess insular floras, are properly included in the New Zealand biological region, and together form a subregion for which is proposed the name “subtropical islands province,” in contradistinction to Dr. Cockayne's “subantarctic islands province.”

(c.) The Formations.

On an oceanic island which depends for its stock of plants on accidental migrations the flora is necessarily of a fragmentary character, and different forms arriving from various directions compete with one another for the ground. Thus a plant taking a minor part in a formation in the land of its origin may in its new home be able to compete successfully with the plants from other countries with which it comes in contact, and take a leading part in some formation. Where a small island in mid-ocean, such as Sunday Island, has received its plants from two or three equidistant fully stocked areas containing widely different assemblages of plants, one might expect the resultant plant formations to be new combinations of species. The affinities of the two most characteristic of the Sunday Island plant formations—forest and gravel flat—will be considered briefly here. In both New Zealand, Polynesian, and Lord Howe-Norfolk Island forms mingle in plant-communities which from the diverse origin of their constituents are peculiar.

The three principal plants of the gravel flat in Denham Bay are Ipomæa pes capræ, Mariscus ustulatus, and Scirpus nodosus. The first is a common shore-plant in most tropical countries; it occurs in Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, but not in New Zealand. Mariscus ustulatus is confined to New Zealand; whilst Scirpus nodosus is found in New Zealand, Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, but not in Polynesia.

Metrosideros villosa, the principal forest-tree on Sunday Island, is distributed throughout Polynesia, from New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Sandwich Islands, and also on Lord Howe Island. Should it on any of the Pacific islands take a leading part in a forest, there might be a superficial resemblance between this formation and the forest on Sunday Island; but the principal species of trees associated with it could not be identical with more than one or two of the Sunday Island. Rhopalostylis Baueri, an important member of the Sunday Island forest, occurs elsewhere on Norfolk Island only. Rapanea kermadecensis and Boehmeria dealbata are peculiar to the Kermadecs, but closely related to Norfolk Island plants. Corynocarpus lævigata, Myoporum lætum, Nothopanax arboreum, Melicope ternata, and Pittosporum crassifolium are endemic New Zealand species. The two species of Cyathea, and Ascarina lanceolata, while not occurring in

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New Zealand, may possibly be identical with Polynesian forms. Melicytus ramiflorus occurs in Norfolk Island, New Zealand, and Eua (Tonga Group). Coprosma acutifolia is endemic.

In view of the distribution of the arborescent forest-plants of Sunday Island, it follows that the forest as a formation is peculiar, contains some Norfolk Island and New Zealand forms, but most probably has greatest affinities with forest formations in certain of the islands of Polynesia. Mr. Cheeseman records (3; p. 267) that in Rarotonga Metrosideros villosa and Ascarina lanceolata grow in company.

(d.) Dispersal.

Ocean-currents have probably been the means of transporting to the Kermadec Islands the seeds of a large number of the plants now found there. The nature of the material cast up on the shores of Sunday Island points to the south or south-west as the direction from which the strongest and most frequent reach the group.

Several kauri (Agathis australis, Salisb.) logs, some bearing brands of New Zealand firms, are lying on the shores of Sunday Island, and on the north coast is a balk of Oregon pine supposed to have formed part of the cargo of the “Elingamite,” wrecked on the Three Kings Islands in 1903. Again, during the months of July to October, 1908, when strong westerly winds prevailed, a large amount of seaweed was cast up in Denham Bay. Mr. R. M. Laing, M.A., BSc., has supplied me with the following names of algæ collected by me on the beaches on Sunday Island:—

  • D'Urvillæa antarctica,
  • Carpophyllum maschalocarpum,

  • Hormosira Banksii,

  • Zonaria Turneri.

All the specimens appeared to have come long distances, some having small barnacles (Lepas) attached, and I do not consider any of the above species are to be found living in Sunday Island waters. According to Mr. Laing, they are all New Zealand and south-east-Australian forms.

It is evident that a strong ocean-current flows from New Zealand in a north-easterly direction; and this, in my opinion, is sufficient to account for the preponderance of New Zealand forms in the flora of the Kermadec Islands.

Seeds attached to logs or trees would have a greater chance of crossing wide spaces of ocean and arriving in a fit state for germinating than if they merely floated on the surface of the water. Forest-plants especially would rely on this mode of transportation. Of nineteen kinds of seeds experimented on, I found two only floated for any length of time in salt water. These were Ipomœ pes caprœ and Canavalia obtusifolia, two shore-plants widely distributed in tropical regions.

The large proportion of sporiferous plants, amounting to one-third of the flora, is suggestive of air-currents being an important factor in stocking remote oceanic islands with plants. It is a significant fact, too, that Metrosideros villosa, which produces an abundance of very light seeds, is widely distributed in Polynesia, and reaches some of the most distant and isolated islets. This plant is the principal tree on Sunday Island.

Birds have possibly assisted the migration of a number of plants to the Kermadecs. The tui (Prosthemadera novœ zealandiœ), a fruit-eating bird, is very common on Sunday Island; and a pigeon was once found there, but has since been exterminated by cats introduced by the settlers who from time to time have made their home on Sunday Island.

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The following plants have berries or other succulent fruits, and some of them the tui has been observed to eat:—

  • Melicytus ramiflorus,

  • Rapanea kermadecensis,

  • Myoporum lœtum,

  • Coprosma petiolata,

  • C. acutifolia,

  • Ascarina lanceolata,

  • Scœvola gracilis,

  • Rhopalostylis Baueri,

  • Corynocarpus lœvigata.

The experiment was tried of floating fruits of the above plants in seawater, but with most disappointing results: some of the fruits sank immediately, and none floated for more than a few days.

The harrier (Circus gouldi) is a regular annual visitor to Sunday Island, and a few grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) were seen at different times. These birds are possibly the means of carrying small seeds to the islands.

VIII. List of Indigenous Pteridophytes and Spermophytes.

Hymenophyllaceæ.

Trichomanes venosum, R. Br.

Epiphyte in wet forest, Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia.

Trichomanes humile, Forst. f.

Damp banks and fallen Cyathea trunks in wet forest, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, Malaya.

Hymenophyllum demissum (Forst. f.), Sw.

Epiphyte and on ground in wet forest, rare in dry forest, Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Polynesia, Malaya.

Hymenophyllum flabellatum, Lab.

Epiphyte in wet forest, Sunday Island.

Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Samoa.

Cyatheaceæ.

Cyathea Milnei, Hook.

Hitherto only one species of Cyathea has been recognised from Sunday Island. Previous collectors gathered fronds of this, which, though not so tall, is far less abundant than the following species, and in references to C. Milnei both species have been confused. Thus the statement made by Mr. Cheeseman (1; p. 154)—“A fine tree-fern (Cyathea Milnei) which is peculiar to the islands is also very plentiful, especially towards the tops of the hills, and in all the ravines. It is often 50 or 60 feet in height, and is thus quite equal in stature to our Cyathea medullaris, which it much resembles”—is wholly true of Cyathea kermadecensis, but entirely inapplicable to C. Milnei. A full description of the latter species will therefore be given here.

Trunk stout, short, 2–8 m. tall; rough with the broken-off bases of old stipes, and clothed at the top with hanging withered fronds; base of aerial rootlets conical, –80 cm. in diameter.

Fronds numerous, horizontally spreading, 2.5–4 m. long, 1.2 m. broad, coriaceous, upper surface hard and shining, dark green, paler beneath. Stipes stout, clothed at the base with copious linear brown scales; under

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surface with close hard tubercles; rhachides and costæ green, slightly grooved above, asperous chiefly on; the under-surface, sparingly covered with yellowish-brown deciduous wool intermixed with membranous scales.

Primary pinnæ 45–60 cm. long, –23 cm. broad, oblong-lanceolate, abruptly terminating in an attenuated point; secondary pinnæ 11–12.5 cm, long, 2–2.5 cm. broad, linear-oblong, falcate, narrowing gradually to an attenuated deeply serrated point; deeply pinnatifid or pinnate. Segments 12–15 mm. long, 4 mm. broad, oblong, falcate, acute, obscurely crenateserrate, sometimes the distal portion distinctly serrate, margins slightly recurved, under-surface often scaly pubescent; veins forked, free.

Sori copious, rather large; 0.8–0–9 mm. in diameter, nearer the costule than the margin. Indusium membranous, splitting irregularly, persistent.

Forest (most abundant in dry forest), pohutukawa forest (crater), Sunday Island.

Endemic.—The fronds closely resemble those of C. medullaris of New Zealand, Australia and the Pacific islands.

Cyathea kermadecensis, n. sp.

Caudex gracilis, 15–20 m. altus. Frondes 3–4 m. longæ, –90 cm. latæ, bi-tripinnatæ, subcoriaceæ v. fere membranaceæ, flaccidæ Stipites rhachidesque graciles, basi squamis fuscis lineariis vestiti, supra alte canaliculati, virides, lana flavofusca et squamis lineariis dense vestiti, subtus subasperi, fusci, lana decidua et squamis membranaceis. Pinnæ 35–45 cm., longæ, –14 cm. latæ, oblongo-lanceolatæ, acutæ; pinnulæ 60–70 mm longæ, 15–18 mm. latæ, lineario-oblongæ, acutæ, profunde pinnatifidæ; segmentæ, 8–9 mm. longæ, 3 mm. latæ, oblongæ, falcatæ, obtusæ, integræ v. crenulatæ. Sori copiosi, parvi, 0.5–0.6 mm. lati. Indusium membranaceum, fimbriato-lacerum, persistens.

A magnificent species, with a tall, slender trunk, –20 m. high; the base composed of aerial rootlets, reaching 3 m. or 4 m. from the ground, where it may be 1–2 m. in diameter. Fronds fall away when they wither, leaving a clean scar; thus the upper portion of the trunk is comparatively smooth. The diameter, 1.5 m. from the top of a trunk 11 m. tall, was only 11 cm.

Fronds numerous, the stipes forming an angle of 100°–120° with the top of the trunk, 3–4 m. long, 70–90 cm. broad, 2–3-pinnate, subcoriaceous or almost membranous, flaccid, dull green above, paler beneath. Stipes slender, base clothed above and on the sides with copious linear brown scales; stipes, rhachides, and costæ deeply grooved above and slightly on each side, green above, brown below, upper surfaces densely covered with yellowish-brown wool intermixed with small linear scales, undersurfaces slightly asperous, sparingly covered with yellowish-brown deciduous wool and membranous scales.

Primary pinnæ 35–45 om. long, –14 cm. broad, oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate; secondary pinnæ 60–70 mm. long, 15–18 mm. broad, linear-oblong, acute or acuminate, obscurely falcate, deeply pinnatifid. Segments 8–9 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, oblong, falcate, obtuse or subacute, entire, or finely crenulate, or the fertile segments lobulate; costules scaly pubescent; veins forked, free.

Sori copious, small, 0.5–0.6 mm. In diameter, nearer the costule than the margin. Indusium membranous, splitting irregularly, persistent.

Forest (chiefly in wet forest), Sunday Island.

Endemic. Apparently closely allied to some Polynesian species.

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Polypodiaceæ.

Dryopteris setigera (Bl.), O. Ktze.

I have a specimen in which the costa, of one of the primary, pinnæ divides. Length from rhachis to fork, 6.7 cm.; of the two branches of the pinna, 14 cm. and 17 cm.

Dry forest, swamp (a few plants, fronds 50 om. long); near fumaroles (crater), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Australia, Polynesia, Malaya.

Dryopteris parasitica (L.), O. Ktze.

Dry forest, swamp (a few plants), Ageratum meadow, near fumaroles (crater), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island Lord Howe Island, New zealand, Australia, Tonga, tropics.

Dryopteris glabella (A. Cunn), C.-Chr.

Rhizome small, short, tufted; fronds perfectly glsbrous; lower basal secondary pinnæ of lowest primary pinnn;s usually much longer than the rest.

Forest, Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia.

Polystichum aristatum (Sw.), Pr.

Dry forest, swamp, pohutukawa forest (crater), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Australia, Tonga, tropics.

Nephrolepis exaltata (L.), Schott.

Dry forest (Denham Bay), on warm ground near fomaroles (Denham Bay, crater), Sunday Island.

Australia, Tonga, tropics.

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.), Pr.

Forest, cliffs (crater), pohutukawa forest (crater), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, tropics.

Diplazium japonicum (Thbg.), Bedd.

Forest, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Eliji, tropics.

Asplenium caudatum, Forst. f.

Forest, Sunday Island.

Polynesia, tropics.

Asplenium obtusatum, Forst. f.

Coastal rocks, Sunday Island. Herald Islets. Cliffs, Macauley Island. French Rock.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island; New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, islands of the Southern Ocean.

Asplenium lucidum, Forst. f.

Dry forest, Sunday Island. Scrub, Meyer Island. Ravines in Macauley Island.

Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia.

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Var. Lyallii, Hook.—This form is intrmediate between acutely pinnate states of A. lucidum (or A. obtusatum) and the less-divided forms of A. Shuttleworthianum.

Coastal rocks, Sunday Island.

Asplenium flaccidum, Forst. f.

Epiphyte in forest, Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia.

Variety.—Fronds oblong-lanceolate, pendulous, –60 cm. long. Epiphyte in wet forest, Sunday Island.

Asplenium Shuttleworthianum, Ktze.

A very variable species. Fronds broadly ovate, 3–4 pinnate, –50 cm. long, –25 cm. broad, coriaceous, yellowish-green, erect or pendulous. Sori copious, short. The segments are sometimes reduced to the bare costæ, expanding only to support the sori. In the typical form the secondary pinnæ are lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid or the lower part pinnate; segments linear-spathulate, divided into two or more lobes which are linear, obtuse. ± 1.5 mm. across. Sori 2–4 mm. long.

Inland rocks, Sunday Island. Scrub, Meyer Island.

Polynesia.

Variety.—Primary pinnæ ovate-Ianceolate, deeply pinnatifid above, pinnate below; the secondary pinnæ stipitate, oblong, cuneate at the base, obtuse, deeply serrate; segments linear, obtuse, the lower ones two or more lobed at the tip.

Coastal rocks, Sunday Island.

The typical form of Asplenium Shuttleworthianum appears to be derived from A. obtusatum or A. lucidum through this variety and A. lucidum Lyalli. In A. Shuttleworthianum the frond lamina is reduced to its utmost limit.

Blechnum norfolkianum (Hew.), C. Chr.

Forest, Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman). Norfolk Island, New Zealand.

Blechnum capense, (L.), Schlecht.

Pinnæ often partly fertile and partly sterile. Sometimes the middle third only is fertile.

Forest, swamp, Sunday Island.

Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, widely distributed.

Doodia media, R. Br., var. Milnei (Carr), Baker.

Forest, Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia (distribution of the species.)

Pellæa falcata (R. Br.), Fee.

Dry forest, pohutukawa forest (crater), cliffs (crater), Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia, Malaya.

Hypolepis tenuifolia (Forst. f.), Bernh.

Some large specimens occur at the foot of the cliffs in Denham Bay. One measured—stipe 129 cm., frond 211 cm., total length 340 cm.: another

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—stipe 200 cm., frond 220 cm., total length 420 cm.; girth of stipe at bottom 64 mm.; length of lowest pinna 131 cm.

Dry forest, ngaio scrub, buffalo-grass meadow, landslip (Denham Bay), Mariscus slopes, Sunday Island. Ravine in Macauley Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, Malaya.

Adiantum diaphanum, Bl.

Fronds –20 cm. long, branching near the base into 2 to 5 tapering subfalcate pinnæ.

Dry forest, Sunday Island. Cliffs, Macauley Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia, Polynesia, Asia (trop.).

Adiantum hispidulum, Sw.

Dry forest, cliffs (crater), Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, Malaya.

Adiantum affine, Willd.

Forest, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia.

Pteris comans, Forst. f.

Forest, ngaio scrub, Mariscus slopes, pohutukawa forest (crater), landslip (Denham Bay), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia.

Pteris tremula, R. Br.

Dry forest, Sunday Island. Scrub, Meyer Island. Cliffs, Macauley Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Fiji.

Histiopteris incisa (Thbg.), J. Sm.

Swamp, dry forest (rare), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, tropics.

Pteridium esculentum (Forst. f.), Cockayne.

Dry forest, buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, southern regions.

Polypodium diversifolium, Willd.

P. Billardieri, Cheeseman (not R. Br.), Manual N.Z. Flora, 1013.

Forest, swamp, warm ground (Denham Bay), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia.

Cyclophorus serpens (Forst. f.), C. Chr.

Forest, inland rocks, cliffs (crater), epiphyte in pohutukawa forest (crater). Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia, Polynesia.

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Ophioglossaceæ.

Ophioglossum coriaceum, A. Cunn.

Open ground in tutu scrub (crater), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia.

Lycopodiaceæ.

Lycopodium Billardieri, Spring.

Epiphyte in wet forest (rare in dry forest), Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Polynesia.

Lycopodium cernum, L.

Warm ground (Denham Bay), tute scrub (crater), Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia, Tonga, tropics.

Lycopodium volubile, Forst. f.

Tutu scrub (crater), Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia, Polynesia, Malaya.

Tmesipteris tannensis, Bernh.

Epiphyte on Cyathea trunks, forest; rare on damp banks in wet forest, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia.

Psilotum triquetrum, Swartz.

Dry forest, inland rocks, warm ground (Denham Bay), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Tonga, tropics.

Typhaceæ.

Typha angustifolia, L., var. Brownii (Kunth.), Graeb.

Swamp, shores of lakes, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, trop. and temp. regions.

Gramineæ.

Imperata Cheesemani, Hack.

Cliffs, sand dunes, coastal rocks, gravel flat, tutu scrub (crater), buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island.

Endemic. Allied to I. exaltata, Brong.

Panicum sanguinale, L., var. microbachne (Presl.), Hack.

Buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island. Scrub, Herald Islets.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, Australia, Tonga, warm regions.

Oplismenus undulatifolius, Beauv.

Dry forest, pohutukawa forest (crater), Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, warm regions.

Cenchrus calyculatus, Cav.

Dry forest, buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island.

Australia, New Caledonia, Tonga, tropics.

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Deyeuxia Forsteri (Roem. and Schult.), Kunth.

Gravel flat, landslip (Denham Bay), Sunday Island. [Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Norfok Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia.

Var. littoralis, Cheeseman.—Coastal rocks, Sunday Island. Curtis Island. French Rock.

Eleusine indica, Gaertn.

Sand dunes, cliffs, Sunday Island. Scrub. Herald Islets.

Australia, Tonga, tropics.

Danthonia pilosa, R. Br.

Gravel flat, open rocky spaces in forest, Sunday Island. Beard-grass meadow, Macauley Island.

New Zealand, Australia.

Poa polyphylla, Hack.

Coastal and inland rocks and cliffs, landslip (Denham Bay), Sunday Island. Cliffs, Macauley Island.

Endemic. Allied to P. anceps, Forst., of New Zealand.

Paspalum scrobiculatum, L.

Swamp, buffalo-grass meadow, warm ground near fumaroles (Denham Bay, crater), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, Tonga, warm countries.

Dichelachne crinita (Forst. f.), Hook f.

Open spaces in forest, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia.

Dichelachne sciurea (R. Br.), Hook. f.

Swamp, Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia.

Cyperaceæ.

Mariscus ustulatus (A. Rich.), C. B. Clarke.

Coastal rocks, swamp, gravel flat, ngaio scrub, Mariscus slopes, landslip (Denham Bay), buffalo-grass meadow, open spaces in forest, Sunday Island. Rocks and scrub, Herald Islets. Cliffs, Macauley Island. Marisus slopes, Curtis Island.

New Zealand.

Kyllinga brevifolia, Rottb.

Ageratum meadow, Sunday Island.

New Zealand, warm countries.

Scirpus nodosus (R. Br.), Rottb.

Coastal rocks, gravel flat, landslip (Demham Bay), sand dunes, Mariscus slopes, forest, tute scrub (crater), buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island. Rocks, Herald Islets. Cliffs, Macauley Island. Mariscus slopes, Curtis Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, S. temp. and subtrop. regions.

– 164 –

Heleocharis acuta, R. Br.

Swamp, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia.

Carex lucida Boott.

Mr. Cheeseman remarks on specimens I sent him—“It is unusual for these to have such a plentiful supply of male flowers at the top of the female spikelets.”

Ageratum meadow, Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Carex Forsteri, Wahl.

I follow Pastor G. Kukenthal in treating C. semi-Forsteri, C. B. Clarke, as not a distinct species.

My specimens appear to differ from New Zealand ones in having all the spikelets compound, and in the possession of smooth utricles with short beaks. Mr. Maiden, of Sydney, informs me that the form is closely allied to the Norfolk Island C. neesiana, Endl. (=C. dissita, Sol., var. neesiana (Endl.), Kuk.). Under these circumstances I feel justified in giving it a varietal name.

Var. insularis, n. subsp.—Spicæ 4–10, compositæ; superiores approximatæ, subsessiles, v. breviter pedunculatæ; inferiores pedunculis longis rectis; terminales omnino v. partim masculæ, reliquæ, feminæ, basi masculæ. Perigynia elliptico-ovata, membranacea, rostrata breviter bifida, venis multis obscuris.

Coastal and inland rocks, ngaio scrub, forest, Mariscus slopes, Sunday Island. Ravines in Macauley Island.

New Zealand (distribution of species).

Palmæ.

Rhopalostylis Baueri (Hook. f.), Wendl. and Drude.

On the hillside above Denham Bay is a plant with variegated leaves. Most of the leaves have among the green pinnæ several of a light-yellow colour.

Spadix about ½ m. long; spathes 3. Flowers from November to April. Ripe fruit chiefly from April to September. Fruit globose, or broadly oblong, –16 mm. long.

Forest, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island.

Juncacceæ.

Juncus effusus, L. (J. polynathemus, Buch.).

Swamp and damp ground (Denham Bay), Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia, cosmopolitan.

Juncus pauciflorus, R. Br.

Edge of swamp, Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia.

Orchidaceæ.

Microtis unifolia (Forst. f.), Rohb.

Open ground in tutu scrub (crater), Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia.

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Acianthus Sinclairi, Hook. f.

Forest, Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Piperaceæ.

Macropiper excelsum (Forst. f.), Miq., var. major, Cheeseman.

Flowers April to October. Ripe fruit October to February.

Forest, ngaio scrub, buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, S. Polynesia.

Peperomia Endlicheri, Miq.

Two spikes with the distal ends inverted, and bearing flowers on their inner as well as their outer surfaces, were observed on plants growing among coastal rocks on Sunday Island. It occurred to me that these anomalous spikes might give some clue as to the origin of the spicate inflorescence; and its derivation from a cup-shaped receptacle by elongation and eversion is suggested.

Coastal and inland rocks, also epiphytic on tree (forest), Sunday Island. Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand.

Chloranthaceæ.

Ascarina lanceolata, Hook. f.

Floweres unisexual, a male and a female in the axil of a broadly ovate, acute bract, and with a smaller bracteole on each side. Male flower a single anther, sessile, oblong, 3 mm. long, 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally on the outer margins. Female flower placed within the anther, which falls away after dehiscing; ovary sessile, ovate, 1.5 mm. long; stigma sessile, broad.

Fruit crowded on compound spikes, several of which are usually together on the branches below and among the leaves. Drupe oblong, indehiscent, 3 mm. long, 2 mm. in diameter, white with irregular longitudinal markings of purplish-black. Exocarp succulent, exuding a purple juice when crushed. Putamen ovoid, compressed, chestnut-brown, 1.5 mm. long.

Flower June to September. Ripe fruit January to May.

Wet forest, Sunday Island.

Endemic. (According to Mr. Cheeseman (4; p. 598), this species or a very close ally is found in Fiji, Samoa, and Rarotonga.)

Urticaceæ.

Boehmeria dealbata, Cheeseman.

