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Volume 42, 1909
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Art. XXXVIII.—Some Hitherto-unrecorded Plant-habitats (V).

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd November, 1909]

The mosses in the following list were identified by Dr. V. F. Brotherus, of Helsingfors, to whom my warnest thanks are due. I have added in most cases a reference to the description of the species in Hooker's “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.” No list of Mount Peel or of Upper Rakaia plants having been published, species comparatively common receive mention. The Mount Peel vegetation was studied only on the slopes facing the Canterbury Plain. By the “Upper Rakaia” is meant the country near the main sources of that river, especially the river-bed on the southern side and the slopes of that part of the Arrowsmith Range known as Mount Murray, at a distance of about one mile from Mein's Knob, a roche moutonnée just opposite the terminal face of the Ramsay Glacier.

I must express my great obligations to various members of this Institute and others who have been so good as to collect specimens for me,* and especially to Mr. W. Willcox, of the Tourist Department, who is most assiduously collecting the alpine plants in the Otago lakes district, with the object of making a garden of New Zealand mountain plants in the Queenstown Park. Such a work is of national importance, and the collection will be not only a special attraction to visitors, but one of the greatest scientific value.

For sake of easy reference, the species noted in this paper are arranged in alphabetical order, and not according to the sequence of families.

Musci.

Bartramia Halleriana, Hedw.—Handb., p. 446

South Island: Canterbury—Base of Craigieburn Mountains in subalpine beech forest, at altitude of about 660 m. L. C.

Brachythecium rutabulum (L.).—Hypnum; Handb., p. 478.

North Island: Auckland—Central volcanic plateau, growing on floor of subalpine beech forest, at altitude of 1,120 m. L.C.

Bryum leptothecium, Tayl.—Handb., p. 439. (Referred to Rhodobryum in “Index Bryologicus.”*)

(1) North Island: North Auckland—Waipoua kauri forest, growing on rotting logs; L. C. (2) South Island: Canterbury—Base of Craigieburn Mountains, in subalpine beech forest, at altitude of about 650m.; L. C.

Dicranoloma leucolomoides (C. Muell.).—Dicranum dicarpon, Hornsch; Handb., p. 411

North Island: Central volcanic plateau, forming extensive mats on floor of subalpine beech forest, at altitude of about 1, 120 m. L. C.

[Footnote] * Since reading this paper I have received a number of interesting specimens and notes on distribution from various correspondents, especially Mr. D. L. Poppelwell, of Gore, to whom I am much indebted, but an account of these must necessarily be held over for a future paper.

[Footnote] † Paris, E. G.: “Index Bryologicus,” –98.

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Dicranolma robusta (Hook. f. & Wils.).—Dicranum; Handb.

South Island: Canterbury—Base of Craigieburn Mountains, growing on floor of subalpine beech forest, at altitude of 650 m. and upwards. L. C.

Dicranoloma Menziesii (Tayl.).—Dicranum; Handb., p. 412.

North Island: North Auckland—Waipoua kauri forest, forming considerable patches on floor. L. C.

Dicranoweissia chrysea, Beckett.

South Island: Canterbury—Craigieburn Mountains. L. C.

Distichium capillaceum, Hook. f.—Handb., p. 422.

South Island: Canterbury—Terrace of River Porter, growing in montane steppe. L.C.

Echinodium hispidum (Hook. f. & Wils.), Jaeg.—Hypnum; Handb., p. 473. (In Index Bryolog. referred to Sciaromium.)

North Island: North Auckland—Waipoua kauri forest, growing on stones of stream in shady gully. L. C.

Hymenodon piliferus, Hook. f. & Wils.—Handb., p. 486.

North Island: North Auckland—Waipoua kauri forest, forming extensive pale-green colonies on trunk of Cyathea dealbata.

Hypnum uncinatum, Hedw.—Handb., p. 472.

