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Volume 42, 1909
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– 106 –

It seems to have been about this time that the battle of Manga-toetoe took place, in Hawke's Bay, between the Manumanu people and Ngati Kahu-ngunu, at Manga-toetoe, where Rewharewha and other chiefs of Ngati Kahu-ngunu fell, some thirty in all; and again they were defeated at Pou-taka, where the Ngati Apa and Koiri people killed Tua-whitu. For payment Ngati Kahu-ngunu obtained help from the Ngati Apa and Ngati Maru tribes, who assembled at Here-taunga under the command of Tangi-te-rur, Roro, Rangi-nui-kap, and Te Rei.

The combined forces then travelled to Mokai Patea, where they found Pokai-tara, of Ngati Whiti, living at Whiringa-o-tau; so they killed him, and then crossed the Rangi-tikei River, where they killed Te Rahui, who belonged to the people living on that side of the river. When Pehi Turoa heard that the Ngati Kahu-ngunu were in the Rangi-tikei district, he wished to assist them, so he and Kaeaea (usually known as Taringa Kuri), of Ngati Tama, raised a party andwent to help. As soon as Ngati Wai-riki heard of this great army advancing, they sent messengers to Rangi-tikei, Whangaehu, Turakina, Manga-whero, and O-takapo, and raised a force to check the advance of the combined tribes, who had now joined. They met the enemy at the place where the town of Marton now stands, and, after a challenge to single combat had been given the chiefs Kapia, of Ngati Wai-riki, and Rangi-nui, of Ngati Kahu-ngunu, met, and after a hand-to-hand conflict Rangi-nui was killed. Upon seeing the fall of their chief leader, the Ngati Kahu-nugnu lost heart and fled. In this battle, which was called Taku-te-rangi, the Ngati Kahu-ngunu numbered 1,600 men (probably greatly exaggereated, for our friend is speaking à la Maori), while their victorious opponnents mustered only about 340.

After this the taua reconstructed, and went on the Here-taunga, whence they had come, still determined on mischief. When they arrived at Makaroro (head-waters of Wai-pawa River) they found the Ngati Upoko-iri and and ngati Hine-manu living there. so they attacked the pa and defeated its inmates, killing twenty-two of them. Some of the survivors from Pona-pona fled across the Wai-pawa River where they rallied, and in turn defeated their enemy at Wai-pohue, Pou-kawa, near Wai-pawa (Jour. Polynesian Soc., vol. ix, p. 74), and killed Rangi-maona-ariki, one of the chiefs of Tangi-te-ruru's war-party. After this defeat Tangi-te-ruru hastily returned home.

– 107 –

The next item in the chain of events was another heke, which the narrator affirms took place before the battle known as Hao-whenua, which was fought at Pakakutu, near Otaki, in 1833. The description of the journey was obtained from one of those who took part in it, as also was the previous one recorded. So the story may be given for the most part in our friend's own words.

“Wai-kato came down, a great migration of eight hundred strong. We came by way of Taupo, and joined the Turakina River at its head-waters, and were two days travelling down-stream. Then we stuck over to the Rangi-tikei, and at Wai-tuna, on the farther side of the river, we caught Makere-rua, Moekau, and others of the Ngati Apa. Before this, when travelling from the Turakina Valley to Pou-rewa, at the mouth of the Mangaraupi, we found other people of the same tribe, whom we caught, and carried along with us to kapiti. They were Tai-hapara and Mohi. Further on, at the Whaka-moe-takapau bush, we captured Tumata-whiti and others. They were busy preserving birds when we surprised and captured them. This man Tumata-whiti ws a sorcerer. His own wife said he was an ahi-taraiti” [probably this word means “firelight”; ahi=fire, taraiti = Maori mode of pronouncing “light”]. “So we killed him, and took the woman along with us. At Kiwitea we took Te Kiore prisoner; but Kaka-raia, Pouri, and other escaped. Afterwards, when we reached Kapiti, we released Kiore, and sent him back to assemble the hapu for the purpose of making an alliance with them. At Kai-kokopu” [one of the numerous lagoons lying on the sand between the lower Rangi-tikei and Foxton districts, about a mile from the sea, now known to sportsmen as Hunia's Lake] “Te Kiore found Te Hakeke, who acquiesced in the proposal. Te Kiore then came down the Rangi-tikei to Parewa-nui and other places. The tribes first met at Kai-kokopu, where the Ngati Rau-kawa chiefs met Te Hakeke, and the alliance was made.

