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Volume 42, 1909
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1. Cyperaceæ-Caricoideæ,

This important work is of great interest to New Zealand botanists, since it deals with the difficult genera Uncinia and Carex. The author had not only European herbarium specimens at his disposal, but, so far as New Zealand was concerned, many from the collections of Cheeseman, Petrie, and Cockayne, the actual herbarium numbers being cited in most instances

The following summary of the work seeks to show the principal differences between the author's treatment of the New Zealand forms and that of Cheeseman in the “Manual of the New Zealand Flora.” It should be borne in mind in estimating these differences that, as Cheeseman has very truly said (Manual, p. 798), “The New Zealand species [of Uncinia] are highly variable, and most difficult of discrimination. U. purpurata, cæspitosa, ruparia, rupestris, and filrformis present an almost unbroken series of forms, and I doubt if any two observers would arrive at the same conclusions respecting them even if they worked on the same material.”

Genus Unicinia, Pers.

Uncinia is divided into two subgenera—Eu-Uncinia, Kükenth., and Pseudocarex, Kükenth.—the former being subdivided into the sections Platyandrœ, C. B. Clarke, and Stenandrœ, C. B. Clarke, to the latter of which all the New Zealand species belong, and which differs from the former in the membraneous and often deciduous glumes, filiform filaments, and generally glabrous utricles. The species, and also those of Carex, are arranged below in the same consecutive order as given by Cheeseman. Where a species is not cited it is to be understood that no change of any moment has been made.


Uncinia Sinclairii, Boott.

This becomes U. macrolepis, Decne., which was previously considered synoymous with U. Lechleriana, Steud. Its distribution is Fuegioa and South Island of New Zealand.


U. tenella, R. Br.

The type is found only in Tasmaina and Victoria. The New Zealand plant is described as var. β longifructus, and differs from the type (as Cheesman had also shown) in the utricles being nearly twice as long, and exceeding the 3-nerved glumes.


U. nervosa, Boott.

This is given as a synonym of U. rupestris Raoul, which latter is the prior name, the U. rupestris of Cheeseman and others being referred to U. Hookeri, Boott, which the author reduces to a variety of U. riparia, R Br. Two varieties of U. rupestris, Raoul, are described-viz.: var. βcapillacea, Kükenth., var. nov., which is said to be U. filiformis of most New Zealand collectors, and has filiform culms and leaves, narrow spikes and paler glumes than the type, and utricle scarcely 4 mm. long; and var. γ planifolia, Kükenth., var., with flat leaves 1–1.5 mm. broad, and spikes narrower than the type. Both varieties are endemic, but the type occurs also in Tasmania.


U. compacta, R.Br.

Besides the type, three varieties are described—var. β divaricata (Boott), Hook. f, which has culms often 20 cm. tall, spikes 7–9 mm. broad, and glumes paler and more acute than the type and many-nerved on the back; var. γ Clarkei (Petrie), Kükenth., which is the var. Petrie, C. B. Clarke, in Cheeseman's Manual; and var. δ longata, C.B. Clarke, this latter being confined to Amsterdam Island.

The type is found in Tasmania, Kerguelenland, Amsterdam Island, and New Zealand; var. divaricata is endemic, and var. Clarkei to Victoria, and, besides the South Island of New Zealand, is found in Macquarie Island.

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U. purpurata, Petrie.

The following two varieties are described: var. β robusta, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii (1885) 272, and var. subcœspitosa, Ku̇kenth., var. nov., with slender culms, narrow leaves exceeding the culms, and acute glumes paler than those of the type. (Habitat: Mount Cook, Cheeseman; Old Man Range, Otago, Petrie in Herb. Cockayne, No. 7821.)


U. purpurata, Petrie, var fusco-vaginata.

This is considered a valid species under the name U. fusco-vaginata, Ku̇kenth. Other synonyms are: U. compacta var. divaricata, Hook. f. in part; U. compacta, var. γ viridis. C. B. Clarke.


