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Volume 42, 1909
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Art. VIII.—The Present Position of New Zealand Palœontology; with a List of Papers on the Palœontology of New Zealand, including the Titles of those Stratigraphical Papers containing Important Lists of Fossils.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 6th October, 1909.]

Geological explorations in New Zealand have been in progress now for seventy years, and a mass of reports and papers is in existence bearing witness to the work done by solitary pioneers, and later by—

  • The Provincial Surveys of Canterbury, 1860, under Haast; Otago, 1861, under Hector; and Wellington, 1862, under Crawford:

  • The Geological Survey established under the New Zealand Institute Act of 1867:

  • The officers of the Mines Department from 1878 to date: and

  • The new Geological Survey of 1905.

In addition to this there was the important work done by Hochstetter, and by Haast and Hutton and others, as private individuals.

The portions of this work that I wish to deal with are the collections that were made by these Surveys; and I wish to give, if possible, some idea of the progress that has been made with the study of them, and more especially what has been done in the examination and determination of the fossils.*

[Footnote] *I do not propose to say anything about the collection of rocks and minerals, except to state that the collection of these made by the old Survey of 1867 in the Dominion Museum building exceeds 12,000 specimens; nor do I propose to say anything about the work that has been done on the moa and other extinct birds.

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The collections that are in New Zealand are not many, and may be described as under:—


The collection of the older provincial Surveys and of the Geological Survey of 1867. These are in the Museum at Wellington. The number of specimens available for study is about 120,000. All these have correct locality numbers.


The displayed collection in the Canterbury Museum.


The displayed collection in the Auckland Museum.


The displayed collection in the Otago University Museum, Dunedin.


The Hochstetter collection in the Nelson Museum.


A few small private collections.

Outside New Zealand.


Collection of Tertiary fossils in the British Museum.


Specimens in the hands of experts for determination.

I will now say a few words about these collections, and as some justification for doing so I may say that I have been intimately acquainted with the collectors and the collections made by the Government Surveys for thirty-two years, and have watched their growth under the guidance of Sir James Hector, ably assisted by Mr. A. McKay, Professor Park, Mr. Cox, and others. It is with pleasure that I bear witness to the great interest and value of the collections. There can be little doubt that the cost of making the collections has been not far short of £50,000,* and some of them could not be secured again at any price.

At the end of this paper I have placed a bibliography of the papers bearing more especially on the palæontology of New Zealand; and those who are acquainted with the subject will see, on looking it over, that, except in the case of the Tertiary fossils, there has been very little systematic work recorded. Even the Tertiary lists must shortly undergo a severe revision, based on the new manual of the marine Mollusca, which is now near complection. The percentages of recent and extinct forms will be greatly modified. Much also remains to be done in carefully collecting with a view to establishing characteristic zones in the marine Tertiaries.

No serious systematic work has been done on the description of the Mesozoic or Palæozoic fossils. It was the intention of the late Sir James Hector to bring out a series of publications on the palæontology of of New Zealand, and as early as 1878 the following reports were announced as specially descriptive of the palæontology of New Zealand:—


New Zealand Belemnites.


New Zealand Brachiopoda.


New Zealand Fossil Flora.


Fossil Corals.


Tertiary Mollusca.

[Footnote] * Or perhaps one-half the total cost of the survey under Sir James Hector.

[Footnote] † A sufficient study of the fossils has been made to determine the probable age of the Lower and Upper Silurian, Lower Devonian, and Carboniferous formations in the Palæozoic series, and of the Permian. Triassic, Liassic, and Jurassic sequence of the Mesozoic formation and the determinations yet to be made are not likely to disprove the general accuracy of the conclusions that have been arrived at with respect to these formations.

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Of these, the fourth was printed and issued with plates, being a descriptive catalogue of fossil corals and Bryozoa sent to the Sydney Exhibition in 1879, written by Rev. Tenison-Woods.

One (the first) was to be on the belemnites; and the plates for this part were published in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,”* with an abstract of the descriptions by Sir James Hector. A sufficient supply of extra plates was printed for the separate issue, and are still in store.

The same course seems to have been taken with the palæozoic Brachiopoda, although in this case additional plates are in existence besides those that were printed for a separate issue. Three new genera, Rastelligera, Psioidea, and Clavigera, are proposed in the abstract published. The plates as prepared figure thirty-three species in thirteen genera. Plates v, vi, vii, viii have not been printed, although the drawings are arranged. Besides this there are drawings, not arranged, for about four more plates. A paragraph on page 539 states that “These two papers” [on the fossil flora and on the fossil Brachiopoda] “will appear in full in the report of the Geological Survey Department now in the press” [January, 1879].

There is another paper in the form of a translation of Ettingshausen's paper on the fossil plants of New Zealand. This appears in the Transactions, and a few copies were issued with separate pagination, and the extra supply of plates was printed off and stored.

It is possible that another palæontological report was in contemplation, as there is an extra supply of plates printed corresponding to those of the paper on the fossil Reptilia of New Zealand.§ A number of blocks were made of characteristic fossils from drawings by Buchanan—the draughtsman to the Survey—and were used in the Catalogue and Guide to the Geological Exhibits at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition in London in 1886.

It is much to be regretted that apparently no manuscript by the late Sir James Hector exists to enable his work to be taken up. I have been able to identify the figures in Buchanan's drawings of the brachiopods by the number on the drawings and the number on the specimens still in the case. Whether it is worth while to endeavour to retain these names remains to be seen. The three genera proposed by Sir James are entitled to stand so far as publication is concerned. A very large series of specific names are used in the introductions to the annual reports of the Geological Survey; but, as they have not been printed with any author's name, it is difficult to identify them, especially as they are not attached to any specimen.

The catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca and Echinodermata by Captain Hutton was issued in 1873.