“Soon after we comenced our journey down the Turakina Valley we came upon a hunting-party capturing and preserving birds. Of these we took ten prisoners, one of the principal captives being Amiria, the wife of Hirea. Also, at Manga-raupi, by the Pourewa Stream—that is, between the Tutae-nui and Pou-rewa streams—we took six more of the Ngati Apa, who were also preserving birds when we came upon them.

“We came out on to the river-beach Kokako-tahi, and travelled along the seaside to Otaki, from whichplace we sent a messenger back to Hakeke, who came and joined us, and after that came the fight at Hao-whenua. Immediately after that fight we returned to Wai-kawa, fifteen miles from Otaki, and we stayed there for some time. While we wer living there we heard that Hakeke had concentrated the Ngati Apa at Parewa-nui, so we went along to that place and found a pa built, where a great number of the Ngati Apa were residing with hakeke. We were then for hundred strong. Nepia's pa was on the other side of the Rangi-tikei, opposite to Parewa-nui. The Ngati Rau-kawa went into it and occupied it by force. This would be about the year 1830” [1833].

“We went straight on from Parewa-nui to Tu-rangi-wai-kani, on the other side of the Manuka bush inland” [an old pa on the flat below the Bull's racecourse]. “We went there for food, as the plantations of the Ngati Apa were very extensive. Tu-rangi-wai-kani was then very large settlement, about the same size as Putiki of the present day (1875). We stayed there for fully a month, the prisoners we had taken staying with us. Some of them we had returned to their tribes previous to Hao-whenua.

– 108 –

“Coming up the river form there, we came to Te Ana and Te Karaka, at both of which places the Ngati Apa were living in force. From there we went up to Te Pohue, and stayed there for two years and a half. There were three settlemnts between these places, full of Ngati Apa, for they were a very numerous people in those days. The reason why we stayed so long at Te Pohue was that we had taken a great liking to the land in consequence of the abundance of kakas. A whakatauki arose from this—namely, ‘Noku tenei whenua ko rangatira’; meaning, ‘This my land is the chief of lands.’ After we left Te Pohue we proceeded home.”

This may have been the migration known as the Heke Mai-raro, or “migration from below,” the north point being always referred to as down-ward. Another war is known as the Heke Whiri-nui, called by this name owing to the fact that the whiri or plaited collars of thier mats were made very large for journey. This is the name given by Travers, in the ‘Life of Te Rau-paraha,’ to the heke previously described, but called by the Maori narrator the heke Kariri-tahi; and the Kariri-tahi migration is described by him (Travers) as having come down later, under Tara-toa; but we are inclined to think the account given by our dark friend is the correct one, though it is difficult at this date to be certain, for after Te Rau-paraha was firmly established in his newly acquired land these hekes were constantly occurring, both to help him and also to participate in his newly acquired wealth.

Regarding the battle of Hao-whenua, to which some reference has been made, it appears that one of Te Rau-paraha's sons, named Tupoa, was killed by Ngati Parere, a hapu of Mua-upoko. He was discovered lighting a fire (probably figurative languag) at Kereru, so was waylaid and slain.

Knowing full well the storm that this action would bring about their ears, Mua-upoko prepared for battle. Invitations were sent out to Rangi-tane, Ngati Apa, Whanga-nui, and Nga Rauru, all of whom responded and sent their contingents; and all the old people women, and children of the Mua-upoko were sent to the pa at Papai-tonga for safety.

