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Volume 43, 1910
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Art. XXVII.—On the Flora of the Mangonui County.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd November, 1910]

The County of Mangonui is situated in the extreme north of the Auckland Provincial District. It lies between 34°20′ and 35°20′ south latitude, and consists of a long narrow peninsula stretching north-west known as the North Cape Peninsula, and a southern portion more or less oblong in shape. the peninsula is about fifty miles in length, and from five to ten miles across. The lower portion is about forty miles from east to west, and averages about sixteen miles from north to south.

“The first person to explore the district from a natural-history point of view was the veteran botanist Mr. Colenso, who in 1839 travelled from Kaitaia northwards to Cape Maria van Diemen, and from thence to the Reinga, Spirits Bay, and the North Cape. During this journey he collected several of the plants peculiar to the district, notably Hibiscus diversifolius and Lycopodium Drummondii, the last of which has not been refound. . In 1840–41 Dr. Dieffenbach, the naturalist to the New Zealand Company, made an exploration of the country to the north of the Bay of Islands. He

[Footnote] † Since refound by Mr. H. B. Matthews.

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spent a considerable time in the North Cape Peninsula, judging from the account given in his ‘Travels in New Zealand,’ where Chapters 12 and 13 are devoted to the physical features and geology of the district. I cannot learn that he made any botanical collections therein, but the chapters quoted contain several interesting remarks upon the vegetation. In the summer of 1865–66 the district was visited by Sir James Hector…. He was accompanied by Mr. John Buchanan, who made a considerable collection of plants, which I believe was forwarded to Kew. He was the first to detect Hymenanthera latifolia, and observed several other species not previously recorded from that part of New Zealand. In April, 1867, Mr. Kirk and late Mr. Justice Gillies made a brief visit to the district between Parengarenga Harbour and Spirits Bay. Notwithstanding the lateness of the season, a few novelties were collected and much additional information obtained. Some notes on this journey will be found in the ‘Transactions of the New Zealand Institute’(vol. 1, p. 143). A list of the plants observed by Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Kirk is given in vol. 2 of the same publication (pp. 23946). So far as I am aware, these three papers comprise all that has been published on the botany of the North Cape Peninsula.”*

In the Transactions for 1896 appears a paper “On the Flora of the North Cape District” by Mr. Cheeseman, from which I have taken the foregoing paragraph. Mr. Cheeseman in his paper mentions his earliest visit to the district, in 1874, when he explored Doubtless Bay, Oruru Valley, Maungataniwha, and a portion of the east coast. In 1889 Mr. Cheeseman again paid a short visit to the district, followed in 1896 by a longer one. His itinerary shows that on this occasion he passed from Mangonui to Awanui, thence to Kaitaia and Ahipara, and thence coastwise northwards as far as the North Cape. Considering the short time available, Mr. Cheeseman was able to take note of a considerable number of plants.

Since the time of Mr. Cheeseman's visits a fair number of botanical discoveries have been made; indeed, it would be surprising if during the fourteen years that have elapsed a considerable amount of additional information as to the plant covering of the district had not been gained. As a resident in the district, and a not unsuccessful observer of nature, I am in a position to supply additional botanical information, partly from my own observations and partly from those of my friends Messrs. R. H. and H. B. Matthews and Mr. H. Bedggood. As a rule, however, these new discoveries were made in parts which were not included in Mr. Cheeseman's trip.

It is not my intention to deal with the northern portion of the county, but only with the lower part which lies south of a line through Mount Camel and Cape Karakara. This includes the southern portion of the North Cape Peninsula.

The lower section of Mangonui County has a broken coast-line on the east and north, Doubtless Bay and Rangaunu Bay being the chief openings. The west coast for many miles is unbroken until Ahipara Bay is reached. Here the coast suddenly trends towards the west to Reef Point, more generally known by the Native name of Tauroa. Here it turns south, then south-east to the Herekino River, the south-western boundary of the county.

[Footnote] * Cheeseman: “On the Flora of the North Cape District,” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 29, p. 333.

[Footnote] † This is really Cape Whakapouaka; there is a stream called Karikari a few miles away.

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North-west from Ahipara the coast-line consists of a range of sanddunes, consolidated and recent, on the landward side of which are smaller sand-dunes, among which are numerous small lakes and lagoons. Inland from these are extensive peat-swamps, and farther inland firmer flat land, subject to inundation during the heavy rains. From Ahipara southward the coast-line is more rocky. the Tauroa Peninsula, which terminates in Reef Point, is chiefly a series of elevated sand-dunes, rising to a height of about 700 ft. From the Tauroa Plateau radiates a fanlike series of hills towards the north and east.

The first line of hills runs parallel with the coast, at an average distance of five miles, from the Tauroa towards Awanui and Mangatete. There are two breaks in this line—the Herekino Gorge, through which run a small river and the road to Herekino; and the Kaitaia Valley, which extends towards the east, and branches into the Victoria, Takahue, and Fairburn Valleys. The highest point in this range is Taumata Mahoe (1,881 ft.). Between Kaitaia and Mangatete this high land spreads out, forming a tableland at an elevation of about 600ft. From this plateau ranges of hills run through Fairburn towards Oruru and mangonui, the highest point being Kopu Okai, commonly known as Trig. 27 (1,063 ft.), a few miles from Fairburn.

Picture icon

Sketch-Map of Part of Mangonui County.
[(Scale, twelve miles to an inch.)

