Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 42, 1909

of the
New Zealand Institute,

Part I.

Edited and Published under the Authority of the Board of Governors of the Institute.

Wellington, N.Z.

John Mackay, Government Printing Office.


Introductory Note.

At the annual meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute, held in Wellington on the 30th January, 1908, it was resolved, inter alia,—

That the forty-first volume be the first of a new series.

That the forty-first volume consist of two separately published parts.

Part I to contain the scientific papers, plates, and index; Part II to contain,—


Annual address of the President of the Institute.


The Proceedings of the societies, and presidential addresses.


Short abstracts of papers not printed in full.


Summaries of scientific papers appearing in other publications on matters of interest to New Zealand science, prepared by specialists, and lists of the scientific publications issued by the Departments of Agriculture, Chemistry, &c., during the year.


Instructions to writers of papers.


Report of the annual meeting of the Institute, with balance-sheets.


The New Zealand Institute Act.


Regulations of the Hutton Memorial Fund.

Annual report on the same.

Report on the Hector Memorial Fund.

Report on Carter Bequest.


Obituary notices of honorary members and members of local societies.


Meteorological returns and diagrams.


Seismological returns and diagrams.

In accordance with these resolutions, the forthcoming Vol. xli, commencing a new series, is being published in a slightly enlarged form—viz., royal 8vo, instead of demy 8vo, which was the size of the preceding series.

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Part II will be separately paged from the Transactions, so that it may be bound by itself, if so desired. It is hoped to issue it in three or four separate portions, so that it may form a current record of the scientific work being done throughout the Dominion. It will thus serve to keep members of the various societies informed of the work that is being done elsewhere, and it is hoped that in this way interest may be stimulated, and the branches of the Institute materially strengthened, and more closely brought into touch with one another.

Hon. Editor, New Zealand Institute.

of the
New Zealand Institute.

Adjourned Sixth Annual Meeting.

The adjourned meeting was held in the Dominion Museum, Wellington, on Thursday, 4th February, 1909, at 10.30 a.m.

Present: Mr. G. M. Thomson, President (in the chair); Mr. A. Hamilton, Mr. M. Chapman, Professor Easterfield, Mr. T. H. Gill, Mr. J. W. Joynt, Mr. W. Wilson, Mr. H. Hill, Mr. E. Tregear, Mr. John Young, Dr. L. Cockayne, Professor W. B. Benham, Mr. R. Speight, and the Secretary (Mr. Thomas King).

A letter, dated 29th December, 1908, was received from the Department of Internal Affairs, notifying the appointment (published in the New Zealand Gazette of the 23rd December) of Messrs. J. W. Joynt and E. Tregear as members of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute under “The New Zealand Institute Act, 1908.”

The President welcomed Mr. Speight on taking his seat on the Board for the first time.

An apology from Mr. James Stewart for non-attendance was read.

The minutes of the last annual meeting were confirmed; the minutes of the Standing Committee meetings held on the 12th November, the 24th July, the 4th December, 1908, and the 25th January, 1909, were read; and the minutes of the annual meeting of the 28th January last were read and confirmed.

The Secretary explained the circumstances connected with the telegraphic advices of the postponement of the annual meeting. The explanation was considered satisfactory.

The annual report and annual statement of receipts and expenditure were then read. The report and statement were as follows:—

The fifth annual meeting of the Board of Governors under “The New Zealand Institute Act, 1903,” was held in the Dominion Museum, Wellington, on the 30th January, 1908, and was attended by fourteen members.

The President, Mr. G. M. Thomson, F.L.S., F.C.S., was in the chair.

It was reported that Messrs. John Young and Augustus Hamilton, the two retiring nominees of the Government, had been reappointed, and that the following representatives

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had been elected by the societies affiliated to the Institute: Messrs. D. Petrie and J. Stewart (Auckland Institute); Professor T. H. Easterfield and Mr. Martin Chapman, K. C. (Wellington Philosophical Society); Professor Charles Chilton and Dr. C. C. Farr (Philosophical Institute of Canterbury); Professor W. B. Benham and Mr. G. M. Thomson (Otago Institute); Mr. H. Hill (Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute); Dr. L. Cockayne (Nelson Institute); Mr. T. H. Gill (Westland Institute); and Mr. Kenneth Wilson (Manawatu Philosophical Society).

The following officers were elected for 1909: President, Mr. G. M. Thomson, F.L.S., F.C.S.; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. Martin Chapman, K. C.; Secretary, Mr. Thomas King; Hon. Editor of Transactions, Mr. G. M. Thomson; Hon. Librarian, Mr. Augustus Hamilton; Publications Committee, Professor C. Chilton, Professor W. B. Benham, Dr. C.C. Farr, and the Hon. Editor.

The honorary members elected were Dr. L. Diels, of Berlin; the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S., of Tunbridge Wells; and Mr. E. Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S., of Marlborough College, Wilts. There are now twenty-nine honorary members on the roll, and the meeting will therefore be asked to elect one new member.

In accordance with resolutions passed at last annual meeting, Professor T. W. E. David, Professor W. A. Haswell, and Mr. J. H. Maiden, all of Sydney, were asked to act as a committee to suggest a suitable recipient of the Hutton Memorial Medal. The two last-mentioned gentlemen have consented to act, but no reply has yet been received from Professor David, who is absent in the far south as a member of the “Nimrod” Antarctic Expedition. The dies for the medal, and several specimens of the medal, have been received from England, and (by permission) have been lodged by the Secretary in the Dominion Museum for safe keeping.

The Committee set up at last annual meeting “to examine the books of the library with a view to determining their ownership” has never met, two of the members being resident in the South Island; consequently the position remains unaltered.

The same committee was set up to revise the exchange list; and Professors Benham and Chilton submitted suggestions to Mr. A. Hamilton, the Wellington member of the committee, as to the alterations required in the list. The matter is dealt with in the report of the Hon. Librarian, presented at this meeting.

At the last meeting a committee was set up to go into the matter of the delay in the issue of the 39th volume of the Transactions. This committee interviewed the Hon. J. A. Millar, Minister in charge of the Printing Department, and the Government Printer, and obtained a promise from those gentlemen that steps would be taken to expedite the issue of future volumes. The delay in the past year was in part attributed to the unprepared manner in which papers intended for publication were sent in; and the Government Printer undertook to supply a memorandum on the subject for the guidance of Secretaries of affiliated societies and of authors of papers. This memorandum was received by the Editor in February last, and copies were forwarded to the Secretaries of the several affiliated societies. It is, however, evident that the delay was largely due to the block of parliamentary business; and to obviate this in future it is advisable that the volume should be printed as early in the year as possible.

The committee appointed to make arrangements for the preparation of an index to the forty volumes of the Transactions has not been able to come to a final decision as to the course to be pursued. The committee has obtained specifications from two persons qualified to undertake the work, and is in communication with a third, but so far is unable to report definitely.

A geographical difficulty similar to the one spoken of in the paragraph referring to the Ownership of Books Committee has prevented the Hector Memorial Committee of the Institute from meeting. The members of the committee live in different parts of the Dominion, and have not found it practicable to assemble in Wellington. They are, however, co-operating with the main Hector Memorial Committee, which has the matter in hand. That committee has been reconstituted, and is in correspondence with the other bodies which are acting in the interests of the movement. The amount so far collected by the committees is, unfortunately, too small for the end in view. The main Hector Memorial Committee, at the instance of the Standing Committee of the Board of Governors, has therefore suggested to the Memorial Committee of the Institute, and to the allied committees in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin, that a joint circular should be issued, signed by representatives of all the committees, appealing for further subscriptions to the fund. This suggestion has been adopted. A draft circular has been drawn up by the main Memorial Committee and submitted to the other committees, and its terms are now being discussed. Members of the Christchurch and Dunedin committees have stipulated for one or two fundamental changes in the wording of the circular. This has temporarily delayed matters; but it is hoped that agreement will shortly be arrived at upon the points at issue, and that as soon as the

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circular is ready for distribution all the committees will make a vigorous effort to raise a sum of money sufficient for the establishment of a worthy memorial.

The volumes of the Transactions remaining on hand are—Vol. I (second edition), 313; Vol. V, 30; Vol. VI, 21; Vol. VII, 143; Vol. IX, 214; Vol. X, 138; Vol. XI; 392; Vol. XII, 305; Vol. XIII, 142; Vol. XIV, 107; Vol. XV, 280; Vol. XVI, 270; Vol. XVII, 530; Vol. XVIII, 308; Vol. XIX, 555; Vol. XX, 450; Vol. XXI, 454; Vol. XXII, 560; Vol. XXIII, 570; Vol. XXIV, 670; Vol. XXV, 626; Vol. XXVI, 613; Vol. XXVII, 605; Vol. XXVIII, 688; Vol. XXIX, 591; Vol. XXX, 684; Vol. XXXI, 695; Vol. XXXII 517; Vol. XXXIII, 611; Vol. XXXIV, 563; Vol. XXXV, 525; Vol. XXXVI, 686; Vol. XXXVII, 604; Vol. XXXVIII, 750; Vol. XXXIX, 192; Vol. XL, 91.

The advance copies of the new volume (XL, 1907) were not received from the printers until the first week of September, 1908, and the main supplies were not available for distribution until towards the end of that month. The volume contains 608 and xvi pages, and 34 plates. The contents of the last two volumes are compared as follows:—

Vol XXXIX (1906) Pages. Vol XL (1907) Pages.
Miscellaneous 76 185
Zoology 210 124
Botany 189 126
Geology 47 95
Chemistry Nil 10
Proceedings 31 44
Appendix 23 24
576 608

Copies of Vol. XL were presented to Parliament on the 8th September, 1908.

In accordance with resolutions passed at the last annual meeting, the volumes of the Transactions now stored in the vault of Parliament Buildings have been insured for the sum of £500, and the Institute's books stored in the Dominion Museum, Wellington, have been insured for £2,000.

As decided at last annual meeting, the Standing Committee has given consideration to the question of reprinting papers which have appeared in the Transactions. After going carefully into the subject, the committee has come to the conclusion that it is not desirable for the Board in the meantime to undertake the reprinting of papers.

A question which has engaged the attention of the Standing Committee, and which seems deserving of consideration by the Board as a whole, is that of the constitution of the committees which are sometimes appointed by the Board for the conduct of special business. Several such committees were set up at last annual meeting. These were composed of members residing in widely separated districts of the colony, but in no instance was a convener or an executive officer appointed. The result has been unsatisfactory. Each member of a committee has been in doubt as to who was to take the initiative, and in consequence great difficulty has been experienced by the committees in getting to work.

The Standing Committee has found it impracticable to make the arrangements necessary for holding, in terms of the resolution passed at the last annual meeting, a special general meeting of the members of the Institute on the 29th January, 1909, and, in consequence, the meeting in question must lapse.

It seems advisable that the practice of granting diplomas of membership to gentlemen who are elected honorary members of the Institute should be revived. Such diplomas were regularly issued under the original Act, and were appreciated by the recipients; but the passing of the Act of 1903 rendered the wording of the old form of diploma obsolete, and no diplomas have been given during the past five years. With a few unimportant alterations the phraseology of the old form could be adapted to present-day requirements, and the supply of amended forms could be printed for a trifling sum.