Seeding. Hypocotyle filiform, terete, whitish, 1 cm. long. Cotyledons orbicular, apex truncate or slightly indented, light green, 1.5 mm. in diameter. Stem erect, minutely hairy, ± 2 cm. to first leaves, reddish-green. First leaves ovate, acute, entire, light green small, petiole 7 mm., lamina 9 mm. long. Second leaves broadly ovate, acute, obscurely serrate, green on both sides, petiole and principal veins reddish-green, minutely hairy; laminæ 17 x 10 mm., 22 x 13 mm.

Forest, landslip (Denham Bay), Sunday Island. Ravine in Macauley Island.

Endemic. Closely allied to B. australis, Endl., of Norfolk Island, and B. calophleba, C. Moore and F. Muell., of Lord Howe Island.

– 166 –

Parietaria debilis, Forst. f.

Coastal rocks, Mariscus slopes, Sunday Island. Scrub, Herald Islets. Macauley Island (Cheeseman). Mariscus slopes, Curtis Island. French Rock.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, temp. and trop. regions.

Polygonaceæ.

Rumex flexuosus, Sol.

Ageratum meadow, Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Chenopodiaceæ.

Rhagodia nutans, R. Br.

Coastal rocks, Sunday Island. Herald Islets. Mariscus slopes, Curtis Island.

New Zealand, Australia.

Nyctaginaceæ.

Pisonia Brunoniana, Endl.

Forest, Sunday Island. Scrub, Meyer Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, Malaya.

Aizoaceæ.

Mesembryanthemum australe, Sol.

Coastal rocks and cliffs, inland cliffs, Sunday Island. Herald Islets. Macauley Island. Curtis Island. French Rock.

Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, S. Polynesia.

Tetragonia trigyna, Banks and Sol.

Cliffs on the north side of Sunday Island (Cheeseman).

Lord Howe Island and Australia (T. implexicoma, Hook. f.), New Zealand.

Tetragonia expansa, Murr.

Coastal rocks, gravel flat, Sunday Island. Herald Islets. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, S. America.

Cruciferæ.

Cardamine stylosa, D.C.

Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

New Zealand, Australia.

Lepidium oleraceum, Forst. f., var. frondosum, Kirk.

Mariscus slopes, Curtis Island.

New Zealand.

– 167 –

Pittosporaceæ.

Pittosporum crassifolium, A. Cunn.

Young leaves covered with white tomentum. Flowers dark red, hermaphrodite, produced throughout most of the year. Fruiting peduncles erect, –18 mm. long; capsule 2–3 valved, –15 mm. long.

Forest near the coast, Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Leguminosæ.

Canavalia obtusifolia, D.C.

Ngaio scrub (Coral Bay), Sunday Island. Meyer and Napier Islets.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, Australia, Tonga, tropics.

Geraniaceæ.

Geranium dissectum, L., var. australe, Benth.

Cliffs, Sunday Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, S. America.

Oxalidaceæ.

Oxalis corniculata, L.

Coastal rocks, sand dunes, open places in forest, scrub, buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island. Beard-grass meadow, Macauley Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Tonga, cosmopolitan.

Rutaceæ.

Melicope ternata, Forst.

Flowers April to October.

Forest, Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Euphorbiaceæ.

Homolanthus polyandrus (Hook. f.), Cheeseman.

Mr. Cheeseman in 1887 recorded this tree as “not uncommon in sheltered places,” and Mr. R. S. Bell, of Sunday Island, states that less than twenty years ago it was abundant in several localities. At the present time there are a few trees near the settlements and a few others in different parts of the island, all on cliffs inaccessible to goats. These animals absolutely determine the existence of the species. They eat the bark from the trunk as high as they can reach, and the tree dies in consequence. Another enemy of the tree is the larva of a small moth. This grub feeds on the leaves, causing them to die, and frequently young plants entirely stripped of their leaves may be seen.

A few seedlings were seen. Stem erect, terete, bearing prominent scars of fallen leaves, 5 cm. long. Leaves 4 or 5, broadly ovate, obtuse, base not indented, light green with reddish margins. Petioles long, –18 mm.; laminæ 15 x 17 mm., 17 x 20 mm. The petiole joins the leaf-blade about 1 mm. from the lower edge. Leaf-bud small, 4 mm. long.

The tree is usually 8–10 m. tall, with a stout erect stem showing scars of fallen leaves, and moderately dense foliage of delicate leaves which are

– 168 –

light green with reddish margins. Bark roughish, light brown to grey. Branches in whorls of three to five. Twigs green, with prominent scars of fallen leaves.

All parts of the tree exude a white latex when cut or broken. Each young leaf is protected by two imbricate bracts, which fall away when the leaf expands. These bracts may be 47 mm. long. The largest male racemes, some of them 25 cm. long, do not have female flowers at their base, and their lowest pedicels are elongated. The longest raceme noticed bearing female flowers at the base was 15 cm. long. Capsules 15 mm. long, 3- to 4-celled, with a stigma to each cell. One capsule gathered had five cells. This is the only tree on Sunday Island that partially sheds its leaves. From May to July most of the leaves above 10 cm. across fall away.

Flowers September to November. Fruit was gathered in April and May, but probably matures as early as January.

Forest (rare), buffalo-grass meadow, landslip (Denham Bay), Sunday Island.

Endemic. Closely allied to H. pedicellatus, Benth., of Polynesia.

Callitrichaceæ.

Callitriche Muelleri, Sond.

Lakes, Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia.

Coriariaceæ.

Coriaria sarmentosa, Forst. f.

C. ruscifolia, Cheeseman (not Linn.), Manual N.Z. Flora, 105.

Flowers and fruits most of the year, but chiefly during the summer months.

Forest, landslip (Denham Bay), pohutukawa forest (crater), tutu scrub (crater), Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Corynocarpaceæ.

Corynocarpus lævigata, Forst.

Flowers from September, fruit over in March.

Forest, Sunday Island. Ngaio scrub, Meyer Island.

New Zealand.

Violaceæ.

Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst.

Flowers December to May. The tui (Prosthemadera novæ zealandiæ) is very fond of the fruit.

Forest, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Eua (Tonga Group).

Myrtaceæ.

Metrosideros villosa, Sm.

Flowers chiefly in November and December.

Forest, landslip (Denham Bay), pohutukawa forest (crater), tutu scrub (crater), swamp, buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island. Scrub, Herald Islets.

Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Polynesia.

– 169 –

Halorrhagidaceæ.

Halorrhagis erecta (Murray), Schindler.

Landslip (Denham Bay), buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

New Zealand, Australia.

Araliaceæ.

Nothopanax arboreum (Forst. f.), Seem.

Wet forest, Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Umbelliferæ.

Hydrocotyle moschata, Forst. f.

Damp banks, open spaces in tutu scrub (crater), Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Apium prostratum, Lab.

Coastal rocks, sand dunes, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, S. Africa, S. America.

Myrsinaceæ.

Rapanea kermadecensis (Cheeseman), Mez.

Seedling. The exocarp is raised above the ground on the top of the hypocotyle before being cast off. Hypocotyle erect, terete, reddish, 3 cm. high. Cotyledons 2, or sometimes 3, broadly obovate or orbicular, 8–10 mm. long, obscurely serrate, dark green. First leaves broadly obovate, cuneate at the base, obtuse, distal half bluntly serrate, green, petiolate; lamina –15 mm. long. Following few leaves similar, but larger, and serrations more pronounced.

Flowers hermaphrodite, small, greenish with dark spots; calyx 5-lobed; lobes triangular, 1 mm. long, the edges beset with short thick hairs. Corolla divided nearly to the base into 5 lobes; lobes 2 mm. long, revolute, oblong, rounded at the apex, edges fringed with short thick hairs. Anthers sessile on the lobes of the corolla, sagittate, 1 mm. long. Ovary globose; stigma large, sessile, capitate, lobed.

Fruit globose, sunken at the top, dark purple, 1-seeded, 7–8 mm. in diameter.

Flowers from August through the summer, ripe fruit February to June (chiefly). Flowers and ripe fruit may be seen on the same twig.

Forest, Sunday Island. Scrub, Meyer Island.

Endemic. Allied to R. crassifolia (R. Br.), Mez., of Norfolk Island and Australia.

Primulaceæ.

Samolus repens (Forst.), Pers., var. strica, Cockayne.

Coastal rocks, Sunday Island. Dayrell Islet.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia (distribution of the species).

– 170 –

Convolvulaceæ.

Ipomæa pes caprae (L.), Roth.

Flowers November to April. Fasciation was noted in one plant on the north coast of Sunday Island. Fourteen stems were joined in one.

Gravel flat, sand dunes, coastal rocks, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, Australia, Tonga, tropics.

Ipomæ palmata, Forsk.

Sea-cliffs, buffalo-grass meadow, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, tropics.

Calystegia sepium (L.), R. Br.

Waste places on Sunday Island (Cheeseman).

New Zealand, Australia, cosmopolitan.

Calystegia Soldanella (L.), R. Br.

Coastal rocks, gravel flat, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, cosmopolitan.

Solanaceæ.

Solanum aviculare, Forst. f.

Forest, Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia.

Solanum nigrum, L.

A pubescent and a glabrous variety were noticed, the former on the Herald Islets, the latter in waste places on Sunday and Meyer Islands. Macauley Island (Cheeseman). Mariscus slopes, Curtis Island (pubescent variety).

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, cosmopolitan.

Scrophulariaceæ.

Veronica breviracemosa, n. sp.

V. fruticosa, 1–2 m. alta, ramis ultimis subcompressis, puberulis. Folia sessilia, patual, –115 mm. longa, –27 mm. lata, elliptico-lanceolata v. oblongo-lanceolata, acuta, integra, glabra. Racemi 4–5 cm. longi, denseflori, puberuli, foliis breviores. Calyx 4-partitus, lobis ovato-lanceolatis, acutis, puberulis. Corolla 4-partita, calyce ½ longior; tubo breve calyce ½ breviora; lobis ovatis, acutis. Capsula 6 mm. longa, calyce ½ longior, late ovata, acuta, compressa, glabra.

An irregularly laxly branched shrub, about 1 m. high; branchlets green, 2-angled, puberulous. Leaves sessile, spreading, 115 x 27 mm., 57 x 19 mm., 80 x 20 mm., elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute, narrowed at the base, entire, light green, glabrous, minutely puberulous on the midrib and margins near the base. Racemes 4–5 cm. long, shorter than the leaves, flowers crowded; rachis, pedicels, and bracts puberulous. Flowers 5 mm. in diameter, white to pale lilac. Calyx 4-partite, the two inner divisions smaller than the two outer, segments lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, puberulous. Corolla 1 ½ times the length of the calyx; tube short, about half the length of sepals; limb 4-lobed, lobes ovate, acute, 3 outer opposed to 1 inner. Capsule 1 ½ times the length of the calyx, 6 mm. long, acute, broadly ovate, compressed, glabrous.

– 171 –

Distinguished by the large broad leaves, racemes shorter than the leaves, and very short corolla-tubes.

Mr. Cheeseman includes this species under V. salicifolia in the “Manual of the N.Z. Flora,” with the note that it is perhaps a distinct species.

This plant was formerly fairly plentiful, but has been almost killed out by goats, and is now found only on cliffs and other places inaccessible to those animals.

Inland cliffs, landslip (Denham Bay), Sunday Island.

Endemic. Resembles V. macrocarpa of New Zealand, differing principally in the shorter racemes and corolla-tubes.

Myoporaceæ.

Myoporum lætum, Forst. f.

Ngaio scrub, coastal rocks, forest, gravel flat, Mariscus slopes, landslip (Denham Bay), buffalo-grass meadow, pohutukawa forest (crater), Sunday Island. Ngaio scrub, Herald Islets. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

New Zealand.

Rubiaceæ.

Coprosma petiolata, Hook. f.

This species occurs in Denham Bay forest as a small tree, 4–6 m. tall, with a leaning stem covered with rough, dark-grey bark. Head rounded foliage moderately dense. Leaf-laminæ of male plant 29 x 18 mm., 32 x 20 mm., 34 x 20 mm.; of female plant usually larger, 45 x 20 mm., 50 x 24 mm., 52 x 25 mm.

Flowers May to September. Ripe fruit January to May.

Fruit usually three in a cluster; reddish; variable in size and form; smaller ones ovoid, 7 x 6 mm., 9 x 7.5 mm.; larger ones compressed, more or less distinctly 2-lobed, 10 x 10 mm.

Coastal rocks and cliffs, inland cliffs (rare), dry forest (Denham Bay, rare), landslip (Denham Bay), Sunday Island. Coastal rocks and cliffs, Herald Islets. Macauley and Curtis Islands (Cheeseman).

Endemic. Closely allied to C. Baueri, Endl., of Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, and New Zealand; and to C. chathamica, Cockayne, of the Chatham Islands.

Mr. Cheeseman (1; p. 168) records C. Baueri from the Kermadecs. I did not see it, though I searched in the places indicated. I would suggest that the young large-leaved branches of C. petiolata were mistaken for it, and recommend that until authentic specimens are obtained the name be crossed off the list of plants inhabiting the Kermadec Islands.

Coprosma acutifolia, Hook. f.

Flowers May to September. Ripe fruit January to May.

Forest, landslip (Denham Bay), pohutukawa forest (crater), Sunday Island.

Endemic. Closely allied to C. lævigata, Cheeseman, from Rarotonga; and resembles C. tenuifolia, Cheeseman, from New Zealand.

Cucurbitaceæ.

Sicyos australis, Endl.

Ngaio scrub, forest near the coast, Mariscus slopes, Sunday Island. Scrub, Meyer Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Polynesia, cosmopolitan.

– 172 –

Campanulaceæ.

Lobelia anceps, L. f.

Coastal and inland rocks, Sunday Island. Herald Islets. Cliffs, Macauley Island. Curtis Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, cosmopolitan.

Wahlenbergia gracilis (Forst. f.), A. D. C.

Beard-grass meadow, Macauley Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia, Tonga, E. Asia, S. Africa.

Goodeniaceæ.

Scævola gracilis, Hook. f.

Flowers and fruits profusely throughout the year.

Fruit an indehiscent drupe, axillary, solitary, sessile, ovoid, sometimes almost globose, truncate, sunken at both ends, 10.5 x 9 mm., 10.5 x 8 mm., 10.5 x 10.5 mm. Exocarp succulent, thick, white. Endocarp hard, bony, 2-celled, black, ovoid, mucronate, surface covered with indistinct longitudinal rows of nodules 5.5 x 4 mm. Seed oval, compressed, 3 x 2 x 1 mm., white. Seed-coat fitting close to the endocarp, and usually sticking to it when the seed is extracted. Embryo erect, imbedded in a fleshy endosperm, cotyledons linear.

Gravel flat, coastal cliffs, sand dunes, landslip (Denham Bay), tutu scrub (crater), open rocky places in forest, Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Endemic.

Compositæ.

Lagenophora pumila (Forst. f.), Cheeseman.

Inland rocks, Sunday Island.

New Zealand.

Gnaphalium japonicum, Thunb.

Gravel flat, landslip (Denham Bay), Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Malaya.

Gnaphalium collinum, Lab.

Inland rocks, Sunday Island. Macauley Island (Cheeseman).

New Zealand, Australia.

Gnaphalium luteo-album, L.

Coastal rocks, landslip (Denham Bay), tutu scrub (crater), Sunday Island. Cliffs, Macauley Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, cosmopolitan.

Siegesbeckia orientalis, L.

Cliffs, Sunday Island. Scrub, Meyer Island.

Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Australia, Tonga, warm countries.

Bidens pilosa, L.

Ngaio scrub, Ageratum meadow, and waste places, Sunday Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia, Tonga, warm countries.

– 173 –

Cotula australis, Hook. f.

Inland rocks, Sunday Island. Rocks, Herald Islets. Beard-grass meadow, Macauley Island.

Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Australia.

Senecio lautus, Forst. f.

French Rock.

New Zealand, Australia.

Erechtites prenanthoides (A. Rich.), D.C.

Gravel flat, inland cliffs and rocks, Sunday Island.

New Zealand, Australia.

IX. List of Introduced Plants on Sunday Island.

Gramineæ.

  • Polypogon monspeliensis, Desf.

  • Festuca Myuros, L.

  • F. bromoides, L.

  • Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.

  • Dactylis glomerata, L.

  • Poa annua, L.

  • P. pratensis, L.

  • Lolium perenne, L.

  • Holcus lanatus, L.

  • Paspalum dilatatum, Poir.

  • Sporobolus indicus, R. Br.

  • Briza minor, L.

  • Stenotaphrum glabrum, Trin.

  • Bromus unioloides, H.B.K.

  • Anthoxanthum odoratum, L.

Liliaceæ.
Cordyline terminalis, Kunth.

The Polynesian ti (Cordyline terminalis) occurs in several places on Sunday Island, such as Denham Bay, Terraces, and Coral Bay, all being habitable parts. There is one plant on Meyer Island, and one or two in the forest on Sunday Island. The species does not spread into the forest, but has every appearance of being a survivor of the abandoned cultivations of a native race, of whose occupation on Sunday Island there is good evidence. The Sunday Island plant appears to be a highly cultivated variety; it flowers regularly, but has never been known to bear fruit; it is propagated by means of its roots. I have no hesitation in including it among the list of plants introduced by man.

Polygonaceæ.

  • Rumex obtusifolius, L.

  • R. Acetosella, L.

Caryophyllaceæ.

  • Stellaria media, Vill.

  • Cerastium viscosum, L.

  • Silene anglica, L.

  • Polycarpon tetraphyllum, L.

Cruciferæ.

  • Lepidium ruderale, L.

  • Brassica adpressa, Boiss.

  • Coronopus didymus, Sm.

Fumariaceæ.

Fumaria muralis, Sond.

Leguminosæ.

  • Trifolium repens, L.

  • T. pratense, L.

  • T. procumbens, L.

  • Medicago denticulata, Wild.

– 174 –

Geraniaceæ.

Geranium molle, L.

Euphorbiaceæ.

  • Euphorbia Peplus, L.

  • E. pilulifera, L.

  • Ricinus communis, L.

  • Aleurites moluccana, Willd.

The candle-nut (Aleurites moluccana), like the Polynesian ti, appears to be the survivor of the abandoned cultivations of a native race. It now occurs in two places only on Sunday Island—there is a small clump of trees in Coral Bay and another on Low Flat. The trees in Denham Bay and the Terraces have been planted quite recently. It was formerly in other places, but has died out, leaving only dead fruit scattered about the ground. It is thus scarcely able to hold its ground in the forest.

Malvaceæ.

Sida rhombifolia, L.

Apocynaceæ.

Vinca rosea, L.

Solanaceæ.

  • Physalis peruviana, L.

  • Nicotiana Tabaccum, L.

  • Datura Stramonium, L.

Scrophulariaceæ.

  • Veronica arvensis, L.

  • V. agrestis, L.

Plantaginaceæ.

  • Plantago major, L.

  • P. lanceolata, L.

Compositæ.

  • Ageratum conyzoides, L.

  • Erigeron canadense, L.

  • E. linifolius, Willd.

  • Senecio vulgaris, L.

  • Hypocharis radicata, L.

  • Taraxacum officinale, Weber.

  • Sonchus oleraceus, L.

  • S. asper, Hill.

The following introduced species were observed on Macauley Island—Polypogon monspeliensis, Festuca bromoides, Stellaria media, Erigeron canadense; on Curtis Island—Sonchus oleraceus.

X. Bibliography.

1. Cheeseman, T. F. “On the Flora of the Kermadec Islands.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xx, p. 151; 1888.

2. — “On some Recent Additions to the New Zealand Flora.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiv, p. 410; 1892.

3. — “The Flora of Rarotonga.” Trans. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), vol. vi, p. 267; 1903.

4. — “Manual of the New Zealand Flora.” Wellington, 1906.

5. Cockayne, L. “Some Observations on the Coastal Vegetation of the South Island of New Zealand.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxix, p. 312; 1907.

6. " “Report of a Botanical Survey of the Tongariro National Park.” Wellington, 1908.

7. Hackel, E. “On New Species of Grasses from New Zealand.” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxv, p. 378; 1903.

8. Hedley, C. “A Zoogeographic Scheme for the Mid-Pacific.” Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. xxiv, p. 391; 1899.

– 175 –

9. Hemsley, W. B. “The Flora of Lord Howe Island.” Annals of Botany, vol. x, p. 221; 1896.

10. Hooker, Sir J. D. “On the Botany of Raoul Island, one of the Kermadec Group.” Jour. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), vol. i, p. 125; 1857.

11. " “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” vols. i, ii. London, 1864–66.

12. Hutton, F. W. “On the Origin of the Fauna and Flora of New Zealand.” N.Z. Jour. Science, vol. ii, pp. 1, 249; 1884.

13. Maiden, J. H. “Observations on the Vegetation of Lord Howe Island.” Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. xxiii, p. 112; 1898.

14. " “The Flora of Norfolk Island.” Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. xxviii, p. 692; 1904.

15. Parker, T. J., and Haswell, W. A. “Text-book of Zoology,” vol. ii; 1897.

16. Schimper, A. F. W. “Plant-geography upon a Physiological Basis” (English translation). Oxford, 1903.

17. Smith, S. P. “The Kermadec Islands: their Capabilities and Extent.” Wellington, 1887.

18. Tate, R. “On the Geographic Relations of the Floras of Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands.” Macleay Memorial Volume. Sydney, 1893.

19. Wallace, A. R. “The Geographical Distribution of Animals,” vol. i. London, 1876.

Explanation of Plates XII to XXIII.

Plate XII.

Path of a hurricane through forest in Denham Bay, Sunday Island. The fallen trees are Metrosideros villosa. In centre, young shrubs of Myoporum lætum.

Plate XIII.

Ngaio scrub, Terraces, Sunday Island, showing ngaio (Myoporum lætum) killed by burrowing shearwaters (Puffinus chlororhynchus). The undergrowth is Macropiper excelsum major.

Plate XIV.

Gravel-flat vegetation, Denham Bay, Sunday Island. Ipomæa pes capræ in flower. Beyond, Scirpus nodosus.

Plate XV.

Vegetation on inland rocks, Terraces, Sunday Island. The ferns are Asplenium Shuttleworthianum. On right—below, Lobelia anceps; above, Cyclophorus serpens.

Plate XVI.

Interior of dry forest, Denham Bay, Sunday Island. On left, Cyathea Milnei; on right, Rapanea kermadecensis.

Plate XVII.

Interior of palm (Rhopalostylis Baueri) forest, Big Hill, Sunday Island.

Plate XVIII.

Interior of wet forest on Mount Junction, Sunday Island. Trunks of Cyathea kermadecensis covered with Hymenophyllum demissum, and other ferns.

Plate XIX.

Landslip, Denham Bay, Sunday Island, showing rounded shrubs of Myoporum lætum and Coriaria sarmentosa.

Plate XX.

Interior of pohutukawa (Metrosideros) forest, crater, Sunday Island. (Photo, W. L. Wallace.)

Plate XXI.

Cyathea Milnei, Sunday Island.

Plate XXII.

Cyathea kermadecensis, Sunday Island.

Plate XXIII.

Flowering branch of Rapanea kermadecensis, Sunday Island, showing rolled leaves.

– 176 –

Art. XIV.—The Mokoia Aerolite; with a Few Introductory Remarks on New Zealand Meteoric Phenomena.

*

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 4th August, 1909.]

Though several meteoric stones have been found in New Zealand, the information concerning them is difficult of access, owing to its being published in so many different journals; therefore, before describing the recent fall at Mokoia, I would like to briefly summarise the different meteoric phenomena witnessed in the Dominion. In doing so I will include all the evidence that can be found on the Makarewa and the Wairarapa meteorites, so that future workers on this interesting subject may find the data easily available.

Numerous brilliant meteors have from time to time flashed across our sky, but, unfortunately, very few have been recorded.