Eastward the county is broken but less elevated until we come to Raetea (2,436 ft.), the highest point in the county; from thence runs a range to

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Kotepu (1,762 ft.), overlooking Victoria Valley. Behind this range are the Maungataniwha Ranges, branching out from the hill of that name (1,912 ft.).

It will thus be seen that the central and southern portion of the district is very broken. High hills and deep valleys, heights almost mountainous, separated by profound gorges or deep gullies, form the chief features from a bird's-eye view. this is the forest country of the district, and here, in spite of the axes of the settler and bushman, many miles of bush-clad ranges are still to be seen.

It has been pointed out how the plants of any locality are not arranged by chance, but are found in definite combinations, called technically “plant formations,” which have come into existence in consequence of the geological history of the region, the climate, the nature of the soil, and other causes, some physical, others biological. *

If we take a bird's-eye view of this or of almost any district we find that the plant covering may be arranged into six more or less clearly defined plant formations. These are the forest, the moorland, the swamp, the lake and river, sea cliffs and beaches, and sand-dunes. In many cases, no doubt, these forms, or some of them, are more or less merged into others, but generally speaking their differences are clearly marked and the species belonging to one formation keep to their own places, though vagrant forms do at times intrude upon their neighbour's domain.

The Forest Formation.

Less than a century ago the greater part of southern Mangonui was covered with dense forest. The axes of the settler, clearing the land for purposes of grazing and cultivation, and of the bushman, felling the trees for timber, are rapidly making the forest primeval a thing of the past, but there is still left standing sufficent of the old forest to give us a good idea of what it consists.

For p rpose of botanical study the forest formation may be divided into three classes—the general bush, the kauri bush, and the kahikatea bush.

The general bush varies more or less in its constituents according to soil, elevation, slope, &c. By far the most common tree in this section is the taraire, so much so that the name “taraire bush” is almost as applicable to it as the names “kauri” and “kahikatea” to the sections in which these trees predominate.

In the taraire bush—as, in fact, in all bush—the covering consists of tall trees, many of which bear, or are more or less covered by, epiphytic plants and interlacing lianes, of smaller trees, shrubs, and tree-ferns, with a carpet of creeping and other herbs, grasses, sedges, ferns, mosses, &c. In addition to the taraire, the more prominent trees are totara, rimu, miro, matai, tawa, hinau, rewarewa, towai, kohekohe, &c. Of the smaller trees and shrubs, mahoe, Hedycarya, Fusanus, various species of Coprosma, and in damp places Fuchsia and pate (Schefflera), are the most common. The surface covering, besides ferns, mosses, and allied plants, is made up of sedges, grasses, orchids of various species; and in many places Nertera dichondraefolia, creeping and rooting as it goes, forms a characteristic feature. Of sedges, the most prominent are Gahnia xanthocarpa and G. setifolia. The principal native grasses to be seen are Microlaena avenacea and Oplismenus undulatifolius. Of the orchids I shall speak later.

[Footnote] * “Report on a Botanical Survey of the Tongariro National Park,” L. Cockayne, Ph.D., F.L.S., &c.: Department of Lands, Wellington, 1908.

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Of the lianes, the most noticeable are the bush-lawyer (Rubus) and supplejack (Rhipogonum). These are frequently found stretching to the tops of the tallest forest-trees, in such a position that we can only conclude that they have attached themselves to the branches when the tree was young and have grown up with the growth of the tree. Sometimes, however, in place of ascending, these plants form an almost impenetrable network through which neither man nor beast can pass. Other lianes are various forms of rata-vines (Metrosideros), Parsonsia, Clematis, kiekie, amp;c.

In damp places on creek-banks and on wet slopes great masses of Elatostemma rugosum, a succulent-stemmed prostrate herb with large varicoloured leaves, is a characteristic covering.

Of epiphytes growing on the forest-trees the commonest and most noticeable are forms of wharawhara (Astelia), among which various ferns and lycopods are frequently found. On trunks and upper branches, too, occur a few orchids—Earina (Two species), Dendrobium, Bulbophyllum, and Sarcochilus. A prominent epiphyte is the rata-tree in its earlier life. As a seedling it is often found in the clefts of branches of tall trees. As it grows it sends branches upward and root-stems downward; these, reaching the ground, into which they penetrate and branch off, absorb nutriment, causing their upper parts to swell out into trunks, coalescing one with another until they crush out the life of the tree which for years gave them support. The rata (Metrosideros robusta) will, and often does, grow as a terrestrial plant, but when growing directly from the soil never forms a large tree—rarely, indeed, exceeding 25 ft. or 30 ft. in height. On Rangitoto Island, near Auckland, the rata growing among blocks of lava forms shrubs only.

Other epiphytes which grow in a more or less similar manner are Griselinia lucida, whose large glossy leaves are often prominent objects in the upper branches of tall trees; Panax arboreum, usually on tree-ferns; * and a few others.

It may not be out of place here to draw attention to the mistake often made by many people of confusing the words “epiphyte” and “parasite.” Epiphytes, as the name denotes, merely live upon other plants, but derive nothing in the way of nourishment from the substance of the supporting plants, nor do their roots penetrate that substance. Parasites, on the other hand, derive their food in part or entirely from the sap of the plant on which they grow, and into whose substance their roots penetrate, or to whose surface they apply their sucking-discs. We have not many parasite plants in this district. Loranthus micranthus and Korthalsella salicornioides are not infrequent, and the curious leafless Cassytha paniculata occurs plentifully on Leptospermum near the coast, attaching itself to its victim by means of small suckers.