On the 16the December, 1908, the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury gave notice that Professor Charles Chilton had resigned his seat on the Board, and that Mr. R. Speight, of Christchurch, had been elected in his place to represent the Christchurch society.

The Secretary, Mr. Thomas King, has explained to the Standing Committee that he finds that the secretarial work takes up very much more time than he anticipated, or than he can spare, and that he has therefore, with regret, decided not to seek re-election.

The amount standing at the credit of the Carter Bequest Fund with the Public Trustee on the 31st December, 1908, including interest accrued to the 31st December,

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1908, was £2,735 16s. 5d. The Public Trustee also holds on account of the bequest scrip in the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company (Limited) of the total face value of £32 5s. 5d. His certificate accompanies the present report. At the last annual meeting it was decided that the Hon. Treasurer should be asked to endeavour to arrange with the Public Trustee for the payment of interest on this money at 4 ½ per cent., instead of 4 per cent. per annum. On inquiry, however, the Treasurer ascertained that as a matter of fact 4 ½ per cent. was being allowed on the deposit, that being the rate paid by the Public Trust Office on sums not exceeding £3,000. There was therefore no occasion for the Treasurer to take action.

A duly audited statement of the Institute's receipts and expenditure for the past year, showing a credit balance of £392 10s. 11d., is presented with this report.

Geo. M. Thomson, President.

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure.

1908. £ s. d.
Jan. 31. Balance brought forward 361 5 11
April 14. W. Wesley and Sons, Transactions 0 16 10
May 5. A. Bathgate, Maori Art 4 5 0
Sept. 2. Champtaloux and Cooper, Transactions 0 16 10
" 2. " Maori Art 3 7 0
" 12. Friedlander and Sons, Transactions 5 17 5
" 26. Contribution by Wellington Philosophical Society 16 9 0
Oct. 15. G.E. Stechert and Co., Transactions 0 15 10
Nov. 5. Lieut.-Colonel Gaskell, Maori Art and posting 8 14 0
" 18. A. H. Turnbull, Transactions 1 1 0
" 24. Whitcombe and Tombs, Transactions 0 16 9
Dec. 15. Government grant 500 0 0
Jan. 7. W. Wesley and Sons, Transactions 0 16 10
" 14. Friedlander and Sons, Transactions 0 16 9
Jan. 27. Transactions 0 16 9
£906 15 11

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

1908. £ s. d.
Feb. 13. Petty cash, Secretary 2 0 0
Mar. 14. W. Benham, travelling-expenses 4 0 10
Mar. 14. Dr. Chilton, " 2 7 0
Mar. 14. James Stewart, " 9 13 8
Mar. 14. H. Hill, " 2 9 8
Mar. 14. K. Wilson, " 1 0 4
Mar. 14. C. Coleridge Farr, " 2 7 0
Mar. 14. G. M. Thomson, " 4 0 10
Mar. 14. Hotel Cecil 0 15 0
Mar. 14. Whitcombe and Tombs 1 3 3
Mar. 14. W. A. McKay, services 1 1 0
Mar. 14. D. Petrie, travelling-expenses 5 4 10
Mar. 31. Bank charge 0 5 0
April 29. G. M. Thomson, petty cash 5 0 0
July 2. " 5 0 0
" 25. Whitcombe and Tombs 1 2 0
" " L., L., and G. Insurance Company 9 0 0
" " Miss Millais, services 3 0 0
" " Colonial Carrying Company 0 19 11
" " New Zealand Express Company 0 12 0
" " Government Printer 0 15 0
" " C. Freyberg, services 5 0 0
" " Secretary, petty cash 9 19 0
Sept. 30. Bank charge 0 5 0
Dec. 10. Petty cash, Secretary 0 7 0
" 15. " 2 0 0
" " Chapman and Tripp, law-costs 1 0 0
" " W. Chalmers 1 13 0
" " New Zealand Express Company 2 9 2
" " Whitcombe and Tombs 1 0 6
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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

1909 £ s. d.
Jan. 26. Government Printer 388 13 0
" W. A. McKay, services 5 0 0
" T. King, Secretary 25 0 0
" C. Freyberg, service 10 0 0
Balance 392 10 11
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Balance in bank 820 6 2
Petty cash balance 0 1 0
820 7 2
Plus credit not in bank-book 0 16 9
£821 3 11
Less unpresented cheques 428 13 0
Balance £392 10 11
£906 15 11
Carter Request.
£ s. d.
Balance, 1st February, 1908 2,617 11 10
Interest accrued to 31st December, 1908 118 4 7
Scrip, new Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company, 1st February, 1908 17 0 0
Scrip, ditto 15 5 5
£2,768 1 10
£ s. d.
Invested by Public Trustee, 31st December, 1908 2,735 16 5
Scrip in hands of public Trustee 32 5 5
£2,768 1 10

Martin Chapman, Treasurer.

Examined and found correct.—J. K. Warburton, Controller and Auditor-General.

Mr. Thomson moved, and Mr. hamilton seconded, “That the President's report be received.” Carried.

Mr. Chapman moved, and Mr. Hamilton seconded, “That the statement of receipts and expenditure be adopted.” Carried.

The Public Trustee's certificate as to the state of the Carter Fund was read.

The report of the Editor and Publications Committee was read as follows:— I have to report that the Publications Committee met on the 31st January, 1908, and considered the papers which had been handed over to them by Mr. Hamilton, late Editor.

Forty-two papers were passed for printing in Vol. XL, and these were at once forwarded to the Government Printer, while seven were included in the Proceedings of the societies which forwarded them. Seven were sent to experts to be reported on as to their suitability for publication, and seven were held over. Of the papers sent to experts, six were reported on favourably and sent to the Government Printer, while one was considered unsuitable.

In this connection I would point out that the work of the Editor would be simplified if the Council and Secretaries of the affiliated societies would only forward such papers as are considered to be real contributions to scientific knowledge. All papers which are only résumés or digests of already published work should not be sent forward, and the onus of withholding them should rest on the society with which they originate, and should not be placed on the Editor.

The committee received from the Government Printer on the 10th February a number of suggestions and recommendations, including memoranda from the Supervisor

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and the Chief Draughtsman. The chief of these were embodied in a memorandum for authors of papers sent out by me to the Secretaries of the affiliated societies. It is hoped that attention will be paid to the details therein specified, as both time and money will be saved thereby.

In accordance with the resolution of the last annual meeting, that the 41st volume be the first of a new series, the Publications Committee has gone carefully into the matter, and has come to the conclusions—(1) That the new series should be issued in royal 8vo. size; and (2) that both Transactions and Proceedings should be of the same size. In the case of any large monographs which it is considered desirable to issue separately, it is recommended that they be printed of the same size as the “Bulletin of the Geological Survey.”

Geo. M. Thomson, Editor. Mr. Thomson moved, and Mr. Chapman seconded, “That the report of the Editor and Publications Committee be received.” Carried.

Professor Benham moved, and Mr. Speight seconded, “That in future the volumes of the Transactions be published in royal 8vo. size.” Carried.

The Hon. Librarian's report was then read, as follows:— The Honorary Librarian reports that the number of pieces received during the year as exchanges and presentations amounts to 923.

No binding has been done during the year, and I desire to point out that there is still a large amount of binding that requires attention. As mentioned in my last report, the present arrangement of the books is perhaps the most inconvenient that could be suggested, and it would be a great improvement if a sum of money could be provided for modern iron bookcases, to be arranged in bays.

I have again to report that very little use has been made of the library, the number of entries made by those taking out books being only forty-six, the majority of these being periodicals and magazines taken out by members of the local society; in fact, a large number of the books have been taken out by a person who is not a member of the Institute, but who has permission to use the library. I think to a large extent the fact that the library is not much used is owing to the comparative inaccessibility of the books.

No progress has been made with regard to the card catalogue, as no funds are available at present for an assistant.

The stock of Transactions accumulated during the last three years has been transferred to the cellars of the Parliamentary Library.

I have had a typewritten catalogue prepared of the books belonging to the Philosophical Society. You will have before you a communication from the Mines Department relating to the geological works now in the collection.

A separate stamp has been prepared for the books belonging to the Dominion Museum, and for the future a separate binding of brown buckram will be used for the Museum books.

A set of pigeon-holes has been provided for the better keeping of the current parts of the various works, and I also had an estimate prepared for a series of shelves and pigeon-holes for the whole of the parts which are received from time to time. The cost, however, was about £60. If funds can be found for this purpose, it would probably insure the better custody of the parts which arrive from time to time.

Re exchanges: I have written to the members of the Committee of the Exchanges, and have communications from them on this matter. I have, however, been unable as yet to draft a report, as a number of matters have to be gone into first, which cannot conveniently be proceeded with until the alterations in the library now contemplated are decided on.

I think it is desirable that a small vote should be made for the purpose of carrying on a certain amount of card cataloguing and classification. I propose to ask the Standing Committee to authorise the expenditure of a small amount on further work on the catalogue.

A. Hamilton, Librarian. Mr. Hamilton moved, and Mr. Chapman seconded, “That the Librarian's report be received.” Carried.

Mr. A. Hamilton moved, and Professor Benham seconded, “That as soon as possible in each year complete copies of the Transactions shall be, in accordance with the Act, presented to Parliament, and that all other copies

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shall bear that date as the date of issue, and that this date shall be the ‘date of publication for the purposes of determining priority of discovery.’” Carried, Professor Easterfield dissenting.

Professor Benham moved, and Mr. R. Speight seconded, “That the Editor be authorised to publish the Proceedings of the affiliated societies at intervals throughout the year, independently of the Transactions, and separately paged.” Carried.

Professor Benham moved, and Mr. Chapman seconded, “That the Index Committee bé reappointed, substituting the name of Mr. R. Speight for that of Dr. Chilton, and adding that of Mr. A. Hamilton as convener.” Carried.

Mr. R. Speight moved, and Professor Easterfield seconded, “That the Index Committee consider the question of preparing an index to the volumes of the new series, as issued.” Carried.

Carter Bequest.—A legal opinion (dated 7th December) from Mr. M. Chapman, K.C., was then read.

Mr. Hill moved, and Mr. Gill seconded, “That the legal opinion of Mr. Chapman with reference to the expenditure of certain moneys under the Carter bequest be forwarded to the Victoria College Council for their information.”

Diploma of Honorary Membership.—Mr. Chapman moved, and Mr. Hamilton seconded, “That the form of diploma settled by Mr. Chapman be adopted as the form of certificate of honorary membership.” Carried.

Mr. Hamilton moved, and Mr. Chapman seconded, “That the honorary members elected since 1903 be furnished with diplomas, and that diplomas be sent in future to all honorary members elected.” Carried.

Formation of Special Committees.—This matter was discussed by the Board, and it was considered that in future, when Committees are set up, proper provision should be made for the members of such Committees conferring with one another.

Mr. Hamilton moved, and Professor Easterfield seconded, “That all committees appointed shall furnish in a formal report to the annual meeting an account of their year's work.” Carried.

Hutton Memorial Fund.—Mr. Chapman moved, and Mr. Gill seconded, “That the seal of the Institute be affixed to the ‘Hutton Memorial Deed of Declaration of Trust,’ and that the seal be affixed by the President, who shall sign the deed in the presence of the Secretary as witness.” Carried.