South Island: Canterbury—Base of Craigieburn Mountains, growing in subalpine beech forest on gravelly ground. L. C.

Leptostomum gracile, R. Br.—Handb., p. 435.

North Island: Auckland—Volcanic plateau; epiphytic on trunk of Nothofagus cliffortioides, forming green masses, subalpine beech forest, at about altitude of 1,120 m. L. C.

Leptostomum macrocarpum (Hedw.), R. Br.—Handb., p. 436.

(1) Kapiti Island, Cook Strait: Forming dense cushion on shaded rock; L. C. (2) South Island: Canterbury—Base of Craigieburn Mountains, in subalpine beech forest; epiphytic on trunk of Nothofagus cliffortioides, forming dense peaty cushions; L. C.

Leucobryum candidum (Brid.), Jaeg.—Handb., p. 409.

North Island: North Auckland—Waipoua kauri forest, growing on bases of tree-trunks. L. C.

Polytrichadelphus magellanicus (L.), Mitt.—Polytrichum; Handb., p. 454.

South Island: Canterbury—Broken River valley, growing in montane Sphagnum bog, at about altitude of 600 m. L. C.

Sciadocladus Menziesii (Hook.), Jaeg.—Isothecium; Handb., p. 465.

(Referred in Index Bryolog. to Hypnodendron.)

North Island: North Auckland—Waipoua kauri forest, forming colonies on the floor. L. C.

Pteridophyta.

Alsophila Colensoi, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—(1) Mount Murray, head of Rakaia; M. C. Gudex! (2) Mount Peel, in forest; L. C. This habitat has already

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been cited by Potts in “Out in the Open,” p. 244, but it seems well to record it again notwithstanding.

Asplenium flabellifolium, Cav.

South Island: Canterbury—Totara forest, Upper Rakaia, at altitude of about 800 m. L. C.

The above altitude is somewhat in advance of that given in the Manual, p. 988.

Cyathea medullaris (Forst. f.), Sw.

In my report on Stewart Island, p. 45, the habitat is accidentally given as Half-moon Bay instead of Horse-shoe Bay, though it is correctly marked on the map.

Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.), J. Sm.

South Island: Canterbury—Head of Rakaia, on Mount Murray, at about altitude of 1,000 m. M. C. Gudex!

Polypodium Billardieri (Willd.), C. Chr.; syn., P. australe, Mett.

This is stated in my report on Stewart Island, p. 47, as “making extensive colonies on the forest-floor,” which is incorrect, the species occurring only on trees or rocks. The statement was really intended to refer to P. diversifolium, Willd., which is universally known by New Zealand botanists as P. Billardieri.

Polystichum cystotegia (Hook.), Armstg.

South Island: Canterbury—Source of River Rakaia, amongst stones. M. C. Gudex!

Spermophyta.

Aciphylla brevistyle (Hook. f.).

South Island: Otago—Hector Mountains; subalpine. W. Willcox!

Aciphylla Dieffenbachii (F. Muell.), T. Kirk.

Chatham Islands: Chatham Island, on cliff at Te Tuku. A. A. Dorrien Smith!

This plant was thought to be possibly extinct on Chatham Island, but Captain Dorrien Smith reports that it is plentiful in the above locality. The truth is that most likely it is quite eaten out on the ordinary ground, but that it occurs in various places on precipitous cliffs in the west and south. Mr. H. H. Travers states that it occurs in a similar situation on Pitt Island.

Aciphylla Dobsoni, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Summit of the Liebig Range. Johannes C. Andersen!

Aciphylla pilifera (Hook. f.), var. pinnatifidum, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Murray, head of River Rakaia, on rocky ground, at about 1,400 m. altitude. L. C.

Aira Caryophyllea, L. (introduced).

Chatham Island. R. B. Oliver!

Ammophila arenaria, Lk. (introduced).

Chatham Island; on dunes. R. B. Oliver and L. C.!