Besides these, three meteoric stones have been found, and by their analyses a little more has been added to our knowledge of the heavenly bodies. The first was discovered in 1864, at Tohirua, near Masterton, in the Wairarapa Valley, North Island, and is known as the Wairarapa meteorite; the second was found in 1879, at Makarewa, a small station near Invercargill, in Southland, South Island, and is known as the Makarewa meteorite; the third is the one included in this paper, and fell at Mokoia, in Taranaki, North Island, in 1908, and I have termed it the Mokoia meteorite.

The earliest instance of any meteoric phenomena being seen in New Zealand is one given me by an eye-witness—Mr. H. C. Field, of Wanganui—who states that it took place about the year 1853, but is not certain of the exact year. He describes it as follows: “I was standing outside my house at Waitotara, just after sunset, when I heard a loud whizzing noise overhead. On looking up I saw a brilliant body, apparently about the size of the moon, passing overhead in a S.S.E. direction, until it was lost behind some sandhills. A few days afterwards I saw by a paper that it was seen in Christchurch, and was supposed to have dropped into the sea S.E. of that town. While travelling across the sky it gave out a white-bluish light.”

The next account that I have is from the Rev. P. W. Fairclough, who says in a letter to me, “I happen to know that a great aerolite passed over Wanganui about 1865, or between April, 1864, and March, 1867. It made a loud roaring noise, and seemed to travel towards Nelson, low down.”

Mr. H. C. Field records another meteor that was seen from Wanganui, between 1864 and 1867, but travelling in an opposite direction to the former. Unfortunately, I cannot get the details from the newspapers, as the early records of the Wanganui Chronicle, in which a report was published, were some years ago destroyed by fire. It seems that at 2 o'clock in the morning Mrs. Field was up attending to a sick child, when she saw a sudden flash which made the room as bright as midday and quite eclipsed the light of the candle that she was carrying. A few seconds later a tremendous explosion was heard, sounding very much like the noise made by people

[Footnote] * Mr. G. R. Marriner died on the 25th February, 1910.—[Ed.]

Picture icon

The Mokoia Aerolite.—Marriner

Picture icon

The Mokoia Aerolite.—Marriner

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trying to imitate thunder by shaking a sheet of metal. Colonel Logan, who was stationed at Wanganui at the time, made all the sentries who were on duty that night report themselves to him next day. Mr. Field, who was acting-editor of one of the newspapers, was asked to be present. All the sentries except one stated that a very brilliant meteor came out of a thick bank of clouds off the mouth of the river and passed overhead northwards, and then exploded. The remaining sentry saw the meteor, but said that it travelled in an opposite direction.

The Wairarapa Meteorite.

It was not till 1864 that the first specimen was discovered, by Mr. Richard Collins, at Tohirua, near Masterton, in the Wairarapa Valley, North Island.

In the Geological Magazine the following short account is published: “I have to thank Dr. Hector, F.R.S., Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand, for a short account of the only meteorite which has yet been found in that colony, and which is preserved in the Colonial Museum at Wellington.* It is in the form of an irregular six-sided pyramid, 7 in. high and 6 in. across the base; the edges are rounded, and the sides slightly convex and indented with shallow pits. The capacity of the stone is 49 cubic inches; the weight, 480 oz.; and the specific gravity is 3.254; the hardness, 5–6. It is strongly magnetic, but exhibits no decided polarity. The surface is of a light rusty-brown colour, and is stained with exudations of iron chloride and sulphate. A freshly fractured surface is dark grey mottled with a bright metal-like particle of what may be iron-monosulphide. By treatment with copper-sulphate the presence of what may be iron in the form of metal was determined; with hydrochloric acid sulphuretted hydrogen was evolved, sulphur set free, and a large quantity of gelatinous silicic acid separated. The insoluble portion, consisting of silica and insoluble silicates, constituted 56 per cent. of the stone. In the soluble portion the predominating ingredients were iron (amounting to 24.01 per cent.) and magnesia, along with nickel, manganese, and soda; alumina and chromium are not present. These reactions so far indicate in the New Zealand meteorite the presence of olivine and an insoluble silicate, in addition to nickel iron and what may be triolite or magnetic pyrites.”

There is also a similar account in the Juror's Report of the New Zealand Exhibition of 1865; it runs as follows: “An interesting form of iron exhibited was a rusty-looking mineral, weighing about half a pound, being a portion of a meteorite found in the Wairarapa Valley, in the Province of Wellington. It was not thought necessary to make a complete analysis of this mineral, but only sufficient to prove the similarity of its composition with that of other meteoric stones generally. The external surface of this mineral was of a rusty-red colour, in parts covered with exudations of chloride of iron, with a little sulphate. Freshly fractured, it showed a dark-grey colour, mottled over with bright metallic-looking particles (most probably protosulphide of iron). The shape of the mass is an irregular pyramid with rounded edges, measuring as follows: Height, 7 in.; length of base, 7 in.; breadth of base, 6 in.; contents, 49 cubic inches; weight, 9 ½ lb. The surface was broken by rounded indentations never exceeding ½ in. in depth, evidently produced by weathering. No distinct cleavage was

[Footnote] * The stone was only deposited in the Museum. It is now in the possession of Mr. W. G. Mantell, of Wellington, to whom it belongs.

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observed; hardness, 5 to 6; specific gravity, 3.254; moderately fusible in blowpipe-flame to a shining black magnetic slag with soda reactions. It was powerfully affected by the magnet, but did not exhibit any decided polarity. A little native iron was detected by the sulphate-of-copper test. Treated with warm HCl, a little sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur were liberated, with a large quantity of silica in a gelatinous form. The total amount of insoluble matters after ignition was 56 per cent. of the original substance, consisting principally of liberated silica; the rest was undetermined silicates. Among the soluble matters, iron and magnesia predominated; there was a little soda, manganese, and nickel. Aluminium and chromium were tested, with negative results. The total quantity of iron present was 24.01 per cent. From the preceding facts it may be assumed that this mineral is a mixture of protosulphide of iron with iron chrysolite, with a small amount of insoluble silicates. The presence of native iron and nickel is almost conclusive of its meteoric origin.” Mr. Donovan, of Wellington, is at present making a more complete analysis of this stone.

In 1868* Mr. E. Baker published an account of a brilliant meteor which was seen at Wellington. He says, “At about a quarter after 7 o'clock on the evening of the 5th August … I observed a light, very much brighter than the moon (which … was only two days old), shining brightly in a clear sky. The light appeared to be a large round ball of fire, about the size of the moon, travelling from an easterly direction towards the west. The ball of fire burst, and a portion of it apparently struck the ground at about fifty to a hundred yards from my house at Karori. There was a rumbling noise at the time of the descent of the meteor.” Though mention is here made of a portion of the meteor falling to the earth, no stone seems to have been discovered.

In 1869 the Rev. A. Stock recorded a meteor which was seen at Wellington on the 8th November. He describes it in the following words: “It appeared suddenly in the E.S.E., at an altitude of 20o, and fell with a very rapid motion vertically. When it was first seen it appeared about three times as large as Venus, and shone with a yellow light. It suddenly appeared to diminish to a point of light, each diminution being accompanied with a shower of sparks, falling vertically. It suddenly increased to its old brilliancy, as suddenly diminished, then increased. Thus there were three brightnesses and two darker intervals. Another peculiarity was that it showed all the prismatic colours. There was no train of light left after its disappearance.”

The Makarewa Meteorite.

In 1879 the second stone was unearthed, this time at Makarewa, near Invercargill, in the South Island.

Professor Ulrich, F.G.S., writing on the find, says, “The stone under notice was not seen to fall, but the following description regarding the site of its discovery, its mineral character, and structure can leave no doubt of its being of meteoric origin. Towards the end of the year 1886, when a large party of mining prospectors were preparing, with Government aid, for departure to the Big Bay district, west coast of Middle Island, Mr. Th.

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. i, p. 39.

[Footnote] † Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. ii, p. 402.

[Footnote] Proc. Roy. Soc., 1893, vol. liii, p. 54.

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Fenton, a student of the Dunedin University School of Mines, was sent to Invercargill, where the party assembled, to instruct those of the men who desired it in rough assaying for gold and the use of the blowpipe. On the occasion of one of his lectures he received from a Mr. Arch. Marshall, for examination, a piece of stone which from its weight and appearance, was supposed to be something out of the common. Mr. Fenton made a rough qualitative analysis of a sample of the stone, and on finding strong reactions for nickel thought it of sufficient interest to preserve the several small fragments remaining of the piece received from Marshall and to bring them with him to Dunedin, where he placed them at my free disposal. One of these fragments I devoted to the preparation of a number of thin sections sliced in different ways, and the microscopic examination of these convinced me at once of the meteoric character of the stone. After this I made every endeavour, by correspondence and ultimately travelling to Invercargill, to ascertain the exact locality where and under what circumstances the stone was found, and to obtain more of it if possible, for the surface outlines of the remaining fragments clearly indicated that it must originally have been of considerable size. The results of my investigations in these directions are the following: In the year 1879, at the completion of the connection of the railway-line Invercargill-Winton and the branch line Makariwa [Makarewa]-Riverton, two workmen, the brothers Arch. and I. Marshall, while engaged in removing a clay bank at Makariwa Junction, found in the clay, about 2 ½ ft. from the surface, a roundish stone which at once attracted their attention on account of its weight and because of the fact that in the clay-covered plain surrounding Makariwa Junction stones of any kind are a great rarity. They broke the stone with the pick, and, finding the inside of different aspect from the outside, took the fragments home, and, experimenting with them, discovered that they affected the magnetic needle. With the intention of having the stone some day further examined, the pieces were kept as curiosities; but, being unsightly, they were kicked from one corner of the room into another, and specimens were occasionally knocked off for friends interested in the find. Mr. Arch. Marshall, who gave me these particulars, told me, on further inquiry, that the stone when originally found had a knobby, roundish shape, was of the size of a large man's fist or perhaps a little larger, and might have weighed between 4 lb. and 5 lb. The exact place of the find was about half-way between the railway-station on the Winton line and the Stationmaster's house, some 20 ft. from the line of rails. A search by Mr. Marshall for another piece of the stone, which he thought was still somewhere about the premises at the time he gave the one to Mr. Fenton, proved, unfortunately, unsuccessful, and the only secured pieces of this meteorite are the two pieces sent with this paper and another small piece divided between the Dunedin and Wellington Museums. The specific gravity of the stone, determined from several small fragments, varied between 3.31 and 3.54; the variation is no doubt due to the unequal distribution of the metallic particles.” A very thorough analysis of this stone was made by Mr. J. L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S., Keeper of Minerals in the British Museum.

In 1905 another meteor was seen and heard at Wanganui, and I am indebted to Mr. J. T. Ward, Director of the Wanganui Observatory, for the following description: “The meteor train of 1905, June, 10 days 5 hours 30 minutes: The streak only was seen by myself, but others heard the report also elsewhere. When first seen the track was plainly visible as a

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broad white band about 1.5° in width, on the western sky, in a straight line between the clouds; on looking a few moments later another portion of the band was seen, at an angle of about 90° to the first, bearing W. 65°; alt., 30°. Business prevented my watching it for any length of time, but it remained visible for about twenty minutes or more.”

The Mokoia Aerolite.*

This stone is by far the most interesting meteoric find yet discovered in New Zealand, and is unique in being the only one that was seen to fall.

Mr. J. L. Fletcher, of the British Museum, states that few aerolites are known that have not been seen to fall. He points out: “This may be due to the fact that a meteoric stone is less easily distinguished than is a meteoric irofi, from ordinary terrestrial bodies, and will thus in most cases remain unnoticed unless its fall has been actually observed, while, further, a quick decomposition and disintegration must set in on exposure to atmospheric influences.”

It was found at Mokoia, a small wayside station about fifty miles north of Wanganui, on the North Trunk Railway.

At 12.30 p.m. on Thursday, the 26th November, 1908, the people living near Mokoia were startled by a number of loud, sharp reports coming from the north, like rifle-shots, following very closely after one another. Those who were outside state that before they could recover themselves a white flash shot across the sky, leaving only a thin white cloud. Almost immediately several objects were seen to fall. One fell with a thud in a pine plantation (Pinus insignis) within an eighth of a mile from Mr. C. Hawken's homestead, and half a mile S.E. of the Mokoia Station. Mr. Hawken heard the whizzing sound and the report when the stone came in contact with the earth, being within an eighth of a mile from where it fell.

A ganger at a bridge over the Manawapou Stream states that another piece fell into some thick bush on the steep bank of the stream; and some time after a third portion was heard whizzing through the air like a rocket, and fell into the creek with a splash and hiss.

The Noise of the Fall.

Mr. C. M. Campbell, of Inaha, gives a very vivid description of what he heard. He says, “On the 26th November I was living on the East Road, ten miles-about due east from Stratford, and I heard the reports very plainly. At first it sounded like a loud furnace-blast, and then, at intervals from three to five seconds, the report seemed like heavy rock-blasting, but there was a roar like heavy thunder during the whole time. From the first blast to the last would be fully twenty seconds.”

Several men who were working on the railway-line heard two sharp explosions, resembling the crash of a number of horses galloping over a bridge, or like numerous rifles firing in a volley; while others say that it sounded like heavy iron tanks being rolled about on a lorry. This was almost immediately followed by a louder explosion, and then a hissing sound similar to that of a rocket travelling through air.

I was in Wanganui at the time, and I heard a sudden bang, which I put down to a very sudden and short earthquake-shock, and naturally I

[Footnote] * Working on Mr. Fletcher's classification of meteoric stones, I have termed this one an aerolite.

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thought no more about it until I saw in the newspapers that it had been heard much louder in other towns.

The noise of the fall was heard for a distance of over a hundred miles in a direct line, along the west coast of the North Island, from Mount Egmont to the Rangitikei River, and as far back as Pipiriki.

Mr. Clemance, schoolmaster at Pipiriki, states that so loud was the noise there that a man who was working some distance from the settlement hurried back, thinking that a powder-magazine had blown up.

What wàs seen.

The day, though slightly cloudy at Wanganui, was clear and cloudless around Mokoia, but very little could be seen of the phenomenon, owing to the bright sunshine. At Mokoia itself only a think streak of a white film or vapour was seen for a few seconds after the fall.

Mr. E. Evans, of Waingongoro, writing to the Hawera Star, says that he observed the disturbance, which he says was caused by the passage of two meteorites through our atmosphere, and which travelled along parallel lines, from N.E. to S.W., leaving behind two streaks of smoke like railway-lines. The smoke was observable for quite fifteen minutes after the meteors had sped their way. With nearly a blue sky for a background, the sight was of great interest, but Mr. Evans thinks that if the event had occurred at night the brilliancy of the light as the balls flashed through the air would have been a never-to-be-forgotten spectacle.

Mr. Walter Hosken, of Bell Block, Taranaki, gives the following account of what he saw: “It may interest you to know that I witnessed it from the New Plymouth Racecourse. I was attending the Show, and at about half-past 12 I was standing talking to two young ladies, when one of them drew my attention to a curious object in the southern sky, and travelling in a westerly direction. At first sight I thought it was a kite, but found that I was mistaken when it burst and left a long tail of smoke behind, but we did not hear any report.”

Mr. H. Chadwick states that his wife was also on the New Plymouth Racecourse, and saw a similar sight, but heard no sound, owing, no doubt, to the amount to traffic on the road at the time.

Mr. A. C. S. Tebbet, of Rangitikei, describes the sight as like a big shooting star, brighter than the sun, with a long tail.

The Alarm caused by the Noise.

The noise caused by the explosions and the mass rushing through the air not only alarmed the people in the vicinity, but caused a great stampede among stock. At Waingongoro the cattle and sheep were thoroughly startled, and ran hudding together. At Kakaramea horses and cattle were much scared, the former especially so, and were seen galloping about the paddocks. At Mokoia the effect was similar, and a man who was ploughing some distance from the station had all that he could do to keep his team from bolting.

What fell.

As nothing was known in Wanganui of the phenomenon except the noise, it was not taken much notice of, but on Sunday afternoon Mr. William Syme called on me at the Museum, and stated that a meteorite had fallen near Mokoia. In support of this statement he produced a small

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piece of rock of a dark colour, and said that it was obtained from the spot where the meteorite fell. My thanks are due to Mr. Syme for his promptness in letting me know of the fall, for the chances are that if he had failed to do so the stone would have been lost.

As the rock had all the appearance of a meteorite, I went to Mokoia by the first train on Monday morning. Fortunately for Mokoia, it is only a small station, with a few houses, a church, and a creamery, or else a fair amount of damage might have been done by the meteorite. I went first to Mr. Hawken's homestead, where the meteorite had fallen. He kindly took me to a plantation which surrounded his house, and showed me where the ground had been struck. He himself had heard the whizzing sound, and also the noise made by impact with the earth; but he did not send the boy to investigate until some time afterwards, so that no evidence is forthcoming as to whether the stone was warm when it reached the earth.

The spot was not more than two hundred yards from the house, near which the owner's children were playing.

In its descent it snapped off a small branch of a fir-tree, and then struck a root that was growing on the surface of the ground. The stone hit the buttress about 29 in. away from the tree, but only struck it half on; therefore it skidded off, after splintering the root somewhat, and buried itself in the earth. The hole was only 11 in. deep, 15 in. and 17 in. in diameter. In this cavity Mr. Hawken found the two lumps which are figured, and which are really the whole of the fragments that were found, with the exception of a few pieces which were found scattered around the hole to a distance of some yards. The lump A weighed 5 lb. 3 oz., and the lump B 5 lb. 2 oz.; and both were presented to the Public Museum, Wanganui.

I cut off the root showing the splintered portions, and deposited it, with the portions of the meteorite, in the railway-station. Then, walking for a mile down the line, I came to the spot where the other portion was supposed to have fallen. This was on the high, steep banks of the Manawapou Stream, in which a third piece was said to fall. The banks are about 100 ft. or 200 ft. high, and are covered with a dense undergrowth and bush, into which one sank up to the waist at each step. As the day was a rainy one, and the bush sopping, it made travelling very slow, and after half an hour's scramble, during which I did not get very far, I was obliged to get back in order to catch the train, without having seen any signs of the other supposed piece of the aerolite.

The aerolite seems to have passed over Mokoia, as the descriptions given to me by eye-witnesses all agree that it was directly overhead. As it travelled across the sky, the numerous explosions evidently split some fragments off, and these fell at this spot, while the aerolite proper apparently went out to sea.

There seems to be some evidence to show that after passing Mokoia the force of the explosions broke the stone into two pieces, as two eye-witnesses say they distinctly saw two streaks of smoke behind the aerolite. This is supported by the fact that at Castlecliff (situated at the mouth of the Wanganui River) a portion at least was seen to fall into the sea with a loud report; and a number of witnesses who were on the beach state that they saw a flash and the commotion caused by the mass falling into the sea, and they also heard also heard the loud detonation.

Now, this place is about forty-two miles south of Mokoia, and, though the angle is too great for the stone to fall into the sea off the Wanganui

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Heads, yet an explosion powerful enough to split the aerolite would easily give a portion of the stone a southern direction, so that it would fall near Wanganui.

The stone at Mokoia, in its fall, cut a branch of a fir-tree (Pinus insignis) in two at a height of 108 in. from the ground, and then fell on to a root that was growing on the surface of the ground and very much shattered it. When a perpendicular was dropped from the broken tip of the branch to the ground I found that the stone had travelled 46 in. due south from the time that it struck the branch. The branch was too small to alter its direction in any way.

By working from the above figures, I find that the fragments fell at an angle of 66° 56′ due south.

Analytical Report

I am much indebted to Mr. B. C. Aston, Chief Chemist of the Department of Agriculture, who kindly analysed the stone for me. His report is as follows:—

“The fragment received for analysis consisted of fused globules interspersed in a black metalic oxide, white the centre of the piece contained nodules of a softer siliceous matter, white, grey, and purple in colour. The analysis below is probably only correct for the piece received, as the meteorite is evidently not homogeneous in character:—

Analysis.
Per Cent.
Ferrous and ferric oxide (as Fe3 O4) 36.95
Ferrous sulphide 5.64
Nickel-oxide 2.20
Manganese-oxide Trace
Silica 37.55
Alumina 2.62
Lime (CaO) 3.50
Magnesium-oxide 6.30
Phosphoric anhydride (P2O5) 0.64
Soda 2.86
Cobalt-oxide Trace
Graphite 1.25
99.51

The meteorite consists of the usual nickel iron generally found in meteorites (but in this case it has been completely oxidized), together with such siliceous minerals as augite and olivine.”

Dr. C. Coleridge Farr, Canterbury College, who tested a fragment of the aerolite for its radio-active properties, says, “Your meteorite contains 0.438*–12 gramme of radium per gramme of the meteorite. This is rather low value, judging from the radium contents of terrestrial rocks. The average of igneous rocks is about 1.7 * 10-12, or four times as great as the meteorite, and for sedimentary rocks about 1.1 * 10-12, or nearly three times as much”

Petrological Description of the Mokoia Aerolite.

Mr. R. Speight, M.A., B.Sc., Lecturer in Geology, Canterbury College, forwarded me the following report: “Macroscopically the stone is of a black-grey colour, with small rounded chondri of whitish appearance

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plainly visible. The determination of the specific gravity of a fragment gave a result 3.41, which is somewhat low; but this meteorite is remarkably vesicular, which makes is appear lighter than it really is. However, the graphite constituent points to the former existence of a hydrocarbon, and meteorites with hydrocarbons appear to be noted for their low specific gravity. Under the microscope it shows the following characters: It consists largely of a groundmass of dark unindividualised matter, which contains numerous irregular crystal fragments of small size, consisting chiefly of olivine, and occasional patches of brownish glass full of bubbles and black dust. In this base are numerous chondri up to 1.5 mm. in diameter, usually rounded and distinct from the groundmass, but at times ill-defined and grading into it. Some of the patches are cloudy and indefinite in character, but obviously of crystal particles. Many of the chondri show a nucleus of coarser grain, with a halo of smaller grains between it and the surrounding base. When enstatite is present they usually exhibit a fibrous structure. They are composed chiefly of olivine fragments, which are brecciated and irregular in shape, much fissured by cracks, clear as a rule, and containing rounded black grains and bubbles, apparently of gas. The size of the fragments is tolerably uniform in each chondrus, with the exception of those showing the halo, and they grade downward from 1 mm. in length to those which can only be separated by higher powers of the microscope. Augite and also enstatite are present, some of the chondri being composed exclusively of the latter mineral arranged in sheaf-like aggregates, but it occurs frequently associated with olivine in the same chondrus. Small fragments of feldspars are occasionally seen with fine twinning of the albite type. The only means of determination that could be employed was Michel-Levy's method, and from the small number and size of the fragments even this was not altogether satisfactory. There were several small extinction-angles, but they ranged as high as 27o, corresponding to an acid labradorite. Anorthite appears to be the common feldspar of meteorites, though others have been observed occasionally. The chemical analysis shows that the rock contains no potash, but 2.86 per cent. of soda, and this may have come from soda-bearing feldspar, as none of the other minerals present are usually alkaline. Some of the chondri contain a small quantity of glass, occasionally as a kind of nucleus, and in one case it has apparently corroded the olivine crystal where it has been in contact with it. This is the only evidence which I have been able to find which points to a high temperature preceding the final consolidation of the meteorite. The phenomenon is an isolated one, and the brecciated structure of the chondri with their interior of larger fragments surrounded by a row of smaller ones, as well as absence of melting on the edge of the fragments, distinctly suggests that this has not been the case, or, if it has been, the rock has cooled very quickly. I was unable to detect with certainly in the specimen at my disposal any of the sulphides or native elements usually occurring in meteorites, and no doubt it belongs to that class usually designated as 'stony.’”

Dr. P. Marshall, Professor of Geology, Otago University, Dunedin, to whom I gave a fragment of the stone, sent me the following remarks: “As you anticipated, it proved a very difficult matter to make a section of the piece of the meteorite that you gave me. However, I send you the result. The clear crystals are olivine, and the spherules are, I fancy, formed of radiating crystals of the same mineral. There is a very little native iron. By far the greater portion appears to be magnetite. The magnet will lift

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quite large pieces of the meteorite, and the mineral is perfectly opaque, so I have little doubt as to its nature.”