General Correspondence.—(1.) University of Missouri, dated the 21st July, 1908, asking that volumes of the Institute on exchange account preceding Vol. XXXVI, 1904, be sent to them.

Mr. Hill moved, and Mr. Wilson seconded, “That the application of the Missouri University be approved.” Carried (the Librarian to decide what volumes shall be sent).

(2.) Entomological Society of Russia, dated the 5th September, 1908, requesting that the entomological publications of the New Zealand Institute be sent in exchange for their edition of the “Revue Russe d'E ntomologie.”

Mr. Hamilton moved, and Professor Easterfield seconded, “That, as there are no separate copies of the entomological papers, we are unable to grant the request of the Société Entomologique de Russe.” Carried.

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(3.) Zoological Institute of the Royal University of Naples (no date), proposing the exchange of their “Annuario del Museo Zoologico,” for the Transactions of the Institute.

Professor Benham moved, and Dr. Cockayne seconded, “That in future the Zoological Institute of the Royal University of Naples be added to the list of exchanges (back numbers, Vols. I and II to be obtained, and the corresponding numbers of the Transactions to be forwarded).” Carried.

(4.) United States Department of Agriculture, dated the 25th November, 1908, asking for back volumes of the Transactions.

Professor Easterfield moved, and Mr. Gill seconded, “That the United States Department of Agriculture library be informed that the New Zealand Institute will supply such of the specified volumes as are in stock for the sum of £10—a slight advance on the cost of publication.” Carried.

(5.) Bureau of Science, Manila, dated the 10th November, 1908, suggesting an exchange of the Transactions.

Mr. Hamilton moved, and Mr. Chapman seconded, “That the Manila Bureau of Science be communicated with, and arrangements made for an exchange of publications.” Carried.

(6.) Westport Free Library, Westport, dated the 13th January, 1909, applying for free copies of the Transactions.

It was resolved that the request be granted.

(7.) Mines Department, Wellington, dated the 27th January, 1909, asking that the books in the Institute library relating to geology be handed over to the Mines Department, for the purpose of being placed in the Geological Survey library.

Mr. Hill moved, and Mr. Young seconded, “That the Institute is unable to accede to the application of the Mines Department for the transference of the geological works in the reference library to the Geological Survey reference library.” Carried.

(8.) A letter from Mr. Thomas King, resigning the secretaryship of the Institute, was read.

Mr. Hamilton moved, and Mr. Thomson seconded, “That the resignation of Mr. Thomas King as Secretary be accepted, and that the thanks of the Council be given to him for his services as Secretary, and it regrets that he cannot continue to act in that capacity.” Carried.

Mr. Hamilton moved, and Professor Easterfield seconded, “That a certain number—say, ten—of separate copies of papers be printed for the Institute, in addition to the copies supplied to the author.” Carried.

Election of Officers.—The following officers for 1909 were elected: President—Mr. A. Hamilton; Hon. Treasurer—Mr. Martin Chapman, K.C.; Secretary—Mr. B. C. Aston; Hon. Editor—Mr. G. M. Thomson; Hon. Librarian—Mr. A. Hamilton; Publications Committee—Professor Benham, Dr. C. C. Farr, Mr. R. Speight, and Mr. Thomson (Editor).

Mr. Chapman moved, and Mr. Thomson seconded, “That the President be ex officio a member of all committees.” Carried.

Election of Honorary Member.—The meeting then proceeded to elect an honorary member to the vacancy: Proposed by the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, Dr. Chree; proposed by the Wellington Philosophical Society, Sir George Howard Darwin; proposed by the Otago Institute, Sir Archibald Geikie. Sir George Darwin was elected.

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Travelling-expenses.—Mr. Chapman moved, and Mr. Hamilton seconded, “That the travelling-expenses of members be paid as before, and that the travelling-expenses of members attending on the 28th January be also paid.” Carried.

Mr. Hill moved, and Mr. Speight seconded, “That the Council of the New Zealand Institute heartily congratulate Professor Ernest Rutherford on his selection as one of those who have been deemed worthy of receiving the Nöbel Prize, and that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to Professor Rutherford, Manchester.” Carried.

Mr. Speight moved, and Mr. Gill seconded, “That the Editor be the convener of the Publications Committee.” Carried.

Mr. Hamilton moved, and Mr. Chapman seconded, “That the annual meeting for 1910 be fixed for Thursday, the 27th January.” Carried.

Mr. Chapman moved, and Mr. Gill seconded, “That the annual meeting for 1910 be held in Wellington.” Carried. (An amendment moved by Professor Benham, and seconded by Dr. Cockayne, “That the next meeting be held in Christchurch,” was lost.)

Mr. Hill moved, and Mr. Young seconded, “That a hearty vote of thanks be accorded to the retiring President for the efficient manner in which he has conducted the business of the Institute during his presidency.” Carried.

Professor Benham moved, and Dr. Cockayne seconded, “That the minutes of this annual meeting be included in the 41st volume of the Transactions.” Carried.

The rough minutes of this meeting were then read and confirmed, on the understanding that the Secretary may make such verbal corrections as may seem to him necessary.

Geo. M. Thomson, Chairman.

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Wellington Philosophical Society.

First Meeting: 6th May, 1908.

Professor H. B. Kirk, President, in the chair.

New Members.—Mr. Thomas H. Gill, M.A., Mr. John Thompson, and Mr. John U. Turnbull.

Mr. Martin Chapman, K.C., said that, as this was the first meeting of the Society which had been held since the death of Sir James Hector (which occurred on the 6th November, 1907), he had been desired by the Council to propose the following resolution: “That this Society puts on record its high appreciation of the valuable scientific work of the late Sir James Hector, and expresses its regret at his decease. That a copy of this resolution be sent to Lady Hector.”

In moving the motion, Mr. Chapman dwelt on the long identification of Sir James with the Society, and the high value and great volume of the work which he had done for the Society.

Professor Easterfield seconded the motion. He spoke of Sir James Hector's wide range, of his invaluable contributions to science, of his great energy—particularly in his earlier years—and of the kindly help which he was at all times ready to render to other scientific workers.

The motion was carried in silence, all the members present standing.

On the motion of Dr. A. K. Newman, seconded by Mr. Martin Chapman, K.C., Mr. G. V. Hudson and Mr. A. Hamilton were appointed a committee to co-operate, on behalf of the Society, with the public Hector Memorial Committee and with the Hector Memorial Committee of the New Zealand Institute, which were raising funds for the purpose of establishing a memorial to the late Sir James Hector.

It was resolved that the Society's committee should be asked to stipulate that the benefits of the memorial fund (which would probably be expended on a science research prize) should be open to all New Zealand candidates, whether university students or not.

Professor Easterfield, as a member of the Hector Memorial Committee of the New Zealand Institute, said that he would be glad to receive subscriptions to the fund.

Papers.—1. “An Elementary Note on Mendelism and the Mendelian Theory of Inheritance,” by G. V. Hudson, F.E.S.

In this paper Mr. Hudson gave a popular account of the researches of Mendel.

In the discussion which followed the reading of the paper, Dr. L. Cockayne (who spoke at the invitation of the Chairman) said that the important thing about Mendel's work was that Mendel concerned himself not at all with “species,” but concentrated his attention on “characters,” which were much more manageable things to deal with. Dr. Cockayne announced that the subject would presently be studied practically in New Zealand by himself, as the Department of Agriculture had decided to place him in charge of some experiments in plant-breeding. He purposed devoting special attention to Phormium tenax, our indigenous flax-plant.

2. “Notes and Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera,” by E. Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S.; communicated by G. V. Hudson, F.E.S.

3. “Some New Forms of Boiling-point Apparatus,” by Professor T. H. Easterfield.

Professor Easterfield exhibited several forms of boiling-point apparatus designed and constructed by himself, and gave practical demonstrations of their use.

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Exhibits.—Messrs. C. E. Adams and A. Hamilton exhibited specimens of kenyite from Mount Erebus, which had been received from Professor David, of Sydney, a member of the “Nimrod” Antarctic exploring expedition.

Second Meeting: 3rd June, 1908.

Professor H. B. Kirk, President, in the chair.

New Members.—Professor D. K. Picken, M.A., Mr. R. M. Sunley, and Mr. George Marriner.

The President reported that a letter had been received from Lady Hector, thanking the Society for the resolution passed on the 6th May, in reference to the death of Sir James Hector.

The President announced that the Editor of the “Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute” had drawn up a memorandum of hints to authors of papers intended for publication in the volume.

He said it was important that authors should be guided by these hints. Printed copies of the memorandum could be obtained from the Secretary on application.

Papers.—1. “Some Little-known New Zealand Fish,” by H. C. Field.

2. “Fern Notes,” by H. C. Field.

3. “Notes on a New Zealand Actinian (Bunodes aureoradiata),” by F. G. A. Stuckey, B.A.

The Chairman complimented Mr. Stuckey on the work which he had done. Mr. Stuckey possessed powers of keen observation, and was gifted with great manipulatory skill in preparing objects for microscopic examination.

4. “On the Chrysalis of an Australian Wood-boring Moth found in Wellington, New Zealand,” by A. Hamilton.

On the 22nd February a lady brought to me a very large chrysalis from which a moth had partly emerged. She had found it in a dry ditch at the side of a road in Northlands, an upland part of the city. According to her description, the ground, which rises rapidly on the upper side of the road, was covered with small scrubby bush, and to her it appeared as if the chrysalis had fallen down the bank into the ditch from the bush above. It was very lively, and made desperate struggles to escape from the chrysalis. The head and part of one wing were free, but the free wing was crippled and dry. In order to give it as good a chance as possible, it was placed in a box with damp earth, and subsequently steamed, but after four or five days it died.

The moth was a very large female, and covered with eggs. The grey down on the body was strong and well developed, but nothing could be made out of the pattern on the wings. It was apparent, however, that it belonged to the large group of cossid moths which in Australia pass a great portion of their life in the various species of hardwood trees, and especially the gums.

After the death of the specimen I sent it to Mr. J. O. Tepper, the entomological expert of the Museum of South Australia, at Adelaide, and asked for some information concerning it. Mr. Tepper promptly replied, and was kind enough to send not only the notes, but such specimens as he could spare to illustrate his remarks. The accidental introduction of insects in timber is worth recording, more especially if there is any reason to fear damage to our native or acclimatised timber trees. In this case, had the weather conditions been more favourable there is little doubt but that this female cossid would have been able to discharge her eggs, but the probabilities are that, even if they proved fertile, the young caterpillar would not have found food suited to them—or the temperature.

This is not the first instance of such introductions, as last year Mr. Kingsley showed me a large moth closely allied to the species which had been found alive in Nelson, and which probably had been hatched from a chrysalis* enclosed in imported timber.

[Footnote] * Mr. Meyrick records the occurrence of Cossus literatus in New Zealand, and as emerging from imported timber (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxii, p. 204).

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In the case of the one brought to me, I have little doubt but that it was brought to this country in one of the hardwood logs imported for wharf purposes. To account for its presence more than a mile from any wharf or stack of such timber is a question which I cannot solve. I do not think it is at all likely that it came from the native bush near which it was found.