In the general collection at the Museum the only named specimens are a few of Hutton's types of the Tertiary Mollusca, and the collection of fish-teeth examined by Davis, and a few of the reptilian remains which can be identified by the published plates. Probably the plant-fossils named by Ettingshausen are also still named, although they have been packed

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. x, p. 484, pls. xxii, xxiii.

[Footnote] † Trans N.Z. Inst., vol. xi, p. 537.

[Footnote] ‡ Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiii, p. 237, pls. xxiv-xxxiii; Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi, p. 536.

[Footnote] § Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. vi, p. 333, pls. xxvii-xxxi.

[Footnote] ∥ Trans. Royal Dublin Soc., vol. iv, ser. 2. 1888.

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away for year. The number of named New Zealand fossils in the Museum other than types is certainly well under fifty.*

There is one important matter which I consider should be placed on record which is at present buried in departmental files. In 1885, at the request of Professor Tate, of Adelaide, a collection of fossils from the New Zealand Tertiaries was sent to him; and again in 1890, at the request of the late Captain Hutton, a collection of the New Zealand fossil pectens was sent for comparison with the Tertiary fossils of the Australian regions, which the professor was then describing. He appears to have drawn up a report, but desired better and more specimens. This was attended to, and practically all the pectens in the collection were sent, the list of which covers eleven folio sheets, the collection itself filling many cases. Shortly after this, Professor Tate died; and frequent applications were, I believe, made for the return of the specimens, without avail. I understand that at the professor's death it was found impossible for the University authorities to separate the University collection from those belonging to the professor and those loaned to him. We have suffered, at any rate for the present, a great loss. The loss is important, as the pectens as a rule afford important stratigraphical information from a zonal point of view. From an interview which I had not long ago with an Adelaide gentleman, I believe it would still be possible to recover some of the specimens.

To return to our list of collections: The second is that displayed in the Canterbury Museum; and, when we remember that for some years Dr. Von Haast and Captain Hutton devoted much time and labour to it, we shall not be surprised to find here probably the best-arranged and best-named collection of fossils, mainly Tertiary, in the Dominion. The collection was worked over some years ago by Mr. Suter, and is in good condition, and well arranged in a pattern of case which originated in the Museum, and is mentioned with approval by Bather in his report on antipodean museums. There is also the finest collection of remains of the Dinornis that yet has been exhibited; and the whole is supplemented by a large collection of fossils from other countries. It contains many types of Hutton's species. It would be very convenient to have a published list of this collection, with types indicated.

The third collection is that in the Auckland Museum. Mr. Cheeseman informs me that, with the exception of a few well-known species, they have less than fifty named fossils to represent the Palæozoic and Secondary fossils. In the Tertiaries their collections are larger, but still far from satisfactory.

The fourth is the small collection exhibited in the Otago University Museum. Here for some time the New Zealand and foreign fossil species were exhibited in their places with the living species; but Professor Parker, recognising that the Museum was devoted more especially to teaching-collections, as distinguished from large general collections, largely reduced the number of exhibits, and substituted instead a very carefully selected series of fossils from all countries illustrating the sequence of life-forms in geological order. The number of specimens is small, but the value is great for teaching purposes, set out as it is with instructive labels at frequent

[Footnote] * In the Rep. N.Z. Inst., –78, it states that “The New Zealand fossils now accumulated in the course of the Geological Survey represent collections from 450 different localities, and comprise about 6,200 trays, which have been thoroughly classified, and 1,200 specific types withdrawn into a separate collection for publication. A large number of types have been figured, and their publication will be proceeded with as rapidly as the other work of the Department will permit.”

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intervals. The collection of moa-remains is notable, including several individual specimens and a complete egg, together with some excellent osteological preparations of the juvenile states, and the originals of the plates in Professor Parker's paper on the cranial osteology of the moa.

The fifth is the Hochstetter collection of rocks and fossils presented to the Nelson Museum by Hochstetter, and, when the Museum was destroyed by fire a few years ago, it was much damaged. Now, however, it has been cleaned and restored.

The remaining head of my list includes a number of small collections that are the property of private collectors. None of these are of any great extent, and they are mainly from the Tertiary beds.

The collections outside New Zealand are not many or extensive, but include the following:—

In the year 1860 the Hon. W. B. D. Mantell presented a collection of Mollusca from the Miocene and Pliocene beds at Awamoa and Onekakara to the British Museum.

In 1875 a large and valuable collection was taken Home by Sir James Hector from various horizons in the Tertiary of New Zealand, and exchanged with the British Museum authorities, and in 1880 a few were transferred to the British Museum from the Museum of Practical Geology. A few were presented in 1882 by Lieut.-Colonel Wilmer from the Pliocene and Post-Pliocene, and a few by Mr. Bullen from a raised beach near Opua, Russell, Bay of Islands. These specimens were described and three species figured in the Australasian Section of the Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca in the Department of Geology, British Museum, by G. F. Harris, F.G.S., in 1897, the New Zealand species being 108 gasteropods, with 42 lamellibranchs.

In 1904 Professor Park collected a large number of fossils from a new locality on Mount Mary on the Upper Waitaki, and these were forwarded to Professor Boehm, Freiburg, for examination. He has been obliged to hand them over to Dr. Otto Wilckens, Associate Professor of Geology, Bonn University, for description, and we are still waiting for the issue of the publication. Some collections have been made in the older rocks of the Nelson District, and are, I believe, being examined at the British Museum at the present time.

In the same year Professor Park and the writer made large collections of fossils from the Triassic and Jurassic rocks at Nugget Point and Catlins district. These fossils, supplemented with collections made by Professor Park from the Trias of Nelson, are now in the hands of Professor Wilckens awaiting description.

When we come to inquire into the literature that is available, we have at present to rely largely on the results of the “Novara” expedition and the determinations of Zittel for the Triassic and Jurassic rocks. Fortunately, the publications of that voyage are available in most of the libraries, and the plates are excellent. The work, however, only figures fifty species of Mollusca from all formations, together with nine quarto plates of Foraminifera and Bryozoa—quite a creditable result, however, under the circumstances.