In conclusion, I should like to express my indebtedness to all those who have so willingly assisted me, especially Mr. C. Hawken, Mokoia; Mr. J. L. Fletcher, British Museum, London; Mr. A. Hamilton, Wellington; Mr. J. T. Ward, Wanganui; Mr. R. Speight, M.A. Christchurch; Dr. P. Marshall, Dunedin; Mr. B. C. Aston, Wellington; and Mr. W. Syme, Wanganui.

Explanation of Plates XXIV and XXV.

Plate XXIV.
  • Fig. 1. Fragment A of Mokoia meteorite; ⅓ of natural size. Weight, 5lb. 3 oz.

  • Fig. 2. Fragment B of Mokoia meteorite; ⅓ of natural size. Weight, 5lb. 2 oz.

  • Fig. 3. Portion of the root of fir-tree (Pinus insignis), showing where it was struck by a portion of the meteorite.

Plate XXV.
  • Fig. 1. General structure of meteorite, showing chondri in base. x 15.

  • Fig. 2. Chondrus composed of olivine and enstatite separated by a circular crack from the surrounding base. x 36.

Art. XV.—On the Radio-activity of the Artesian-water System of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Evidence of its Effect on Fish-life.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 13th July, 1909]

Some time ago a committee was set up by the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury to examine the various problems suggested by the artesian system of Christchurch; and, though the committee is in no way responsible for the opinions which will be expressed, and, indeed, may not agree with them, yet this paper may be regarded as a first result of its labours, as it fell to the authors to examine the water with regard to its radio-active condition, whilst others are undertaking other investigations.

The method of examining the water for radio-activity was that adopted by others, notably by Strutt. The water was collected in a flask holding approximately half a litre. This was immediately corked, with a piece of glass tube passing through the cork, on the outer end of which was a short piece of rubber tubing which was closed by a pinch-cock. The same time (twenty minutes) was allowed to elapse between the collection of each sample of water and the commencement of operations for its testing. To test the gas the indiarubber tube was connected to a Liebig condenser, and the water boiled so as to drive off the gases contained in the water. These, together with the air left in the top of the flask, which was never quite filled with water, were collected over water, and, to insure their all passing over into the collecting-vessel, at the close of the boiling the condensing-water was stopped, and steam was sent through the apparatus. The boiling

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was continued for half an hour. After another interval (the same for all the waters tested, ten minutes) the gases so collected were passed on into an airtight electroscope which had previously been exhausted to about half an atmosphere. The partial vacuum so formed was never filled to atmospheric pressure by the gases collected from the water, as the volume of these was never sufficient. To make up for this deficiency, the necessary amount of air was allowed to pass through the whole apparatus to the electroscope, which acted as a further safeguard against any radio-active gas remaining in the tubes. Between the collecting-vessel and the electroscope two drying-tubes (the first containing calcium-chloride, and the second sulphuric acid) were placed. Previous experience had shown that these were sufficient to thoroughly dry the gas if (as was the case) it was passed so slowly through them that ten minutes was taken over the operation. The electroscope was charged to a potential of 220 volts, and the rate of motion of the leaf was examined by a reading-microscope with a micrometer eyepiece. The electroscope was standardised by performing the same experiment with a standard solution of radium, kindly given to us by Professor Rutherford. The solution used contained 3.925 x 10-10 grammes of radium, and before boiling was allowed to stand securely corked for at least three weeks, so that the equilibrium amount of radium emanation might be generated.

Results.—All the wells examined were found to contain radium emanation, though in none of them could any radium in solution be detected. For the standard solution of radium with the equilibrium amount of emanation the rate of leak of the electroscope was 64 micrometer-divisions perminute. The leaks per litre of the various wells examined were as follows:—

Well Depth in Feet. “Leak” per Minute.
Museum 262 197.0
Boys' High School 290 209.0
Ward's brewery 420 199.7
West Christchurch School 490 144.6
Wharenui 406 163.0
Holly Lea 451 185.8
Waltham School 326 223.6
New well (Aikman's Road) 268 164.0
New well (Chemical Laboratory) 60-70 130.0
No. 1 well (Gardens) 65-75 143.0
No. 2 well " 65-75 135.5
No. 3 well " 65-75 143.0
Well-supply to aquarium in Exhibition 153.0
Dr. Moorhouse's well 238 152.0
San Marola Well, Papanui Road 127.0
Exhibition well 423 154.0
River Avon 27.0

Whilst these figures indicate that there is a considerable amount of radium emanation in the water of all the wells tested, they do not apparently show that there is any simple relation between the amount contained and the depth; it is possible that some of the depths given may be wrong, though there is reason to believe that the distribution of the water-bearing strata is very irregular as regards depth. Thus we think, from consideration of nearness and radio-activity, it might be inferred that the same stratum supplied

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both the Museum and the Boys' High School, whilst from the depths alone this inference might not be drawn. The conclusion might also be drawn that the water supplying Dr. Moorhouse's well does not pass through similar materials. For reasons to be subsequently explained, the wells in the Fish-hatchery Gardens of the Acclimatisation Society have been those most examined, and all these, together with a well of about the same depth at the new Chemical Laboratory building, give approximately the same radiumemanation content. On several of the wells—notably those of the Acclimatisation Society's Gardens—tests have been made several times of the radio-activity of the water; and the results show that over the period of these experiments (some two months) the amount of radium emanation per litre is approximately constant for the wells so tested. It is certain that the radio-active gas was radium emanation, for on several occasions the gases boiled off from a sample of water were left in the electroscope for four or five days, when the curve of decay followed closely that obtained from the gas boiled off from the radium-solution, and also the well-known radium-emanation curve. As a general rule, however, the rate of motion of the electroscope-leaf was determined as soon as the gas was in the electroscop—that is, one hour after the commencement of boiling. The leaks given are these, and not the maximum leak, which would occur about three hours later and would be about 25 per cent more.

A comparison of the radio-activity of our springs with that of others is of interest. Curie and Laborde have examined the waters of certain mineral springs in France (Comptes Rendus, vol. cxlii, p. 1464). The radio-activity of these springs, expressed in our units, is as follows:—

Plombiers Source Vanquelin 376
Tron des Capucins 787
Aix-les-Bains, No. 1 461
" No. 2 257
Bourbon-Laney, Source Le Lymbe 169
Contrexeville, Source de Pavillon 85
La Roche Posay 85

M. Repin (C.R., vol. cxlvii, p. 388) has given particulars of three other waters of special interest, whose values, expressed in the same units, are,—

Source de Villard Clement, No. 1 50
" No. 2 18
Source de St. Pancrece 27

The first series are well-known mineral springs which are rich in dissolved salts, and which might therefore be expected to contain a considerable amount of radium emanation. From these it will be seen that the waters of Christchurch contain an amount of radio-active gas comparable with that of well-known springs in Europe, and more than the amount in quite a number of these springs.

Seeing, therefore, that the Christchurch water contains radium emanation, and that this gas has properties of a remarkable and energetic character, it occurred to us to endeavour to ascertain whether any, and, if so, what, effects on animal life could possibly be ascribed to it. As fish were more likely to show its consequences than any other form of life, inquiries were set on foot relative to those inhabiting the streams and ponds supplied by the artesian system. Surprising results (to us, at any rate) were soon forthcoming. It appears that a disease amongst young trout in the yolk-

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sac stage, called blue swelling, was until a few years ago common in the hatchery at Christchurch, when it was to ä large extent eliminated by removing the newly hatched fry from the immediate neighbourhood of the well, and allowing the water to trickle over obstacles before reaching the boxes containing the fish. Various authorities informed us that more developed fish, if confined near a well, died within a few days; Mr. Johnston, whose name has been so closely connected with the introduction of trout into New Zealand, using the expression that water direct from a well was a deadly poison to them.

With a knowledge of these facts we decided to make some experiments to ascertain how far, if at all, the results were attributable to radium emanation; and for cordial assistance in this, as well as for supplying us with a large number of ova and also some fry for experimental purposes, our hearty thanks are due to the Council of the Canterbury Acclimatisation Society as a body, and particularly to Dr. Moorhouse and to Mr. Sloman. Our special thanks are due to Mr. Charles Rides, of the Fish-hatchery, to whom the experiments have given much additional work.

We first tested the alleged fatal results upon fish of water directly taken from a well, and, with the object of seeing the effect of radium emanation, we chose the well at the Museum, which, besides being conveniently situated, was particularly rich in radium emanation. On Tuesday afternoon, the 1st June, 1909, seven healthy yearling fry were placed in the sand-box of this well, whose radio-active content, expressed in our units, is 197. When this box is running over, the water is supplied to it at the rate of 3.4 litres per secon, and this was its condition throughout the experiment. On the following Friday morning one of these fish was found dead in the box, on the Saturday morning two more had died, and on the Sunday two more, one of which, however, was found in the overflow-pipe, and might possibly have got there and been killed. Two survived until the following Tuesday, when they were removed alive and apparently well. Thus, neglecting the one in the overflow, 66 per cent. had died in five days. The radiumemanation content of the water from which the fish were obtained, and where they had been living for nearly a year, was found to be 80.

As it was felt that the environment of these fish was far from comfortable, and to eliminate any poisoning action due to a little old red-lead clinging to the sides of the sand-box which it was thought possible the fish might have eaten, a further batch of eighteen fish was obtained, of the same age as the last, and from the same pond. These were distributed in two lots, eight being put in the sand-box of radium emanation strength 197, and ten in a considerably larger concrete tank, into which water from the sand-box overflows. In this tank water-weeds of various kinds are growing, though not in any great quantity, its radium-emanation value being 171. These boxes we call No. 1 (sand-box) and No. 2 (larger tank). The fish were placed in these boxes on Wednesday, the 9th June, at 4.30 p.m. On Monday, the 14th June, one was found dead in No. 2; on the 15th June four were found dead in No. 1 and two in No. 2; whilst on the next day, the 16th June, one fish was found dead in each box. Thus in six days six out of eight had died in No. 1, and four out of ten in No. 2. These facts (taken in conjunction with the experience of others) prove that the water of some wells is, if taken near the source, certainly deadly to a large proportion of the fish. Whilst this is so, it is also indisputable that fish live quite comfortably if the water be allowed to run along an open channel from the well to the pond; and this is also true of the well upon which these experiments have

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been made, for the same water trickles on to a further tank in which goldfish are kept quite successfully.

Character of the Water.—As far as dissolved salts are concerned, the artesian water of Christchurch is remarkably pure, being used for many chemical purposes for which distilled water is usually necessary. Indeed, it has been quoted as an example of what an ideal water should be; but its character in this respect has no bearing on the question, as the cause of the effects under consideration rapidly escapes. In another paper* we deal with the gases dissolved, and with the way these gases are altered by rippling over obstacles. Messrs. Marsh and Goreham have (Report, Bureau of Fisheries, 1904, Washington, p. 345 et seq.) ascribed what appear to be somewhat similar results to an excess of dissolved gas, particularly nitrogen, and say that 2 cubic centimetres of gas per litre in excess of the saturation amount will cause symptoms, whilst a somewhat larger amount may be fatal. At present, however, we are concerned with the evidence in favour of radium emanation being a possible cause, as this was not considered by them.

We therefore made experiments to ascertain how rapidly the radium emanation escaped as the water fell over obstacles. Tank No. 1 has already been stated to have a value 197. In the very short distance from No. 1 to No. 2 the radium-emanation number fell away to 171, whilst the tank in which the goldfish live, and to which a very small trickle goes, gives a leak per litre per minute of 30. It thus appears that the emanation escapes rapidly; but, to test it further, some water from another well giving a value of 127 was poured three times from one glass to another, whereby the value became reduced to 39.

By the courtesy of the authorities of the Acclimatisation Society we have had facilities for observing the behaviour of 75,000 healthy wild browntrout ova as they developed from the eyed state until they hatched, and of ascertaining how the mortality amongst them varied with distance from the well. For this purpose they were distributed in two parallel rows of five boxes in a row, each box containing 7,500 eggs. The water trickled down these two rows from box to box, falling from one box to the next over a fall of about 8 in. By this means the water, after supplying the eggs in one box, was re-aerated before it went into the next. It was known that there was a much heavier loss of eggs in the boxes the nearer these were to the well—so much so that the use of the top pair of boxes (one box in each row) had been discontinued owing to the great loss in them in the egg stage, and also to the greater development of “blue swelling” in the yolk-sac stage. The number of eggs taken dead out of the various boxes was counted for us by Mr. Rides whilst we made a determination of the radium-emanation content per liter and also (loc. cit.) of the gas content. In the following results the dead eggs in any corresponding pair of boxes are added together, and they are therefore the deaths in 15,000 eggs:—

Dead Eggs before Hatching. Radium Emanation.
First pair of boxes 6,675 126
Second " 5,232 111
Third " 4,650 95
Fourth " 4,713 83
Fifth " 3,252 69

[Footnote] * “On the Influence of Ripples on the Gas Content of the Artesian Waters of Christchurch.” (See p. 237 of this volume.)

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The radium-emanation content of the water taken actually from the well-pipe was in this case 135.5. These numbers show very conclusively how marked is the diminution of mortality with recession from the well; and, put another way, there is a strong correspondence between the number of dead eggs and the radium emanation. Thus, taking on the one hand the number of dead eggs in the top box as 100 x (x, of course, then equals 66.7) and the radium-emanation content of the top box as 100 y (then y is 1.26), we have the following correspondences:—

Percentage of Dead Eggs. Radium Emanation.
First pair of boxes 100 x 100 y
Second " 79 x 88 y
Third " 69 x 75 y
Fourth " 70 x 66 y
Fifth " 48 x 55 y

It is only right to add that these figures do not represent in any way the present practice at the hatchery. It was known that the mortality would be high, though the cause was not known; and it was to ascertain the cause that so large a number of eggs were sacrificed.

The figures with regard to blue swelling as it subsequently developed in these boxes, and to gas content, are given in the paper dealing with the dissolved gases (loc. cit.); but, even if death in maturer fish can be ascribed to an excess of gas, which to us does not yet appear to be certain, it is difficult to apply the theory of Marsh and Goreham to the mortality in eggs or to blue swelling.

Art. XVI.—On an Isopod inhabiting Ants' Nests in New Zealand.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd November, 1909.]

It has long been known that an isopod, Platyarthrus hoffmannseggii, Brandt, is found associated with several species of ants in England and Europe. It has been described by Bate and Westwood,* Schoebl,† Webb and Sillem,‡ and others. Lord Avebury§ has also published the result of his observations and experiments upon it, and has suggested that it acts as a scavenger in the ants' nest.

When I was preparing my paper on the terrestrial Isopoda of New Zealand in 1900, I heard from Mr. W. W. Smith that he had found two specimens of an isopod supposed to belong to the genus Platyarthrus in ants' nests in New Zealand, and that these had been forwarded along with the ants to specialists in Europe. My efforts to trace these specimens were

[Footnote] * “British Sessile-eyed Crustacea,” 11, p. 464.

[Footnote] † Sitzungsb. d. k. Akad. d. W. math. naturw. Cl. xl Bd., No. 9, 1860, p. 279.

[Footnote] ‡ “The British Woodlice,” 1906, p. 30.

[Footnote] § “Ants, Bees, and Wasps,” 16th edition, 1902, pp. 75, 90, and 407.

[Footnote] ∥ Trans. Linn. Soc., 2nd ser., Zool., vol. viii, p. 100.

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unsuccessful, and at that time I could merely note their occurrence in ants' nests. In 1902 Mr. J. MacMohan sent me numerous specimens of an isopod found in association with the nests of ants in the Rai Valley, in Marlborough, and later on Mr. Smith sent me similar specimens from New Plymouth. Although these specimens were undoubtedly associated with the ants, it was not quite certain that they were habitual guests in the nests, and I therefore waited for further evidence. Recently, however, Mr. Smith has found other specimens undoubtedly living in the ants' nests,* and associated with two species of ants—viz., Amblyopone cephalotes, Smith, and Huberia striata, Smith; and I am therefore now able to describe the isopod. It proves to belong not to Platyarthrus, but to Trichoniscus; it thus belongs to a different family of terrestrial isopods, and it is interesting to note that we have here the same habit of life arising independently in two quite different isopods. It is rather larger than Platyarthrus hoffmannseggii, being about 5 mm. in length, and, though very much lighter in colour than the ordinary terrestrial Isopoda, it is not quite white, but is generally marked with bands or patches of pale brown on a white ground. Moreover, it is not blind, but possesses fairly perfect eyes, provided with, apparently, the normal amount of pigment. The description of the species is given below.

Trichoniscus commensalis, sp. nov.

Body rather broadly oval, fairly convex, pleon not abruptly narrower than the peræon; whole dorsal surface thickly covered with spiny tubercles, which are arranged more or less regularly in transverse rows—viz., one row along the posterior margin of each segment, and two or three much more irregular rows on the anterior part of each segment. In the pleon there is a fairly well-marked row along the posterior margin of the third segment, the other portions of the dorsal surface of the pleon usually bearing only minute spines.

First segment of peræon the longest, and produced into two rounded lobes reaching as far as the eyes; the last segment of the peræon with the postero-lateral angles produced so as to include the first three segments of the pleon, and to reach almost to the end of the epimera of the 3rd segment; in the pleon the 3rd, 4th, and 5th segments bear fairly well-developed epimeral portions. Terminal segment with the sides concave, the angles rounded, posterior margin straight or very slightly convex and bearing four small spines.

Eyes fairly well pigmented, formed of three ocelli, fairly close together.

Antenæ stout, especially the penultimate segment of the peduncle, which is half as broad as long, the last segment longer than the preceding, and bearing fine setæ on the outer side and roughened tubercles on the inner; the flagellum as long as the last segment of the peduncle, composed of five joints, the last bearing a pencil of fine hairs. The uropoda fairly stout, outer branch stouter but not much longer than the inner, both covered with fine setæ and bearing a tuft of longer setæ at the extremity. In the last pair of legs the ischium is produced on the outer side into a prominent triangular process or plate bearing one or two stout setæ.

Colour white with pale-brown markings, usually more or less arranged in longitudinal lines; the colour, however, varies very considerably, some

[Footnote] * Mr. Smith says that on on occasion “the ants were in the act of carrying off the specimens when I took them from them.”

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specimens having the dorsal surface almost wholly covered with brown markings.

Length, 5 mm.; breadth, 2 mm.

Hab.—New Plymouth and Mount Egmont, in nests of Amblyopone cephalotes and Huberia striata (W. W. Smith); Rai Valley, in nests of ants (J. MacMahon). Probably widely distributed in the North Island and in the north-western portion of the South Island.

The specimens from Greymouth collected by Mr. R. Helms, which I had previously referred with hesitation to T. otakensis,* belong to the préent species. I have specimens also from Swanson, Auckland (H. Suter), and one from Kapiti Island (E. A. Newson). The last specimen is much browner than those actually taken in ants' nests by Mr. Smith and Mr. MacMahon, and it is possible that it was not living in association with ants. There is the same doubt with regard to the Greymouth and Auckland specimens.

Art. XVII.—The Cam-lever Balance.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd November, 1909.]

Cam-Lever balance” is the name given by the author to a modification of the bent-lever balance whereby the scale becomes regular throughout its whole length.

The bent-lever balance is more convenient in use than any other form of gravity balance because it indicates the weight by direct observation without having to slide a counterpoise, or shift the fulcrum, or put counterbalancing weights in a scale-pan. A spring balance also has these advantages, but a spring is not so reliable and constant as gravity. On the score of simplicity of construction and delicacy of action a bent-lever balance is better than a spring balance. The one great defect of the bent-lever balance is the irregularity of its scale; therefore this paper is written to explain clearly how this solitary defect of this otherwise excellent form of balance can be remedied in a very simple way.

In the bent-lever balance the counterpoise arm is actually much longer than the scale-pan arm, and these lengths are constant, but the virtual lengths of the two arms change with every change of weight in the scalepan. The virtual length of the arm is the horizontal distance between the fulcrum and a line drawn vertical to the centre of gravity of the arm and its attached or suspended weight. If the angle of deflection of the long arm from the vertical be called A, then the virtual length of the long arm will vary as the sine of A, and the virtual length of the short arm will vary as the cosine of A, exactly if the effective directions of the two arms are at right angles, otherwise approximately. This relationship gives a scale increasingly compressed in the direction of the higher readings.

[Footnote] * Trans. Linn. Soc., 2nd ser., Zool., vol. viii, p. 117.

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This great defect is entirely removed by applying to the scale-pan arm a correctly shaped cam, which prevents the too rapid shortening of the virtual length of the scale-pan arm for any given increase in the deflection of the counterpoise arm. The scale-pan is suspended by a tape or cord which passes over the curved surface of the cam and is attached to it on its farthest side.

With any gravity balance the condition of equilibrium is attained when the product of the length (or the virtual length) of the arm multiplied by the weight on one side of the fulcrum is equal to the product of the length (or the virtual length) of the arm multiplied by the weight on the other side of the fulcrum. The product of the said factors on either side of the fulcrum is called the “moment of force” on that side.

As an example: Let the length of the counterpoise arm be 140 mm., and the limit of weight to be measured by the balance (including the weight of the scale-pan) be 45 oz., at a distance of 20 mm. from the fulcrum; then the moment of force on the scale-pan arm would be 45 x 20 =900, and the counterpoise weight must be 900 divided by 140 (the length of its arm), or 6.4286 oz., or very nearly 6.43 oz. (See fig. 1)

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Fig 1

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Fig. 2

It is required that when the weight suspended at the end of the scalepan arm be reduced to any given proportion—say, one-third of the maximum—then the counterpoise arm should rest in equilibrium at the same proportion of its total range—that is, at one-third of 90° (or 30°) from the vertical. In this position (see Fig. 2) it is seen that although the actual length of the counterpoise arm has remained the same, yet its virtual length for reckoning its balancing - power has been reduced to one-half, or 70 mm., and the moment of force on its side of the fulcrum has been reduced from 900 to 700 x 6.4286 = 450. Then, the length (or the virtual length) of the scale-pan arm must be 450 divided by one-third of the maximum weight—that is, one-third of 45 oz. (or 15 oz.). This gives 30 mm. as the required length of the scale-pan arm in this position, instead of 20 mm. as in the first position.

To make the scale regular, the scale-pan has to be suspended at a different distance from the fulcrum for every different angle of deflection of the counterpoise arm.

Let A = the angle of deflection of the counterpoise arm from the vertical, and L = the actual length of the counterpoise arm, which agrees with its effective length only in its horizontal position, or when A = 90°: then L x sin A = the virtual length of the counterpoise arm for any angle A. Let C = the weight of the counterpoise: then L x sin A x C = moment

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

of force on the counterpoise side for any angle A. Let W = the weight on the scale-pan side: then L x sin A x C/W = the required distance from the fulcrum at which the scale-pan must be suspended for any given angle A. Because the angle A must be in proportion to W, let W = nA: then L x sin A x C/nA = sin A/A x LC/n = the required distance from the fulcrum at which the scale-pan must be suspended for any given angle A. Hence it is evident that in a gravity lever balance, in order to make the angle of deflection (A) of the long arm proportional to the weight suspended from the short arm throughout the whole length of the quadrant, whilst the virtual length of the long arm varies as sin A, the virtual length of the short arm must vary as sin A/A.

The above relation is fixed for all balances of this class, but L, C, and n may have any values according to the desired dimensions of the balance. In the example given they are 140, 6.4286, and ½ respectively. The value of n is ½ because the number of ounces to be indicated by any angle of deflection happens to be one-half of the number of degrees in the angle. In this or in any other case n will equal 90 divided by the total number of units of weight (including the weight of the scale-pan) intended to be the full range of the balance.