Mr. Tepper kindly wrote as follows: “The aborted large moth belongs to a species about which there seems to reign considerable confusion among European entomologists (morphologists, rather), who, like Kirby (Cat. E. and A. Lep. Het., 874), apparently merges it with Xyleutes d'u rvillei, Dan., which is a quite different species, the larva of which feeds in acacias exclusively, while he accords specific rank to X. edwardsii, described and figured by me in Trans. R. Soc. S.A., xiv., p. 63, pl. i, (1891), which is very much more like your moth, and of which I have only seen one specimen yet. But the late American lepidopterologist Edwards, to whom I showed it, declared that it was a distinct new species, which he had not found anything like in the Europe and American collection. He had specially studied the group. In fact, if the species were redescribed with exact life-size figures under a distinctive name I think it would stand, unless it be regarded as a variety of X. edwardsii, although much more numerous in number of individuals. Hitherto I have always designated it as Cossus eucalypti, as I also applied that generic name to edwardsii. The larvæ here feed exclusively in the heartwood of Eucalyptus rostrata for many years, always feeding from below at ground-level upwards, and emerge between that and about the height of the thick branches from December to the beginning of March, and from about sunset to 9 or 10p.m. Unable to take food, all those that pair die within twenty-four hours. Even those that do not pair cannot rise again, their wings becoming so brittle that they, through breakage and stiffness, become useless. The ova number up to thirty thousand for each female, and are dropped on the ground, but few escape the ants under normal conditions. When sufficiently softened I shall send you a specimen of the female; all I have to spare are not very perfect, for they are rarely to be got so, as the wings get broken quickly during their short vigorous fights from the birds in the early morning, though neither ‘jacks’ nor magpies, nor even fowls, will eat them, as far as my experience goes. I also send you two specimens of Trictena (Meyr.) (Pielus, Walk.) labyrinthica, Den., with very similar habits, but their larvæ feed outside the larger roots, on the decayed bark, &c., and emerge from the ground about April to June. All birds are fond of them. They do no harm to vegetation. The injury of the Xyleutes larvæ extends to the timber only, and not to the foliagge. The injury to vegtable health is wholly due to scale insects, and gall-forming larvæ of midges, &c. The tawny yellow species you mention as having been taken in New Zealand is unknown to me.”

Address.—A short popular address was given by the President on “Quasiexperimental Stages in Evolution.”

Exhibits.—A collection of humming-birds was shown by Mr. A. Hamilton.

Dr. A. K. Newman exhibited a number of implements of Maori manufacture, as follows:—


A whalebone purupuru (resembling a sailor's marlinespike), dug up during road-making operations near Taradale, Hawke's Bay.


A whalebone patu.


A boar's tusk, used by the Natives as a needle for sewing up baskets.


An ear-pendant made from part of a large tooth.


A fine black stone chisel.

Third Meeting: 1st July, 1908.

Professor H. B. Kirk, President, in the chair.

New Members.—Mr. Herbert L. James and Mr. William Gray.

The Chairman stated that, in compliance with a suggestion made by the Council, the Surveyor-General had promised to publish in due course the results of the placing of bench-marks on the coast of New Zealand.

Paper.—“The Wellington Tide-gauge,” by C. E. Adams, B.Sc.

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Mr. Adams claimed that great credit was due to Mr. William Ferguson, C.E. (for many years engineer to the Wellington Harbour Board), for some apparently novel points in this apparatus, constituting, in the speaker's opinion, a distinct improvement in tidegauges.

Mr. William Ferguson, C.E., said that careful observations of the readings of the local tide gauge showed the occurrence in Wellington Harbour of secondary undulations, the cause of which was at present obscure. They semed to bear some resemblance to the seiches often noticed on lakes.

Mr. Martin Chapman, C.E., threw out the suggestion that the secondary undulations spoken of by Mr. Ferguson might possibly be waves generated by the ordinary seawaves. Mr. Chapman urged that it was very desirable to have a number of tide-gauges in use in Port Nicholson and its neighbourhood, and to have many gauges round our coasts and in our principal lakes.

Exhibits.—Mr. A. Hamilton exhibited a blowing-gun which had recently been presented to the Dominion Museum, Wellington, by Mr. George Lee, formely of Southland and Westland, but now of Kalantan, in Siam. Mr. Lee had furnished the following description of the Weapon:—

It is used by the Sakis, the aboriginal inhabitants of Malaysia. Of these aboriginals there are two tribes in the Malay Peninsula—the Sakis on the east side, and the Samangs on the west coast.

These aboriginals are a negroid race, with brown skins, short curly hair, and thick lips; of medium size, and about the build of Lascars, seen on so many ships as sailors. They live entirely in the jungle, wear no clothing, and subsist on fruits, roots, snakes, lizards, monkeys, and other jungle animals. Their numbers are unknown. Formerly they were raided and enslaved by the Malays, men and women alike. This led to mixing of the races; but this enslavement is now forbidden, so that in the forests the race is not much mixed. These aboriginals are a shy, timid people, having a special dread of the white man; but when their confidence is gained they are quite friendly.

The weapon is called “sumpit” by the Sakis, and is used by them for defence and hunting. It is a hollow tube, from which a dart is ejected by blowing. The dart is smeared with a poison, which retains its virulence for a long time. The poison is made from certain plants by a secret process.

The dart is surrounded by a soft vegetable pith at the back end: this acts as a plug filling the tube. A small plug of cotton wool is pressed into the tube at the back of or surrounding the pith: this makes the tube airtight at the back of the pith. By blowing into the tube at the back of the plug the breath behind it is compressed to some extent, and this at a certain tension ejects the dart with considerable force. Very accurate shooting can be made at a fair distance with the weapon. Mr. Lee, with very little practice, was able repeatedly to strike a target of 10in. diameter at a distance of 30 yards. The poison used is very deadly, and a small animal expires in a few minutes after being struck by a poisoned dart.

The darts presented with this tube are charged with the poison, so care is necessary in handling them.

The tube is a remarkable piece of work. It is rifled in the interior, and in order to keep it straight it has a second tube surrounding it. These two principles, rifling and support by a second tube, now used in big-gun making, were applied by the makers of these implements perhaps centuries ago.

Mr. Hamilton also showed several cases of Lepidoptera from the Wakatipu district, and some bones of the extinct crow of the Chatham Islands.

Fourth Meeting: 5th August, 1908.

Professor H. B. Kirk, President, in the chair.

New Member.—Mr. Hugh Patterson.

Papers.—1. “In-breeding: Have its Evil Effects been exaggerated? by J. W. Poynton.


The writer referred to the widespread belief in the injurious effects of in breeding, but contended that, like the geocentric conception of the universe, and other beliefs of the past once universally accepted, it might be erroneous.

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A change sufficient to constitute a new species might under certain rare conditions have been brought about over a wide area without in breeding; but this must have been a rare event. The evolution of the giraffe was instanced. It might have originated from a herbivore not distinguished for height. A severed drought, making grasses and other ground herbage scarce, would cause its ancestors to browse on leaves to trees. Those with long necks, long fore limbs, or even with tongue an inch or two longer than other, would survive, and the general mixing of these peculiarities would cause a marked change in the structure of the animal.

But most species must have originated in another way. An advantageous variation would occur in a single individual, and this would be preserved and intensified by inbreeding with other that would have the tendency to vary in the same direction. This must have been the case where new organs originated, as the electric apparatus of certain fishes, the luminous organ or the firefly, &c., These organs are not present in the early embyro, and are wholly absent in other species not far removed. The organ is probably due to an individual accidentally developing it.

These abnormalities would in nearly all cases be quickly obliterated by crossing with others that had no trace of the peculiarity. In some cases, however, the individual possessing the peculiarity would be, with one or two others of his kind, near relatives probably, in some isolated place, and the in-breeding would intensify the abnormally in some of the offsping. The favoured individuals would have some advantage over others. It would be slight at first, as it is absurd to suppose that the complicated apparatus, with its attendant nerves and blood-vessels, and the modification in the general structure of the animal consequent on developing it, came into existence all at once. Even if it did it would, unless such isolation and in-breeding occurred, be lost in a few generations by general mixing.

The efforts of plants to avoid self-fertilisation may be due to the advantage given to an organism by variability in a changing environment. Cross-breeding with other plants would give a more varied type, better fitted for the struggle for existence under new conditions, as change of climate, difference of food, attacks of new enemies, &c., These efforts have strengthened the belief in the injurious effect of close breeding; but in many cases the plants that are self-fertilised are of the most robust kinds, and some of them were amongst the earliest to appear on the earth. If cross-breeding is of such vital importance as is generally believed, such plants would have died out ages ago.

Rabbits were introduced into New Zealand about fifty years since, and from a few specimens the millions of fertile and vigorous animals all closely related have sprung.

The sparrows now in the country are another example of close in-breeding, as they are all descended from a few pairs. their fertility and general fitness for existence after more than 150 generations of in-breading are very marked.

Again, the Maoris were descended from a few individuals who came to the country in the traditional canoes. According to the general belief about in-breeding, idiocy, lunacy, hysteria, &c., should be prevalent amongst them; but they are not.

The subject was one of economic importance, because it was easier to produce by artificial selection a desired type of plant or animal by in-breeding than by mixing with non-related individuals. further exhaustive experiments were needed, because if the supposed ill effects of in-breeding did not exist, the belief was obstructing the production of new varieties of plants and animals, and the error should be exposed. If in some cases it produced had effects, inquiry was necessary to explain why in others there was no evil result whatever.

Mr. A. H. Cockayne pointed out that one of the most striking and most successful experiments in in -breeding had been made in New Zealand. He referred to the case of the corriedale variety of sheep. The object of the breeders of this sheep had been to produce a general-utility animal—-that is, one suitable both for yielding good mutton and for growing a satisfactory class of wool. Pure-bred merino ewes and pure-bred Lincoln rams had been crossed. those of the offspring which promised best for the desired purpose were crossed again, no restriction being made on the score of nearness of relationship—in fact, the animals crossed were sometimes as closely related as it was possible for them to be. Several experiments of this sort had been carried out, with most satisfactory results, all the sheep bred true to type, and proved quite as hardy as could be desired. The majority of new varieties of barley, sugar-beets, &c., and nearly all modern strains of agricultural seeds, were kept true by almost continuous in-breeding. When departure from this practice had been ventured upon, and crossing had been tried, the result of years of labour had been lost, and the breeders had been compelled to begin again.

The Chairman expressed the opinion that Mr. Poynton's paper was open to criticism on more than one ground. the most important of these perhaps was that the

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author had introduced two fundamental ideas where one should have predominated: he had not taken care to distinguish sufficiently between natural species and artificially established varieties. What held true of natural species might not at all be true of artificial varieties.

2. “A Metaphyical Suggestion,” by Professor M. W. Richmond.

Exhibit.—Professor Kirk exhibited a pig-fish, which had been recently caught in Oriental Bay, Wellington.

Fifth Meeting: 2nd September, 1908.

Professor H. B. Kirk, President, in the chair.

New Member.—Mr. Ernest J. Ludford.

The chairman announced that Volume XL of the Transactions (1907) was now about to issue from the press, and that it was hoped a sufficient number of copies would shortly be available for distribution amongst members.

Papers.—1. “An Improved Method of estimating Iron,” by Dr. J. S. Maclaurin, F.C.S., and W. Donovan, M.Sc.