Scattered through the pages of the series of the New Zealand Geological Reports are a great number of generic and specific names, a very large proportion of which will be found on examination to be “nominanuda,” and will disappear.

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In the catalogue of the New Zealand fossils exhibited at Sydney particular pains seems to have been taken to affix names to the exhibits. from the list I have extracted all that could be taken with any hope of tracing them, and arranged them under authors, placing the letter M against those species that can now be identified in the Museum collections.

In Catalogue of Fossils exhibited at Sydney by Colonial Museum.

  • Salter—

  • Orthis patera. M.

  • Hall—

  • Murchisonia terebralis.

  • Orthis fissicostata. M.

  • Callopora elegantula.

  • Astrocerium venustum.

  • Orthis circulus. M.

  • Streptelasma junceum.

  • Orthoceras junceum.

  • Murchisonia uniangulata (var. abbreviata).

  • Modiolopsis modiolaris.

  • Leptæna bipartita. M.

  • Davidson—

  • Strophomena corrugatella.

  • d'orbignyi. M.

  • Orthis interlineata. M.

  • Phillips—

  • Avicula anisota.

  • cancellata.

  • Monotis radialis.

  • Belemnites australis. M.

  • Dalman—

  • Orthis basalis.

  • Chonetes striatella.

  • Lindstrom—

  • Orthis crassa. M.

  • Sowerby—

  • Orthis unguis.

  • Spirifera radiata.

  • Stricklandia lyrata.

  • Rhynchonella wilsoni. M.

  • Trigonotreta undulata.

  • Mytilus squamosus.

  • Astarte minima.

  • Astarte elegans.

  • Trigonia costata.

  • Avicula costata.

  • Brongniart—

  • Calymene blumenbachii.

  • Konig—

  • Homalonotus knightii.

  • Romer—

  • Spirifera cultrijugata.

  • Hector—

  • Homalonotus expansus.

  • Psioidea, nov. gen. M.

  • Rastelligera, nov. gen. M.

  • Belemnites otapiriensis.

  • pallinensis.

  • hochstetteri.

  • Trigonia sulcata.

  • Schlotheim—

  • Spirifera speciosa. M.

  • Epithyris elongata. M.

  • Geinitz—

  • Schizodus schlothemii.

  • Nautilus frieslebendi.

  • Zittel—

  • Mytilus problematicus. M.

  • Spirigera (Athyris) wreyii. M.

  • Monotis salinaria. M.

  • Aucella plicata.

  • Hochstetter—

  • Inoceramus haasti.

  • Hauer—

  • Ammonites novo-zelandicus.

  • Belemnites aucklandicus.

  • Brown—

  • Pleurophorus costatus.

In the list of papers given at the end there are some in which further assistance in the identification of species may be found; but there is a great lack of information until we come to the Tertiaries.

It will be seen from this short summary that the student of geology has plenty of palæontological material that might be available for him to work on under expert guidance, but that the literature relating directly to his work is small, scattered, and hardly up to the present level of research. This is not a new discovery—the matter has been discussed for many years. The subject is a difficult one, as it requires not only a

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thorough knowledge of the progress of modern systematic work in classification, but a working knowledge of the mass of published literature on the rocks of similar age found in other countries. Unless this is taken into account, the result will be a useless multiplication of genera and species, and a further burdening of a synonymy already of bewildering length.

At the meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science held at Dunedin in 1904, the subject of New Zealand palæontology was brought up, and the President, Professor David, waited on the Minister of Mines and communicated the following recommendation from Section C, which had been agreed to by the association:—

New Zealand Fossils.

“On the recommendation of Section C, it was agreed, That the following resolution be forwarded to the New Zealand Government: That, whereas this association considers that the description of the large collection of fossils now at the Wellington Museum is one of the most important services which the New Zealand Government could at the present time render to science, and that it is one which would be for the advancement of science throughout the world; that, whereas the work would be of economic as well as of scientific interest, as it is only by its means that the coalfields of New Zealand can be properly correlated, and the broad relations and modes of origin of its metalliferous deposits understood; that, whereas, according to the annual reports, there are more than thirty thousand fossil-specimens in the exhibition-cases at Wellington Museum, by far the larger part of which are unnamed and undescribed, and besides about five hundred boxes of fossils still unpacked in the same Museum; and that, whereas these collections, made at considerable expense to New Zealand, are obviously useless in their present state—this Council recommends: (1.) That the description of these fossils should be commenced immediately, and that, if this recommendation is adopted by the New Zealand Government, the undermentioned groups of fossils be sent for description to the following workers at once: The graptohtes, to T. S. Hall, M.A.; the Foraminifera and ostracods, to F. W. Chapman; the echinoids, to Professor Gregory; Palæozoic fossils other than those in the above groups, to R. Etheridge, jun. (Curator, Australian Museum, Sydney), and W. S. Dun (Palæontologist, Geological Survey, New South Wales). (2.) That, with regard to the large and important collections of Mesozoic and Cainozoic fossils (other than echinoids, Foraminifera, and ostracods) in the Wellington Museum, the Council recommends that advice as to their description be delegated, so far as this association is concerned, to a committee consisting of the following: Captain F. W. Hutton (retiring President), Professor Baldwin Spencer (President-elect), and A. Hamilton, Esq. (Director of the Colonial Museum, Wellington).”

The Hon. the Colonial Secretary was also written to to the same effect, and did me the honour to forward the letter for my perusal, and asked for my views on the matter; and I replied as follows:—

“Feb. 9th, 1904.

“To the Hon. the Colonial Secretary, Wellington.


“I am obliged to you for the opportunity to peruse the letter addressed to the Premier by the President of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, and I am glad to have the opportunity

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of expressing my views on the subject of the description of the fossils in the Museum, although that part of the collection has not passed under my charge.