The Kauri Forest.

In the kauri forest that tree towers high above all others. There are, as a rule, few other large trees, the most frequent being the towai (Weinmannia sylvicola), a few taraires, kawakas (Libocedrus Doniana), miro, and tanekaha (Phyllocladus trichomanoides). Of smaller trees and shrubs the most conspicuous is the neinei (Dracophyllum latifolium); others are species of Coprosma, maire, Myrtus pedunculata, Panax anomalum, &c.

Perhaps the most conspicuous feature of the kauri bush is the great quantity of kauri-grass (Astelia trinervia), among which occur Astelia

[Footnote] * Carse: “On the Occurrence of Panax arboreum on the Stems of Tree-ferns,” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 34, p. 359.

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nervosa, and the large sedges Gahnia xanthocarpa and G. setifolia, which, owing to the sharply serrated edges of their leaves, from a somewhat formidable barrier. The ferns Dicksonia lanata, Gleichenia Cunninghamii, Lomaria minor, and the curious Schizaea dichotoma also occur. A very conspicuous plant in the kauri forest is Metrosideros albiflora, whose large glossy leaves and recemes of pure-white flowers make it a plant well worthy of a place in our wild gardens.

The Kahikatea Bush.

The kahikatea, or white-pine, is usually found in colonies in damp, often swampy, land. It occurs in the higher lands, but never in large quantities. In the kahikatea bush the undergrowth is very dense, the greater part being formed of numerous species of Coprosma. Other common plants are mahoe, Hoheria, Plagianthus, Pennantia, kowhai, &c. The native passionvine (Passiflora tetrandra), Parsonsia heterophylla, and P. capsularis also occur.

Of the surface-plants, the most common are various forms of sedges (Carex chiefly), Hydrocotyle of various species, and numerous ferns, mosses, and grasses.

The Moorland.

The moorland consists of open country, usually of a stiff clay formation, destitute of trees. Much of this land ages ago was covered with kauri forest. Of this we have the evidence of old kauri stumps and roots, and the gum which has for many years given employment to a great number of men.

Much of this land is covered with tea-tree, usually small, owing partly to frequent fires sweeping over the surface and partly to the poverty of the soil. Among the tea-tree scrub are found several forms of Lycopodium, orchids, and sedges. Larger sedges also cover large areas.

Conspicuous on many of these moorlands are Pomaderris elliptica (kumarahou), with its beautiful cymes of creamy-yellow flowers; P. phylicaefolia, a heath-like plant; Dracophyllum Urvilleanum; and of smaller plants, forms of Haloragis.

In damp and swampy parts of the moorlands are found the dainty bladderworts Utricularia delicatual and U. novae-zealandiae, the sundews Drosera binata and D. spathulata, and very rarely the orchid Spiranthes australis.

The Swamp.

The most noticeable plant of the swamps is undoubtedly the raupo (Typha angustifolia), whose densely clustered pale-green leaves form masses visible for miles. Here, too, on the firmer parts, occurs the useful Phormium tenax, or New Zealand flax, the conversion of which gives employment to so many of our people. Several species of Hydrocotyle are frequent creeping on the surface, as also does Ranunculus rivularis (the whauriki), a small buttercup containing an acrid poison, often fatal to stock. Another conspicuous swamp-plant is the large willow-herb, Epilobium pallidiflorum. Round the margin, and often through the swamp, occur large masses of the pink-flowering Polygonum serrulatum, and Sparganium antipodum.

The coast swamps vary somewhat from the inland ones. These are usually formed by the blocking-up of a small creek by the inroads of the sand from the beach. In the maritime swamps of this district are to be found, in addition to most if not all of the inland-swamp plants, Plagianthus divaricatus, Epilobium chionanthum, Hibiscus diversifolius, Lemna minor, Triglochin striatum, &c., and the ferns Nephrodium unitum and N. Thelypteris.

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Lake And River.

Of the plants occurring in or about lakes and rivers we may make two classes—viz., those that grow on muddy banks, which as a rule fall naturally under the head of swamp-plants; and, secondly, those which germinate in the mud at the bottom, and rise up to produce flowers and fruit on the surface. And yet it is not at all possible to lay down hard-and-fast rules on this point, for the plants of the mud-banks not infrequently grow entirely submerged, and those of more aquatic habits are often found in drier situations, usually, however, in a more or less depauperated condition.

On the margins of lakes and rivers where the soil is muddy most of the swamp-plants—raupo, flax, sedges, &c.—are found. In addition are Glossostigma elatinoides (often forming dense matted patches), Elatine americana, Callitriche verna, and various forms of Epilobium.

In the beds and at the sides of inland creeks the rocks which rise above the water form the habitat of Epilobium pedunculare, in dense dark-green masses, among which not infrequently occur the dainty orchid Corysanthes rotundifolia, with its one leaf and helmet-shaped purple flower, and the little daisy Lagenophora petiolata var. minima. Here and there occurs the somewhat rare Nertera Cunninghamii. Conspicuous on many of these creeks, among the rocks, occur the graceful plumes of the tall grass Arundo fulvida, closely allied to the beautiful and larger Arundo conspicua, so characteristic of the coast.

Of the more or less submerged plants the most common are forms of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton. Entirely submerged are the various forms of the order Characeae, chiefly species of Nitella.