This paper was illustrated by experiments.

2. “On Two Anemones found in the Neighbourhood of Wellington (Leiotealia thompsoni and Sagartia albocincta),” by F. G. A. Stuckey, B. A.

Exhibits.—Mr. T. W. Kirk, Government Biologist, exhibited and described the following objects:—

1. Various fruit-flies; showing their life-histories. Mr. Kirk laid stress on the importance of the Government regulation of fruit-importing and fruit-growing, and described the experiences of his Department in dealing (apparently with success) with several imported fruit-files, which, unless they had been promptly taken in hand by the officers of the Department, would have become firmly established in the country, with disastrous results to the fruit-producing industry.

2. An ichneumon fly, which it was hoped would do valuable work as a natural enemy of the codlin-moth. The specimens shown had been bred from a colony obtained from the California authorities, who in the first instance had imported the fly from Spain.

3. Gum-tree blight and its natural enemies. (Specimens of a scale insect which had done much harm to the gum-tree plantations of Canterbury and Otago, and specimens of an imported black ladybird which had proved itself a most effective natural enemy of the scale-blight in those districts.)

Annual Meeting: 7th October, 1908.

Professor H. B. Kirk, President, in the chair.

New Members.—Mr. Alex. D. Crawford, Mr. H. D. Skinner, and Mr. Frank Reid.

The Council's annual report and annual statement of receipts and expenditure were read and adopted.

The report stated that the meetings of the 1908 session had been well attended, and that some excellent papers and addresses had been contributed. Thanks were expressed to those members who had furnished exhibits at the meetings.

Ten new members had been elected, five members had resigned, three had died, and one had been removed from the roll owing to the non-payment of subscription.

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Profound regret was expressed at the death of Sir James Hector, and mention was made of the fact that a movement was on foot to commemorate in a worthy manner his great services to science and to New Zealand.

The number of members on the roll was 100, including honorary and life members. The Council pointed out that this was far too small a membership for such a society in a centre of population so large and prosperous as Wellington.

In May, 1908, the Council had joined with the Council of the Otago Institute in urging the Government to set aside the Auckland Islands as a botanical and zoological reserve in perpetuity.

Satisfaction was expressed at the decision of the Government to estalish research scholarships in science.

In accordance with arrangements effected in the previous year, a scientific expedition had been made to the outlying islands to the south of New Zealand. It was considered that our scientific knowledge had been increased by the researches of those who had taken part in this expedition.

Attention was called to the hints to authors which had been issued by the Publication Committee, and members were reminded that no papers could be accepted for publication in the Transactions unless they were clear enough to be easily read by the compositors.

The Council had pleasure in recording the fact that the Surveyor-General had consented to publish in due course the results of the establishment of bench-marks on the coast of New Zealand.

The statement of receipts and expenditure for the year closing on the 30th September, 1908, showed that, inclusive of a balance of £47 ls. 2d. brought forward from the previous financial year, the receipts amounted in all to £145 15s. 2d., and that the total expenditure was £103 13s. 3d., leaving a credit balance of £42 ls. 11d. The amount of the Research Fund (on fixed deposit with the Bank of New Zealand) was £44 18s. 6d.; making the total funds in hand £87 Os. 5d.

Election of Officers for 1909.—President—Mr. A. Hamilton; Vice-Presidents—Mr. G. V. Hudson, F.E.S., and Mr. C. E. Adams, B.Sc.; Council—Mr. T. W. Kirk, F.L.S., Dr. A. K. Newman, Professor T. H. Easterfield, Mr. Martin Chapman, K.C., Mr. Ernest Dillon Bell, Dr. Charles Munro Hector, and Professor H. B. Kirk; Secretary and Treasurer—Mr. Thomas King; Auditor—Mr. E. R. Dymock, A.I.A.N.Z.

Exhibits.—1. Several Maori musical instruments; shown and described by Dr. A. K. Newman.

2. Moa-bones found at Seatoun, near wellington; shown by Mr. H. N. McLeod.

3. The arterial system of a dog; shown by Professor H. B. Kirk.

4. Large leeches infesting the penguin; shown by Professor H. B. Kirk.

Professor Kirk (Chairman), Mr. J. S. Tennant, and Mr. G. V. Hudson gave a popular account of the recent scientific expedition to the southern islands, dealing principally with the Auckland Islands.

In illustration of their remarks, a large number of photographs were thrown on the screen by means of the projecting lantern of Victoria College.

Paper.—“Further Notes on Sea-anemones found in the Neighbourhood of Wellington,” by F. G. A. Stuckey, B.A.

Otago Institute.

First Meeting: 12th May, 1908.

The President, Dr. Hocken, in the chair.

New Members.—The Ven. Archdeacon Gould, Dr. E. Williams, Dr. W. Evans, Dr. Stuart Moore, Messrs. Whitson, Braithwaite, Crosby Smith, and Robert G. Thomson.

The President announced that Mrs. Hutton (window of the late Professor Hutton) had presented to the Institute a copy of Professor Hutton's book “The Lesson of Evolution,” being the second edition of his work on Lamarckism and Darwinism.

A vote of thanks was unaminously accorded Mrs. Hutton.

An engraving of Lamarck, presented to the Institute in return for its subscription to the international fund for the erection of a statue to the celebrated naturalist, was also received and promptly acknowledged.

Mr. A. H. Cockayne, of the biological section of the Department of Agriculture, exhibited a breeding-case showing three hundred ladybirds of the genus Rhizobius feeding upon the blight which a few years ago threatened to exterminate the blue-gum from South Canterbury.

In the course of a few very interesting remarks Mr. Cockayne said that in 1900, in the plantations at Timaru, a strange insect was found to have infested the leaves and branches of the gum-trees. The insect turned out to be an Australian scale insect of the genus Eriococcus, and had in all probability been introduced in the bark of the hardwood timber imported to Timaru from Australia for the harbour-works. Finding the climate of Timaru congenial, in a short time it spread over an area of about 3 square miles. All the young branches of the gum-trees became covered with the scale, and in about eighteen. months the trees died. By the end of 1904 a large number of plantations, some of which had been planted fifty years ago, were dying wholesale through the attacks of this disease. Spraying was, of course, quite out of the question as a remedy, and the only possible solution of the difficulty was to import the natural ladybird enemies of the scale, which keep it in check in Australia. The biological branch of the Department of Agriculture tried as early as possible to get shipments of the natural enemy, and to establish it at Timaru. The Australian seasons, however, were not at first favourable for collecting these ladybirdss, and it was not until the end of 1905 that the first shipment of about two thousand was received. these were placed in some of the badly affected plantations about Timaru, and there they were left, with the object of seeing whether they would survive the winter. The ladybirds increased rapidly, especially a pure-black on (Rhizobius ventralis). So rapidly did this variety increase that next year the Department was able to send consignments to every infected part of Canterbury. Gum-tree planting had been entirely abandoned in the southern part of the province by reason of the ravages of the scale. Thanks, however, to the little black ladybird, all that was now changed, and the plantations which a couple of years ago were considered to be ruined had regained their normal health, and there was every probability that within another year the scale would be absolutely wiped out. This continued Mr. Cockayne, was one of the most interesting experiments in insect-control ever undertaken. Previously the only one noted in text-books was the famous natural enemy of the cottony cushion-scale, which did such excellent work in the orange-groves of California.

Dr. P. Marshal exhibited specimens of rocks sent from South Victoria Land by Professor David, of Sydney University, who accompanied Lieutenant Shackleton's Antarctic expedition.

One of these rocks, a volcanic lava, said Dr. Marshall, was of more particular interest to Dunedin than to most quarters of the world, because the type was of very rare occurrence,

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having only been found in Central Africa, South Victoria Land, and at Flagstaff Hill, Dunedin. The other specimens were fragments of granite which had been carried on the surface of ice from some district not known at the present time, and deposited at the terminal face of the ice where the melting took place.

Presidential Address.—Dr. Hocken delivered his presidential address, dealing mainly with his recent trip into the historical zone of the North Island.

He dealt at considerable length with many incidents connected with the early life of New Zealand, and gave graphic accounts, drawn from his store of New Zealand annals, of events connected with the intertribal and Anglo-Maori wars, which have had a lasting influence on the colonisation of the Dominion.

Second Meeting: 9th June, 1908.

The President, Dr. Hocken, in the chair.

New Members.—Professor Pickerill, Messrs. T. S. Graham, J. A. Johnstone, T. R. Fisher, and W. H. Trimble.

Exhibit.—Dr. Benham made some remarks upon living specimens of weta (Hemideina maori) captured on the Rock and Pillar Range.

When annoyed, he said, the insect struck backward and upward with its stout hind legs, moving them to and fro so rapidly against a few ridges on the anterior segment of the abdomen that a hissing noise was produced.

Lecture.—Mr. A. Bathgate delivered an address entitled “A Retrospect,” dealing with some of the topographical and other changes that had taken place in Dunedin during the last thirty to forty years.

A number of lantern-slides of early Dunedin were thrown on the screen, and the present conditions compared.

Third Meeting: 14th July, 1908.

The President, Dr. Hocken; in the chair.

New Members.—Messrs. A. James and W. MacLeod.

On the motion of Mr. G. M. Thomson, it was resolved to send a telegram of congratulation to the Maori Congress, expressing sympathy with their aims, and hopes for success in their undertakings.

Exhibits.—1. By Dr. Marshall: Maps showing the great rift in the ocean-floor to the north-east of New Zealand, indicating that our volcanic system was independent of that of the Polynesian islands, such as Savaii; and a map showing the extent of the lava-flow from the volcano at Savaii.

2. Specimens of the lava were also exhibited and described.

3. Dr. Benham made some remarks on some Australian shields and a Norwegian fiddle recently acquired for the Museum.

4. By Mr. D. Miller: Enlarged drawings of flies, coloured to nature.

5. By Mr. G. B. Howes: some examples of secondary sexual structures in moths, in the form of tufts of hairs in different parts of the body of the male, whose function was quite conjectural.

The moths were Melanchra stipata, Rhapsa scotialis, Erana graminosa.

Papers.—1. “Report on the Echinoderms collected during the cruise of the ‘Nora Niven,” by professor Benham.

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2. “Report on the Annelida collected during the cruise of the Nora Niven,’” by Professor Benham.

3. “The Gold-veins of Otago,” by A. M. Finlayson, M.Sc.

4. “The Gold-veins of Reefton,” by A. M. Finlayson, M.Sc.

Fourth Meeting: 11th August, 1908.

The President, Dr. Hocken, in the chair.

Exhibit.—Dr. Fulton made remarks on the yellowhead, whitehead, and brown-creeper.

He pointed out the very close similarity of habit of the two former, and commented on the absurdity of placing them in distinct genera, as was done by some ornithologists, owing to very slight anatomical differences, which he regarded as of specific value only.

Papers.—1. “On a Method of carrying out the Decimal Currency,” by Mr. H. Skey.

2. Dr. Marshall gave an account, illustrated with lantern-slides, of the meteorology, geology, and natural history of the Campbell Island as observed by him during the recent expedition.

Fifth Meeting: 8th September, 1908.

The President, Dr. Hocken, in the chair.