“I think that it is imperative that steps should be taken at once to have the fossils (other than the Tertiary fossils) got together and prepared for examination and description by an expert. Without this preliminary step no arrangement could be come to with any expert, either as regards the description and figuring or the publication of results. He must know whether he is to deal with hundreds or thousands of specimens. This matter of getting the material together is urgent, as the only person thoroughly acquainted with the whole of the specimens is Mr. McKay.

“I concur in the suggestions made generally, and I can assure you that the feeling of geologists and men of science all over the world is that this matter is urgent. The conditions under which the arrangements are made with the experts employed must be carefully framed, and will need much consideration.

“I am, sir, your obedient servant,

A. Hamilton, Director.”

Further suggestions were asked for, and I wrote as follows:—

“To the Hon. the Colonial Secretary.

“Feb. 26, 1904.


“In reply to your memo. of the 24th instant, re the fossils of the New Zealand Geological Survey at present in the Museum under my charge, and the proposed arrangements for their description and publication, I have the honour to make the following suggestions and remarks:—

“1. Preparatory Work.


That the Mines Department be asked to instruct their officials to get together in a convenient place all the specimens of fossils now in their collections up to the close of the Cainozoic period, arranged generally under the following heads:—

  • “Hydrozoa,

  • Actinozoa,

  • Echinoderms,

  • Annelids,

  • Crustacea,

  • Polyzoa,

  • Brachiopoda,

  • Lamellibranchiata,

  • Gasteropoda,

  • Cephalopoda.


That the number of specimens in each class be ascertained within reasonable limits, and that an estimate be made of the probable number of species.


That the specimens be repacked in strong cases, and plainly labelled and numbered at the side and at the end of the case. A more detailed description of the specimens to be entered against the number of the case in a record-book. It is presumed that all specimens have already their locality number. When this preparatory work has been done,* which will take some months, the following steps should be taken:—

[Footnote] * It is not quite finished yet.

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“2. Arrangements for Description and Publication.


Certain well-known experts in the Australasian Colonies should be approached as to their willingness to undertake the description of one or the other of the groups of fossils, and as to the terms on which they would do so, and also as to what they consider a fair and reasonable time in which to do the work.


A draft agreement should be drawn up by the Government or the Department, setting forth, with the necessary blanks, what the expert contracts to do on his side, and what remuneration he is to receive for the work, and when and how he is to be paid.

“In making the above suggestions I wish to point out that the preliminary sorting and packing of the fossils is the most urgent matter, and should be seen to at once. Unfortunately, the accommodation at the Museum is at present quite insufficient for such work, and emphasizes the necessity for the workshops at the back of the Museum, which I trust will be soon authorised.

“However, as soon as the Government Analyst takes possession of his new building, the rooms he vacates could be used with advantage for the sorting. The Mines Department will no doubt give Mr. McKay what assistance he requires for the purpose, and provide suitable boxes for the repacking of the specimens. Directly the number is ascertained of the fossils to be examined and described, the Government should appoint one or more persons to interview the selected experts in Australia to arrange the terms and conditions; and I would suggest that, instead of visiting them separately, they should be invited to meet in Sydney and discuss with the New Zealand representatives a plan for the description and publication of the fossils, in order to insure as much uniformity as possible for the various New Zealand publications, and also that they should conform as far as possible to similar publications by the Australian States.

“I must call your attention to the extremely unsatisfactory result of some transactions with the late Professor Tate, of Adelaide, as disclosed by the file of correspondence in the office of the Museum. It seems that at his request Professor Tate was intrusted with a large collection of Tertiary fossils for description. The fossils have not been returned to the Museum, and I have recently been informed that the fossils have passed into the hands of a person who has sold or otherwise disposed of them.*

“Professor Tate furnished a few notes on a part of the collection which he received in 1890. It does not seem to me right that such a thing should occur, although I am not now in charge of the collection of which the lost specimens formed a part.

“I am, sir, your obedient servant,

A. Hamilton, Director.”

Since that time Mr. A. McKay and an assistant have been continuously employed in the transfer of the specimens of rocks and fossils to new and better boxes, and have checked every specimen as to locality, and a complete record has been made. It is fortunate that this has been done, as there is no one else now living who could have done it, and Mr. McKay,

[Footnote] * This, I now learn, is incorrect.

[Footnote] † Under the New Zealand Institute Act of 1903 the minerals and fossils in the Museum passed into the control of the Mines Department.

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who has now retired from active work in the Mines Department, can look back with satisfaction on the present condition of the collection which represents the work of his life.

The work of bringing together, reticketing, and cataloguing the fossil collections in the Dominion Museum was begun in 1904. By Sir James Hector most of the collections were subdivided to bring together the genera of the families and orders represented, and it was determined to bring together in the collection all the specimens from each locality. This proved a most arduous work, and for want of sorting-space it was found to be impossible, and the specimens of one locality had often to be repacked in several boxes containing other fossils. Finally the ticketing, &c., was finished (excepting the brachiopods and cephalopods in the cases), and for some months past a revision and gathering of the fossils from one locality into as few boxes as possible has been going on. When this work is finished the whole of any collection can be laid out, and the different species culled from the evident duplicates of the same, and, thus pruned, the collection may be placed in the hands of an expert for description. There is even now plenty of material wherewith to make a start—as, for instance, in the large and important collection from Amuri Bluff.

Mr. McKay has also greatly elaborated the old lists of localities for the guidance of future collectors.

Since the meeting of the Australasian Association in Dunedin in 1904 a new Geological Survey, with Dr. Mackintosh Bell as Director, has been established, and the palæontological work done by the officers of the Survey will be found in the new series of Bulletins issued since that time.

Palæontology has naturally held a place in the training of the students who have passed through the various courses for certificates and diplomas of the School of Mines of the University of Otago, and it also forms a part of the subject of geology in the degree subjects for the University of New Zealand.