Along the banks of tidal creeks the tall Scirpus maritimus is a prominent object, and at their mouths, among mud-banks, are found mangroves.

Sea Cliff and Beaches.

Among the more prominent plants on or near the sea cliffs and beaches may be mentioned the pohutukawa (Metrosideros tomentosa), whose brilliant crimson flowers make the coast-line beautiful in early summer, giving to this plant the name of Christmas-tree; the karaka, whose fruit formed a great addition to the food of the old-time Maori; the tawapou (Sideroxylon costatum), sometimes called the New Zealand olive, from the resemblance of its fruit to that of the olive (the true New Zealand olive is the maire—Olea). Here and there along the coast is found Fuchsia procumbens, a graceful little plant, differing from all its congeners in the flowers being upright instead of drooping. In a few places are found the rare Coprosma Kirkii, which will probably become extinct within the present generation.

Among smaller plants, very conspicuous are Cladium Sinclairii, a sedge with broad ensiform leaves and large drooping brown panicles; Cassinia retorta, Pimelia arenaria, Olearia furfuracea, and more rarely Olearia angulata, all bearing white flowers.

Among the herbs may be mentioned the wild celery (Apium prostratum), Samolus repens, Sonchus asper var. littoralis, and Ipomaea palmata, with its lovely convolvulus-like flowers.

Among the distinctly arenarian plants are Gunnera arenaria, Tetragonia (New Zealand spinach), Crantzia lineata, Tillaea Sieberiana, &c. Atriplex patual and Salsola Kali are increasing, especially the latter. There is I think, little doubt as to these species being introduced, though they have become so widely distributed that it is difficult to distinguish these and a few others from aboriginals.

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The most striking plant of the sand-dunes is undoubtedly the tall plumegrass Arundo conspicua. Other plants peculiar to this situation are Coprosma acerosa var. arenaria, Scirpus frondosus, Euphorbia glauca, and Spinifex hirsutus, all of which are more or less useful in repelling the inroads of the sands.

In sandy places at no great distance from the sea is found the tiny sundew Drosera Pygmaea. This “charming little gem”* has been reported from various localities from Cape Maria van Diemen to Ahipara, inland from Kaitaia to Ahipara, and also from Bluff Hill in Southland. So far no botanist has seen it between these widely severed habitats. In many places where the forest has been cleared, and the land has not been sown in grass, or has been neglected, dense masses of fern (Pteris) cover the soil. Lowlying grass lands will, if neglected, be smothered in wiwi (Juncus effusus) in a few years.

Topographical Botany.

It may be interesting now to take a few localities more particularly— localities in which plants of special interest have been found. The first I will refer to is the Tauroa. This is a tableland built up of consolidated and drifting sands, rising from Reef Point to a height of about 700ft. At one time there were many kauri-trees growing on this plateau, the stumps of which still remain. In sheltered gullies running down from the upper level are remains of the original forest covering, consisting now of small woods, rapidly, alas! becoming buried in the ever-advancing sands. This locality has been very thoroughly explored by Messrs. R. H. and H. B. Matthews and Mr. H. Bedggood, and has yielded up many interesting botanical finds. Among these are Myrtus Ralphii and M. obcordata, of which the previous known northern limit was Whangarei Heads; Pseudopanax ferox, a rather rare plant; Corokia sp., which is, I believe, similar to one found by Mr.Cheeseman in the North Cape district, which may prove a new species; Lagenophora pinnatifida, not before known north of Helensville, Auckland; Earina mucronata, variety with broader leaves, denser panicle, and larger flowers; Microlaena polynoda, extending its habitat north from Whangarei Heads.

“Lake Tangonge is the largest of a chain of lakes situated on the western side of the Awanui River, almost fringing the coast-line of sandhills. It is about three miles in length by perhaps half that width, but is surrounded by a much larger area of raupo swamps, most of which are filled with water during the greater part of the year.”

In or near this lake have been found severl very interesting plants, thanks to the investigations of Messrs. R. H. and H. B. Matthews. Of these perhaps the most interesting is Lycopodium Drummondii. “This plant, which was refferred to L. carolinianum in the Handbook, was gathered within the district by Mr. Colenso in 1839, but unfortunately the exact locality has been forgotten.”§

Another interesting plant of this locality is Lepyrodia Traversii, previously reported only from the Middle Waikato district and the Chatham Island; and another rare plant is Pterostylis micromega, found in swamps

[Footnote] * “Students' Flora,” Kirk, p. 146

[Footnote] † “Manual of the New Zealand Flora,” T. F. Cheesoman, F.L.S., p. 238.

[Footnote] ‡ “On the Flora of the North Cape District,” T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., F.Z.S.: Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 29, p. 343.

[Footnote] § Loc. cit., p. 382.

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on the margin of the lake. In a few places in the lake itself are found plants of Utricularia protrusa. This is only the third locality known in the Dominion. The somewhat rare sedge Scirpus lenticularis is also found here; and on the margin of the marshy land Mr. R. H. Matthews discovered Carex Brownii, a small sedge, not previously known as a native of New Zealand.

Where the waters of the lake flow out into the Kaitaia-Awanui River Mr. Matthews made one of the most interesting finds that botanic science has known for many years: this was the rediscovery of Pittosporum obcordatum. But for the fact that I had climbed up a cabbage-tree a few minutes earlier for the purpose of getting a view over the high raupo, &c., I might have scored this point; but the main point is that this long-lost species was rediscovered. It was originally reported by Raoul from Akaroa, but has not been seen since in that locality.