The President referred to the efforts which were being made by the Canterbury Philosophical Institute to obtain the establishment in Central Otago of an astronomical observatory by the Carnegie Institute.

Exhibits.—1. By Dr. Fulton: A piece of stone, locally termed “chinaman,” which in this instance bore a curious resemblance to a human face, as a result of the action of water, &c.

2. Specimens of the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodum which were found in the water supplied to houses in Caversham.

3. By Dr. Marshall: A meteorite which fell some years ago in Wairarapa, of which he described the composition.

Address.—“Literary Amenities,” by Mr. W. H. Trimble.

Sixth Meeting: 14th October, 1908.

The President, Dr. Hocken, in the chair.

Lecture.—“Exploration in the Fiord-land of Western Otago,” by M. W. G. Grave.

An account of efforts by the author and his party in successive years to discover a suitable alternative track between Lake Te Anau and Milford Sound.

The lecture was illustrated by a series of fine photographs.

Seventh Meeting: 10th November, 1908.

Dr. Fulton, Vice-President, in the chair.

Exhibit.—By Professor Benham: Living tuataras, with remarks of a popular character as to the interest, and the reasons therefore, which this animal has for biologists.

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Papers.—1. “The Crater of Ngauruhoe,” by Dr. Marshall.

2. “Contact Rocks from West Nelson,” by Dr. Marshall.

3. “Additions to the List of New Zealand Minerals,” by Dr. Marshall.

4. “Geology of Rarotonga and Aitutaki,” by Dr. Marshall.

5. “Some New Zealand Fossil Cephalopoda,” by Dr. Marshall.

6. “The Geology of Signal Hill, Dunedin,” by C. A. Cotton, M.Sc.

Annual Meeting: 10th November, 1908.

Dr. Fulton in the chair.

Annual Report.

A special meeting of members was summoned by advertisement in December, after the annual meeting, for the purpose of complying with the statute requiring that our representatives on the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute should be elected in December. Messrs. G. M. Thomson and Benham were elected.

Your Council thinks it desirable that in future the session should be extended, and that the annual meeting shall be held in December, instead of in November as at present. This will necessitate an application to the Registrar of Societies.

At the meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute, held in January, the general feeling of dissatisfaction at the delay in the appearance of the yearly volume of Transactions was voiced by the southern representatives. A committee was set up to inquire into the cause of this delay. Mr. Thomson was re-elected President for a second year, as well as Editor of the volume. He has done his utmost to carry out the suggestions made by the Government Printer in order to get the volume issued at an earlier date than hitherto, but without the success he had reason to expect. The fault seems to lie outside the control of the Editor, for the revised proofs left his hands in May, and the volume was issued in October.

It will be remembered that at the last annual meeting it was announced that a scientific expedition was proceeding to the southern islands: it proved in every way a success. The Government contributed generously to the finance, and will publish the report. Although the results are not yet completely worked out, yet those in geology and zoology that have been received show that the scientific outcome of the expedition will be of great interest in elucidating the former land-connections of the islands.

Your Council has held eight meetings for the transaction of the business of the Institute, and the following matters have received their attention:—

An effort was made by your Council to have the Auckland Islands proclaimed by the Government as a scenic reserve, but, owing to the fact that the lease has still some years to run, the Minister, while expressing sympathy with our desires, is unable to further them. As has already been announced to members, direct communication with the lessor has apparently had the effect of rousing his hostility to this Institute.

Your Council also drew the attention of the Minister of Internal Affairs to the destruction of birds that still goes on at certain holiday resorts, and suggested that at these and other places copies of the Order in Council specifying the protected birds should be exhibited on all public buildings, but no reply has been received to our communication.

In co-operation with the Otago Acclimatisation Society and the Otago Gun Sportsmen's Association, your Council also took steps to urge the Minister to proclaim Tomahawk Lagoon a reserve for native game.

The proposition by the Carnegie Institute to establish an astronomical observatory in the Southern Hemisphere as far south as possible led the Council, at the suggestion of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, to recommend the suitability of Central Otago for the purpose, and we understand that the Prime Minister was asked to urge the Carnegie Institute to consider these claims earnestly. It now appears that the observatory will be established at San Luis, Argentine.

It will be remembered that this Institute, together with the other New Zealand scientific societies, were successful in their efforts to obtain the appointment of Dr. Cockayne to make a botanical survey of certain parts of the Dominion. The recently published reports on “The National Park of Tongariro” and on “The Kauri Forest of Waipoua” serve to show the valuable work that has been done in this direction.

The ordinary meetings of the Institute have been rather better attended than in some former years. Fifteen new members have been elected, but, as thirteen names have

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been deleted from our roll—from removals, resignations, and other causes—the total has not materially increased, and stands now ab 118.

It is a matter for regret that more of our members do not take an active part in the business of the meetings. They might, if they would do so, render them more varied in character, and possibly more attractive to those who are not keenly interested in science, if they would read papers or give addresses on subjects, literary or otherwise, in which they are themselves interested.

The Council desires to thank those ladies who have been kind enough to provide refreshment at the meetings. In addition to the President's address, three other addresses have been given—viz., by Mr. Bathgate, Dr. Marshall, and Mr. Trimble; while ten scientific papers have been presented for publication.

Your Council was fortunate in persuading Mr. Grave to repeat his lecture, and the hire of a hall for that occasion was fully justified by the large audience which attended, in spite of various other attractions on that evening, and especially satisfactory was it to find so many non-members willing to pay for admission.

The following books have been purchased for the library: “Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait,” McNab's “Historical Records of New Zealand,” Wingate's “Preliminary List of Durham Diptera,” Sherborn's “Index Animalium,” Le Bon's “Evolution of Forces,” Mackower's “Radio-active Substances.” The following have been presented: Hutton's “The Lesson of Evolution” (presented by Mrs. Hutton). “The National Antarctic Expedition” (5 vols., presented by the Trustees of the British Museum and by the Council of the Royal Society), Bulletins of the Dominion Museum and of the Geological Survey of New Zealand reports of various Government Departments. The usual scientific periodicals have been subscribed for, and a large number of reports of Government Departments, pamphlets, and books have been bound.

Balance-sheet.—The balance-sheet, presented by the Treasurer (Mr. J.C. Thomson), showed a credit balance of £54 9s. 11d.

The report and balance-sheet were adopted without discussion.

The income, including balance at the bank brought forward, was £104 18s.; the expenditure, including £34 6s. in connection with the library, amounted to £66 17s. 8d.

Election of Officers for 1909.—President—Professor Park; Vice Presidents—Dr. Hocken and Mr. D. B. Waters; Secretary—Dr. Benham (re-elected); Treasurer—Mr. J. C. Thomson (re-elected); Auditor—Mr. D. Brent (re-elected); Council—Dr. Marshall, Mr. G. M. Thomson, Dr. Fulton, Mr. E. J. Parr, Mr. W. Fels, Dr. Malcolm, and Dr. Fitchett.

On the motion of Dr. Benham, it was decided to hold the annual meeting in future in December instead of November.

Also resolved that the President and Treasurer be empowered to sign cheques on behalf of the Institute.

Eighth Meeting: 8th December, 1908.

The President, Dr. Hocken, in the chair.

The Chairman referred to the election of Mr. G. M. Thomson to Parliament as a hopeful sign that better men were coming forward as representatives of the people, and expressed gratification that Dr. Marshall had been elevated to the rank of Professor of Geology.

Exhibit.—By the Curator of the Museum: An ancient flint-lock pistol, with a remarkably thick barrel-wall.

Dr. Fulton briefly referred to the nesting habits of the harrier and the sparrow-hawk.

He showed photographs in illustration, one of which showed the harrier's nest with an egg and young ones at three different stages of growth, a phenomenon which

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saved the mother a vast deal of labour in the effort to feed the brood. He also stated that an effort was being made to have some white herons introduced from Australia for the public gardens of the Dominion.

Address.—Mr. Rawson read a paper embodying the doctrine of Metchnikoff as to the causes of death and the possibility of postponing this event by the use of a sour-milk diet. The paper was an epitome of “The Nature of Man” and “The Prolongation of Life.”

The address was followed by a discussion.

Paper.—“An Outline of the Geology of New Zealand,” by Professor Park, who mentioned also that practical steps are about to be taken by the Government to erect bench-marks at suitable places along the coast.

Philosophical Institute of Canterbury.

First Meeting: 6th May, 1908.

The President, Mr. E. G. Hogg, in the chair, and sixty-five others present.

New Members.—Messrs. N. M. Bell, R. J. McKay, and H. D. Cook.

The following resolution was carried: “That the Institute learns with regret of the death of Mr. Edward Dobson, C.E., and desires to place on record its appreciation of the services he rendered as one of the original founders of this Institute, as a former President, and as a member of the Council for several years.”

The congratulations of the Institute were accorded to Dr. Dendy on his election to a Fellowship of the Royal Society.

Address.—Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf delivered his ex-presidential address, on “Mendel's Law of Heredity.”

Second Meeting: 3rd June, 1908.

The President, Mr. E. G. Hogg, in the chair, and about a hundred others present.

New Members.—Messrs. C. R. Ford, H. O. D. Meares, G. Humphreys, A. E. G. Rhodes, A. M. Patterson, G. Laurenson, S. W. Thornton, G. T. Weston, S. A. Clark, Frank S. Wilding, T. S. Foster, D. C. H. Florance, A. W. Beaven, John Poulsen, C. Wilkins, J. Bickerton Fisher, G. R. Kidson, D. E. Hansen, Revs. P. J. Cocks, I. A. Bernstein, Drs. G. Lester, L. Crooke, J. Guthrie, Thomas Mill, and Miss B. D. Cross.

Donations.—A number of valuable donations were laid on the table.

Vote of Thanks.—A special vote of thanks to Dr. Heim, of Zürich, was carried for his ready and valuable assistance, not only by suggesting methods of procedure for carrying on experiments in earth-temperature in connection with the Arthur's Pass Tunnel, but also by sending a complete series of his own publications and those of other geologists who have investigated the great alpine tunnels.

Address.—Mr. E. G. Hogg delivered an address on “The Physical Problems suggested by the Construction of the Arthur's Pass Tunnel.” Dr. Farr also delivered an address on the radio-activity problems suggested by this engineering work.

At the conclusion of the meeting a special general meeting was held to revise the laws of the Institute.

Third Meeting: 1st July, 1908.

The President, Mr. E. G. Hogg, in the chair, and sixty others present.

New Members.—Messrs. H. J. C. Jekyll, T. D. Boag, H. A. Bruce, F. D. Waller, Charles Dash, E. Kohn, G. F. Taylor, Hon. Charles Louisson, Dr. W.

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Irving, Miss A. Garforth, Miss Wilkinson, Mrs. C. J. Marshall, Mrs. J. Hall, Mrs. A. J. Merton, Mrs. Mickle.

Address.—Mr. R. Speight delivered an address on “The Geological Problems suggested by the Construction of the Arthur's Pass Tunnel.”

Mr. R. Nairn exhibited a number of specimens showing variegation of plants, and explained the cause of the phenomenon.

Papers.—1. “On certain Conics which are isogonally Self-transforming,” by Mr. E. G. Hogg.

2. “The Harmonic Conic of Two Given Conics,” by Mr. E. G. Hogg.

Additional Ordinary Meeting: 17th July, 1908.