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Anthoxanthum odoratum, L. (introduced).

Chatham Island. R. B. Oliver!

Archeria Traversii, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—(1) Upper Rakaia, on river-bed near its source, growing with other shrubs at altitude of about 950 m; L. C. (I did not note any plants of this species in the subalpine scrub proper, though doubtless it must be there.) (2) Common in subalpine scrub at sources of River Poulter; L. C.

Astelia Petriei, Cockayne.

South Island: Canterbury—(1) Mount Peel, on subalpine meadow, L. C.; (2) Mount Murray, near source of River Rakaia, at margin of subalpine scrub, L. C.: Otago—Lake Harris Saddle; W. Willcox!

Brachycome Thomsoni, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—Port Hills, beneath summit cliffs, on shaded side. L. C.

Less robust and glandular than the Stewart Island plant.

Bromus hordeaceus, L. (introduced).

Chatham Island. R. B. Oliver!

Bromus unioloides, H. B. K. (introduced).

Chatham Island. R. B. Oliver!

Cardamine depressa, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Catherine, near Lake Heron, on rock, at altitude of 1,200 m. L. C.

Carex virgata, Sol.

Chatham Island: In lowland swamp. R. B. Oliver!

Carmichaelia Enysii, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—Ashburton River, near Hakatere, growing on old stony bed. L. C.

Cheeseman cites “Ashburton Mountains, Potts,” but had not seen an authentic specimen from that locality. (Manual, p. 11.)

Celmisia discolor, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel. L. C.

This is the form with spathulate leaves, not the linear-leaved variety common on certain of the “dry” mountains of Canterbury.

Celmisia petiolata, Hook. f.

South Island: Otago—Hector Mountains; subalpine. W. Willcox!

Celmisia prorepens, Petrie.

South Island: Otago—Hector Mountains; alpine. W. Willcox!

The Old Man Range is the furthest southern limit recorded hitherto.

Celmisia pseudo-Lyallii, Cockayne, comb. nov. C. Lyallii, Hook. f., var. pseudo-Lyallii, Cheesem., in Man. N.Z. Flora, p. 312, 1906.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel; subalpine. Mrs. F. Waymouth! L. C.

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I have always considered this a valid species. Mr. T. Kirk referred my specimens to C. spectabilis, Hook. f. The leaf is altogether different from that of C. Lyallii, which is extremely stiff and coriaceous, tapers to an almost pungent point, is grooved on both surfaces, has no evident midrib, and is thinly tomentose on the ridges of the under-surface only. C. pseudo-Lyallii has a much less stiff leaf, which is tapering and actue, but not drawn out to a fine pungent point. There are no regular grooves and ridges, but the upper surface is plaited and dark- not yellowish-green; the midrib is keeled on the under-surface, which latter is thickly tomentose with dense silky tomentum. So far as I know, C. pseudo-Lyallii is confined to the drier mountains of Canterbury. Probably, too, it is one of the species which have been confused with C. monroi, Hook. f.

Clemisia sessiliflora, Hook. f.

South Island: Westland—Neighbourhood of the Franz Josef Glacier. J. M. Bell!

Clematis australis, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, in subalpine scrub or trailing amongst grass on stony debris, at an altitude of 950 m. to 1,000 m. or thereabouts. L. C.

Colobanthus acicularis, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—(1) On rocks, Mount Peel; L. C. (2) On rocks, Mount Catherine, near Lake Heron, at altitude of 1,200 m.; L. C.

Colobanthus brevisepalus, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—On tussock steppe near Lake Heron, chiefly on dry exposed face of river terrace. L. C.

Coprosma rugosa, Cheesem.

South Island: Canterbury—In subalpine scrub on Mount Murray, Upper Rakaia. L. C.

Coprosma Petriei, Cheesem.

South Island: Canterbury—On tussock steppe and stony ground near Lake Heron. L. C.