The results are, so far as I can gather, that, of our students who have attended the Otago School of Mines, twelve mining students have passed the requirements of the examination in general palæontology.

In the University of New Zealand 197 students* have, up to the present time, taken geology, including New Zealand palæontology, for the pass degree, with the following results: Passed, 197. For honours, 24 have taken geology, including palæontology: of these, 16 passed with firstclass honours, 7 with second-class, and 1 with third-class. Of these honours students, Clarke, Thomson, Andrew, and Boult have contributed papers to the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” which appear under their names in the list at the end of the paper, Mr. Clarke describing as new 3 species, Thomson 3 species, Andrew 1 species of Mollusca and some cetacean remains, Boult 1 species; most of these being Tertiary species.

This paper is written to point out the present unsatisfactory position of New Zealand palæontology, and I have endeavoured to provide a base for a new departure when the opportunity occurs for a forward movement. I am convinced that so far as the Palæozoic and Mesozoic fossils are concerned there is little of permanent value on record, except in the “Voyage of the Novara” and one or two recent papers, and it will be necessary to make a fresh start in the description and correlation of the New Zealand species in the collection.

[Footnote] * Bachelor of Arts, 107; Bachelor of Science, 84; Bachelor of Engineering, 6.

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It will be found that fresh collections will have to be made in some localities to ascertain correctly the horizons and zones in which certain species occur.

List of Papers on the Palœontology of New Zealand, including the Titles of those Stratigraphical Papers containing Important Lists of Fossils.*

Andrew, A.

  • On the Geology of the Clarendon Phosphate Deposits, Otago, N.Z. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxviii, 447. [Pl. iv figures a new brachiopod—Magellania marshalli—and some cetacean bones.]

Bather, F. A.

  • The Mount Torlesse Annelid. Geological Magazine (n.s.), dec. v, vol. ii, pp. –541, December 1905. [And letter to editor, January 1906, pp. 46, 47, ib.]

Benham, W. B.

  • A Gigantic Cirripede from New Zealand. Geol. Mag. Lond. (ser. 2), 1903, pp. –119, 2 pls.

Boehm, Georg.

  • Ueber tertiare Brachiopoden von Oamaru, Sudinsel. N.Z. Berlin; Zs.D. geol. Ges. 56, 1904, brieft Mitt. (146-150, mit 1 Taf.).

  • Reisenotizen aus Neu-Seeland. Abdruck a. d. Deutsch. geolog. Gesellschaft, Jahrg. 1900, p. –177.

Boult, A.

  • Occurrence of Gold in Harbour Cone, Dunedin. [Incidentally describes and figures (p. 432, pl. ix, fig. 1) Pseudamussium huttoni.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxviii, 425.

Buchanan, J.

  • On the Belemnite Beds at Amuri Bluff. Rep. N.Z. Geol., 1867.


  • Sul deposits di Jackson's Paddock, Oamaru, nella Nuova Zelandia. Roma, 1890, 4.

Clarke, E.

  • The Fossils of the Waitemata and Papakura Series. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, 413; 1905.

  • Graptolites of the Aorere Series. Bull. No. 3 (N.S.), N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1907, p. 34, pl. viii.

Crawford, J. C.

  • On Probable Reasons why Few Fossils are found in the Upper Palæozoic and Possible Triassic Rocks of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 561.

Davis, James William.

  • On some Fish-remains from the Tertiary Strata of New Zealand. (Paper afterwards withdrawn.) Jan., 1886. [Sent by Captain Hutton: Fish teeth and spines exhibited—Lamna, Carcharodon, Notidanus, Myliobatus, and Sparnodus; Te Aute.] Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xlii, pt. ii, p. 4; 1886.

[Footnote] * This list does not include, except in a few instances, the papers that have been written on the subject of the fossil remains of the extinct birds of New Zealand. These have been given in the Transactions of the N.Z. Institute, vol. xxvi, p. 229; vol. xxvii, p. 229; vol. xxxvi, p. 471.

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  • Report on the Fossil Fish-remains of New Zealand. Trans. Roy. Dub. Soc., vol. iv, ser.2; 1888. [See also N.Z. Geol. Rep. (as a separatum).]

  • Note on a Species of Scymnus from the Upper Tertiary Formation of New Zealand (S. acutus). [Napier series, Esk River.] Geol. Mag., n.s., dec. iii, vol. v; 1888.

De Latour, H. A.

  • On the Fossil Marine Diatomaceous Deposit near Oamaru. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxi, 293.

Duncan, P. M.

  • On some Fossil Alcyonaria from the Tertiary Deposits of New Zealand. Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxi, 1875, p. 675, pl. xxxvii.B.

Ettingshausen, Professor Dr. Constantin Freiherrn von.

  • Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Fossilen Flora Neuseelands. Besonders abgedruckt aus dem liii Bande der Mathematisch Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, p. 1–52, taf. 1–9, vol. liii, pt. i; 4to. Wien, 1887.

  • Genetische Gliederung der Flora von N.Z. Sitzungsbr. Imp. Acad. Sc. of Vienna, vol. lviii, pt. i, p. 653. 1884.

  • On the Fossil Flora of New Zealand. Geol. Mag., 363, 1887.

  • Contributions to the Knowledge of the Fossil Flora of New Zealand, Trans. by C. Juhl from the German (Vienna, 1887). Plants from seventeen localities. Tert., Cretaceous, and Trias. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii, 237, plates xxiv-xxxii, redrawn by J. Buchanan. [This was reprinted as New Zealand Palæontology, pt. ii, Fossil Flora, pp. 1–74, and Supply of the plates from Trans., vol. xxiii, to issue with it. A few copies were issued.]

Etheridge, R., jun.

  • On some Species of Terebratulina, Waldheimia, and Terebratella from the Upper Tertiary Deposits of Mount Gambier and the Murray Cliffs, S.A. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1876, vol. xvii, p. 15. [Waldheimia taylori, Ett., pl. i, fig. 3, a, b, c, has been identified as New Zealand by Hutton, and other Australian Tertiary species will probably be found to be represented in New Zealand formations.]