U. cœspitosa, Boott.

This is cited as U. cœpitosa, Colenso, ex Boott in Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zeland


U. australis, Pers.

The name as above is changed by the rule of priority to U. uncinátá (L.f.), Kükenthal, the plant being originally described by the younger Linnæus as Carex uncinata (Suppl., 1781, p.413.)


U. leptostachya, Raoul.

U. distans, Boott, is treated as a variety of this species (var. distans (Boott), Kukenth.): spike flexuous, extremely lax flowered.


U. riparia, R. Br.

Besides the var. Banksu (Boott), C B. Clarke, of Cheeseman's Manual, U. Hookeri, Boott, which is given as a synonym for U. rupestris, Raoul, by Cheeseman, is referred to this species as var. Hookeri (Boott), Kukenth. Cheeseman, however (Manual, p. 805), remarks of U. rupestris that it is “much too closely allied to U. riparia.”

A var. γaffinis, Colenso (syn., U. laxiflora, Petrie) is also described.

Besides New Zealand, the type occurs in New Guinea; East Australia, Tasmania, and Lord Howe Island; var. Hookeri in New Guinea; while vars. affinis and Banksii are endemic


U. rubra, Boott.

The name of var. rigida (Petrie), Cheesem, is changed to var. β strictissimà, Kukenth, the name rigida having been given to another valid species in 1885. A new var. fallax, Kukenth., is created which has more slender culms than the type, leaves exceeding the culms, flat, 2 mm. broad and not so rigid, and which is said to be a transitional stage towards U. riparia.


U. rupestris, Raoul.

As seen above (see No. 3), the author does not consider the plant thus designated by Cheeseman as the true U. rupestris, Raoul, but refers it to U. Hookeri, Boott (see No. 10).


U. filiformis, Boott.

The author excludes U. debilior, F. Muell., of Lord Howe Island, from this species, including it in U. riparia, R. Br.


One new species, Unicinia pedicellata, Kükenthal, is described as follows:-

“Rhizoma laxe cæspitosum. Culmus –50 cm. altus strictus gracilis triqueter lævis. Folia culmo breviora 2–3 mm. lata plana rubra rigida. Spicula lineari-cylindrica –14 cm longa 3 mm. lata dénsiflora in partem ♂ 2 cm. longam sensim desinens sæpe bracteata. Squamæ ♀ oblongo-ovatæ obtusiusculæ spadicæ clarius carinatæ marginibus angustæ albæ. Utriculi squamas ⅓ superantes suberectr ellipsoidei fere 5 mm. longi brunner glabri obsoletissme nervosi, basi spongiosa in stipitem longum attenuati, in rostrum mediocre sensim abeuntes Nux oblongo-ovata apice annulata. Styli basis incrassata. Rhacheola utriculum duplo superans.”

New Zealand : Forest on Ruapuke Island, in Foveaux Strait (Cockayne, No. 7867!). [This is the common species of the Stewart Island forest.]

Genus Carex.

The greater part of the monograph is devoted to the genus Carex, of which 798 species and a considerable number of hybrids are recognised. The genus is subdivided into four subgenera, and these again into sixty-nine sections A table shows the geographical distribution of the species according to the subgenera and sections. Regarding the New Zealand species the author writes, “The flora of New Zealand bears an altogether

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primitive stamp, since it contains relatively a very high number of endemic types (twenty-six out of forty-one), and it may rightly be considered the original home of the subsection Arenariœ-Australes and the section Echinochlœnœ. A remarkable character, and to be found nowhere else, is the wine-red colour of the leaves of many species, also of Uncinia. With the neighbouring parts of Australia an exchange of eleven species has taken place. C. dissita extends, with a certain alteration, to the Australian monsoon region. Carex trifida also occurs in the subantarctic region.”

The following are the chief changes made by Kükenthal:-


C. pyrenáica, Wahl.

The type is found on high mountains in the four quarters of the globe and in the alpine region in both Islands of New Zealand.