Within a short distance of this spot are found several specimens of Plagianthus cymosus, a rather rare plant. For some time only one tree was known in this locality, but later several others were found.

Scattered throughout the district are other plants of considerable interest to botanists for their rarity or from their being found in habitats much farther north of any previously reported.

On the sandy margin of Lake Ngatu, a small lake situated behind the coastal sand-dunes a few miles from Awanui, I had the good fortue to discover a tiny annual herb belonging to the order Centrolepideae. It was provisionally described in the Manual as Trithuria inconspicua. Later, in a paper read before the Auckland Institute, 3rd October, 1906, Mr. Cheeseman placed this plant in the genus Hydatella, a genus of three species, two found in Western Australia, the third endemic in New Zealand.*

The koru (Colensoa physaloides), the leaves of which were used by the Natives in the early days in place of cabbage, occurs sparingly in several places. It is usually found among damp shady rocks, never as a rule at any great distance from the sea. It has been reported from Mount Camel, Merita Bay, Ahipara, the Toatoa, a deep ravine inland from Doubtless Bay, and near Herekino.

In addition to the submerged bladderwort (Utricularia protrusa) found in Lake Tangonge, two smaller ones (U. novae-zealandiae and U. delicatula) occur in peaty swamps in seveal localities. The former is reported by Mr. Cheeseman from near Lake Ohia; I have also found it on a peaty slope near Kaitaia. The latter, a dainty little plant, is more plentiful, occurring in peaty swamps near Kaitaia, on both sides of Rangaunu Harbour, and on the Peria gum-hills.

In Flat Bush, a low-lying piece of land between Kaitaia and Fairburn, I discovered the sedge Carex dipsacea. This is plentiful in Manukau County, but has not been reported from any locality farther north until I found it. Probably it does occur between these distant points, but has been overlooked.

The Westland pine (Dacrydium Colensoi), which is not uncommon along the west coast of the South Island, is found in the North Island at a few widely separated spots only from Ruapehu to the far north. One mature tree and a sprinkling of young ones occur in a kauri bush a few miles from Fairburn. I am told that another tree is known near Victoria Valley, but I have not seen it.

[Footnote] * “Notice of the Occurrence of Hydatella, a Genus new to the New Zealand Flora,” by T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.: Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 39, p. 433.

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Up to the present the Peria gum-hills, a tract of barren country traversed by the road from Mangonui to Kaitaia, is the only known New Zealand habitat of the sedge Lepidosperma filiforme.

Another plant of only one known habitat in the Dominion is the grass Imperata arundinacea, one of Mr. R. H. Matthews's finds. Viola Lyallii, a dainty little violet, occurs sparingly in the district. It is usually found in damp shady situations. It has been reported from Kaitaia, Flat Bush, and not far from the Double Crossing Bridge between those localities. It probably occurs elsewhere in suitable situations, but may easily be overlooked.

Galium umbrosum, a small usually prostrate plant, often forming large green matted masses in woods, is peculiar here for its rarity. In many places it is one of the most common species, but so far it has only been noticed in Victoria Valley, Flat Bush, and the Tauroa, and only a few plants have been seen.

Myosotis spathulata, a small forget-me-not, has up to the present been found only in Kaitaia. The leaves of this plant, one of Mr. R. H. Matthews's finds, is more rounded and less spathulate than is usually the case, but this species is very variable.

In referring to the ferns, I omitted to mention Trichomanes strictum. So far as is at present known, this is one of the rarest ferns in the district. The only place where I have seen this species in the Mangonui County is on the moorland lying north from Kaitaia. The few plants I saw were growing on the edges of “potholes”—i.e., small pits from which gum has been dug—a rather unusual situation. I believe one plant was found in a small wood in the same neighbourhood.


There are twenty-one genera of orchids in New Zealand, divided into fifty-seven species. Of these, four species are epiphytic, as are most of the orchids of the tropics, and the rest are terrestrial. Our orchids do not by any means equal their tropical congeners in gorgeousness of colouring or eccentricity of form, though many of them are beautiful, but, as a rule, small. Of the twenty-one genera, we have eighteen in this district; of the fifty-seven species, we have thirty-five.

Botanists are greatly indebted to Mr. R. H. Matthews, of Kaitaia, for the careful and useful work he has done in this section of botany. To Mr. Matthews is due the discovery in the Mangonui district of Bulbophyllum tuberculatum, Thelymitra ixioides, T. intermedia, Pterostylis micromega, P. barbata, Caleana minor, Calochilus paludosus, Caladenia minor var. exigua, Chiloglottis formicifera, Corysanthes Cheesemanii, C. Matthewsii, and Gastrodia sesamoides.

The epiphytic orchids which are, as a rule, found on the branches of tall forest-trees are Dendrobium Cunninghamii, a diffusely branching plant, with stems like miniature bamboos, narrow leaves, and white or pinkish flowers; Earina, two species, with rather heavily scented flowers; Bulbophyllum, two species, both tiny plants, with leaves issuing from pseudobulbs, from the base of which grow the flowers. Of these, B. tuberculatum is much more rare than the other. Sarcochilus, a rather thick-leaved plant, is plentiful on the upper branches of tree, and not infrequently on the trunks.