In the following table, column (1) gives A, the angle of deflection from the vertical of the long arm, in degrees. Column (2) gives sin A. The virtual length of the long arm varies with the angle A as the figures in this column. Column (3) gives sin A/A. The virtual length of the short arm, with the angle A, must vary as the figures in this column. Column (4) shows the application of column (3) to the particular example given, in which LC/n is equal to 1800. It gives, in millimetres, the various distance from the fulcrum at which the scale-pan must be suspended according to the angle A given in each case.

A. Degrees Sine of A Sine A/A
(1.) (2.) (3.) (4.)
1 0.01745 0.0.01745 31.41
5 0.0872 0.01743 31.37
10 0.1736 0.01736 31.30
20 0.3420 0.01710 30.80
30 0.5000 0.01667 30.00
40 0.6428 0.01607 29.00
50 0.7660 0.01532 27.50
60 0.8660 0.01443 26.00
70 0.9397 0.01342 24.00
80 0.9848 0.01231 22.20
90 1.0000 0.01111 20.00

From the figures in column (3) a curve can be plotted which will give correctly the shape of the required cam (see fig. 3).

Taking the point F, which represents the fulcrum of the balance, as centre, describe the quadrant marked F, Oo, 90o. Draw eight intermediate radii, all at equal distances of 10 degrees, and number them accordingly. On each radius numbered as in column (1) of table, mark off the length indicated in column (3) according to any convenient scale of units. For instance, on the radius for 10 degrees mark off 173.6 mm., on the radius

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for 20 degrees mark off 171 mm., and so on up to 90 degrees, 111.1 mm. At the point so marked in each radius erect a perpendicular inclining towards the side of lower magnitudes. These perpendiculars will intersect at several points. Draw a curve tangential to these perpendiculars on the inner side. This is the true curve required for the cam. The distance to be marked off on the radius F to Oo is very approximately the same as that given in the table for 1 degree—namely, 174.5 mm.—and this point marks the lower termination of the curve.

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Fig. 3.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

An examination of the true cam-curve reveals that a very close approximation thereto can be made in a much more simple way (see fig. 3). Call the distance F to P, on the vertical side of the quadrant, p; and the distance F to Q, on the horizontal side, q: then the ratio of p. to q must always be as sin 90°/90° to sin= o°/=o°. Taking 1 minute of arc, or 1/60 degree, as being =O°, then p is to q as 0.01 is to 0.0174505098. These figures are almost perfectly in the ration of 7 to 11. If p equal 7 units of length and q equal 11 of the same units of length, then q will be 0.0563 per cent. too long, or less than one part in 1776 too long.

Hence the simple and practical way to mark off the cam-curve, approximately, is as follows: (1) Draw two lines, FP and FQ, at right angles; (2) make the vertical line FP equal to 7 units of length, of any suitable size; (3) make the horizontal line FQ equal to 11 of the same units; (4) mark a point H on FQ so that the distance from Q to H equals FP;

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(5) using H as centre, describe a quadrant HK of radius HQ; (6) join K to P by a straight line, thus completing the cam-contour.

This simple curve falls slightly within the true cam-curve for a portion of its length, but so slightly as to cause a maximum error of only about 1 per cent. in the virtual length of the short arm of the balance. In the example given this amounts to less than ⅓ mm. This makes no difference to the perfect accuracy of the balance; it only makes a slight difference in the perfect equality of the distances between some marks on the scale.

All need of levelling the balance when it is stood upon any nearly level surface can be avoided by suspending the scale so that it can itself assume the correct position by the action of gravity.

A very simple and effective anti-parallax sight is fixed to the pointer. This consists of a needle having an enlarged eye, through which the observer must look at the pointer, and thus note the point it indicates on the scale.

The cam lever, the swivelled scale, and the anti-parallax sight combine to produce a balance of surpassing excellence for accuracy and speed of measurement. This invention the author presents to the society in the hope that some one will be sufficiently enterprising to put it upon the market, to the great advantage of himself and the public at large.

Art. XVIII.—Description of a New Native Grass (Poa).

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd November, 1909.]

Poa oraria, sp. nov.

Gramen cæspitosum, parce foliosum, –50 cm. altum, leve, politum, perenne.

Culmi multi, erecti, glaberrimi, graciles, a basi ramosi, teretes, 2-nodosi, internodiis elongatis, folia longitudine æquantes, foliorum vaginis pæne ad imam paniculæ partem vestiti.

Folia longe vaginantia, vaginæ inferiores latæ, membranaceæ, stramineæ, leviter striatæ; ligula vaginam latitudine æquans, oblonga, obtusa; lamina teres, erecta, involuta, subrigida, gracillima, leviter striata, apice subacicularis.

Panicula strictissima, linearis, ± 10 cm. longa; ramis 3 v. paucioribus, brevibus, teretibus, glaberrimis, paucas spiculas sublonge pedicellatas gerentibus.

Spiculæ anguste oblongæ v. plus minus cuneatæ, 8 mm. longæ, 3 mm. latæ, 4 v. 5 flosculos gerentes.

Glumæ vacuæ subæquales, spiculis tertia parte breviores, anguste lineari-lanceolatæ, acuminatæ, 3-nervatæ.

Glumæ floriferæ anguste lanceolatæ, acuminatæ, membranaceæ, plerumque 5-nervatæ, nervo medio solo ad apicem attinente, basi parvo pilorum brevium flocco prædita, in nervis subsericeæ, alibi plus minus scabridæ.

Palea gluma florigera paulo brevior, 2-nervata, nervis delicatule ciliatis.

Hab.—Moist and wet stations at the head of several of the sounds of western Otago (Deep Cove, &c.). Collected by Mr. B. C. Aston in mid- January, 1909; it appears to flower towards the end of December.

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Art. XIX.—On Poa breviglumis, Hook. f.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd November, 1909.]

The writer has long entertained a suspicion that the native grass Poa breviglumis, Hook. f., was not really distinct from what is taken to be the Poa imbecilla of Forster. Hooker's species was originally published in the “Flora Antarctica,” vol. i, pp. 101 and 102 (1844), and was founded on specimens collected on Campbell Island. The name Poa imbecilla was applied by Forster in 1786 to a New Zealand grass, but he published no diagnosis or description of it. A number of years later Forster's name was assigned by Allan Cunningham, in his “Prodromus” (1836), to the Poa now so named.

In the “Flora Novæ-Zelandiæ” (1853) Hooker includes and describes Forster's Poa imbecilla, accepting Cunningham's identification of the plant, but he does not in any way refer to its likeness to his own Poa breviglumis. This may have been due to the fact that the forms of Poa imbecilla, Forst., that occur in the more northerly parts of New Zealand are not typical of the prevalent state of the species. In the “Handbook of the Flora of New Zealand” (1867) both the above Poas are included, and the author concludes that both grow on the main islands, from which he had at first supposed Poa breviglumis to be absent. Thought it is unlikely that he had good or abundant material to work on when the Handbook was in preparation, he recognised the close affinity of the two species, and even suggested that his Poa breviglumis might be a variety of Poa imbecilla, Forst. He further mentions that Banks and Solander referred the mainland forms of his Poa breviglumis to Poa imbecilla.

In his excellent “Manual of the New Zealand Flora,” published in 1906, Mr. Cheeseman maintains the two species as distinct, but refers all the forms found on the main islands to Poa imbecilla, Forst. He mentions also that he had seen only a fragment of one of Hooker's specimens from Campbell Island, and some two or three other collected by Kirk and Chapman on the Auckland Islands. All these specimens I have, through Mr. Cheeseman's kindness, been able to examine.

The Philosophical Institute of Canterbury's expendition (November, 1907) for the exploration of the subantarctic islands of New Zealand secured no specimen of the grass, the visit being undertaken at too early a season.

In January of this year Mr. B. C. Aston, a most enthusiastic and capable collector, visited the subantarctic islands, and made a fine collection of all the grasses he met with, including a number of specimens of Poa breviglumis, from Enderby Island (in the Auckland Group) and from Campbell Island. These have been entrusted to me for examination, and the specimens appear to make the position of the plant quite clear. From a study of this material I conclude that Poa breviglumis is merely a form of Poa imbecilla, and that it is doubtful if it should be ranked as a distinct variety.

The descriptions in the “Flora Antarctica” and in Cheeseman's Manual lay emphasis on the prominent nervation of the flowering-glumes. I am unable to find in these glumes of Poa breviglumis anything to distinguish

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them in this or in other respects from those of Poa umbecilla. The fragment of one of Hooker's original specimens forward to Mr. Cheeseman from the Kew Herbarium agrees perfectly in the form of the flowering-glumes with those collected on the subantarctic islands by Kirk, Chapman, and Aston. In both the Poas under notice the nerves of the flowering-glumes are quite obscure, and it is only by transmitted light that they can be distinctly made out. The two lateral nerves are very close to the edge of the glume, and this added to their obscure appearance makes them difficult to observe readily by reflected light.

The nerves in the descriptions above referred to are said to be somewhat scaberulous; but in the large series of specimens I have examined it is very rare indeed for the nerves to be sensibly scaberulous, save on the keel.

A second differentiating character of some importance consists in the great inequality of the empty glumes in Poa breviglumis. My specimens of the entire series (including the two supposed species), both those from the main islands and those from the subantarctic islands, show considerable variation in the relative size of the empty glumes. In some of the Enderby Island specimens the lower empty glume is almost obsolete, while in quite a number of the Campbell Island ones it exactly matches the lower glume as it appears in the ordinary lowland forms of the series that are met with in the South Island. Moreover, the main-island forms not rarely show as marked a difference in the relative size of the empty glumes as obtains in specimens from the subantarctic islands.

A third differentiating character mentioned by Mr. Cheeseman is the “acute flowering-glumes” of Poa breviglumis. This character is, however, quite inconstant, and the variations it shows are matched by similar variations in the flowering-glumes of Poa imbecilla. In the original description of the species Hooker describes the flowering-glumes as “obtuse,” and later, in the Handbook, he calls them “obtuse or acute.” In the series of forms I have been able to study, these glumes are often acute or subacute; but obtuse flowering-glumes occur in the small specimens collected at some altitude on Campbell Island by Mr. Aston.

In specimens from the main islands and the subantarctic islands alike the panicle is subject to a great range of variation both in length and in form. In small forms only 3 in. or 4 in. high the panicle is short and compact, with shorter and broader spikelets that show smaller, blunter, and more coriaceous flowering-glumes. In other forms the grass in 9—15 in. high, with flaccid leaves and culms, and a panicle that is long, erect or nodding, lax, and ovate-oblong in outline. Others are intermediate in most of the above characters. The lower empty glume is especially variable in size, ranging from an almost obsolete condition to a narrow-ovate acute form, half as long as the upper empty glume, and occasionally even longer than this.

From what has been said it is evident that the differentiating characters of Poa breviglumis are quite inconstant, and that their variations correspond point by point with similar variations in Poa imbecilla. The gradations in the two plants are so complete and parallel that I cannot but conclude that the whole series forms a single species, well marked in general characters, but hardly capable of partition into stable varieties.

It is possible that the fragment of Poa breviglumis forwarded from Kew to Mr. Cheeseman does not really belong to that species, a doubt that the

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distinct absence of “prominent nerves” in the flowering-glumes compels one to entertain.

It is in the variety of Poa imbecilla, Forst., which I have described as “Poa Matthewsii” that the acute, prominently nerved, and scabrid flowering-glumes occur, but no specimen of this variety has so far been met with on the subantarctic islands. Whether Poa Matthewsii is to be regarded as a distinct species or not cannot be settled until more ample and better specimens are available. Probably some of the forms included in it may be more correctly placed under Poa imbecilla, Forst.; but the forms with the long, slender, strongly nerved spikelets stand on a different footing.

Art. XX.—On the Naturalisation of Calluna vulgaris, Salisb., in the Taupo District.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd November, 1909.]

During a short visit to the Taupo district early in February of this year I was told that the Scotch heather (anglice, ling) had become established near the Opepe Bush. I took occasion to visit the locality referred to, and found that this interesting introduction had secured a firm footing over an area of some two or three acres. The plants were in full flower, though most of them were still young, as the ground has repeatedly had fires run through it to clear off the manuka (Leptospermum scoparium, Forst.) that forms the natural plant covering of the district. The fires kill off all the older plants, but great numbers readily grow up from seed, and the species must be considered to have firmly established itself in this locality. How far it has spread by natural causes is at present uncertain, as I do not know how widely the seed was originally sown; but there is every prospect of its spreading readily, as the plant is well adapted to the habitat, and seedlings grow up in the abundance. I was informed that the seed was sown by Major Roberts, till lately Stipendiary Magistrate at Tauranga, during the later part of the war with the Natives in Te Kooti's time. I have been unable to learn from this gentleman the time and circumstances of the sowing of the seed.

It is important that the introduction and establishment of such exotic plants as this should be noted, and its spread deserves to be watched. The land on which the heather grows is a flat dry terrace of pumiceous soil, such as one finds over most of the Taupo and Kaingaroa Plains. A very large area of similar country is available for it to invade. The spot where it is now established is about three-quarters of a mile from the small bush at which Mr. King has fixed his residence. To him I am chiefly indebted for such particulars about its introduction as I have been able to glean.

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Art. XXI.—Contributions to a Fuller Knowledge of the Flora of New Zealand: No. 3.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd November, 1909.]

As in the two previous instalments of notes bearing this title (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxix, p. 439; vol. xl, p. 271), I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to many friends and correspondents in various parts of the Dominion for much of the matter now placed on record. I particularly desire to mention my obligations to the late Mr. H. J. Matthews, whose position as head of the Forestry Department gave him many opportunities of obtaining information respecting the New Zealand flora, and who for years past has liberally supplied me with specimens, notes, and photographs. His decease will be greatly regretted by New Zealand botanists, by whom he was held in high esteem, not only for his many services to botanical science, but also for his amiable and genial disposition, the simplicity of his manners, and his truly lovable character.

I have also to express my thanks to the following gentlemen: to Mr. F. G. Gibbs, of Nelson, who has forwarded many interesting notes and specimens, mostly dealing with the botany of the north-western portion of the Nelson District; to Mr. B. C. Aston, of Wellington, for many specimens collected through almost the whole length of the Dominion; to Mr. R. H. Matthews, of Kaitaia; to Messrs. H. Carse, P. H. Allen, A. Allison, Rev. F. R. Spencer, F. N. R. Downard, J. H. Harvey, G. Williams, W. Townson, R. Mair, E. Linton, E. Clarke, C. Dawes, and others.

I. Ranunculaceæ.

Ranunculus Buchanani, Hook. f.

Abundant on the slopes of Mount Balloon, McKinnon's Pass, southwest Otago; altitude, 4,000 ft.; H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs!

Ranunculus Matthewsii, Cheesem.

Southern slopes of Mount Balloon, a few hundred feet above the track over McKinnon's Pass; H. J. Matthews!

Ranunculus sericophyllus, Hook. f.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; 4,000-5,000 ft.; H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs!

IV. Violaceæ.

Hymenanthera novæ-zealandiæ, Hemsl.

Mr. W. B. Hemsley (“Kew Bulletin,” 1908, p. 95) has pointed out that the New Zealand plant referred by Kirk and myself to the Norfolk Island H. latifolia is in reality distinct from that species. He states that the Norfolk Island plant has relatively more slender branches, thin entire leaves, smaller flowers, and the staminal appendages are only fringed at the tips instead of being minutely toothed all round the margin. Mr. Hemsley has also satisfied himself that Cunningham's Scœvola novœ-zealandiœ, collected at Matauri Bay, opposite the Cavallos Islands, and which Hooker referred

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to his H. crassifolia, is really the same plant. That being so, Cunningham's specific name should be restored. Mr. Hemsley also suggests that the Chatham Islands' H. chathamica is not separated by characters of sufficient importance, and should be included in the circumscription of the species. As I have remarked in the Manual, it principally differs in the longer and narrower and much more sharply toothed leaves.

V. Pittosporaceæ.

Pittosporum ellipticum, T. Kirk.

Mountain range south of Te Aroha; F. N. R. Downard! Differs from the typical form of the species in the narrower leaves and cream-coloured flowers, and may be deserving of varietal rank.

XI. Tiliaceæ.

Entelea arborescens, R. Br.

Plentiful on Fisherman's Island, a few miles from Motueka, Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

XIV. Rutaceæ.

Melicope ternata, Forst.

Bush at Wakapuaka, near Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

XV. Meliaceæ.

Dysoxylum spectabile, Hook. f.

Fairly plentiful on Pepin Island, a few miles north of Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

XVII. Stackhousiaceæ.

Stackhousia minima, Hook. f.

Spooner's Range, near Belgrove, Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

XXIII. Rosaceæ.

Geum uniflorum, Buch.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs! These are the first specimens I have seen from Otago. Mr. Petrie informs me that it has also been collected on the Takitimo Ranges, Southland.

Acæna glabra, Buch.

Black-birch Creek, Hooker Valley, Mount Cook District; T. F. C. McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; F. G. Gibbs!

XXIV. Saxifragaceæ.

Quintinia acutifolia, T. Kirk.

Mount Owen, Buller Valley; F. G. Gibbs!

XXVII. Haloragaceæ.

Dr. Schindler, in his recent monograph of the family (“Das Pflanzenreich,” heft 23), makes a consideráble number of changes in the nomenclature of the New Zealand species of Haloragis. As some of these appear

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to be of doubtful validity, I propose to make a few remarks upon them in this place.

Haloragis alata, Jacq.

Schindler adopts the specific name of erecta, which was published by Murray, under the genus Cercodia, in 1780, whereas Jacquin's name of H. alata did not appear until the following year. If the rules adopted by the Vienna Congress are to be accepted, the earliest specific name must be maintained, no matter in what genus it originated, however much we may regret the necessity of changing an old-established name like that of H. alata.

Haloragis cartilaginea, Cheesem.

In the Manual I reduced this to the position of a variety of H. alata, a view I am still inclined to hold. Dr. Schindler treats it as distinct.

Haloragis tetragyna, Labill.

Schindler considers that the Australian and New Zealand plants combined under this name by Hooker and Bentham are in reality distinct. Through the kindness of Dr. Maiden, who has forwarded me an excellent series of the Australian forms, I have been enabled to make a detailed comparison, and find that the New Zealand plant can usually be distinguished by its smaller average size, shorter and less pointed leaves, with fewer serratures, and larger and narrower fruit. As the name tetragyna must be retained for the Australian plant, to which it was first applied, Dr. Schindler proposes to adopt Buchanan's name of H. aggregata for our species. But this is inadmissible, for the following reasons: (1.) Because there is an earlier specific name of incana—Cercodia incana, A. Cunn., Prodr., n. 528 (1839); Haloragis incana, Walp., Rep. ii, 99 (1843)—which consequently takes precedence. (2.) Because H. aggregata is referable to H. depressa, and not to the series of forms included by Hooker under H. tetragyna. I possess one of Buchanan's type specimens, and there is another in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, both being clearly the same as H. depressa. Further, the plate of H. aggregata given by Buchanan (Trans. N.Z. Inst., iv, pl. 13) undoubtedly represents H. depressa, the fruit being shown to be tetragonous, with smooth interspaces between the ribs, exactly as in H. depressa. In H. tetragyna the interspaces are muricate or rugose. I hold, therefore, that the name to be used is H. incana, Walp.

In this place attention may be drawn to the remarkably distinct plant called by Hooker var. diffusa. This differs from the typical H. incana in the slender, much branched, procumbent or prostrate stems, and in the smaller, broader, and more obtuse leaves, with fewer serratures. These characters are constant throughout its entire range, which extends through almost the whole length of the Dominion, whereas typical H. incana has never been found to the south of Whangarei. I therefore think that it should receive the rank of a species, a view which has also been adopted by Dr. Cockayne in his report on the vegetation of Stewart Island (p. 57). Dr. Cockayne proposes the name of H. diffusa, but that is preoccupied by an Australian plant—H. diffusa, Diels in Engl. Bot. Jahr., xxxv (1904), 447. As the plant was excellently described and figured by Solander in his manuscript “Primitiæ Floræ Novæ Zealandiæ” under the name of Cercodia procumbens, I would suggest that it should bear the name of Haloragis procumbens.

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Haloragis depressa, Walp.

Here, too, we are indebted to Dr. Schindler for pointing out that the Australian and New Zealand plants associated by Hooker and Bentham under the name of H. depressa must be separated. The New Zealand plant has rather large oblong-obovoid tetragonous fruit, with very large persistent styles, decurved between the calyx-lobes, whereas the Australian plant has small oblong barely tetragonous fruit, and the persistent styles are much smaller and erect. Schindler applies the name of depressa to the Australian species, using Kirk's name of uniflora for the New Zealand plant. Evidently he did not fully trace the history of the name depressa, or he must have noticed that it was first applied by Allan Cunningham to the New Zealand plant (Goniocarpus depressus, A. Cunn., Precur., n. 531). Consequently our plant must retain the name of depressa. Schindler divides the species into the two varieties, genuina (which is equivalent to H. uniflora, T. Kirk) and bibracteolata. But Cunningham's type certainly falls under the second variety, to which also Buchanan's H. aggregata must be referred. The two varieties will therefore be more correctly styled var. a, aggregata, and var. b, uniflora, the latter name being equivalent to Schindler's var. genuina. Kirk's name of serphyllifolia must be abandoned on account of the fact that the New Zealand plant differs from the Australian var. serpyllifolia.

Haloragis spicata, Petrie.

This is placed by Schindler as a variety of H. depressa. In the Manual I have hinted that this is its correct position.

The following arrangement is therefore the one which I now follow of the New Zealand species of Haloragis:—

1.

H. erecta, Schindl. (H. alata, Jacq.).

2.

H. cartilaginea, Cheesem. (H. alata, var. cartilaginea, Cheesem.).

3.

H. incana, Walp. (H. tetragyna, Hook. f., non Labill, var. a; H. aggregata, Schindl., non Buch.).

4.

H. procumbens, Cheesm. (H. tetragyna, var. diffusa, Hook. f.; H. aggregata, var. diffusa, Schindl.; H. diffusa, Cockayne, non Diels).

5.

H. depressa, Walp. Var. a, aggregata, T. Kirk (H. aggregata, Buch., non Schindl.; H. uniflora, var. bibracteolata, Schindl.). Var. b, uniflora, Cheesm. (H. uniflora, T. Kirk; H. uniflora, var. serpyllifolia, T. Kirk, but not H. depressa, var. serpyllifolia, Benth.; H. uniflora, var. qenuina, Schindl.). Var. c, spicata, Schindl. (H. spicata, Petrie).

6.

H. micrantha, R. Br.

XXVIII. Myrtaceæ.

Myrtus Ralphii, Hook. f.

Tauroa (Reef Point), near Ahipara, Mangonui County; R. H. Matthews! This is a marked extension of the range of this species, the northern limit of which had been believed to be at Whangarei.

XXIX. Onagraceæ.

Epilobium pycnostachyum, Haussk.

Shingle-slopes on Ben Nevis, Nelson, and on Waingaro Peak, north-west Nelson; F. G. Gibbs! These are the most northern localities yet recorded.

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XXXIII. Umbelliferæ.

Azorella.