A var. β cephalotes (F. Muell.), Ku̇kenth., is described which is smaller than the type, has ovate or subglobose spikelets 6–8 mm. long, invariably 2 styles and utricle very shortly stipitate and broader than in the type. This variety, which was considered a species by Von Mueller, is confined to New Zealand and Australia.


C. teretiuscula, Good.

This is given as a synonym of C. diandra, Schrank, on the score of priority. The type alone occurs in New Zealand.


C. appressa, R. Br.

Carex virgata, Sol., and C. secta, Boott, maintained by Cheeseman as species, are reduced to varieties of the above, and a new variety γ sectoides, Ku̇kenth., is described which includes only the Chatham Island plant, also considered possibly distinct by Cheeseman. But for this latter variety the author would have considered C secta, Boott, a valid species, but he holds that the var. sectoides is a connecting-link between it and C. appressa.

In addition to Australia and Tasmania, New Caledonia is given as an additional habitat for the type. The var. virgata is also Australian and Tasmanian, but the remaining two varieties are endemic.


C. inversa, Br.

Two forms of the type—-parvula Ku̇kenth. (Whangaroa, Petrie in Herb. Cockayne No. 1642, and also in New South Wales), with weak culms 4–6 cm. tall and very small few-flowered spikelets; and major, Boott (confined to Australia)—are described. A new variety, β costata, Kükenth. (South Island, near Lake Wanaka, Petrie!), is described, and is characterized by the slender culms, flaccid leaves, and intensely green utricle, marked on both sides by strong brownish nerves. A var. γ Leichhardtu, Boeck, the var. major, Benth. non Boott, is described which appears to be common in Australia, but only one New Zealand specimen is noted. It has culms taller than the type, and the utricle conspicuously winged and abruptly contracted into a moderately long incurved beak.


C. echinata, Murr.

According to the author, on the authority of C. B. Clarke, this species, which is confined to the Northern Hemisphere, has been confused by most authors with C. stellulata, Good., the two species belonging to different sections of the subgenus Vignea.

C. stellulata, Good., is divided into six varieties, the type and var. australis, Ku̇kenth, alone occurring in New Zealand, the latter being endemic. It is characterized by its flaccid culms and leaves and utricles with smooth or sparingly scabrid margins.


C. lagopina, Wahl.

The type alone occurs in New Zealand. Four non-New-Zealand varieties are described.


C. Gaudichaudiana, Kunth.

Three varieties are given. The type and var. β humilior, Ku̇kenth., occur both in New Zealand and Australia; var. γ contracta (F Muell.), Kükenth., is peculiar to Australia, and var. δ Thunbergii (Steud.), Kukenth., is confined to East Asia, including Japan. The var. humilior has short frequently curved culms, spikelets close together, short oblong-ovate, and utricles ovate and broader than the type.


Carex ternaria, Forst. f.

This, C. Darwinii, Boott, and C. subdola, Boott, are placed by the author in a different section of the subgenus to C. Gaudichaudiana, Kunth.

The treatment of C. ternaria is much the same as that of Cheeseman, except that the var. pallida, Cheesem., is made a form merely of var. minor, Boott, another form of which (nigrescens, Kükenth.) is described. The variety minor, has fewer and shorter spikelets than the type, and its form nigrescens has the glumes darker in colour and the dorsal nerves and awn reddish.

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C. Sinclairii, Boott.

This species is not admitted, the author in a note saying it appears to differ from C. ternaria in unimportant characters merely. At the same time, it must be pointed out that Ku̇kenthal evidently had no material of the form in question, whereas Cheeseman had abundance (Manual, p.821).


C. Raouli, Boott.

Here belongs C. Haasteana, Boeck., a plant hitherto unknown to New Zealand botanists, but treated by the author merely as a form Haasteana (Boeck.), Kükenth., differing from the type in its much shorter culms; its precise habitat is unknown; but it was collected by Haast. It has culms only 5–7 cm. tall.


C. Buchanani, Bergg.

This is constituted var. β of C. lucida, Boott, the author considering there are numerous transitional forms connecting it with the type, and citing C. flagellifera, Col., as an example.