The terrestrial species are found in various situations. Spiranthes occurs in swamps in several localities. Thelymitra, of which there are eight or

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nine species in New Zealand, is represented in this district by five or six species (I understand a new species was discovered by Mr. Matthews this year). Most of these are moorland-plants. The flowers of this genus are less like the generally accepted idea of orchids than any other. The genus “is remarkable from the lip being quite free from the column and resembling the petals and sepals, so that the perianth has little of the irregular appearance of an orchid, but rather resembles that of an Ixia or a Sisyrinchium.”* Of the Thelymitrae the most showy and one of the most common is T. pulchella, easily distinguished by the large blue-purple flowers. T. ixioides and T. sp. nov. are the rarest of the genus. What I take to be Berggren's T. intermedia is not uncommon on old clay landslips and hillsides.

Orthoceras, which is not uncommon on dry banks, is rather a curious-looking plant. The flowers, which grow in the form of a spike, bear a general resemblance to a number of grasshoppers climbing up a stick. Microtis porrifolia, a common orchid in almost all situations, bears a close resemblance to the next genus, Prasophyllum, of which there are two species in the district. Both are moorland-plants, and not uncommon. I think the one now included under P. Colensoi, will prove to be a different species. Mr. Cheeseman, referring to it in a letter, says, “Your plant is not quite identical with the southern plant, but until a very careful comparison can be made of the structure of the flowers … they are best kept together.”

Caleana minor, a rare plant, is found on barren-looking moorland near Kaitaia. “A most remarkable little plant. The column is horizontally placed, forming a broad pouch; the lamina of the lip, when at rest, is elevated by the slender elastic claw, and swings directly above it. When an insect alights on the lamina it overbalances, shutting up the insect within the concavity of the column.”

The flowers of Pterostylis, of which we have five out of the eleven species found in the Dominion, are also insect-traps; they are in form like boatshaped hoods. P. Banksii and P. graminea are common in forests, and P. trullifolia plentiful on moorlands and dry open ridges in the bush. P. micromega is a rare swamp-orchid; P. barbata, another rare plant. So far the latter two are only known in this district near Kaitaia. Acianthus, a very small plant, is one of the commonest orchids we have; it is usually found in humus in the bush. Cyrtostylis, a small delicate orchid, is not uncommon; usually on dry ridges. Calochilus paludosus is another rather rare orchid; Kaitaia is one of the six places in the Dominion from which it has been reported. On clay hills from Kaitaia to Fairburn occurs a slender form of Caladenia minor, which Mr. Cheeseman has distinguished as var. exigua. Another of Mr. Matthews's discoveries was Chiloglottis formicifera, previously only known from eastern Australia. C. cornuta also occurs, but is not common.

Of Corysanthes, six of the seven species occur. The flower resembles a helmet in shape, and is, as a rule, of a deep-purple colour. They are all shade-loving plants. In the Manual C. Cheesemanii is reported from “Kaitaia; vicinity of Auckland; Westport.” This is a small plant, easily overlooked, and probably not uncommon in open bush and scrub throughout. I found a few specimens at Mauku, in Manukau County; it occurs also in Fairburn, but is rare. Of C. Matthewsii, originally found at Kaitaia, I

[Footnote] * “Manual of New Zealand Flora,” p. 668.

[Footnote] †Ibid., p. 677.

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have specimens gathered by Mr. A. Thompson at Aponga; it is not uncommon on mossy slopes near Fairburn. C. oblonga is not uncommon on clay banks and slopes. C. rivularis, in my opinion the handsomest of the genus, is very local; so far I have only seen it in one spot in Mangonui County, between Fairburn and Peria. C. rotundifolia is plentiful, though rather local; its favourite habitat is on banks of bush-creeks, or on rocks in the bed of the creek. C. triloba, which in many places in common, is rare in this district; Mr. Matthews found two or three specimens, young plants only, near Kaitaia.

Gastrodia sesamoides was found by Mr. Matthews near Kaitaia and Tauroa, the only places in Mangonui County from which it has been reported.

Ferns and Allies.

Of ferns and allied plants there are in New Zealand about 156, of which ninety-nine are in Mangonui County. The majority of these are more or less common from the North Cape to the Bluff, but a few are worthy of a word or two, for one reason or another.

Loxsoma Cunninghamii, as a rule rather a rare fern, is fairly plentiful in several localities, though there are often considerable areas from which it is absent. Lomaria Banksii, a very local plant, occurs sparingly on the west coast. In dark ravines from near Fairburn towards Hokianga I have found L. nigra, not previously reported from north of Whangarei. Asplenium japonicum occurs in considerable quantity on alluvial banks of streams in Fairburn, and less plentifully near Kaitaia. Nephrodium unitum, at one time supposed to occur only in the thermal regions (in New Zealand), is not uncommon in swamps, generally near the sea, but inland at Lake Tangonge along with N. Thelypteris. The rarer N. molle was also discovered by Mr. Matthews near Mangatete. In sandy gullies and other suitable places, never far from the sea, Todea barbara is plentiful. This is a very local plant in New Zealand, occurring only from Whangaroa northward. It is a very different-looking plant from Todea hymenophylloides and Todea superba, the fronds of which are filmy. These belong to the section Leptopteris. Todea barbara reminds one of the royal fern, Osmunda regalis, of the Northern Hemisphere. The para (Marattia fraxinea) is not uncommon in gullies in the Maungataniwha Ranges.