The President, Mr. E. G. Hogg, in the chair, and about two hundred and fifty others present.

Dr. J. Mackintosh Bell, Director of the Geological Survey, delivered an address on “The Heart of the Southern Alps.”

The lecture was splendidly illustrated with lantern-slides, and at its conclusion the lecturer was accorded a hearty vote of thanks for his interesting address.

Fourth Meeting: 5th August, 1908.

The President, Mr. E. G. Hogg, in the chair, and fifty-seven others present.

New Members.—Drs. Pairman and H. Brauer, Messrs. E. W. Relph, F. J. Brooker, D. Buddo, M.P., and T. Ritchie.

Address.—“Some Applications of Chemistry to the Agricultural Industries,” by Mr. A. M. Wright.

Papers.—1. “A New Poetical Metre from Australia,” by Mr. Johannes C. Andersen.

2. “A Scientific Classification of English Poetry,” by Mr. Johannes C. Andersen.

3. “List of Hemiptera from the Maorian Sub-region,” by Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy.

4. “Observations on the Coastal Vegetation of the South Island: Part II,” by Dr. L. Cockayne.

Fifth Meeting: 2nd September, 1908.

The President, Mr. E. G. Hogg, in the chair, and about sixty others present.

New Member.—Mr. G. A. Lewin.

The President drew the attention of the meeting to the efforts that were being made to secure the Okarito whale for the Canterbury Museum, and requested the assistance of members in order to secure the specimen for the city.

Address.—“The Birds of Kapiti,” by Mr. James Drummond.

This was illustrated with lantern-slides, and gave a full account of the birds on one of the sanctuaries established by the New Zealand Government for the preservation of our native fauna and flora.

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Paper.—“Some Striated Stones from the St. Bernard Saddle, Waimakariri Valley,” by Mr. M. C. Gudex; communicated by Mr. R. Speight.

Exhibit.—Mr. Speight exhibited a number of slides illustrating the San Francisco earthquake.

Dr. Cockayne moved that a committee be set up, consisting of Drs. Chilton and Hilgendorf, Messrs. Drummond, Laing, Nairn, Phillips Turner, and the mover, to consider a scheme for securing more general observation of the periodic phenomena of plant-life, and for publishing the results in the name of the Institute.

This was seconded by Dr. Farr and carried.

Sixth Meeting: 7th October, 1908.

The President, Mr. E. G. Hogg, in the chair, and eighty others present.

Hutton Medal.—Dr. Chilton exhibited the first Hutton Medal that had been struck, and explained the conditions under which the medal was to be awarded.

Address.—“The Story of Antarctic Exploration,” by Mr. T. W. Rowe.

This address gave a full account of the progress of antarctic exploration from the earliest times to the present, and was most extensively illustrated with lantern-slides.

Seventh Meeting: 4th November, 1908.

Dr. L. Cockayne in the chair, and thirty-three others present.

Papers.—1. “New Zealand Bird Song,” by Mr. Johannes C. Andersen.

Mr. E. F. Stead spoke at length to this paper, and illustrated his remarks by imitating the notes and calls of many New Zealand birds.

2. “A Plea for Greater Simplicity in Biological Language,” by Dr. C. Chilton.

3. “The Fresh-water Amphipoda of New Zealand,” by Dr. C. Chilton.

4. “The Technical Analysis of Sliped Wool,” by Mr. A. M. Wright.

5. “On a Curious Growth on a Cabbage-tree,” by Dr. L. Cockayne.

6. “Some Hitherto-unrecorded Plant-habitats,” by Dr. L. Cockayne.

7. “Note on a Collection of Plants from the Solanders,” by Dr. L. Cockayne.

8. “On a Hornblende Andesite from the Solanders,” by Mr. R. Speight.

Annual Meeting: 2nd December, 1908.

The President, Mr. E. G. Hogg, in the chair, and forty-five others present.

New Member.—Mr. Melville Gray.

It was resolved that the hearty congratulations of the Institute should be forwarded to Professor E. Rutherford, F.R.S., on the occasion of his being awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry; and to Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace, on his receiving the Order of Merit.

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The President welcomed back the members of the expedition to the Kermadec Islands, and expressed a hope that their scientific results would be of the greatest interest and value.

The following annual report and balance-sheet were adopted:—

Last year was a notable one in the history of the Institute, as under its auspices, and with the assistance of the Government, the expedition to the subantarctic islands of New Zealand was brought to a successful termination. This year the Council has been specially concerned with making arrangements for the publication of the report of the expedition, but other important questions have occupied its attention. The principal of these are as follows: the carrying-out of experiments in connection with the Arthur's Pass Tunnel, the founding of a library of antarctic literature, the establishment of a Carnegie astronomical observatory in New Zealand, the sending of a scientific party to the Chatham Islands, and the consideration of the more adequate protection of our native fauna. The Council has also taken steps to put its views on the question of the Hector Memorial before the committee which has been set up in Wellington to deal with this matter. This committee considers that the memorial should take the form of a scholarship or prize for original work in science, and has approached the Government to secure a subsidy to a fund raised with this object. Your Council feels that a scheme which follows to some extent the lines laid down for dealing with the Hutton Fund would be a more suitable memorial of Sir James Hector's many-sided services to the cause of science in this country, and it further feels that the proper way to stimulate research is not to found a scholarship or prize, but to furnish additional opportunities for carrying on research for its own sake. The representations of this Council do not seem to have met with any success up to the present, but it has the satisfaction of being thoroughly in accord with the Otago Institute in the matter.

Visit of Scientific Expeditions.—During the past year Lyttelton has been visited by the magnetic survey vessel “Galilee,” and the interest in antarctic exploration has been further increased by the departure of the S Y. “Nimrod” with Lieutenant Shackleton's party. In order to show its sympathetic interest in the expedition the Council of the Institute, in conjunction with the Board of Governors of the Canterbury College, arranged for a conversazione in the College Hall to entertain the visitors immediately before their departure. The President wished them a successful voyage, and took the opportunity of welcoming back officially the members of the expedition which visited our own subantarctic islands. It was a matter of regret afterwards that the “Calilee” arrived one day later, so that the Institute had not an opportunity of paying honour to the officers and scientific staff of the ship on the same occasion.

Publication of the Report of the Expedition to the Southern Islands.—The Council considered early in the year the question of publishing the results of the recent expedition to the southern islands. A sub-committee was appointed from the Council itself, and a number of gentlemen from various parts of the Dominion—viz, Drs. Benham and Marshall, Professor Kirk, and Messrs. Hudson and Aston—were requested to act in conjunction with it in order to consider the best means of bringing out what is hoped will be a most valuable report. This committee appointed Dr. Chilton as editor, and requested the assistance of a number of experts to report on the collections that were made. Help has been most willingly given in all quarters, and this promises well for the success of the publication. The Government has been generous in the matter, and has placed on the estimates the sum of £500 as a contribution towards bringing out the report, on the understanding that the work is done at the Government Printing Office. Apart from the question of publication, there were numerous matters in connection with the winding-up of the business of the expedition which the Council had to consider. These have all been satisfactorily arranged, and a balance-sheet of the expedition's accounts duly audited, is appended to this report.

Arthur's Pass Tunnel.—Last year a sub-committee was appointed to consider the question of making such observations on the temperature of the earth's crust and on other geophysical and geological phenomena as the construction of the Arthur's Pass Tunnel renders possible. The sub-committee has continued in office, and arrangements for carrying out the experiments have been placed on a satisfactory footing. The Institute has been met by the contractors, Messrs. John McLean and Sons, in a most friendly spirit, and every facility has been afforded for carrying out the experiments under favourable conditions. Representatives from the committee have visited the tunnel on three occasions, and two bores have been made and readings of the tunnel's temperature taken. As these are at no great depth below the surface, the rise in temperature shown is only a few degrees. Until the committee is in a position to determine the mean temperature of the outer layer of the earth's crust in the locality, little can be said about the results obtained from internal readings.

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During the month of August a deputation from the Institute waited on the Right Hon. the Premier to ask for monetary assistance in the matter, and as a result of its representations a grant of £200 was made towards the expense of conducting the experiments. This was most readily given, and, as a scientific body, this Institute must express its grateful appreciation of the generous spirit with which the present Government has met its requests for assistance in matters scientific.

The Institute has also to express its indebtedness to Dr. Heim, of Zurich, for his valuable help not only by suggesting methods of procedure in taking earth-temperatures, but also by sending copies of his own publications and those of other Swiss geologists who have examined the great Swiss tunnels.

Library of Antarctic Literature.—The Council has considered the advisability of increasing its library by the addition to it of works of scientific interest dealing with the Antarctic. It is hoped that this library may be made more and more complete, and may not only be of great assistance to workers here, but that it may even induce naturalists and others to visit this city for the purpose of consulting it. A number of donations towards it have already been received, and the Council has issued a circular letter to the authorities of all the recent South Polar expeditions asking for their assistance in procuring their valuable publications.

Carnegie Obseriatory.—Seeing that the Carnegie Institute announced its intention of establishing an astronomical observatory in either South America, South Africa, or New Zealand, the Council considered the advisability of bringing the claims of New Zealand more thoroughly before the authorities in Washington. A committee was appointed, with Dr. Farr as secretary, to consider the best steps for doing so. It was decided to recommend Central Otago as an excellent site, and communications were opened with the Otago Institute asking for their co-operation and support. The eminent suitability of the locality for such an observatory was brought before the Carnegie Institute both directly and also through the New Zealand Government. It is understood that it has been decided to establish the observatory in South America, but the Council trusts that its action will serve to bring under the notice of other responsible bodies the special advantages possessed by Central Otago for star-observation, and hopes that the Dominion may not be long without a properly equipped astronomical observatory.

Chatham Islands.—During the year a committee of the Council has considered the advisability of sending a scientific party to the Chatham Islands, in order to make collections of articles of ethnological interest, as well as specimens of the subfossil bird-remains which were once common there, but which are now becoming extremely scarce. It is important that a collection of these should be made at once, in order to secure for some public institution here as good a collection as possible of the remains of the remarkable avifauna of these isolated islands. The Council recommends that a party be sent down as soon as opportunity offers, and that a contribution be made towards its expenses. It is hoped that the Board of Governors of Canterbury College will give assistance, on the understanding that the collections made are deposited in the Canterbury Museum.

Protection of Native Fauna.—The attention of the Council has been drawn to the fact that some of the native animals of New Zealand do not receive effective protection. A committee was set up to consider the best way in which the matter might be brought under the notice of the Government, and to suggest alterations in the law which the necessities of the case demand. It was decided to draw the attention of the Minister of the Interior to the fact that neither the kaka nor the tuatara is protected, although the export of specimens of the latter is forbidden. The Council feels that it is highly important that our unique fauna should be preserved by every means in our power.

These are the principal matters which have occupied the attention of the Council during the year. In all it has held sixteen meetings, at which the average attendance has been eight; but it has been found advantageous to refer matters to small sub-committees for thorough consideration, and meetings of these have been extremely numerous throughout the year.

Library.—During the past year considerable attention was devoted to the library. The committee set up at the last annual meeting met four times, and reported its proceedings to the Council.

Special effort was made to perfect sets of publications, and many long existing gaps were filled. Except in the case of one journal, reported to the Council, the binding has been kept up to date.