Dr. Karl Domin, in a communication entitled “Ueber eine neue australantarktische Umbelliferen Gattung,” published in Engler's “Botanische Jahrbucher” (vol. xl, p. 573), constitutes a separate genus of the whole of those species of Azorella included in Hooker's section Schizeilema, pointing out that the section is not only separated by a marked difference in habit, but by other characters of importance. There is much to be said in favour of Domin's views, which will probably receive the acceptance of New Zealand botanists. As characterized by him, the genus Schizeilema will include the whole of the species referred to Azorella in my “Manual of the New Zealand Flora,” with the exception of A. Selago, which is a typical Azorella. It will also include two species from the extreme south of South America, and the Australian Azorella Muelleri, Benth. (Schizeilema fragosum, Domin). The following synopsis of the New Zealand species, abbreviated from Domin's memoir, will show his views regarding them.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Leaves 3–5-partite or -foliate.
Leaflets distinctly petiolulate Divisions all sessile. 1. S. trifoliolatum.
Segments entire or nearly so Segments more or less cut, lobed or dentate. 2. S. nitens.
Fruit longer than its pedicel. Fruit shorter than its pedicel. Involucral leaves obtuse. 3. S. hydrocotyloides
Stout; leaves coriaceous 4. S. Roughii.
Slender; leaves membranous 5. S. pallidum.
Involucral leaves acuminate 6. S. Colensoi.
Leaves undivided.
Minute; leaves scarcely 2 mm. long Large or small, but leaves always larger than above. 7. S. exiguum.
Fruit longer than its pedicel 8. S. reniforme.
Fruit shorter than its pedicel 9. S. Haastii.
Smaller; leaves 5–10 mm.; fruit not much shorter than its pedicel Ditto, subsp. cyanopetalum.
Larger; leaves –30 mm.; fruit 4 times shorter than its pedicel Ditto, subsp. Hookerianum.

From the above it will be noticed that Domin adds an additional species (S. Colensoi) to those already known to inhabit the Dominion. It is based upon Hooker's Azorella trifoliolata, var. b, an obscure plant gathered by Colenso on crags at Titiokura, between Napier and Taupo, but which has not been observed since its first discovery more than sixty years ago. I have seen no specimens, and cannot express any opinion of my own as to the validity of the species; but as Dr. Domin has inspected the type in the Kew Herbarium, we may accept it on his authority. It should also be mentioned that Dr. Domin treats S. Haastii as a “collective species,” dividing it into the two subspecies—cyanopetalum, which he distinguishes by its smaller size, leaf-blades 5–10 mm. diameter, fruit not much shorter than its pedicel, and blue petals; and Hookerianum, which is much larger, the lamina of the leaf being –30 mm. diameter, and the fruit often only a quarter the length of the pedicel. Now, there is no doubt that forms of A. Haastii can be found agreeing with these characters (except the blue petals, which I have never observed, and doubt the occurrence of in a fresh state), but whether these represent permanent varieties, separated by constant characters, appears to me to be highly doubtful.

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Azorella nitens, Petrie.

Grassy places in the Cobb Valley, north-west Nelson; F. G. Gibbs! Not previously recorded to the north of the Clarence Valley.

Aciphylla Hectori, Buch.

McKinnon's Pass, near the base of Mount Balloon, forming hemispherical masses sometimes 2 ft. in diameter; F. G. Gibbs! I regret that Mr. Gibbs's specimens of this curious and little-known species do not show either good flowers or fruit.

XXXIV. Araliaceæ.

Pseudopanax ferox, T. Kirk.

Tauroa (Reef Point), near Ahipara, Mangonui County; R. H. Matthews! A slight northward extension of the range of this fine plant, which, although it stretches throughout almost the whole length of the North and South Islands, is everywhere exceedingly local.

XXXV. Cornaceæ.

Corokia Cotoneaster, Raoul.

Tasman Valley, Mount Cook district, ascending to 3,500 ft. altitude; T. F. C. Also in many other localities in the mountains of Nelson and Canterbury.

XXXVII. Rubiaceæ.

Coprosma rugosa, Cheesem.

Arthur Valley and McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; F. G. Gibbs!

Nertera setulosa, Hook. f.

Vicinity of Marton; W. Townson!

XXXVIII. Compositæ.

Lagenophora pinnatifida, Hook. f.

Tauroa (Reef Point), near Ahipara, Mangonui County; H. Carse! This is an altogether unexpected extension of the range of this fine species, which had not been previously collected to the north of the Kaipara River. Mount Starveall, Nelson, plentiful; Flora Valley and Cobb Valley, north-west Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

Celmisia Walkeri, T. Kirk.

Abundant on both sides of McKinnon's Pass; H. J. Matthews!

Celmisia rupestris, Cheesem.

Very plentiful on most of the high peaks flanking the Cobb Valley, north-west Nelson, especially on Waingaro Peak and the Diamond Lake Range; F. G. Gibbs!

Celmisia ramulosa, Hook. f.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs!

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Celmisia lateralis, Buch.

Not uncommon on the mountains of north-west Nelson. Cobb Valley and adjacent mountains; Mount Cobb; Diamond Lake Range; mountains near the Heaphy River; F. G. Gibbs!

Celmisia Gibbsii, Cheesem.

Abundant on Waingaro Peak, north-west Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

Celmisia petiolata, Hook. f.

Descends to sea-level in the sounds of the south-west coast of Otago; H. J. Matthews. The most abundant species in the Mount Cook district; T. F. C.

Celmisia Petriei, Cheesem.

Abundant on McKinnon's Pass and on the neighbouring mountains; H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs!

Celmisia linearis, Armstr.

McKinnon's Pass; H. J. Matthews!

Celmisia Hectori, Hook. f.

An abundant plant on all the mountains in the Mount Cook district, forming extensive carpets in moist sheltered hollows; altitude, 4,500-6,000 ft.; T. F. C. McKinnon's Pass; H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs!

Celmisia Macmahoni, T. Kirk.

On the precipitous face of Mount Rintoul, Nelson; F. G. Gibbs! The most western locality yet recorded.

Haastia Sinclairii, Hook. f.

Shingle-slopes on high peaks in the Mount Cook district; plentiful. Mount Ollivier, 5,500-6,000 ft.; T. F. C. Mount Kinsey, 5,000-7,000 ft.; P. Graham. Nun's Veil; E. Linton!

Raoulia glabra, Hook. f.

Mount Egmont; altitude, 4,500 ft.; W. Townson! The most northern locality yet recorded.

Raoulia subulata, Hook. f.

Mount Ollivier and other peaks in the Mount Cook district; altitude, 5,000-6,000 ft.; T. F. C.!

Raoulia Buchanani, T. Kirk.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; abundant; H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs!

Helichrysum Leontopodium, Hook. f.

Grows most luxuriantly on Ben Nevis, eastern Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

Senecio saxifragoides, Hook. f.

Kaikoura Peninsula, near the sea; H. J. Matthews!

Senecio Kirkii, Hook. f.

It is perhaps worth recording that this is an abundant plant on the lava-fields of the island of Rangitoto, often growing without protection

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among the bare basaltic rocks. It is usually an inhabitant of the forest, frequently growing as an epiphyte in the forks of the rata and other trees, associated with such plants as Astelia, Freycinetia, Griselinia, Pittosporum cornifolium, &c.

Senecio Monroi, Hook. f.

Limestone rocks by the Mason River, North Canterbury; H. J. Matthews!

Senecio revolutus, T. Kirk.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; F. G. Gibbs!

Senecio Adamsii, Cheesem.

Abundant on Waingaro Peak, north-west Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

XLIII. Epacridaceæ.

Leucopogon Richei, R. Br.

Near the North Cape; E. Clarke! A most interesting discovery, of which I have given full particulars in another part of this volume.

Archeria Traversii, Hook. f.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; F. G. Gibbs!

Dracophyllum Kirkii, Berggr.

Cobb Valley and adjacent mountains, north-west Nelson; F. G. Gibbs! The most northern locality yet recorded.

Dracophyllum uniflorum, Hook. f.

Mount Holdsworth, Tararua Range; altitude, 4,000-4,500 ft.; W. Townson!

XLIX. Loganiaceæ.

Geniostema ligustrifolium, A. Cunn.

Pepin Island, north of Nelson; F. G. Gibbs. This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in the Nelson Provincial District.

L. Gentianaceæ.

Gentiana Spenceri, T. Kirk.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; F. G. Gibbs!

LII. Convolvulaceæ.

Ipomæa palmata, Forst.

Abundant on the cliffs at Whangamumu in 1853; R. Mair. Mr. Hansen has sent me fine flowering specimens from the Tiritiri Island locality mentioned in Trans. N.Z. Inst., xl, 280.

LIV. Scrophulariaceæ.

Veronica elliptica, Forst.

Titahi Bay, near Cape Terawhiti; B. C. Aston! This is the first recorded locality from the North Island.

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Veronica Cockayniana, Cheesem.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs!

Veronica salicornioides, Hook. f.

Abundant on the Cobb Valley, north-west Nelson, where it commonly attains a height of 6 ft.; F. G. Gibbs! Captain Dorrien Smith!

Veronica Petriei, T. Kirk.

Mountains above Lake Harris, Otago; H. J. Matthews!

Veronica Cheesemanii, Benth.

Occurs on all the higher mountains of eastern Nelson, as Mount Richmond, Mount Starveall, Ben Nevis, Gordon's Nob, &c.; F. G. Gibbs!

Ourisia prorepens, Petrie.

McKinnon's Pass, south-west Otago; H. J. Matthews!

LV. Lentibulariaceæ.

Utricularia protrusa, Hook. f.

Waiharakeke Stream, near Morrinsville; P. H. Allen! Numerous specimens in full flower, being the first obtained in that condition since the original discovery of the species by Mr. Colenso in 1842.

LXIV. Chenopodiaceæ.

Rhagodia nutans, R. Br.

Abundant on Mackay's Bluff, near Nelson; F. G. Gibbs!

LXVI. Piperaceæ.

Peperomia reflexa, A. Dietr.

I am indebted to Mr. Gerald T. Williams, of Mokoiwi, near Tuparoa, East Cape district, for flowering specimens of this plant. He informs me that it is quite abundant in the valley of the Tuparoa River and its tributaries, extending to within four or five miles of the base of Mount Hikurangi. These valleys are warm and sheltered, and many coast plants like Corynocarpus, Myoporum, Entelea, &c., grow there with considerable luxuriance. Peperomia reflexa is found either on prostrate logs or on the trunks of living trees, sometimes as much as 30 ft. from the ground. According to Mr. Williams, it can often be seen clinging to the stems of Metrosideros florida and other woody climbers. There seems to be no reason why it should be confined to the East Cape district, but so far it has not been found in any other portion of the Dominion.

LXX. Proeaceæ.

Knightia excelsa, R. Br.

I am indebted to Mr. A. Allison for specimens of a curious sport, in which the leaves are dichotomously forked near the tips, somewhat after the manner of certain “crested” ferns. They were gathered at Orakeikorako by the Upper Waikato River.

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Branched Nikau-Palm.—Cheeseman.

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Branched Nikau-Palm.—Cheeseman.

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LXXV. Euphorbiaceæ.

Poranthera microphylla, Brong.

Cobb Valley, north-west Nelson; F. G. Gibbs! These are the first specimens I have seen from this portion of the Nelson Provincial District.

LXXVI. Urticaceæ.

Urtica ferox, Forst.

Summit of the ranges between the Thames Valley and Katikati, a few miles south of Te Aroha; F. N. R. Downard! The most northern locality yet recorded. Only a few specimens were seen.

LXXIX. Orchidaceæ.

Pterostylis.

An interesting paper on the fertilisation of the Australian species of this genus, written by Mr. Oswald H. Sargent, is printed in the Annals of Botany for April, 1909.

Pterostylis foliata, Hook. f.

I am indebted to Mr. Guthrie Smith for fresh specimens of this species, collected at Tutira Lake, Hawke's Bay. They show that it varies greatly in size, the specimens ranging from 4 in. to 18 in. in height. The leaves are rather flesh when fresh, and the reticulated veins are by no means obvious, except in dried specimens. A character that has not been previously mentioned is that the ovary and upper part of the peduncle are glandular-pubescent.

LXXXIV. Palmaceæ.

Rhopalostylis sapida, Wendl. & Drude.

In the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” for 1906 (vol. xxxix, p. 447) I have briefly described and figured two curious branched specimens of the nikau-palm. Through the kindness of Mr. C. Dawes, of Kohukohu, Hokianga, I have received particulars of two more, photographs of which I reproduce herewith. One of the specimens has four branches springing almost from the same point; the other has three. Both trees are still growing in a patch of forest a few miles from Kohukohu. They are about 15 ft. in height, the diameter of the trunk not exceeding 9 in. (Plates XXVI and XXVII.)

XCI. Cyperaceæ.

Schœnus Carsei, Cheesem.

Not uncommon in swamps by the Waitoa River, Thames Valley; P. H. Allen!

Carex and Uncinia.

A work of great importance to all followers of systematic botany has lately appeared in the shape of Kukenthal's “Monograph of the Cyperaceœ-Caricoideœ,” being heft 38 of Engler's “Pflanzenreich.” The memoir forms a bulky volume of 824 pages, is profusely illustrated with drawings and analytical figures, and contains full descriptions of all the species accepted by the author. Dr. Kukenthal has long been known as a most capable and reliable botanist, and his acquaintance with the subject is

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unrivalled. Great expectations were therefore aroused as to the value and importance of his work, and it may at once be said that these have been fully realised. For the first time, botanists have been supplied with a systematic account of the Caricoideœ arranged with due regard to the affinities of the species, containing full and precise descriptions on modern lines, and with ample details of geographical distribution and other necessary factors. It appears to me that there are three reasons why New Zealand botanists are indebted to Dr. Kukenthal: First, for showing how far our species of Caricoideœ are allied to those found in other parts of the world, and what their relative positions are; second, in disposing of several dubious points of nomenclature that could only be authoritatively settled by reference to the botanical collections and libraries of the Northern Hemisphere; third, in giving the opinions of a botanist of wide training and experience, fully acquainted with the whole order, on the delimitation of the species. With respect to the first two of these, both of which are for the most part beyond the scope of inquiries that can be made in the Dominion, New Zealand botanists will gladly accept Dr. Kukenthal's conclusions. In regard to the third, which brings to the front the perennial difficulty of what constitutes a species—or, in other words, involves matters of opinion rather than matters of fact—the case is somewhat different; and I may be pardoned for presenting a few lines of explanation respecting some points on which I cannot quite, agree with the learned author.

One of the chief merits of Kukenthal's memoir is that it is prepared on eminently safe and conservative lines. In this respect it is a pleasing contrast with some recent systematic work published in both Europe and America. But occasionally this conservatism appears to have been stretched too far. Taking the genus Carex, for instance, Kukethal admits 669 species. But as far back as 1885 Bentham estimated the number of valid species at considerably over 500, and since then several hundreds have been described. Mr. C. B. Clarke has alone published over 150, and Dr. Kukenthal more than 80; while other authors are responsible for a considerable number. Several recent estimates have placed the number of valid species at from 800 to 1000. With regard to the New Zealand species, Dr. Kukenthal enumerates 43. This is 10 less than the number adopted in my “Manual of the New Zealand Flora.” The difference has been caused by—(1) uniting C. appressa, C. virgata, and C. secta in one species under the name C. appressa; (2) by combining C. Forsteri, C. Cockayniana, and C. semi - Forsteri in the single species C. Forsteri; by merging C. Buchanani with C. lucida, C. Solandri with C. dissita, and C. rubicunda with C. Petriei; (4) by altogether omitting C. Sinclairii, C. plesiostachys, and C. ventosa. These are somewhat sweeping changes, involving a reduction of species that will hardly meet with the approval of New Zealand botanists as a whole. In the following notes I propose to discuss in some detail the chief alterations proposed. But before doing so I should like to say that no student of the New Zealand species of Uncinia and Carex can afford to be without a copy of Dr. Kukenthal's memoir. It is not only accurate and reliable, but contains much new matter, and many evidences of careful and painstaking research.

Uncinia Sinclairii, Boott.

Dr. Kukenthal considers this to be identical with the Fuegian U. macrolepis, Decne. et Hombr. in D'Urville Voy. au Pôle Sud, 3, t. b, f. A, and if so Decaisne's name will take precedence. I have not seen South American

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specimens, but Hombron's plate, quoted above, so closely resembles the New Zealand species as to leave little doubt of the accuracy of the identification. The late Mr. C. B. Clarke referred U. macrolepis to U. Lechleriana, but that is a species with much longer spikes.

Uncinia fusco-vaginata, Kukenth.

In the Manual I referred this to U. purpurata as var. fusco-vaginata, and I still think that it must be considered as a very near ally of that plant, although possibly entitled to specific rank.

Uncinia pedicellata, Kukenthal, n. sp.

This is based upon a plant collected by Dr. Cockayne on Ruapuke Island, in Foveaux Strait. I have seen no specimens, but according to Kukenthal's description it is closely allied to U. australis, differing mainly in the reddish foliage, narrower spikes, obtuse glumes, and obsoletely nerved utricles, which are conspicuously longer than the glumes. In U. australis the utricles seldom exceed the glumes, and are usually distinctly nerved. (Since writing the above, I find from Dr. Cockayne's memoir on the botany of Stewart Island that he regards it as common in lowland forests on that island.)

Uncinia australis, Pers.

Kukenthal adopts the name of Uncinia uncinata for this; the oldest specific name being Carex uncinatus, Linn. f., published in 1781. If priority of publication is alone to be considered, the change of name is unavoidable; but it may be pointed out that the new combination comes very near to being an infraction of article 55, section 2, of the Vienna rules of botanical nomenclature, under which it is provided that specific names shall be rejected when they merely repeat the generic name.

Uncinia riparia, R. Br.

The circumscription adopted by Kukenthal of this variable species agrees in the main with that given in the Manual, with the exception that he also includes Boott's U. Hookeri, from the Auckland and Campbell Islands, distinguishing it as var. Hookeri. When preparing the account of the genus given in the Manual I had no good material of U. Hookeri, and in default of such followed Hooker (Handb. N.Z. Fl. 310) in placing it under Raoul's rupestris. Since then I have received an excellent series of specimens collected by Mr. B. C. Aston, and can fully confirm Kukenthal's identification.

Uncinia nervosa, Boott.

Dr. Kukenthal considers that the New Zealand plant referred by me to this species is identical with Raoul's U. rupestris. I regret that I am unable to agree with this opinion, which is not shared by any other worker in the genus. I take it that U. nervosa naturally falls into the neighbourhood of U. compacta, whereas the true rupestris of Raoul, judging from his plate and description, is closely allied to U. riparia. This view was also held by Mr. C. B. Clarke, with whom I had some correspondence on the subject. In all probability Raoul's rupestris should be referred, as a variety, to U. riparia, and be placed in close association with var. Hookeri.

Carex teretiuscula, Good.

Kukenthal adopts the older name of C. diandra, Schrank, published in 1782, whereas C. teretiuscula did not appear until 1794.

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Carex appressa, R. Br.

Kukenthal unites with this species both C. virgata and C. secta. There is much to be said in favour of this, for it cannot be denied that intermediate forms exist between the three plants, and also between C. appressa and the northern C. paniculata. In my revision of the New Zealand Carices, published in 1884, I therefore followed Baron Mueller and Mr. Bentham in placing all three under C. paniculata. But, as explained in the Manual, further consideration has led me to alter this opinion, and to keep the species separate. After all, the differences between the three plants are quite as well marked as those between several species of Carex admitted by most authors, and for the sake of consistency it appears best to uphold their distinctness.

Carex, stellulata, Good.

In the Manual I followed Bentham and other well-known authors in adopting the name of C. echinata, Murr., for this species. But the late Mr. C. B. Clarke definitely proved that Murray's plant was identical with one of the forms of C. muricata, and Dr. Kukenthal has arrived at the same conclusion. Under these circumstances, botanists are pretty well agreed in taking up the next-oldest name of C. stellulata, Good.

Carex flava, Linn.

Kukenthal places the New Zealand form of this species under C. Oederi, Retz, as var. cataractœ. C. Oederi mainly differs from C. flava in the smaller size and shorter straight beak to the utricle. It is little more than a matter of taste as to whether the two species should be kept up or combined.

Carex Buchanani, Berggr.

Kukenthal reduces this to C. lucida, as var. Buchanani, a view with which I am unable to concur. C. Buchanani differs markedly in the much more strict and erect habit, in the semi-terete and much more coriaceous leaves, in the pale-coloured glumes, and in the plano-convex utricles, which are sharply serrate above, and have a much longer and more deeply bidentate beak. Not only is the aspect of the plant most distinct, so that it can be recognised at a glance, but its characters appear to me to be fairly constant. Dr. Kukenthal remarks that it is connected with C. lucida by numerous passage forms; but I have not myself met with specimens that could be so described. I feel sure that all New Zealand botanists familiar with the plant will repudiate any proposal to associate it with C. lucida.

Carex rubicunda, Petrie.

Kukenthal refers this to C. Petriei, as var. rubicunda. The late Mr. C. B. Clarke suggested that it should be placed with Berggren's C. cirrhosa. I have alluded to its affinity with C. Petriei in the Manual, and suspect that its reduction to that species will be maintained.

Carex Dallii, T. Kirk.

Probably a mere form of C. Petriei, Cheesem.

Carex plesiostachys, C. B. Clarke.

Not taken up by Kukenthal. I am now inclined to consider it a form of C. comans, Berggr.

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Carex Solandri, Boott.

Reduced to C. dissita by Kukenthal, as var. Solandri. No doubt there are transition states between the two plants—in the river valleys of north-west Nelson, for instance, where C. Solandri is particularly abundant, such may be commonly observed. But what I take to be the typical form is a much larger and more slender plant, with longer culms (sometimes over 5 ft. in length) that are often prostrate in fruit. The male spikelets (which are seldom more than one in C. dissita) are often as many as four or five; and the lower female spikelets are usually compound, with long nodding peduncles. These characters recede so much from the ordinary state of C. dissita that I cannot refuse to regard the two plants as distinct.

Carex dissita, Sol., var. ochrosaocus, Cheesem.

Kukenthal unites this with the Norfolk Island C. Neesiana, placing it as var. Neesiana of C. dissita. A Norfolk Island specimen of C. Neesiana kindly forwarded to me many years ago by Baron Mueller does not seem to support this view; but the material is too scanty to form the basis of an opinion.

Carex ventosa, C. B. Clarke.

This is simply quoted by Kukenthal as a species unknown to him.

Carex Cockayniana, Kukenth.

Dr. Kukenthal now refers this to C. Forsteri. It is very much a matter of personal taste as to whether the two plants should be combined or kept apart. My own opinion is that the claims of C. Cockayniana to be regarded as distinct are quite as good as those of several species universally accepted.

Carex semi-Forsteri, C. B. Clarke.

This also is reduced to C. Forsteri by Kukenthal, but I feel sure that his material has been too scanty. As I have pointed out in the Manual, it has much of the habit of C. Forsteri, but the terminal spikelet is invariably largely female at the top, whereas it is wholly male in C. Forsteri. I reproduce here-with Mr. Clarke's original diagnosis, communicated to me in 1901.

“C. semi-Forsteri, n. sp.: Spicis 5–9, terminali pro magna parte fœminea, basi mascula, usque ad 4–6 cm. longis; glumis fœmineis (arista inclusa) cum utriculi subæquilongis; utriculis anguste ellipsoidei, trigonis, viridibus aut fusco-viridibus, 3 ½-4 mm. longis, utrinque angustatis, glabris, 16-nervatis; rostro cum utriculi ½-¾ parte fere aequilongo dentibus 2 linearibus patulis. New Zealand, Stephenson, n. 44, partim; Hooker, n. 4189; Colenso, n. 1622. Kermadec Islands. Shakespear, n. 1662.”

XCII. Graminaceæ.

Microlæna polynoda, Hook. f.

Tauroa (Reef Point), near Ahipara, Mangonui County; R. H. Matthews! Not previously recorded to the north of Whangarei Heads, where I collected it many years ago.

XCIII. Filices.

Lomaria nigra, Col.

Maungataniwha Ranges, Mangonui County; H. Carse. Not previously recorded from the north of Whangarei.

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Art. XXII.—Notice of the Occurrence of Leucopogon Richei, R. Br., on the Mainland of New Zealand.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd November, 1909.]