Lycopodium Drummondii, already referred to, so far as is known has only one habitat in New Zealand, near Kaitaia, where Mr. H. B. Matthews rediscovered it, probably at the same spot where Mr. Colenso originally collected it in 1839. The rare and curious lycopod Psilotum trquetrum was collected by Mr. R. H. Matthews near Rangaunu Harbour and at Merita Bay, the only places north of Rangitito Island, Auckland, from which it is recorded.

Plants Suitable for Cultivation.

I regret that I have not yet been able to explore the two highest points in the county—viz., Raetea and Maungataniwha. I have seen something of the spurs leading from them, and I hardly think that the height of Raetea (2,436 ft.) justifies our expecting any very marked change in the plant covering; but, still, it would be of some interest to be sure on this point.

There are certain plants in the district which from their beauty of foliage or flower, or for the sweetness of their perfume, are worthy of a place in our gardens. Several of the species of Pittosporum are already well known in cultivation. P. virgatum would be a very interesting plant owing to the

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remarkable changes through which the leaves pass from the young to the mature state.

Hibiscus trionum and H. diversifolius are both well worthy a place in the flower-garden, more especially so that they are becoming rarer each year, cattle destroying them to such an extent that where at one time they were plentiful now they are unknown.

Entelea arborescens, with its large leaves and handsome flowers, is a fine addition to the shrubbery.

On the clay hills in many parts the large corymbose panicles of bright yellow or cream-coloured flowers of Pomaderris elliptica lend colour to the landscape in September. The flower-buds of this plant form in December and take till September before they open. The fruit is ripe about November.

For the wild garden, any almost of the different species of Metrosideros (rata-vines) would be suitable, particularly M. albiflora, with its large green leaves and wide-spreading panicles of white flowers; or M. diffusa, with bright-crimson flowers; or M. florida, with its orange-red (sometimes yellow) flowers.

Place certainly should be given to the various forms of Alseuosmia, the true honeysuckle of New Zealand. In my opinion, the scent of this flower is more delicious than that of any other indigenous plant. Nor is scent the only recommendation, for the shining leaves and the flowers themselves are attractive to the eye. There are four species: A. macrophylla, with leaves 3–7 in. long, and crimson (sometimes white) flowers 1–2 in. long; A. quercifolia, similar, but smaller; A. Banksii and A. linariifolia, smaller and smaller still. There are certain forms of Alseuosmia which a mere beginner can place at a glance as typical, but there are so many forms intermediate between the various species that hardly two botanists in a dozen will agree as to which species predominates in the particular specimen. Another remarkable feature of this plant is the curious imitative faculty it possesses in its leaves. I have specimens whose leaves in shape, though not in size, have a striking resemblance to those of a great many other plants, among which may be mentioned the oak, hawthorn, Myrtus bullata (the “bubbled” leaves being exactly imitated), Hedycarya, Pittosporum pimeleoides (type, and var. reflexum), tawa, taraire, Coposma of various species, &c.

Colensoa physaloides, with its large light-green leaves and racemes of large pale-blue or purple-blue flowers, is suitable for shaded rockeries. It grows readily from seed in damp sheltered situations.

Ipomoea plamata, with its graceful twining stems and white or purple convolvulus-like flowers, is, I think already included in the lists of flowerseeds.

Veronica macrocarpa and V. diosmaefolia form handsome shrubs.

Either of the species of Muehlenbeckia would be useful in covering an unsightly corner, owing to rapidity of growth and abundance of foliage.

One of our handsome conifers, especially in the young state, is the kawaka (Libocedrus Doniana). It will do well in the open, if not exposed too much to the wind.

Floristic Details.

In the subjoined catalogue of the indigenous plants of the southern portion of Mangonui County, flowering-plants and ferns (including lycopods), will be found the names of 538 species. Compared with the number of species in the Dominion as shown in the introductory part of the Manual, this seems rather a poor showing. The number there given for New Zealand, including the Kermadec and Chatham Islands, is 1,571 species, so that the plants

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of this district represent one-third of the total number for the Dominion. I think, when we consider how rich and varied is the plant covering of the South Island when compared with that of the North Island, we may conclude that 538 species is “not so bad.”

Of the 97 natural order of plants known in New Zealand 86 are found in this district, divided into 251 genera.

Of the 86 orders, the largest are Filices, with 99 species; Cyperaceae, 51; Orchidaceae, 35; Gramineae, 31; Compositae, 30; Rubiaceae, 21; Myrtaceae and Liliaceae, 14 each.

Of the genera, the largest are Coprosma, with 16 species; Carex, 14; Pittosporum and Hymenophyllum, 10 each; Lomaria and Polypodium, 9 each; Epilobium, Asplenium, and Juncus, 8 each; Metrosideros, Scirpus, and Cladium, 7 each.

Catalogue of the Flowering-Plants and Ferns Observed in the Southern Mangonui District.

[N.B.—The initials “T.F.C.” indicate that the plant appears in the Manual, but that I have not found it in the locality named.]


Clematis indivisa Willd. Common throughout.

" foetida Raoul. Ahipara; Broadwood; Fairburn.

" parviflora A. Cunn. Common in hilly country.

Ranunculus hirtus Banks & Sol. Abundant.

" " var. elongatus Cheesm. Common in wet places.

" rivularis Banks & Sol. Common in wet places.

Ranunculus acaulis Banks & Sol. Brackish-water marshes and moist sandy shores; plentiful.


Drimys axillaris Forst. In forests, Fairburn; Victoria Valley.