The battle was fought at Otaki, at the rear of the present hotel, about half a mile from the mouth of the river; Ngati Toa, in combination with Ngati Awa, Ngati Rau-kawa, and Ngati Tama, being victorious. It is said that seven hundred men were killed in this fight, and after it was over Te Rau-paraha attacked Papai-tonga, where he killed a hundred more.

When Te Rau-paraha reached Waikanae he noticed a black cloud hanging over Kapiti, and, seeing in this sign an omen of further success, he again attacked the combined tribes at Horo-whenua, where he seems to have had but indifferent success, for he was driven to Kapiti by Mua-upoko, Ngati Apa, Rangi-tana, and Pehi Turoa, of Whanga-nui, with his three hundred men. Between Hao-whenua and the next heke, which we are able to describe, occurred the death of Taka-rangi at Kohur-po. An account to has appeared in the Jour. Polynesian Soc.; but, as we have additional notes, we will proceed to describe the events that led up to that battle and other afairs; so we will retrace our steps to the time of Kawana Hunia's birth.

Kawana Hunia, Hakeke's son, was born at Wai-tapu, a pa far up the Rangi-tikei River, and when he had grown out of childhood his father took him to Oroua, and placed him in the care of Hamiora, who arranged to look after him. He did this with the idea of creating a friendship, and to prevent his people of the Ngati Apa molesting Ngati Tauira and Maero, who had ceased to reside at Te Awa-mate and that neighbourhood, and had taken up their abode at Oroua, on account of the strained relationship which had for a long time existed between these hapus.

– 109 –

There was a song, a sort of lullaby, composed by two old men named Te Kowa-kura and Taku-te-rangi about the event, a translation of which we have endeavoured to render into rhyme:—

Kaati e tama te noho i to whare,
E puta ki waho ra ka haere taua,
Nga parae ka tokoto ki waho o Whaka-aii*
He uia mai koe kowai to ingoa,
Mau e ki atu, ko te Raro-o-te-rangi,
Kai ki mai te wareware,
Ka pau te whakánoa e te tini e te mano,
Naku ia nei na te Kahu-pepe, te Roa-wai-rerewa
Kai whea o Tupuna hei whakawehi mai i muri ano Whaka-tau-potiki,§
Nana tokotoko te rangi runga nei,
Ka puta koe ki te whaiao ki te whaiao ki te aomarama
Hikaka te haere ki runga Taikoria,
Pukana o karu, ki roto Manawa-tu,
Kei o matua e tu mai ra i te one o te riri ka ngaro te tangata,
Aronui te haere ki roto o Horo-whenua,
Kia Powhiri mai koia e whaea,
E rau a te waka kia paua to rangi,
Te rau o te huia e noa te tinana tera to piki te hokio runga,
Nga manu hunahuna, kaore i kitea,
E te tini e te mano
Kia takaro koe nga takutai e takato i waho Wai-wiri,
I roto o Wai-kawa**
Ka eke koe ki runga o Puke-hou,**
Ka whakamau e tama ki waho Rau-kawa††
Ko nga moana ra e whakawhana noa ra o Tipuna i te kakau o te hoe
Ngaro rawa tu ki Hawaiki.

[Footnote] * whaka-ari—The Sandon district.

[Footnote] † Kahui-pepe—The family of the Pepe (pepe-mua, Pepe-roto, &c.), who were actors in the drams of Apa-kura in far Hawaiki

[Footnote] Roa-wai-rerewa—All tall men, like the offspring of Wai-rerewa, also connected with Apa-kura.

[Footnote] § Whaka-tau-potiki—Apa-kura's son.

[Footnote] ∥ Taikoria—A hill at Carnarvon, overlooking Manawa-tu.

[Footnote] ¶ Wai-wiri—The lake usually known as Pa-pai-tonga. Pa-pai-tonga is the island in the lake.

[Footnote] ** Wai-kawa and Puke-hou—Both at Otaki.

[Footnote] ** Wai-kawa and Puke-hou—Both at Otaki.

[Footnote] †† Rau-kawa—Cook strait.