Coprosma serrulata, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel, on rocky buttresses. Mrs. F. Waymouth! L. C.

Corallospartium crassicaule (Hook. f.), J. B. Armstg.

South Island: Otago—Hector Mountains. W. Willcox!

The furthest southern record in the Manual is the Dunstan Mountains.

Dacrydium Bidwillii, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Growing on Sphagnum cushions in bog and also at margin of tarn on old moraine near mouth of Lake Stream, Upper Rakaia. L. C.

Dracophyllum Kirkii, Berggr.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Murray, Upper Rakaia, on rocks at about 1,450 m. altitude. L. C.

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Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Neighbourhood of Cameron Glacier; R. Speight! Westland—Summit of Mount Greenland, in boggy ground, subalpine; L. C.

Eleocharis neo-zealandica, C. B. Clarke.

A plant from the dunes of western Wellington was incorrectly referred to this species by me in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xli, p. 399, and in my “Report on Sand Dunes,” p. 25.

Epilobium pycnostachyum, Haussk.

South Island: Canterbury—On shingle-slip at 1,000 m. and upwards on Mount Murray, Upper Rakaia. L. C.

Gaultheria perplexa, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—Straggling amongst shrubs on river-bed, Upper Rakaia. L. C.

Helichrysum grandiceps, Hook. f.

South Island: Westland—Close to Franz Josef Glacier, on ice-worn rock at about 300 m. altitude. L. C.

Helichrysum Selago, Benth. & Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Catherine, on face of rock, at 1,200 m. altitude. L. C.

Hordeum murinum, L. (introduced).

Chatham Island. R. B. Oliver!

Libocedrus Bidwillii, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, in subalpine totara forest. L. C.

Metrosideros lucida, Menzies.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel, in montane forest; the principal tree. L. C.

Microlæna Colensoi (Hook. f.).—Petrie in lit. comb. nov. Ehrharta Colensoi, Hook. f., in Fl. Nov. Zel., i, 288, t. 65A.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel, on subalpine rocks. L. C.

Muehlenbeckia ephedrioides, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Neighbourhood of Lake Heron, on old stony river-bed. L. C.

Myosotis Forsteri, Lehm.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, on river-bed, near running stream. L. C.

Nothofagus cliffortioides (Hook. f.), Ærst.

South Island: Canterbury—From Ashburton Gorge to near mouth of Lake Stream, occasionally in sheltered gullies, but not extending further up the Rakaia. L. C.

Nothofagus fusca (Hook. f.), Ærst.

Found only at a considerably higher altitude to west of Ruapehu than is given in my “Report of Tongariro National Park,” p. 19.

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Nothopanax parvum (T. Kirk), Cockayne.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, amongst shrubs on side of river-bed; not common. L. C.

Nothopanax simplex (Forst. f.), Seem.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, in subalpine totara forest; not very abundant. L. C.

Orebolus pectinatus, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel, in wet ground. L. C.

Ourisia macrocarpa, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Source of Rakaia. M. C. Gudex!

Ourisia sessiliflora, Hook. f.

South Island: Westland—Neighbourhood of Franz Josef glacier. J. M. Bell!

Pentachondra pumila, R. Br.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel. L. C.

Pernettya nana, Col.

South Island: Canterbury—Near Lake Heron, in rather wet ground. L. C.

Pimelia Lyallii, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel. L. C.

Pimelea Traversii, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Catherine, on face of rock, at 1,200 m. altitude. L. C.

Plantago triandra, Berggr.

South Island: Canterbury—Neighbourhood of Lake Heron, in Sphagnum bog; L. C. Westland—Otira Valley, near railway-station; L. C.

I am by no means sure that the above species is distinct from P. uniflora, Hook. f.

Poa anceps, Forst. f., var.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, on shingle-slip and riverbed, ascending to probably 1,500 m. or more. L. C.

Poa Lindsayi, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Neighbourhood of Lake Heron, on montane tussock steppe. L. C.