Field, H. C.

  • A Fossil Egg. [In “shell-rock,” Otatoka Valley, near Waitotara. 2in. long by 1 ¼in.] N.Z. Journ. Sci., ii, 325.

Forbes, Dr. C.

  • On the Geology of New Zealand, with Notes on its Carboniferous Deposits. Q.J. Geol. Soc., xi, 521.

Forbes, E., and Rupert Jones.

  • See Mantell. Forbes: Note on Fossiliferous Deposits in the Middle Island of New Zealand. [Jones: Foraminifera and Diatoms.] Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. vi, p. 329; 1850.

Haast, Sir J. von.

  • Geology of Canterbury and Westland, 1879. Pt. iii, Geology: Waipara Formation, Fossil Contents, p. 295; Oamaru Formation, Fossil Contents, p. 311; Pareora Formation, Fossil Contents, p. 319; Saurian Remains in the Waipara, pp. –155.

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  • Saurian Remains from the Waipara River, Canterbury, in the Possession of J. Cockburn Hood. [Lost in the “Matoaka.” A tooth figured. pl. xxiv, fig. G, a, b, c. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi (Knight).] Trans. N.Z. Inst., ii, 186.

  • Saurien in der Tertiarform. in New Zealand. Wien Verhandl. Geol., 350; 1869.

  • Vorkommen von Brachiopoden im den Kusten von Neu Seeland. Wien Geol. Verhandl., 253; 1874.

Hamilton, A.

  • List of Recent and Fossil Bryozoa collected in various Parts of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., i-xxxvi, 1908, –467.

  • Notes on a Small Collection of Fossils from Wharekauri, on the Waitaki River, North Otago. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvi, –467; 1904.

Harris, George F.

  • Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca in the Department of Geology, pt. i, Australasia; 1897; British Museum (Nat. Hist.). [Localities 1, 5, 13, 14, and 15 are New Zealand. Describes species presented by Dr. Hector and others.]

  • British Museum Catalogue. Tertiary Fossils. New Zealand Section. 1897. Heaphy, Charles.

  • The Volcanic Country of Auckland, N.Z. In an appendix to the paper, list of fossils, mostly Foraminifera, by the editor Q.J.G.S., T. Rupert Jones. Journ. Geol. Soc., 1860, vol. xvi, p. 251, pls. xii and xiii. (In Review of Karrer's paper, T.R.J.[ones] and W. K. P.[arker] in Geol. Mag., i, p. 75; 1864)

Hector, Sir James.

  • Table of Fossiliferous Localities. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 13, –80, iii.

  • Index to Fossiliferous Localities in New Zealand. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 255. –87.

  • On the Fossil Brachiopoda of New Zealand (abstract). Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi, p. 537.

  • Fossil Reptilia of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 333, pls. xxvii to xxxi.

  • Index to Fossiliferous Localities in New Zealand, distinguished by Numbers. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 120; –91.

  • Index to Fossiliferous Localities according to Counties. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 146; –91.

  • On a New Trilobite (Homalonotus expansus). Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 602.

  • Handbook of New Zealand, Sec. Geology, List of Characteristic Fossils in the various Formations: 1879 (Sydney), pp. 17, 30; 1880 (Melbourne), Appendix to Official Cat., with Geological Map, pp. 19, 32; 1883, pp. –41, with geol. map; 1886, pp. –35.

  • Indian and Colonial Exhibition, 1886, N.Z. Court: Detailed Catalogue and Guide to the Geological Exhibits. [Pp. 1–88, with geologically coloured map of North and South Islands; 65 sections and figures, about 184 figures of characteristic fossils. Though in many cases poorly drawn, they form the best series yet issued. Pp. –101: Appendix to General Index to Reports and List of Publications of the Geological Survey of New Zealand.]

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  • Notes on N.Z. Cetacea, Recent and Fossil. In Proc. N.Z. Inst., vol. xiii, p. 434 (abstract only), pl. xviii. [Part of lower jaw, tympanic bulla, and teeth of Kekenodon onamata, nov. gen. and sp., Waitaki Valley. Types in Dominion Museum. See also Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1881, pp. xxviii and 68, with section; also (p. 104) recording a nearly entire specimen, 23 ft. in length, the fragments of which are now in the Museum.]

  • Outlines of New Zealand Geology, with Map. Second Part of Special Catalogue of Geological Exhibits sent to Indian and Colonial Exhibition. Also Appendix to General Index to Reports of Geological Survey. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 37. 1886.

  • Critical Notes and Corrections of Localities in “Report on the Fossil Fish-remains of N.Z.,” by J. W. Davis. N.Z. Geol. Rep., No. 22, 1894, pp. –120.

  • Preliminary Note on the Bones of a Fossil Penguin. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ii, 403.

  • On the Remains of a Gigantic Penguin (Palœeudyptes antarcticus, Huxley) from the Tertiary Rocks on the Coast of Nelson. Trans. N.Z. Inst., iv, 341.

  • Further Notes on the Bones of a Fossil Penguin (Palœeudyptes). Trans. N.Z. Inst., v, 438.

  • On the Belemnites found in New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., x, 484.

Hill, H.

  • Description of a Scaphites found near Cape Turnagain. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xix, 387.

Hinde, G. Jennings, and Holmes, W. Murton.

  • On the Sponge-remains in the Lower Tertiary Strata near Oamaru, Otago, N.Z. Journ. Linnean Soc. (Zoology), vol. xxiv, p. –262, pls. vii to xv.

Hochstetter, Ferd. von.

  • Palæontologie von Neu Seeland. By Unger, Zittel, Suess, Karrer, Stoliczka, Stache, and Jaeger. Reise der “Novara,” 2 abth. 1864.

Huxley, Professor T. H.