Leucopogon Richei was originally discovered by Lieutenant Riche, one of the officers of a French exploring expedition which, under the command of D'Entrecasteaux, visited Australia in the year 1792. It was first described by Labillardière in the well-known “Novæ Hollandiæ Plantarum Specimen” (vol. i, p. 44, t. 60). It was quickly found to have a wide distribution on the eastern and southern shores of Australia, stretching from the south of Queensland to Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia, and from thence westward to King George's Sound and Swan River. So far as I am aware, it is strictly confined to littoral situations, never extending more than a few miles inland, and must be looked upon as one of the most characteristic of the coastal plants of Australia.

For its first discovery in the New Zealand area we are indebted to Mr. H. H. Travers, who gathered it on the Chatham Islands during his exploration of the group made towards the close of 1863. As is well known, the botanical collections made on this occasion were intrusted to the late Baron Mueller, and formed the foundation of his excellent little book entitled “The Vegetation of the Chatham Islands” (Melbourne, 1864). At page 45 Mueller records the occurrence of the species, stating that it was abundant on sandy ground near the sea on the main island, but was rare on the adjoining Pitt Island. Since then the plant has been collected or observed by all botanists visiting the group. I have specimens in my own herbarium gathered by Mr. Travers in his second expedition in 1871; by Captain G. Mair; by Mr. J. D. Enys, in 1887; by Miss Seddon, in 1895; and by Mr. F. A. D. Cox, at various times subsequent to 1896. Judging from Mr. Travers's statement in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” (vol. i, p. 176), Leucopogon Richei is most abundant on the tracts of sandy soil which, as we know, are common on the Chatham Islands; but Dr. Cockayne, in his paper on “The Plant Covering of Chatham Island” (Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxiv, 269), states that it occurs on limestone cliffs and on dry heathy ridges. In all probability it is well adapted for most dry and open situations in coastal districts, and consequently has a wide range of habitats.

Up to the present time, Leucopogon Richei has had the distinction of being the only Australian plant found in the Chatham Islands not also known as an inhabitant of the mainland of New Zealand. And it must be admitted that its occurrence on the Chathams, quite six hundred miles to the eastward of New Zealand, and its apparent absence in the latter country, situated between the Chathams and Australia, formed a somewhat puzzling problem in botanical geography. Personally, however, I have always considered it probable that it existed on some portion of our coast-line, and have made a practice of seeking for it on any botanical explorations of my own—always, however, without success. Consequently, I was very much interested and gratified to receive from Mr. Edward Clarke, of the Geological Survey, a few small specimens, in full flower, collected

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by him on the North Cape Peninsula. Mr. Clarke informs me that they were gathered close to Kerr Point, which is the north-western termination of the high table-like promontory which forms the North Cape proper. The plant appeared to be fairly plentiful, and was associated with the handsome Veronica speciosa, which grows in considerable quantities on the declivities leading from the top of the plateau to the edge of the cliffs. I may here remark that some years previously I passed over the actual locality where Mr. Clarke made his discovery, but without noticing the plant (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxix, 363). But in a flowerless state Leucopogon Richei might easily be taken for a stunted form of the much more common L. fasciculatus. Mr. Clarke's visit was fortunately made during the flowering season, when it would be impossible not to recognise the difference between the two species. L. fasciculatus has minute greenish-white flowers arranged in axillary or terminal drooping spikes. L. Richei has pure-white flowers, larger than those of L. fasciculatus, and these are arranged in short and dense many-flowered subterminal erect spikes. To say nothing of other important differences, this character of the inflorescence separates the two species at a glance.

The detection of Leucopogon Richei in the North Cape Peninsula recalls the discovery recently made by Mr. R. H. Matthews of the Chatham Island Lepyrodia Traversii in another part of the same district. For many years this plant was believed not to exist in New Zealand proper. It was, however, ultimately found in the middle Waikato by myself, and subsequently by Mr. R. H. Matthews in the peaty swamps between Lake Tongonge (near Kaitaia) and the sea. Other instances of Chatham Island plants found in isolated localities in the North Island are afforded by Hymenanthera Traversii, detected by Sir James Hector in the Inland Patea district; and Pomaderris apetala, which, as a native plant, is confined to two localities between Kawhia and Taranaki. The endemic Corokia macrocarpa and Coprosma chathamica are more nearly allied to northern species than to any other; and the occurrence in the Chatham Islands of Rhopalostylis sapida and Cyathea Cunninghamii are additional instances of northern affinity. In fact, the flora of the Chaham Islands has far more connections with that of the North Island than is commonly supposed, although its chief relationships are undoubtedly with the South Island. It is, however, somewhat remarkable that there is so little affinity with the flora of the islands to the south of New Zealand, especially when it is considered that Antipodes Island is almost as near to the Chathams as New Zealand. No doubt the difference in climate and geological structure has been a powerful factor, but it hardly seems sufficient to fully account for the facts of the case, which are not without their application to the previous history of the flora of both the Chathams and the Southern Islands.

I hope to recur to the subject at greater length in a further communication.

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Art. XXIII.—Some Recent Additions to the Flora of New Zealand.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd November, 1909.]

1. Olearia pachyphylla, Cheesem., n. sp.

O. furfuraceœ affinis sed foliis majoribus et multo coriaceis, capitulis longissimis, involucri bracteis multo numerosioribus.

Frutex 1.5–3 m. altus, rami robusti, angulati, sulcati. Folia 12.5 cm. longa, ovata vel ovato-oblonga, obtusa vel subacuta, valde coriacea, supra glaberrima, subtus densissime sed, appresse sericeo-tomentosa; venis reticulatis. Capitula longissima, 1.5 cm.-1.8 cm. longa; involucri bracteæ numerosæ, –40, multiseriatæ, sericeo-tomentosæ, inferiores minutæ. Flores 7–10.

Hab.—North Island: Bay of Plenty, hills at Opape, on the road from Opotiki to Torere and Te Kaha; Bishop Williams! Flowers in March

A much and closely branched shrub 4–8 ft. high; branches very stout, grooved and angled, the younger ones clothed with appressed brownish tomentum. Leaves alternate; blade 3–5 in. long by 2–2 ½ in. broad, ovate or oblong-ovate, obtuse or subacute, rounded and more or less unequal at the base, excessively thick and coriaceous, glabrous above, beneath clothed with densely appressed silvery or silvery-brown tomentum; margins entire but more or less undulate; veins finely reticulated beneath, less evident above; petiole stout, grooved, 1–1 ½ in. long. Corymbs much branched, 3–5 in. diameter; peduncles 4–6 in. long. Heads very numerous, ½-¾ in. long, narrow at the base but gradually widening upwards; scales of the involucre in very many series, densely imbricated, the lowest minute, the upper gradually larger, the whole more or less clothed with yellowish-brown woolly tomentum. Florets 7–10; ray-florets 3–5, disc-florets 4–6. Pappus hairs unequal in size, rigid, thickened and fimbriate at the tips. Achenes striate, silky-pubescent.

A very remarkable plant. In habit and foliage it much resembles O. furfuracea, and when out of flower might easily be taken for a robust large-leaved form of that species. But the flower-heads are altogether unlike those of O. furfuracea, or of any other species, being remarkable for their great length (quite ¾ in.) and the number of the involucral scales (35-45), which are imbricated in 6–8 series, thus giving the involucre an altogether different appearance from that of O. furfuracea. In that species the heads do not exceed ⅓ in., and the scales number –15.

For the discovery of the plant we are indebted to the Right Rev. W. L. Williams, late Bishop of Waiapu, who has done so much to elucidate the botany of the East Cape district, and who observed it at Opape several years ago. After several visits to the locality he succeeded in obtaining flowering specimens, from which the above description has been drawn up.

2. Raoulia Gibbsii, Cheesem., n. sp.

R. bryoidei proxima, sed differt ramis non densissime compactis, capitulis majoribus, floribus numerosioribus.

Planta formans cæspite –25 cm. diam. Rami numerosi, validi, laxe cæspitosi, suberecti vel decumbentes, dense imbricato-foliati, 4–10 cm.

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longi, 5–10 mm. diam. Folia ut in R. bryoidei, sed multo majora, 5 mm. longa. Capitula terminales, sessilia, solitaria, 6–8 mm. diam.; involueri bracteæ 3–4 seriatæ, exteriores scariosæ, interiores apice albidæ. Flores numerosi, –20 feminei, –20 hermaphroditi. Achenia ut in R. bryoidei.

Hab.—South Island: Dun Mountain Range, Nelson, on Mount Starveall and Slaty Peak; altitude, 4,000-5,000 ft.; F. G. Gibbs!

Forms small patches 6–9 in. diameter, much more laxly branched than is usual in the genus. Branches stout, erect or suberect, 2–5 in. long, with the leaves on ¼-⅓ in. diameter, not forming a hard compact mass as in R. bryoides. Leaves very closely imbricated, erecto-patent, ⅕-⅙ in. long, obovate-spathulate or rhomboid-spathulate, obtuse or subacute, upper half triangular, coriaceous, clothed on both surfaces with densely felted woolly hairs, which, as in R. bryoides, do not conceal the shape of the leaf; basal half membranous, upper surface glabrate or nearly so, lower surface slightly silky; margins furnished right to the base with long cottony hairs. Heads ⅜ in. diameter, solitary, terminal, sunk amongst the uppermost leaves; involucral bracts in 3–4 series, linear-oblong, scarious, acute, much smaller in proportion to the size of the head than in R. bryoides, and the inner ones with much less conspicuous white tips. Florets –40, the hermaphrodite about equal in number to the females. Achenes with long silky hairs and a conspicuous thickened areole. Pappus-hairs few, fragile, thickened at the tips.

Although this is technically closely allied to R. bryoides, in appearance it differs widely from that plant. R. bryoides forms hard and compact knobby masses in which the numerous branches are so closely packed that it is impossible to thrust the finger in between. R. Gibbsii is comparatively laxly branched, with longer, stouter, and more erect branches, and the leaves are much larger. The heads are also larger, with double the number of florets, and the scales of the involucre are proportionately smaller and less numerous.

Mr. Gibbs, who is the first to gather this interesting species, informs me that at a little distance it can be easily mistaken for a barren specimen of Helichrysum grandiceps.

3. Myosotis (Exarrhena) Astoni, Cheesem., n. sp.

Species M. saxosœ valde affinis a quo differt ramis et foliis multo longioribus, pilis laxioribus, floribus numerosis.

Perennis, undique pilis mollibus parce vestitus. Rami floriferi graciles, ascendentes vel basi decumbentes, –30 cm. alti. Folia radicalia numerosa, 5–10 cm. longa, supra et infra pilis brevibus parce obsita; folia caulina minora, sessilia. Racemi terminales, pedunculati, simplices vel furcati. Flores numerosi, breviter pedicellati. Corolla hypocrateriformis, 4–5 mm. diam.; tubus cylindraceus, fauce gibbis emarginatis instructa. Stamina 5, sub fauci affixa; filamentis elongatis.

Hab.—North Island: Mount Holdsworth, Tararua Range; altitude, 4,000-4,500 ft.; W. Townson! B. C. Aston!

Perennial, sparingly clothed with short soft hairs. Flowering-stems several from the root, slender, decumbent below, erect or ascending above, 6–12 in. long. Radical leaves few or many, 2–4 in. long; blade about half the length, ½-¾ in. broad, linear-obovate to oblong-obovate or oblongspathulate, obtuse or subacute, thin and membranous, both surfaces sparsely clothed with soft white hairs; cauline much smaller, oblong or linear-oblong, sessile, or the lower alone shortly petiolate. Racemes pedun-

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culate, simple or forked, many-flowered. Calyx hispid with soft white hairs; lobes erect, linear-oblong, subacute. Corolla funnel-shaped; tube equalling the calyx, throat with 5 scales; limb rather small. Stamens inserted just below the corolla-scales; filaments long, more than twice the length of the anthers, which reach more than half-way up the corollalobes. Nutlets ovoid, smooth and shining, dark brown.

I describe this species with considerable hesitation, on account of its evident close relationship to M. saxosa, a plant which has not been seen since its first discovery by Mr. Colenso, nearly sixty-five years ago. Judging from Hooker's description, however, it differs from that plant in the much larger size, more slender habit, fewer softer hairs, more numerous and larger flowers, and in the anthers not being exserted. I have much pleasure in dedicating it to Mr. Aston, who is doing so much towards increasing our knowledge of the botany of the Tararua Range.

Art. XXIV.—The Absorption of Moisture from the Atmosphere by Wools.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st December, 1909.]

Wool is very hygroscopic, and may contain from 8 up to 50 per cent. of moisture, according to the conditions of the atmosphere to which it is exposed. This is an important item in the sale of wool, and hence in Great Britain and on the Continent the percentage of moisture contained in wool to be sold must be officially determined in wool-conditioning laboratories.

The legal amount of moisture allowed in most European countries is 18.25 per cent.

The purposes of this investigation were—(1) To determine under what conditions wool absorbs moisture from the atmosphere; (2) to determine what constituents present in wool enable it to absorb such relatively large amounts of moisture.

The chemical composition of wool-fibre is nitrogenous, but we must distinguish between the true wool-fibre and the incrustating and mechanically adhering matters.

Pure wool-fibre consists for the most part of keratine, the characteristic constituent of horn, feathers, &c., and is not of constant chemical composition, but varying in different qualities and kinds of wool.

The incrustating and adhering matters consist of—(a) Wool-fat or yolk (soluble in hot alcohol); (b) other fatty matter (soluble in ether); (c) suint, which exudes from the body of the animal with the perspiration, and is sometimes known as “wool-perspiration” (soluble in water); (d) adhering impurities or dirt mechanically mixed with the above or entangled among the fibres (mechanically removed after extracting the fats).

The following are the analyses of the greasy and slipe wools of various kinds used in this investigation. The methods of analyses used are those

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described by the author,* with an additional method to determine the water-soluble suint. Suint was determined in the portion of the sample remaining after removal of the adhering sand and dirt. After drying and weighing, the sample was placed in a soxhlet extraction-thimble and repeatedly extracted with hot water; thereafter it was dried and weighed, the difference in weight from the previous weighing being suint, and the residue pure wool-fibre.

Table I.—Greasy Wool.
Half-bred. Three-quarter bred. Leicester. Lincoln.
Moisture 16.90 19.20 17.79 17.18
Wool-fat 16.68 12.08 8.94 5.72
Other fatty matter 0.42 0.74 0.91 0.96
Water-soluble suint 10.30 12.72 7.81 2.26
Sand, dirt, lime, &c 3.62 3.94 5.10 5.32
Pure wool-fibre 52.08 51.32 59.45 68.56
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Table II.—Slipe Wool.
Half-bred. Three-quarter-bred. Leicester. Lincoln.
Moisture 12.78 12.82 13.37 12.67
Wool-fat 6.49 5.76 3.53 3.47
Other fatty matter 2.45 2.29 1.82 2.05
Water-soluble suint 2.01 1.60 1.20 1.04
Sand, dirt, lime, &c. 2.66 3.72 4.49 3.85
Pure wool-fibre 73.61 73.81 75.59 76.92
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

It will be seen from the above analyses that the slipe wools contain a lower percentage of moisture than the greasy wools; the cause of this difference will be explained later. It is further seen that the amounts of wool-fat and suint are considerably less in the slipe wools; this is only to be expected, for in the washing of the skins these matters are removed.

The increase in fatty matters other than wool-fat is probably due to the fat and grease on the underside of the skin adhering to the wool in rubbing against the woolly side during the process of washing.

In determining the amount of moisture absorbed by greasy and slipe wools, the wools were dried absolutely, and, after weighing, were exposed to the atmosphere of the laboratory for from twenty-four hour to 408 hours, being weighed at regular intervals; at the same time determinations of the relative humidity and the amount of moisture in grains per cubic foot present in the atmosphere were made.

[Footnote] * Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., vol. xxvii, No.3, 1909; Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. xli, 1908.

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The results obtained are presented in the following tables (the amounts of moisture absorbed by the wools are calculated to the moisture-free samples):—

Table III.—Greasy Wool.
Time, in Hours. Moisture absorbed, per Cent. Relative Humidity. Grains of Water per Cubic Foot.
24 24.38 80 3.6
32 29.27 85 5.2
48 27.77 85 4.4
72 26.82 72 3.8
144 28.66 82 3.9
168 26.62 76 3.8
192 27.36 85 3.8
216 25.79 70 2.7
240 24.85 65 4.3
Table IV.—Slipe Wool.
Time, in Hours. Moisture absorbed, per Cent. Relative Humidity. Grains of Water per Cubic Foot.
24 16.26 80 3.7
26 16.12 75 4.2
48 16.69 81 4.7
72 16.27 78 3.5
96 16.92 80 4.1
144 20.66 95 4.8
168 19.82 87 4.6
180 17.79 60 4.2
192 18.14 80 3.6
200 19.41 85 5.2
216 19.43 85 4.4
240 18.92 72 3.8
312 19.27 82 3.9
336 18.71 76 3.8
360 19.13 85 3.8
384 17.95 70 2.7
408 17.74 65 4.3

From the above results it is seen that the greasy wool absorbs from 24.38 to 29.27 per cent. moisture, whereas the slip wool absorbs under the same conditions from 16.12 to 20.66 per cent. It is also seen that the amounts of moisture absorbed increase and decrease as the relative humidity rises and falls.

It is he relative humidity of the atmosphere rather than the absólute amount of moisture present which determines the amount of moisture which wool absorbs. From the above table it is seen that the amount of water per cubic foot of air bears but little direct relation to the moisture absorbed by the wool.

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The amount of moisture absorbed by pure wool-fibre free from incrustations and adhering impurities was determined, and the results are shown as follows:—

Table V.—Pure Wool-Fibre.
Time, in Hours. Moisture absorbed, per Cent. Relative Humidity. Grains of Water per Cubic Foot.
24 18.03 72 3.8
96 19.50 82 3.9
120 18.90 76 3.8
144 19.62 85 3.8
168 18.47 70 3.7
192 18.19 65 4.3

It is thus seen that pure wool-fibre, free from all other matters, absorbs from 18.03 to 19.62 per cent. of moisture from the atmosphere under varying degrees of humidity.

It is obvious from the above results that the pure wool-fibre cannot be the only matter in normal wool which causes the absorption of moisture, for in the greasy wool, containing from 50 to 60 per cent. of pure wool-fibre. it is found that the absorption of moisture is from 24 to 29 per cent, whereas if the pure wool-fibre were the only factor we should expect to find a moisture-absorption of but from 9 to 12 per cent.; and in slipe wool, containing from 70 to 80 per cent.; pure wool-fibre, we find a moisture absorption of from 16 to 20 per cent., whereas it should be only from 14 to 15 per cent. It is thus apparent that there are other factors which determine the amount of moisture absorbed.

It is probable that the relatively high amounts of moisture absorbed by pure wool-fibre is due to the very large surface-area presented to the atmosphere in proportion to the weight of the fibre.

A number of wool-fibres, each 3in. long, were counted and weighted, and the following results calculated: 13,100 fibres of half-bred wool, each 3in. long, weighs 1 gram; 12,500 fibres of three-quarter-bred, each 3 in. long, weighs 1 gram; 9,100 fibres of Leicester, each 3 in. long, weighs 1 gram; 7,800 fibres of Lincoln, each 3 in. long, weighs 1 gram.

If we take the average diameter of each of the above classes of wool as given in the following table, it will be found by calculation that the surface-area of 1 gram of wool is as follows:—

Diameter. Surface-area of 1 Gram.
Half-bred 0.0008 in. 98 sq. in.
Three-quarter-bred 0.0010 in. 118 sq. in.
Leicester 0.0016 in. 136 sq. in.
Lincoln 0.0018 in. 132 sq. in.

It will be seen that the large surface-area is an important factor in considering the relatively large amount of moisture absorbed by the fibre.

The wool-fat was examined, and it was found capable of absorbing up to 17.2 per cent. moisture when spread thinly on a watch-glass; but even with the inclusion of this factor it is not possible to account for more than 1 or 2 per cent. of the moisture absorbed by the normal wool-fibre.

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The water-soluble suint, or wool-perspiration, was examined, with the result that it was found that very large amounts of moisture were absorbed by this constituent.

Table VI.—Water-Soluble Suint.
Time in Hours. Moisture absorbed, per Cent. Relative Humidity. Grains of Water per Cubic Foot.
24 60.43 76 3.8
48 66.42 85 3.8
72 65.50 70 2.7
96 63.55 65 4.3
120 64.76 72 3.4
144 66.24 80 3.8

The results presented above show that here also the moisture absorbed varies with the relative humidity.

It is at once apparent that the suint, although present in amount of only 1 or 2 per cent. in some wools, and up to 12 per cent. in others, is responsible for a relatively large amount of moisture absorbed by the normal wool-fibres.

In slipe wools this material is largely washed out during the treatment of the skins, and its presence in greasy wools accounts for the increased power of moisture-absorption shown by these wools, and is an important factor in determining the amount of moisture that can be absorbed by the wool-fibre.

In determining the absorption of moisture by slipe wools it was found that the fatty matter other than wool-fat, which is present in slipe wool to a greater amount than in greasy wools, had the power of slightly retarding the absorption of moisture. This fatty matter, as has already been pointed out, is picked up by the wool from the greasy underside of skin during the washing process.

In the following experiments the natural wool-fat was first removed by extraction with hot alcohol, and the wool, after drying and weighing, was exposed to the atmosphere, and the amount of moisture absorbed determined; thereafter the other fatty matter was extracted with ether, and, after drying and weighing, was again exposed to the atmosphere under similar conditions of relative humidity, and the moisture absorbed noted.

In all cases the wool absorbed more moisture when the foreign fatty matter was removed than in its presence. The results obtained are shown in the following table:—

Table VII.
Foreign Fatty Matter. Moisture absorbed in Presence of Fatty Matter, per Cent. Moisture absorbed in Absence of Fatty Matter, per Cent.
2.06 10.70 11.07
2.16 9.38 9.92
2.60 9.22 9.98
2.88 9.98 10.18
3.28 9.95 11.13
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It is probable that the fatty matter forms a film over the surface of the wool, and, being itself impervious to moisture, thus retards to a certain extent the moisture-absorption by the fibre and the other constituents of the wool.

Another point of considerable interest in connection with the foreign fatty matter present in slipe wool is that it is an oxidizable fat, and it is probably this fat which caused the rise in temperature in certain of the bales of wool experimented upon by the Wool Fires Commission,* Nos. 6 and 12.

In this connection it is of interest to refer to the reports by Mr. R. J. Friswell and Dr. J. S. Haldane on these experiments.

Mr. Friswell states, “Another most interesting point is the fact that the oxidation of the grease by air and moisture (to which I attributed the fires on the s.s. “Gothic”) is proved by these experiments. I have extracted the grease from Nos. 6 and 12, and have found it oxidized, and rubber-or varnish-like in character.” Dr. J. S. Haldane states, “The results of the tests quoted in your letter are, I think, very instructive. They seem to me to point to this: that the rise in temperature of the bales was due to some substance (probably an oil) capable of combining with oxygen at a comparatively low temperature, and so producing heat; that the amount of this substance is very small, since the process practically comes to an end after about a fortnight, and that more or less of this substance was present in all the bales tested.”

This fatty matter has been found in greater or smaller amounts in all slipe wools examined, but the amount present, while it is undoubtedly capable of producing heat by oxidation in the presence of air and moisture, is relatively so small that even should oxidation take place the heat generated cannot be very great. Where the amount of foreign fatty matter is high, of course a very serious danger does exist, as, for instance, in the case of a wool containing only from 6 to 10 per cent. moisture, but from 34 to 36 per cent. foreign fatty matter of an oxidizable nature.

Summary.

The results of this investigation show that the amount of moisture which a wool can absorb from the atmosphere depends on several factors.

1. The relative humidity of the atmosphere determines the amount of moisture which a dry wool will absorb, more moisture being absorbed during a period of high relative humidity than when the humidity is low.

2. Pure wool-fibre, of which greasy wool contains from 50 to 70 per cent., and slipe wool about 75 per cent., can absorb from 18 to 20 per cent. of its weight of moisture from the atmosphere. This amount is not sufficient to account for all the moisture absorbed by the dry normal wool-fibre.