C. rubicunda, Petrie.

This is reduced to var. β rubicunda (Petrie), Kükenth., of C. Petriei, Cheesem. C. Traversii, Kirk, and C. Dallii, Kirk, which latter is maintained by Cheeseman, are referred to C. Petriei, C. Traversii coming midway between var. β and the type. The author, however, had only immature specimens of C. Dallii.


C. uncifolia, Cheesem.

A new var. β libera, Kükenth., is described which has longer culms not altogether sheathed by the leaves, longer spikelets and female glumes with truncate apices.


C. comans, Bergg

C. Cheesemannii, Petrie, is made var. β, and var. sticta, Cheesem., is considered a form of this and not a valid variety. C. pulchella, Bergg., is, as by Cheeseman, considered a variety.


C. plesiostachys, C. B. Clarke.

This is unknown to the author.


C. dissita, Sol.

C. Neesiana, Endl., and C. Solanderi, Boott, are treated as vars. δ and ∊ respectively of this species, the former being also considered synonymous with var. ochrosaccus, Cheesem. On the other hand, Cheeseman admits C. Solanderi as valid, and rejects the Norfolk Island C. Neesiana, Endl., from the New Zealand flora.


C. ventosa, C. B. Clarke.

Unknown to the author.


C. breviculmis, R. Br.

The type is confined to New Zealand, Lord Howe Island, and Australia. Two varieties are described, one confined to Lord Howe Island and the other to New Guinea. The subspecies Royleana, Nees, occurs in various cited forms in South and East Asia, Japan, and Formosa.


C. flava, L.

The New Zealand plant referred as above by Cheeseman is described by the author as C. Oederi, Retz, var. γ cataractœ (R. Br.), Ku̇kenth. It is confined to the Southern Hemisphere (South Africa, Tasmania, New Zealand, Chile, and Patagonia). Cheeseman had also pointed out the close relationship of the plant to C. Oederi, which he considers merely a variety of C. flava.


C. Cockayniana, Kükenth.

This is reduced to var. β of C. Forsteri, Wahlenb.


C. semi-Forsteri, C. B. Clarke.

This is considered synonymous with C. Forsteri, Wahlenb.


C. pseudo-cyperus, L.

Four varieties are described, but only the type and var. γ fascicularis (Soland.), Boott, occur in New Zealand.

C. novœ selandiœ, Boeck., is referred here as forma novœ selandiœ (Boeck.), Kükenth., of var. γ, and distinguished by its shorter culms, narrower leaves, and smaller spikelets and utricles. The latter is endemic.

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Systematic Arrangement of the New Zealand Species of Unicinia and Carex According to Kukenthal.

Uncinia, Pers.

Subgenus I. Eu-Uncinia, Kukenth.

Section 1. Platyandrœ, C. B. Clarke.

(No New Zealand species.)

Section 2. Stenandrœ, C. B. Clarke.

U. fusco-vaginata, Ku̇kenth.

U. purpurata, Petrie.

Var. β robusta, Petrie.

Var. γ subcœspitosa, Kukenth.

U. cœspitosa, Colenso.

Var. β minor, Kukenth.

U. pedicellata, Ku̇kenth.

U. uncinata (L.f.), Kükenth.

Var. β clavata, Ku̇kenth.

Var. γ ferruginea (Boott), Kükenth.

U. leptostachya, Raoul.

Var. β distans (Boott), Hook. f.

U. riparia, R. Br.

Var. β Hookeri (Boott), Kukenth.

Var. γ affinis, Colenso.

Var. δ Banksii (Boott), C. B. Clarke.

U. rubra, Boott.

Var. β strictissima, Kükenth.

Var. γ fallax, Kukenth.

U. rupestris, Raoul.

Var. β capillacea, Kükenth.

Var. γ planifolia, Ku̇kenth.

U. compacta, R. Br.

Var. β divaricata (Boott), Hook. f.

Var. γ Clarkei (Petrie), Kükenth.

U. tenella, R. Br., var. β longifructus, Ku̇kenth.

U. filiformis, Boott.

Subgenus II. Pseudocarex, Ku̇kenth.