  • On a Fossil Bird and a Fossil Cetacean from N.Z. [Palœeudyptes antarcticus, Kakanui limestone; Phocœnopsis mantelli, Awamoa (Pareora).] Q.J. Geol. Soc., xv, 671.

Hutton, Captain F. W.

  • Descriptions of New Tertiary Shells. [Pt. i, Wanganui and Petane, H.B.; pt. ii, from Canterbury Museum and Hawke's Bay.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii, –322, pl. xviii, fig. 22.

  • Three New Tertiary Shells. [Pleurotoma hamiltoni and Mitra hectori. Waihao Forks, Cant.; and Pecten hilli, Napier.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, –473, pl. 44.

  • New Species of Tertiary Shells from Canterbury, Wanganui, and Petane. [“The list of New Zealand Tertiary Mollusca, 1885, numbers about 460 species, of which about 250 still remain unfigured.”] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii, 333.

  • Revision of the Tertiary Brachiopoda of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, –481, pls. xlv, xlvi.

  • On the Supposed Rib of the Kumi. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxi, 485.

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  • Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca and Echinodermata of New Zealand in the Collection of the Colonial Museum, Wellington, 1873: Mollusca, 1–37. Echinodermata, pp. iv, vii, ix, 1–43; index, –48, –43. [The plates mentioned in the preface were never published.]

  • On Some Railway Cuttings in the Weka Pass, North Canterbury. [List of Fossils, Mount Brown Beds, Greta (Upper Pareora) Beds.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 257.

  • On some Fossils recently obtained from the Cobden Limestone at Greymouth. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xx, 267.

  • On the Correlations of the “Curiosity-shop Bed” in Canterbury, N.Z., June, 1885. Q.J. Geol. Soc., Nov., 1885. [Long list of fossils, with references.]

  • On a New Plesiosaur from the Waipara River (Cimoliosaurus caudalis). From Bobby's Creek, Waipara. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxvi, –358, pl. xlii. [See also Haast, Geol. of Cant. and Westland, p. 169, and Hector, Trans., vol. vi, p. 341.]

  • The Pliocene Mollusca of N.Z. Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 35, 1893, pls. vi-ix.

  • On the Relation between the Pareora and the Ahuriri Formations. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 590.

  • The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru Systems of N.Z. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 31st March, 1886, vol. i (ser. ii, p. 205). [268 species.]

  • Sketch of the Geology of New Zealand. Q.J. Geol. Soc., May, 1885, vol. xli, p. 266. [Formations, with lists of characteristic fossils and full references.]

  • The Wanganui System. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii, 336. [Full list of species to date, Aug., 1885.]

  • Description of some New Tertiary Shells from Wanganui. [Mostly collected by S. H. Drew.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv, 410. 1882.

  • Description of Three New Tertiary Shells in the Otago Museum. [Cominella striata and Zizyphinus hodgei, Wanganui; Venus sulcata, Napier Limestone.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., viii, 383.

  • Cimoliosaurus caudalis, n. sp. (abstract). Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xlix, 1893; Proc., p. 151.

  • Oxford Chalk Foraminifera. N.Z. Jour. Sci., ii, 565.

  • On the Reptilian Beds of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 581.

  • On Crassatellites trailli. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxviii, 65.

  • On Conchothyra parasitica. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxvi, 358, pl. xliii. [See also a poor figure, upside down, fig. 20, p. 58, Cat. N.Z. Court Indian and Colonial Ex., 1886. Name spelled incorrectly.]

  • Description of some New Tertiary Mollusca from Canterbury, and 68 Species from White Rock, Mount Harris, and Waihao. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 593, pl. xvi [13 sp. fig.].

  • On a Trilobite from Reefton. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ser. ii, vol. ii, p. 257.

Karrer, Felix.

  • Die Foraminiferen-Fauna des tertiaren Grunsandsteines der Orakei-Bay bei Auckland. Mit 1 Tafel, xvi (69-86), Pal. Voy. “Novara.” 1864.

Kidston, R., and Gwynne-Vaughan, D. T.

  • On the Fossil Osmundaceœ (O. dunlopi and O. gibbiana), New Zealand new species from Jurassic rocks near Gore. Trans. Roy. Soc. Ed., vol. xlv, pt. 3, p. 759, 1907; vol. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 213, 1909; vol. xlvi, pt. 3, p. 651, 1909.

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Kirk, T. W.

  • Description of New Tertiary Fossils. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiv, 409.

Knight, Charles.

  • On the Teeth of the Leiodon. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 358, pls. xxiv-xxvi; 1874. Pl. xxiv—figs. A-F, Leiodon haumuriensis, Hector; fig. G, Mauisaurus (tooth ?); fig. H, tooth of Plesiosaurus traversii. Pl. xxv, Leiodon. Pl. xxvi, Taniwhasaurus (?).

Lydekker, R.

  • Cat. Fossil Reptilia in the British Museum, vol. ii. [P. 113, Ichthyosaurus hectori, Lydd., I., Australia; Hector, T., vi, p. 355: p. 118, Cimoliosaurus tenuis, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 345; 1874: p. 216, Cimoliosaurus haasti, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 346: p. 220, Cimoliosaurus australis, Owen, Rep. B.A., 1861, Trans. of Sec., p. 122; 1862 (Leiodon, Squalodon, Zeuglodon): p. 245, Cimoliosaurus hoodi, Owen, Geol. Mag., Dec. i, vol. vii, 53(1870), plesiosaur: p. 247, Plesiosaurus holmesi, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 344: Plesiosaurus traversi, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, p. 345: Plesiosaurus mackayi, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 345: Mauisaurus latibranchialis, Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vi, 350.]

McKay, A.

  • Mataura Plant Beds. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 13, –80, p. 39.

  • Fossils from West Coast of South Island. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 8, –74, p. 74.

  • Fossils from Hokonui District. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 11, –78, p. 49.