3. Natural wool-fat, present in greasy wool in amounts up to nearly 17 per cent., and in slipe wool to about 6 ½ percent., is capable of absorbing about 17 per cent. of its weight of atmospheric moisture.

4. Suint, or wool-perspiration, can absorb from 60 to 67 per cent. of its weight of moisture when exposed to the atmosphere, this matter being very hygroscopic, and is present in greasy wools in amounts up to nearly 13 per cent., and in slipe wools to about 2 per cent.

[Footnote] * Rept. Comm. on Fires on Wool-ships, Exhibit 40, pl. xxxvii.

[Footnote] † Supp. Rept. Comm. on Fires on Wool-ships, p. 6.

[Footnote] ‡ Rept. Comm. on Fires on Wool-ships, p. lxxxv; Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., vol. xxvii, No. 13.

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5. Fatty matter other than natural wool-fat, present in slipe wools to an amount of from two to six times that found in greasy wools, and picked up by the wool from the greasy underside of the skins during the washing process, has a retarding effect on the amount of moisture absorbed.

By thoroughly washing wool, as in the case of slipe wools, not only are the incrustating and adhering matters washed out, and so a less weight of the product obtained, but a further deduction in weight has to be allowed for, because the wool is incapable of absorbing the same amount of moisture from the atmosphere which it could absorb in a greasy state, before the natural fat and suint were partially removed. The amount of moisture which slipe wool can absorb from the atmosphere does not reach the legal standard of 18.25 per cent. allowed.

For permission to publish these results the author desires to thank the Christchurch Meat Company (Limited), in whose chemical laboratory at Islington most of the work in connection with this investigation was carried out.

Art. XXV.—The Formaldehyde Method for the Estimation of Nitrogen in Organic Substances.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st December, 1909.]

The reaction between ammonia and formaldehyde, whereby hexamethylenetetramine is formed, has been used for some time as a means of estimating formaldehyde, but the reaction has only recently been utilised for the estimation of ammonia.

Bennett* has shown that the reaction can be made use of for the estimation of nitrogen in certain organic substances after digestion with sulphuric acid according to the well-known Kjeldahl method. He applied the method particularly to the determination of nitrogen in leather-factory control, and has shown that accurate results can be obtrained for nitrogen in leather and tannery lime liquors.

The substance under examination is digested with sulphuric acid and sulphate of potash until the liquor is clear; the excess of acid is neutralised with sodium-hydrate solution, using phenolphthalein as the indicator; a neutral solution of formaldehyde is added, liberating the sulphuric acid present in combination with ammonia; hexamethylenetetramine is formed, which is neutral to phenolphthalein; the liberated acid is titrated with decinormal alkali-solution until the pink colour returns.

It is not so much claimed that this method effects a saving of time, but rather that no special apparatus is required for carrying out the determination, the whole operation being conducted in one flask.

[Footnote] * Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., vol. xxviii, 1909, pp. 291, 292.

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The author has investigated this method as applied to the estimation of nitrogen in meat-products, organic nitrogen in fertilisers, and dried tankage and blood.

The following results were obtained, the amounts of nitrogen found by the formaldehyde method and the Kjeldahl method being shown:—

Meat-extract.
Nitrogen found (per Cent.)
Formaldehyde Method. Kieldahl Method.
Sample No. 1 8.44 8.42
" 2 9.02 9.02
" 3 8.76 8.76
" 4 8.58 8.56
Mixed Commercial Fertilisers.
Sample No. 1 4.23 4.23
" 2 4.26 4.25
" 3 2.74 2.74
" 4 2.88 2.88
" 5 3.96 3.98
" 6 3.72 3.72
" 7 4.25 4.27
Dried Tankage.
Sample No. 1 7.26 7.25
" 2 8.31 8.32
" 3 6.72 6.72
" 4 8.26 8.25
" 5 7.33 7.33
" 6 7.21 7.20
" 7 8.08 8.08
Dried Blood.
Sample No. 1 12.74 12.74
" 2 13.22 13.20
" 3 13.04 13.04
" 4 14.26 14.26
" 5 13.88 13.87
" 6 14.52 14.52

For permission to publish these results the author desires to thank the Christchurch Meat Company (Limited), in whose laboratory at Islington most of the work in connection with this investigation was carried out.

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Art. XXVI.—Bionomic Observations on certain New Zealand Diptera.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 8th June, 1909.]

This papaer is composed from the notes on the Diptera which I have collected in Otago during the last two seasons.* The species dealt with are to be found described in the “Synopsis of the Diptera Brachycera of New Zealand” (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxiii), by the late Captain Hutton; those described elsewhere have the references attached. Only a few of the more common species are figured in colour in this paper, as diagrams and coloured plates of all the species will appear later in a series of papers which I hope to publish, dealing with both new species and those flies already described by Captain Hutton. Where it is deemed necessary, I insert a brief account of the general characters and habits of the families.

I am indebted to Professor Benham for his invaluable suggestions during the preparation of this paper.

To avoid repetition I shall here give a description of the general features of the localities mentioned:—

Ocean Beach forms the ocean side of the isthmus connecting Otago Peninsula with the mainland. This isthmus, which is about a mile in width, is formed, for the most part, of blown sand and alluvium, and is bounded on the opposite side to the beach by the mud-flats at the head of Otago Harbour. The sandhills of Ocean Beach are covered with lupinbushes and marram-grass.

Tomahawk is separated from Ocean Beach by Lawyer's Head. Behind the sandhills of Tomahawk is a lagoon into which run the streams from the surrounding hills; the overflow finds a course over the sand to the sea. Lupin-bushes and marram-grass abound.

Purakanui is the district to the north of Otago Heads. The coastline of this locality is formed of a series of precipitous headlands with intervening sandy beaches, behind each of which there generally exists a mud-flat or swamp fed by streams originating from the hills. Of these, Murdering Beach is a short strip of sand, surrounded by steep hills, and backed by a swamp in which rushes and other forms of vegetation grow. Long Beach is a stretch of sand of considerable length, and an extensive area of cultivated land (often under water) exists behind the sandhills. Mapotaki Beach faces the north (the last two face the north-east), and is somewhat similar in form to the preceding, differing in the fact that the sea gains an entrance to the mud-flat by a small stream which runs across the beach after draining the swamp. The surrounding hills of Purakanui are in places covered with what remains of the native vegetation.

Mount Cargill (2,232 ft.) is situated toward the north of Dunedin, and is still more or less covered by the native bush, which is either being felled or burned off.

[Footnote] * Owing to the loss of a note-book, the remarks concerning several of the species mentioned below are somewhat meagre. However, since these observations went to press, additional facts have been collected for another paper, which I propose to publish as soon as possible.

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The Nuggets is a rocky headland about sixty-five miles south-west of Dunedin. To the north of this headland are extensive stretches of sandy sea-beaches backed by dense native undergrowth; in certain places swamps exist.

Barewood is situated inland, about twenty-five miles north-west of Dunedin, and about 820 ft. above sea-level. This locality is well named, the vegetation consisting of tussock, matagouri scrub, and a small plant with a yellow flower called the Maori onion (Bulbinella Hookeri). The Taieri River runs, in a deep gorge, through this locality.

Taieri Mouth is the name applied to the beach where the Taieri River meets the sea, about twenty-two miles south-west of Dunedin. This beach has much the same formation as that at the Nuggets.

Series O R T H O R R H A P H A B R A C H Y C E R A.

Fam. Stratiomyidæ.

The members of this family inhabit flowers, and very in size, some being small, while others are inclined to be large. Certain of the species are distinguished by the bright green of the abdomen.

Beris violacea.

This is a small species measuring about 4 mm. in length. I found a single specimen at the head of Mapotaki Bay in November (1907); this fly was resting on a bramble-bush growing near the mud-flat, which is covered by the sea at high-tide.

Odontomyia chloris. (Plate XXVIII, fig. 1)

Common during the season, but not to be observed in swarms. In January (1908) I captured two specimens on the sea-beach of Taieri Mouth, where, I think, they had been blown from the swamps behind the sandhills. The weather was very warm, sunny, and windy. At Roslyn, during February of the same year, I captured another specimen, which was at rest on a daisy exposed to the sun. Two more specimens were found in January (1909) on Murdering Beach, and under similar weather conditions to the preceding. Specimens of this species are common in gardens, and may be found in most situations.

Odontomyia collina.

About the same length as the preceding, but sometimes smaller, the sexes differing in size. One bright, warm, and windy day during December (1908) I captured a single specimen at Barewood, Central Otago.

Fam. Asilidæ (Robber-flies).

Robber-flies, the most predaceous form of Diptera, are, as a general rule, large insects which prey upon others. When a victim is captured, the aslid bores a hole in the thorax by means of the horny proboscis, and thus obtains the nutritive portions of the prey.

Saropogon fugiens. (Plate XXIX, fig. 4)

During December (1907), at Taieri Mouth, this fly was exceedingly common. A number were captured among long grass near the bush. Vast numbers were found lying in a helpless condition at the margin of the sea, into which they had been blown by a strong offshore wind. I

– 228 –

observed one specimen, which had been wet, struggle to a dry piece of sand (about a quarter of an inch in diameter), and, mounting this, stand up with its feet held closely together and stretch out its wings to dry in the wind. In this, I think, it would have been successful had it not happened that a wave coming up a little farther than usual enveloped the fly, and carried it back into the struggling mass of its fellows. As the tide went out there was left stretching along the beach a sinuous line composed of these flies and also representatives of other genera. Enormous numbers of Diptera are thus destroyed. When walking along Ocean Beach one day I was surprised to see a black continuous band stretching along the sand as far as the eye could reach; on examining it I found this dark line to be composed of myriads of small black flies belonging to the family Mycetophilidœ, which were evidently carried there by a strong breeze.

Saropogon hudsoni.

Found at Taieri Mouth in company with S. fugiens. I also captured a single specimen on Mount Cargill during February (1909); the weather was very hot and sunny, there being no wind.

Itamus varius. (Plate XXIX, fig. 6.)

Captured on the sea-beach at Taieri Mouth, January (1908). This fly was not then common: only a single representative was captured in this locality. It was more abundant at Barewood, Central Otago, where I captured several during December (1908). The specimens observed at Barewood would, when approached, either fly for a short distance and again alight or run into a tussock.

Fam. Therevidæ.

The members of this family are not so active as those of the Asilidœ, but otherwise they agree in habits.

Anabarhynchus bilineatus.

Length, 16 mm. I captured a single specimen at Taieri Mouth, January (1908), and two on Murdering Beach during the same month of the following year. This species is not common; it is to be found on sandhills during warm weather.

Anabarhynchus micans

Smaller than the preceding, being about 10 mm. in length. This species does not appear to be common, since only two specimens were found, on ivy, in the sun, at Roslyn, November (1907).

Fam. Empididæ.

These flies are predaceous in their habits, and are seldom found in barren situations, on account of the presence in these localities of their more powerful allies, the Asilidœ.

Hilara fulvipes.

This is a small, abundant species, about 4 mm. in length, to be found in swarms hovering over bushes and flowers from November to February.

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Fam. Dolichopodidæ.

The males of this family bear sexual ornamentations on the legs, head, the third joint of the antennæ, as well as on other parts. The species of this division are small.

Psilopus mobilus.

Very common in the bush at Taieri Mouth during January (1908). These flies were found, basking in the sun, on tree-trunks. I captured only two at Murdering Beach in January (1909), and these were resting on rushes which grew in a swamp behind the sandhills.

Series C Y C L O R R H A P H A A S C H I Z A.

Fam. Syrphidæ (Hover-flies).

The members of this family are both large and small, and are beautifully coloured with yellow and green. They are usually found hovering over flowers in the sun, and can be recognised by their mode of flight alone, which is described thus by Kirby: “They hover motionless in the air, and, if alarmed, dart off with a rapid motion that the eye cannot follow, and hover again as soon as they stay their course.”* The larvæ are beneficial to gardeners, as they destroy large numbers of injurious insects.

Eristalis tenax (introduced).

Abundant everywhere from February to March; also found—but in decreasing numbers—in April and May. This species is found hovering about flowers in the sun. When it alights, the abdomen may often be seen moving up and down, and the wings are held in such a position as to expose the abdomen. I observed a specimen feeding on the pollen of a dandelion: the fly took hold of the stamen of a flower with its proboscis—which appears to be bifid at the distal extremity—and passed it once or twice up and down the stamen in order to rub off the pollen. After this operation had been indulged in two or three times, the fly held out its proboscis at full length, and moved the bifid portion as if it were in the act of tasting. Another specimen I observed to rest on the broken end of a holly-twig, by alighting so that the sharp edge of the broken twig came between the bases of the fore and middle legs; the fly steadied itself with the posteriortarsi pressed against the sides of the twig, while it cleaned its fore tarsi and proboscis; the middle legs meanwhile were outstretched. This specimen remained thus for about four minutes.

Helophilus trilineatus. (Plate XXIX, fig. 5.)

Not very common. I captured one specimen at Taieri Mouth in January (1908) as it alighted on a blade of grass in the sun. At Roslyn, during February of the same year, two were obtained resting on a marigold-flower exposed to the sun.

Helophilus antipodus.

Found at Roslyn, November (1908). I captured this species amongst some long grass in the sun, the day being very warm. A large number were observed hovering over a stream on Mount Cargill during February

[Footnote] * I have lately observed a distinct difference between the flight of S. novœ-zealandiœ and that of M. fasciatum: the movement of the former being jerky contrasted with the gliding motion of the latter.

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(1909), and in the same month, as well as in March, several were captured on the hills of Purakanui. H. antipodus produces, during flight, a humming sound like that of a bee, but of a more acute tone.

Helophilus ineptus.

Common at Roslyn during February and March (1909). One very hot and sunny day in January I captured this fly on the banks of a small stream above Murdering Beach.

Helophilus chathamensis.

There is no record of this fly having been found before in New Zealand, since Captain Hutton's specimens were captured at the Chatham Islands. I found an individual on the sea-shore of Taieri Mouth, where it had been blown by a strong wind, in January (1908), and the following month I captured another hovering above a clump of marigold-flowers at Roslyn. On a small cliff at Tomahawk, during October (1908), a large number were taken while at rest on or hovering over some wild flowers attached to the rock; at the foot of this cliff a stream runs into the sea.

Helophilus latifrons.

Captured on a hillside near the bush at Taieri Mouth, December (1907). Two specimens were obtained at Roslyn during September (1908), and two more from Tomahawk in the following month.

Syrphus novæ-zealandiæ. (Plate XXIX, fig. 1.)

One of the most abundant of New Zealand Syrphids: it is to be found everywhere during the season, appearing about September and becoming less common in April; only a few are to be seen during May, and then only in sunny weather. This species varies greatly in colour, the yellow being in some a deep in others a very light shade, and may even be tinged with green. If a specimen be captured shortly after it has emerged from the pupa, the yellow spots are transparent, the black colour transmits the light, and thus the organs contained in the abdomen are rendered visible. I kept two specimens in confinement—a male and a female—for a few days. The male flew about more than the female, the latter feeding, most of the time, on the pollen of daisies which I had put in for food. These observations were made during May (1909), at which period the weather was becoming cold, so that the Syrphids were inert; but on the application of a little warmth they immediately showed signs of returning animation—the female returned to the flowers, while the male amused itself by endeavouring to find an exit. After a few minutes the female would stop feeding and stretch out the proboscis to its full length; this action having been accomplished once or twice, feeding was resumed; occasionally the fly would rub the proboscis with the fore tarsi. When this species alights, the wings are either held outstretched or folded over the abdomen, which is frequently kept in motion, as in E. tenax. On a drop of nitric acid being held about a quarter of an inch from the antennæ of a female, the fly immediately started back or dodged from side to side, endeavouring to avoid the acid; when held at the side of the thorax the acid did not appear to affect the specimen.

Syrphus ortas. (Plate XXIX, fig. 2.)

This species is rare. I have found only one specimen, which was resting on a dandelion exposed to the sun—Roslyn, September (1908).

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Melanostoma fasciatum. (Plate XXIX, fig. 3.)

Common; usually to be observed from January to April. I found no specimens at Taieri Mouth at the beginning of 1907, but they were abundant at and round about Dunedin during January 1908. A large number were captured amongst long grass and upon rushes growing in swamp exposed to the sun.

Series C Y C L O R R H A P H A S C H I Z O P H O R A.
Division 1.—Muscidæ Calyptratæ

Fam. Œstridæ.

Gasterophilus hæmorrhoidalis (Bot-fly, introduced).

During February (1909) I observed a large swarm hovering about a young horse, attacking the animal at the knees and sides, and, as they flew about the place upon which they wished to alight, they would suddenly dart in and out, each time coming into contact with the horse's flesh.

Fam. Tachinidæ.

This is an extensive family, the members varying more or less in size; they abound in various situations, some in barren localities, others upon the inflorescences and leaves of plants; they are parasitic, at certain stages of development, upon the larvæ of other insects, thus being invaluable factors in the destruction of injurious species.

Macquartia subtilis.

Not common. This species was captured on a hillside near the bush at Taieri Mouth one very sunny day in December (1907).

Calcager turbidum

A single specimen was captured amongst long grass in the evening, at Roslyn, February (1909), and another on the sandhills at Ocean Beach during May of the same year.

Hystricia lupina.

Very common on the tree-trunks of the bush at Taieri Mouth, December (1907), but I only found a single specimen on a flax-leaf at Tomahawk, October (1908).

Hystricia pachyprocta.

Captured in large numbers, together with the preceding, at Taieri Mouth, December (1907). I obtained another specimen at Mount Cargill, February (1909).

Occisor versutus.

Not common. I have only a single specimen, which was captured on Mount Cargill during February (1909).

Proscissio cana.

Not common. Specimens captured during December (1908) at Barewood, Central Otago.

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Phorocera marginata.

Common. Captured on a red rata bush at Roslyn, September (1908), and on a laurel hedge during May (1909).

Phorocera tecta. (Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvi, p. 151.)

Common at Barewood, Central Otago, during December (1908).

Phania verecunda.

I have only obtained a single specimen of this species, which was captured by sweeping the net through long grass at Roslyn, February (1909).

Fam. Sarcophagidæ (Flesh-flies).

The members of this family are to be found upon decaying animal and vegetable matter.

Sarcophaga impatiens. (Plate XXVIII, fig. 2.)

This common fly is found in most situations. During December (1907), at Taieri Mouth, I captured a specimen near a swamp. About the middle of June (1908) I picked up another individual which was lying on the Tomahawk sea-beach, and several were obtained from the swamp behind Murdering Beach during January (1909), as well as from Long Beach during the two following months of the same year.

Fam. Muscidæ (House-flies; Blow-flies).

Lucilia cæsar (Green Bottle-fly, introduced).

Abundant everywhere, living upon decaying animal matter.

Calliphora erythrocephala (introduced Blow-fly).

Abounds in all situations.

Calliphora quadrimaculata.

The common New Zealand blow-fly. Abundant throughtout the season from about September onwards.

Calliphora hortona.

Common. During October (1908) I captured a large number on Ocean Beach. On stirring up the heaps of dried seaweed which lay about the sand above high-water mark I was surprised by the large numbers of this species which emerged, together with numerous semi-transparent flies. By examining the latter I found that they were specimens of C. hortona which had evidently just completed pupation. When first obsrved, the wings were crumpled or folded up longitudinally along the margin of the dorsal surface of the abdomen. At this stage the whole body was greyish in colour, and the abdomen, when held to the light, was seen to be semitransparent. After about three hours the coloration of the mature fly began to develop: the abdomen became opaque and assumed the final blue tint, the thorax became gradually darker, the bristles took on their permanent colour, and the wings unfolded, the whole fly becoming transformed in colour. Before this transformation commenced, the ptilinum projected considerably, but was gradually withdrawn as the fly became mature. The wings of this species presented a peculiar appearance immediately after they had unfolded: two cross veins, connecting the first and second longitudinal veins, were absorbed as maturity approached. I have observed this structure in the wings of other genera.

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Calliphora icela.

This species is common throughout the season.

Calliphora antennatis.

Evidently rare. I have captured three specimens in all—one at Ocean Beach, October (1908); a second on the beach at the Nuggets a few days later; and a third at Barewood, Central Otago, December (1908).

Calliphora læmica.

Found in most localities during the season, common.

Muscina stabulans.

Not uncommon. I captured a number at Roslyn during September (1908 and 1909); also in May and October (1908).

Fam. Anthomyidæ.

Trichophthicus maculipennis.

I captured a single specimen on a very warm day at Roslyn, February (1909).

Trichophthicus dolosus.

Three specimens were captured at Purakanui during January (1909), and two others at Dunedin in the following month.

Trichophthicus melas.

I captured one specimen during a very sunny day, at Roslyn, November (1908); two more were obtained from Mount Cargill, also during a sunny day in Febrauary (1909).

Trichophthicus limpidus.

Abundant. Found in a swamp at the Nuggets, October (1908), and captured in a swamp behind the sea-beach of Murdering Bay during January and February (1909).

Trichophthicus carbonarius.

Not very common. In October (1908) four specimens were obtained from a swamp at the Nuggets, and only one from among rushes, Purakanui, February (1909).

Trichophthicus ordinatus.

Two specimens were captured in a swamp at the Nuggets, October (1908).

Trichophthicus villosus. (Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxiv, p. 171.)

Abundant. This fly is recorded from the Auckland Islands, but not from New Zealand, by Captain Hutton. Taken in large numbers from a swampy locality at Purakanui, January (1909).

Limnophora rapax. (Plate XXVIII, fig. 3.)

Common during December (1908) and January (1909) at Roslyn, and on the banks of a stream on Mount Cargill.

Homalomyia canicularis.

A common house-fly, which is introduced.

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Homalomyia fraxinea.

Not common. Two specimens were captured on Mount Cargill, February (1909).

Cœnosia algivora.

This species was common on sandhills and patches of dried kelp during October (1908) at the Nuggets, and less common at Ocean Beach, March (1909).

Division II.—Muscidæ Acalyptratæ.

Fam. Phycodromidæ.

Cœlopa monstruosa.

Not common. Found on sea-beaches during the whole year, several being captured near the mud-flats at the head of Otago Harbour in the middle of winter (1909). If examined microscopically, the contents of the stomach are found to be composed of various portions of algæ, upon which the fly evidently feeds. This species is not very rapid in flight, and, since it only flies for a short distance near the ground, it can easily be run down; when on water it rests with the wings incumbent, and supports itself by placing the five tarsal joints along the surface. Being aquatic, this fly runs more rapidly on water than on land. If it happens to alight on its back, it wriggles about on the distal extremities of the long femora until it rights itself. The habits of this species are, generally speaking, sluggish.

Fam. Helomyzidæ.

Helomyza scutellata.

Common. Several specimens were captured on a window at the Nuggets during October (1908), and in the bush of the same locality; others were found in a swamp behind Murdering Beach, January (1909), and at Roslyn in February of the same year.

Fam. Sciomyzidæ.

Trigonometopus bipunctatus.

Common. Has been previously captured at the Chatham Islands, but not in New Zealand. Found in the same localities as C. monstruosa, and resembles that species in being aquatic as well as in its mode of flight. It burrows in the sand under the heaps of dried seaweed. This fly did not suffer from being placed in a jar of water which I kept agitated, and from which the specimen flew when the water was allowed to become smooth. I held another specimen under water for a short time (a minute and a quarter), but when released it rose to the surface, ran about for a few seconds, and flew away. This species is buoyed up by the numerous globules of air which adhere to the bristles and hairs.

Fam. Sapromyzidæ.

Sapromyza dichromata.

Not uncommon.

Lauxania bilineata.

Abundant about Dunedin from November (1908) to February (1909). To be observed resting upon grass, lupin-bushes, and other forms of vegetation.

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New Zealand Diptera.—Miller.

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New Zealand Diptera.—Miller.

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