(Not in New Zealand.)

Carex, L.

Subgenus Primocarex, Kükenth.

Section Uniciniœformes, Ku̇kenth.

Subsection Aciculares, Kükenth.

C. acicularis, Boott.

Subsection Callistachys (Heuff.), Aschers. et Græbner.

C. pyrenaica, Wahlenb.

Subgenus Vignea (P. Beauv.), Nees.

Section Arenariœ, Kunth.

Subsection Australes, Ku̇kenth.

C. pterocarpa, Petrie.

C. Kirkii, Petrie.

Var. β elatior, Ku̇kenth.

Var. γ membranacea, Kükenth.

C. Muelleri, Petrie.

C. kaloides, Petrie.

Section Bracteosœ, Kunth.

C. trachycarpa, Cheesem.

Section Paniculatœ, Kunth.

C. diandra, Schrank.

C. appressa, R. Br.

Var. β virgata (Soland.), Ku̇kenth.

Var. γ sectoides, Kükenth.

Var. δ secta (Boott), Kükenth.

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Section Inversœ, Kükenth.

C. resctans, Cheesem.

C. inversa, R. Br.

  • Forma 1. parvula, Kükenth.

  • Forma 2. major, Boott.

Var. β costata, Kükenth.

Var. γ Leichhardtii, Boeck.

C. Colensoi, Boott.

Section Ovales, Kunth.

C. leporina, L.

Section Canescentes, Fries.

C. lagopina, Wahlenb.

Section Elongatœ, Kunth.

C. stellulata, Good.

Subgenus Eucarex, Coss. et Germ.

Section Acutœ, Fries.

Subsection Vulgares, Aschers.

C. Gaudichaudiana, Kunth.

Var. β humilior, Kükenth.

Subsection Cryptocarpœ, Tuckerm.

C. subdola, Boott.

C. Darwinii, Boott, var. γ urolepis (Franch), Kükenth.

C. ternaria, Forst. f.

Var. β minor, Boott.

  • Forma 1. pallida, Cheesem.

  • Forma 2. nigrescens, Kükenth.

Var. γ gracilis, Cheesem.

Section Mitratœ, Kükenth.

Subsection Eumitratœ, Kükenth.

C. breviculmis, R. Br.

Section Tumidœ, Kükenth.

C. Brownii, Tuckerm.

Section Spirostachyœ, Drejer.

C. Oederi, Retz, var. γ cataractœ (R. Br.), Ku̇kenth.

Section Echinochlœnœ, Th. Holm.

C. cirrhosa, Berggren.

Var. β lutescens, Kükenth.

C. Berggreni, Petrie.

C. Hectori, Petrie.

C. uncifolia, Cheesem.

Var. β libera, Kükenth.

C. decurtata, Cheesem.

C. lucida, Boott.

Var. β Buchanani (Berggr.), Kükenth.

C. devia, Cheesem.

C. dipsacea, Berggren.

C. testacea, Soland.

C. wakatipu, Petrie.

C. Raoulii, Boott.

Forma Haasteana (Boeck.), Kükenth.

C. comans, Berggren.

Var. β Cheesemannii (Petrie), Kükenth.

Var. γ pulchella (Berggr.), Kükenth.

C. Petriei, Cheesem.

Var. β rubicunda (Petrie), Kükenth.

C. litorosa, L. H. Bailey.

C. dissita, Soland.

Var. β monticola, Kükenth.

Var. γ Lambertiana (Boott), Cheesem.

Var. δ Neesiana (Endl.), Kükenth.

Var. ∊ Solanderi (Boott), Kukenth.

C. longiculmis, Petrie.

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Section Pseudo-cyperœ, Tuckerm.

C. vacillans, Soland.

C. Forsteri, Wahlenb.

Var. β Cockayniana, Kükenth.

C. pseudo-cyperus, L.

Var. γ fascicularis (Soland.), Boott.

Section Paludosœ, Fries.

C. trifida, Cav.

C. pumila, Thunb. L.C.