Poa novæ-zealandiæ, Hack.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia. L. C.

A specimen was noted growing as an epiphyte in the subalpine totara forest, but the ordinary station was shaded rocks.

Pseudopanax crassifolium (Sol.), C. Koch.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, in subalpine totara forest, at more than 900 m. altitude. L. C.

The altitudinal limit as given in the Manual is 610 m.

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Pterostylis mutica, R. Br.

South Island: Canterbury—Neighbourhood of Lake Heron, on montane tussock steppe, local. L. C.

Ranunculus acaulis, Banks & Sol.

South Island: Canterbury—Sand-plain near Sumner Estuary. L. C.

Ranunculus Godleyanus, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia; but saw only one plant, which was growing on the river-bed in a shallow stream. M. C. Gudex! Probably the species is quite common on the north side (shaded side) of the river.

Ranunculus Monroi, Hook. f., var. dentatus, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—(1) Mount Peel, on rocks at about 1,200 m. altitude; Mrs. F. Waymouth! L. C. (2) Rocks on Mount Catherine, near Lake Heron, at about same altitude as above; L. C.

Ranunculus tenuicaulis, Cheesem.

South Island: Otago—Ben Lomond. W. Willcox!

Ranunculus Traversii, Hook. f.

Mr. Willcox collected a plant on Mount Earnslaw with cream-coloured flowers which may belong to the above.

For some remarks re this “species,” see my first paper of this series (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvii, p. 364).

Raoulia Buchanani, T. Kirk?

South Island: Otago—Vicinity of Lake Harris Saddle. W. Willcox!

Only recorded previously from Mount Alta, one specimen alone having been collected.

Raoulia Haastii, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Rakaia river-bed, in subalpine and montane zone, especially in region of average western rainfall; very abundant, forming large green cushions. L. C.

Rubus schmidelioides, A. Cunn., var. coloratus, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, in subalpine totara forest. L. C.

The above seems to me much more closely related to R. subpauperatus, Cockayne, than to R. schmidelioides, A. Cunn.

Senecio cassinioides, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, in subalpine scrub, but not very abundant. L. C.

Senecio elæagnifolius, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel, in montane forest, and probably in subalpine scrub. L. C.

Senecio lautus, Forst. f., var. montanus, Cheesem.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, on subalpine shingle - slip on Mount Murray. L. C.

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Sisyrinchium chilense, Hook. (introduced).

South Island: Otago—Neighbourhood of Queenstown. W. Willcox!

Sophora microphylla, Ait.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, in totara forest, but hardly ascending to the subalpine zone. L. C.

The trees are of unusual size, many being over 50ft. tall, and more than 1ft. in diameter.

Stackhousia minima, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Neighbourhood of Lake Heron, on montane steppe. L. C.

Suttonia nummularia, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel. L. C.

Triodia exigua, T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—Neighbourhood of Lake Heron, on montane steppe. L. C.

Trisetum Youngii, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, on river-bed steppe. L. C.

Tupeia antarctica, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia; very common on Gaya Lyallii, in the subalpine totara forest. L. C.

Veronica epacridea, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Near Cameron Glacier; R. Speight! Otago—Garvie Mountains; D.L. Poppelwell!

Veronica leiophylla, Cheesem.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Somers, on limestone. L. C.

Veronica lycopodioides, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel. L. C.

Veronica macrantha, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia, at about 1,450 m. altitude on Mount Murray. L. C.

Veronica Petriei (Buch.), T. Kirk.

South Island: Otago—Lake Harris Saddle. W. Willcox!

Veronica pinguifolia, Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Peel. L. C.

Veronica subalpina, Cockayne.

South Island: Canterbury—Upper Rakaia; the chief Veronica of the subalpine scrub; L. C. Westland—Close to Franz Josef Glacier, at altitude of less than 300 m.; L. C.