A number of presentations were made by members, and many works dealing with subjects within the scope of the Institute were purchased. Especially may be mentioned a copy of Rothschild's “Extinct-Birds.” A special subscription fund was opened for the purchase of this expensive book, and, being liberally supported, the work was obtained without cost to the Institute.

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The “Journal of Geology” is an addition to the library, and all past numbers were obtained, so that the publication is now complete to date.

With the view of forming a library of antarctic literature, publishers of the results of the various antarctic expeditions were communicated with, and it is hoped that arrangements may be made to secure the publications for the Institute.

Negotiations were opened with three publishing institutions in South America with a view to the exchange of scientific literature.

Meetings of the Institute.—During the year eight ordinary meetings and one special meeting were held. By the kindness of the Board of Governors of Canterbury College, and with the consent of Dr. Evans, the chemical lecture-room was placed at the disposal of the Institute for its meetings, the biological lecture-room being found too small to accommodate the audiences. The average attendance has been eighty-eight, and this would no doubt have been even larger had the weather on nights of meetings been more favourable. Nineteen original papers of a technical character have been read during the session. They may be classified as follows: Zoology, 8; botany, 4; geology, 2; chemistry, 1; mathematics, 2; miscellaneous, 2. It is gratifying to note that several of these were by younger and more recent members of the Institute.

A special meeting was held on the 1st July to amend the laws. All former alterations were incorporated, several anomalies were removed, and it is anticipated that no further revision will be necessary for several years to come.

The following addresses of a popular character have been delivered during the session: “Mendel's Law of Heredity,” by the retiring President, Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf; “Physical and Geological Problems suggested by the Construction of the Arthur's Pass Tunnel,” by Mr. E. G. Hogg, Dr. C. Coleridge Farr, and Mr. R. Speight; “Some Applications of Chemistry to Industry,” by Mr. A. M. Wright; “The Story of Antarctic Exploration,” by Mr. T. W. Rowe. In addition an address was delivered by Dr. Mackintosh Bell, Director of the New Zealand Geological Survey, on the “Heart of the Southern Alps.” The meeting was held in the Canterbury College Hall, and, in spite of the most inclement weather, there was an excellent attendance.

As Professor David, of Sydney University, was staying a few days in Christchurch before the departure of the “Nimrod,” the Council arranged for him to give a lecture under its auspices. He found, however, that the urgent nature of his engagements prevented him from delivering it, but he kindly consented to deliver one on his return from the Antarctic.

Membership.—During the year forty-nine new members have been elected and seventeen have either resigned or been struck off, so that the number now stands at 170, the highest for many years. It is a matter for congratulation that the work of the Institute seems to have met with general approval, as has been evidenced both by this great increase of members and also by the large attendance at its meetings.

Obituary.—The members of the Institute have to regret the death of Mr. Edward Dobson, C.E., who was one of its founders, a former President, and member of the Council for many years. Until old age prevented him, he took an active part in the affairs of the Institute, and even in the last years of his very long life he evinced a keen interest in its welfare.

Balance-sheet.—The balance-sheet shows a credit balance of £13 16s. 4d., after expending a sum of £96 1s. 3d. in connection with the library, £30 4s. 5d. on the Otira Pass Tunnel investigations, and investing £75 as a fixed deposit with the Permanent Investment and Loan Association of Canterbury. Of the amount spent on the library, the sum of £27 16s. was raised by special subscription, chiefly for the purchase of Rothschild's “Extinct Birds.”

The balance-sheet of the Expedition account shows a credit balance of £15 9s. 4d., but the whole of this will be required for the preparation of maps, photographs, and other illustrations for the forthcoming volume of reports on the collections made during the Expedition.

The thanks of the Institute are due to the Board of Governors of Canterbury College for allowing the use of their rooms for meetings, and to Mr. G. E. Way, the Honorary Auditor, who has filled that office for many years.

Election of officers for 1909.—President—Mr. Edgar R. Waite; Vice-Presidents—Mr. E. G. Hogg and Mr. R. M. Laing; Hon. Secretary—Mr. R. Speight; Hon. Treasurer—Dr. Charles Chilton; Hon. Librarian—Mr. Edgar R. Waite; Council—Mr. J. Drummond, Dr. C. Coleridge Farr, Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf, Mr. J. B. Mayne, Mr. S. Page, and Mr. A. M. Wright; Representatives on the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute—Dr.

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C. Coleridge Farr and Mr. R. Speight; Hon. Auditor—Mr. G. E. Way, F.I.A. N.Z.

Papers.—1. “Notes on the Amphipod Genera Bircenna, Kuria, and Wandelia,” by Dr. Charles Chilton.

2. “The Phoxocephalidœ of New Zealand,” by Dr. Charles Chilton.

3. “Description of an Amphipod new to New Zealand,” by Dr. Charles Chilton.

Reports on the general scientific results of the recent Subantarctic Expedition were given by Dr. C. Coleridge Farr (magnetic), Mr. R. Speight (geology), and Mr. R. M. Laing (botany).

The President-elect, Mr. Edgar R. Waite, then took the chair, and closed the meeting.

Manawatu Philosophical Society.

The fourth annual report was presented at a general meeting held on the 19th November, 1908, as follows:—

Twenty-one meetings of the Council have been held, and fourteen meetings of members.

The following papers were read: (1) “On the Properties and Uses of Phosphorus and the Phosphates,” illustrated by experiments, by Mr. J. E. Vernon, M.A.; (2) “Animals as Subjects for Disease,” by Mr. G. E. Owen, M.R.C.V.S.; (3) “The Mineral Resources of the West Coast,” by Mr. C. E. Harden, M.A.; (4) “Wireless Telegraphy and Submarine Cables,” by Dr. W. R. Stowe; (5) “Notes on Nests and Habits of the Fantails,” by Mr. W. W. Smith, F.R H.S.; (6) “Journals and Journalism,” by Mr. E. D. Hoben; (7) “Observations on some of the Forces and Influences existing between the Sun and other Heavenly Bodies,” by Captain J. D. R. Hewitt, R.N.; (8) “New Zealand Plants and their Uses by the Maori,” by Rev. G. B. Stephenson; (9) “Physiology versus Psychology,” by Mr. D. Sinclair.

Two popular lectures have also been held, the subjects being “Subantaretic Region,” by Dr. L. Cockayne, LL.D., and “The Kea, the Sheep-killer,” by Mr. G. R. Marriner, F.M.S. Dr. Cockayne's lecture was very largely attended, about six hundred persons being present.

It is proposed to institute a series of free popular lectures, the Palmerston North Borough Council having granted the Society the free use of the Municipal Hall for that purpose.

Our Hon. Secretary, Mr. Kenneth Wilson, was granted leave of absence during his visit to England, and Mr. M. A. Eliott was appointed to act until Mr. Wilson's return.

The Museum now contains over 1,250 exhibits, 260 having been received since the last annual report, including a valuable collection of over fifty stuffed birds from Professor W. B. Benham, of Dunedin University. The Museum is greatly handicapped by want of room, the present accommodation being quite inadequate, and in consequence many exhibits are unable to be shown, and very few displayed to their full advantage.

It is to be hoped that the Borough Council will shortly carry out the scheme for a new library, which includes good-accommodation for the Museum. The attendance during the last year was over fifteen hundred, making a total of over four thousand since the Museum was opened.

The observatory, under the charge of Captain Hewitt, R.N., continues to be fairly well attended by the public on the evenings it is open. Captain Hewitt has also made a careful examination of sun-spots and kept a record of same during the past year.

The Council decided to offer a prize of £3 3s. for the best collection of (a) botanical and (b) entomological specimens, to be exhibited at the spring show of the Manawatu Agricultural and Pastoral Association. The winner of (a) was Mr. F. Charwood Campbell, of Jackeytown, who displayed a splendid collection of botanical specimens. It is to be regretted that there were no entries for (b) section.

In order to bring our Society in line with other societies affiliated with the New Zealand Institute it was recommended by the Council to alter the date of the annual meeting from the third Thursday in July to the third Thursday in November. This recommendation was unanimously confirmed at a general meeting of members held on the 16th July.

The Council desires to thank the Mayor and Borough Council for the free use of the Municipal Hall for popular lectures; Professor Benham and other numerous donors of gifts and loans to the Museum; Captain Hewitt and assistants, for attendance at the observatory; Dr. Martin, for taking and publishing records in connection with the meteorological station; Mr. J. B. Gerrand, for honorary assistance in renewing and adjusting various portions of the telescope; the Curator of the Museum (Mr. Hirtzell), for the zealous and careful manner in which he has carried out his duties; the Auditor, Mr. R. H. Keeling; and the local Press, for their kindness in publishing information of the Society's meetings, &c.

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There were seventy-one subscribing members last year (1907-8), as compared with fifty-nine in 1906–7 and thirty-six in –6, so that it will be seen that the membership is steadily increasing.

The balance-sheet shows that the total receipts were £93 14s. and the expenditure £54 17s. ld. We began the year with a bank overdraft of £79 0s. 7d.: this has now been reduced to £43 3s. 3d.

Our present total liabilities, including bank overdraft, are £46 6s. 3d., against which we have current year's subscriptions due, say £60; telescope and observatory, which cost £100; and show-cases and exhibits in Museum.

Election of Officers for 1909.—President—Mr. M. A. Eliott; Vice-Presidents—Captain Hewit, R.N., and Mr. W. F. Durward; Hon. Secretary and Treasurer—Mr. K. Wilson, M.A.; Hon. Auditor—Mr. R. N. Keeling; Council—Mr. J. L. Barnicoat, Mr. M. Cohen, Mr. A. A. Glendinning, Mr. E. D. Hoben, Dr. W. R. Stowe, and Mr. J. E. Vernon, M.A.

The following is the report of the Astronomer (Captain J. D. R. Hewitt) for the year 1908:—

During the last year only seventy-four people have availed themselves of using the telescope, and a majority of these were visitors to the town, also children, who have been admitted free.

During the winter the attendance fell off so much that the hours were altered to 4.30 to 6.30 p.m., but the attendance did not increase.

From the 17th September to the 31st October the mirrors, which had been scratched a good deal, were with Mr. Ward, the well-known astronomer at Wanganui, who kindly resilvered them at actual cost price. The definition is now much improved.

In August and September there were some remarkable groups of sun-spots, showing great activity and change of form, and some photographs were taken by Dr. Kennedy, of Meeanee. On application to the Surveyor-General as to magnetic disturbances at the time, I received information a month afterwards which tends to show that there was connection between the spots and magnetic disturbances; but until the magnetic observers can be induced to work directly with telescopic observers much will be lost: applying for information through the Surveyor-General, though readily granted, takes too much time, and both observers lose interest. The magnetic observer, having disturbances graphically recorded for him, has little trouble, and could, if permitted, easily reply to the telescopic observer, who must personally do his observing, and is naturally diffident of raising false alarms about magnetic disturbances. Many spots may be sufficiently large and active to create magnetic disturbance, but not necessarily at a magnetic observatory nearest to his telescope. The problem before us is to fix the spot on the earth approximately where the disturbance will be felt; and to do so properly a magnetic observatory should be attached to the ordinary observatory, which is beyond our reach at present.