  • Fossils from Mount Potts. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., No. 11, –78, p. 91.

  • Reports relative to Collection of Fossils in South-east District of Otago: Caversham to Catlin's River. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 59; –73.

  • Reports relative to Collection of Fossils made in East Cape District, North Island. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 116; –73.

  • On the Reptilian Beds of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ix, 581.

  • Curiosity-shop, Rakaia River, Canterbury: Notes to accompany a Collection of Fossils from that Locality. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 75; –80.

  • On the Genus Rhynchonella. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiii, 396.

  • On a Diatom Deposit near Pakaraka, Bay of Islands. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxiii, 375, and xxv, 375.

Marshall, P.

  • Some New Zealand Fossil Cephalopods. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xli, 143.

Montgomery, A.

  • Some Fossil Plants in Quartzite at Pukerau, Southland. N.Z. Jour. Sci., vol. i, 1882, p. 141.

Murdoch, R.

  • Description of some New Species of Pliocene Mollusca from the Wanganui District, with Notes on other Described Species. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxii, 216.

Newton, E. Tully.

  • On two Chimæroid Jaws from the Lower Greensand of New Zealand, June 7, 1876. Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxii, p. 326; 1876 (No. 127). [Ischyodus brevirostris, Agassiz, pl. xxi, figs. 1–5; Callorhynchus hectori, Newton, sp. nov., figs. 6–9.]

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Owen, Professor.

  • Notice of some Saurian Fossils discovered by J. H. Hood, Esq., at Waipara, Middle Island, N.Z. [Plesiosaurus hoodii, owen; P. crassicostatus, Owen.] Geol. Mag., 68, Feb. 1870, vol. vii, pl. iii.

  • On Reptilian Fossils discovered by Mr. Cockburn Hood in New Zealand. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1861, p. 122.

Park, James.

  • On the Older Fossiliferous Rocks in Nelson. Rep. Geol. Explor. N.Z., 1885, p. 178. [Deals mainly with fossils from Silurian rocks at Baton River, a list of which is given—mostly brachiopods.]

  • On the Geology of Western Portion of Wellington Province and Part of Taranaki. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., –87, p. 24. [Gives extensive lists of Pliocene fossils from localities around Wanganui, and Waitotara.]

  • Marine Tertiaries of Otago and Canterbury: [Extensive Lists of Fossils.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, 489.

  • Description of a New Species of Pecten from the Oamaru Series [P. (Pseudamussium) Huttoni—both valves smooth.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, 485.

Purnell, C. W.

  • On the Wanganui Tertiaries. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vii, 453.

Shakespear, Ethel M.R., D.Sc.

  • On some New Zealand Graptolites. Geol. Mag., n.s., dec. v, vol. v, No. 4, April 1908, p. 145.

Stache, Dr. Guido.

  • Die Foraminiferen der tertiaren Mergel des Whangaroa Hafnes (Prov. Auckland), Raglan. Mit 4 Tafeln, xxi-xxiv (159-304) Pal. Voy. “Novara,” 1864.

Stoliczka, Dr. Ferdinand.

  • Fossil Bryozen aus dem tertiaren Grunsandsteine der Orakei-Bay bei Auckland. Mit 4 Tafeln, xvii-xx (87-158) Pal. Voy. “Novara,” 1864.

Tate, Ralph.

  • On New Species of Belemnites and Salenia from the Middle Tertiaries of South Australia. Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxiii, p. 257, No. 130; 1877. [Belemnites (Graphularia) senescens, n.s., fig. 1 (wood-cut). Also found in Oamaru and Kakanui beds. See Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1881, p. xxix.]

Tenison-Woods, Rev. J. E.

  • Palæontology of New Zealand, pt. iv [parts i, ii, and iii were never published]: Corals and Bryozoa of the Neozoic Period in New Zealand. Wellington, 1880. Pp. preface, i-v, 1–32. [3 plates (not numbered), 32 figs. This describes only the specimens exhibited in the N.Z. Court of the Sydney Exhibition.]

Thomson, J. Allan.

  • Fossils from Kakanui. [Three new species.] Trans. N.Z. Inst., xl, 98, pl. xiv.

Traill, Charles.

  • On the Tertiary Series of Oamaru and Moeraki. Trans. N.Z. Inst., ii, 166.

Unger, Dr. Franz.

  • Fossile Pflanzenreste. Mit 5 Tafeln, pp. 1–3, Pal. Voy. “Novara,” Geol. Theil, I Bd., 2 Ab., pp. 1–13.

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Vine, G. R., jun. (Hamilton, A.).

  • On the Foraminifera of the Tertiary Beds at Petane, near Napier. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiii, 393.

Waters, Arthur William.

  • On Tertiary Cyclostomatous Bryozoa from New Zealand. Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xliii, 1887, p. 337, pl. xviii.

  • On Tertiary Chilostomatous Bryozoa from New Zealand. Q.J. Geol. Soc., 1887, vol. xliii, p. 40, pls. vi-viii.

Woodward, Henry.

  • On a New Fossil Crab from the Tertiary of New Zealand, collected by Dr. Hector (with a note by Dr. Hector). Q.J. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxii, p. 51, pl. vii; 1875. [Harpactocarcinus tumidus. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., –74, p. 111.]

Zittel, Dr. Karl A.

  • Fossile Mollusken und Echinodermen (N.Z.). Mit 10 Tafeln, vi-xv, –68, Pal. Voy. “Novara.” 1864.

  • Fossile Mollusken und Echinodermen aus Neu-seeland; nebst Beitragen von Herrn Bergrath Fr. Ritter von Hauer und Prof. E. Suess. 10 Plates. See Geol. Mag., vol. i, p. 73; 1864.

Zittel, Count M.

  • General Notes from Proc. Imp. Geol. Instit., Vienna, Jan. 20, 1863.

  • On Hochstetter's Collection. See Q.J. Geol. Soc., 1863, vol. xix, pt. ii, p. 20.