Drimys axillaris var. (pps. intermediate between above and D. colorata Raoul). Kaitaia; rare.


Nasturtium palustre D. C. Not uncommon in wet places.

Cardamine hirsuta L. Plentiful in damp land.

" stylosa D. C. Kaitaia; Fairburn; rare.


Viola Lyallii Hook f. Flat Bush, Kaitaia; not common.

Melicytus ramiflorus Forst. Abundant throughout.

" macrophyllus A. Cunn. Common in hilly bush.

" micranthus Hook. f. Common in lowland forests.

Hymenanthera latifolia Endl. Mount Camel. T. F. C.


Pittosporum tenuifolium Banks & Sol. Abundant.

Pittosporum Buchanani Hook. f. Kaitaia and Mangonui. (This has not been seen in the district since Buchanan's visit.)

Pittosporum obcordatum Raoul. Near Kaitaia; rare.

Pittosporum virgatum T. Kirk. High country near Kaitaia; coast south of Mangonui. T. F. C.

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Pittosporum crassifolium A. Cunn. On coast and small islands; rare.

Pittosporum umbellatum Banks & Sol. Mangonui Harbour and coast. T. F. C.

Pittosporum Kirkii Hook. f. Maungataniwha Range.

" cornifolium A. Cunn. Abundant in forests.

" pimeleoides R. Cunn. In hilly forests, chiefly among kauri.

" eugenioides A. Cunn. Oruru; not common.


Stellaria parviflora Banks & Sol. Not uncommon.

Colobanthus Billardieri Fenz. West coast (R. H. Matthews). Reported from Houhora by Mr. Buchanan. T. F. C.


Elatine americana Arn. var. australiensis Benth. Muddy places on margins of swamps and rivers; not uncommon.


Plagianthus divaricatus Forst. Abundant in salt-water marshes.

" cymosus T. Kirk. Near Kaitaia; rare.

" betulinus A. Cunn. In damp lowlands; common.

Hoheria populnea A. Cunn. Abundant in lowlands.

Hibiscus trionum L. Sheltered places near the sea. Rapidly disappearing.

" diversifolius Jacq. Moist sandy places near sea; rare.


Entelea arborescens R. Br. Not uncommon.

Aristotelia racemosa Hook. f. Abundant.

Elaeocarpus dentatus Vahl. Plentiful throughout.

" Hookerianus Raoul. Kaitaia; rare.


Linum monogynum Forst. Along the coast; not common.


Geranium dissectum L. var. australe Benth. Abundant.

" microphyllum Hook. f. On dry open land; not uncommon.

" molle L. Common throughout.

Pelargonium australe Jacq. Common throughout.

Oxalis corniculata L. Abundant.

" magellanica Forst. Mangonui and Kaitaia. T. F. C.


Phebalium nudum Hook. Throughout the district, but rare.

Melicope ternata Forst. Plentiful.

" " var. Mantellii Kirk. Kaitaia and Victoria Valley.

" simplex A. Cunn. Plentiful in places.


Dysoxylum spectabile Hook. f. Abundant throughout.

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Pennantia corymbosa Forst. Common in lowlands.


Pomaderris elliptica Lab. Common on clay hills. " phylicaefolia Lodd. Plentiful on moorlands.


Dodonea viscosa Jacq. Plentiful.

Alectryon excelsum Gaertn. Common throughout.


Corynocarpus laevigata Forst. Abundant near sea; less common inland.


Coriaria ruscifolia L. Common throughout.


Carmichaelia australis R. Br. Common.

Sophora tetraptera Mull. Not uncommon in damp woods.


Rubus australis Forst. Abundant.

" cissoides A. Cunn. Not common.

" schmidelioides A. Cunn. Plentiful.

Acaena novae-zealandiae T. Kirk. Not uncommon.

" Sanguisorbae Vahl. Abundant.


Quintinia serrata A. Cunn. Kaitaia; Mangonui.

Ixerba brexioides A. Cunn. Ahipara and Maungataniwha. T. F. C.

Carpodetus serratus Forst. Margins of swamps and lowland bush.

Ackama rosaefolia A. Cunn. Plentiful.

Weinmannia sylvicola Sol. Abundant.


Tillaea Sieberiana Schultz. Sandy places on coast; common.


Drosera pygmaea D. C. In sandy peat near the sea, scattered; and inland from Kaitaia to Tauroa.

Drosera spathulata Labill. Wet moorlands; common.

" binata Labill. Moorland swamps; common.

" auriculata Backh. Open hillsides; abundant.


Haloragis alata Jacq. Generally distributed.

Haloragis tetragyna Hook. The typical form and var. diffusa common on moorlands.

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Haloragis depressa Walp. Throughout the district.

" micrantha R. Br. Common on moorlands.

Myriophyllum intermedium D. C. Abundant in rivers, lakes, and wet land.

Myriophyllum robustum Hook. f. Kaitaia. R. H. Matthews. I have not seen it.

Myriophyllum pedunculatum Hook. f. Moist sandy places near sea; not uncommon.

Gunnera monoica Raoul. Fairburn and Peria; rare.

" arenaria Cheesem. Wet sand-dunes along west coast.

Callitriche verna L. Streams and lakes; not uncommon.

" Muelleri Sond. Moist shady places; abundant.


Leptospermum scoparium Forst. Abundant.

" ericoides A. Rich. Common throughout.

Metrosideros florida Sm. Common in forests.

" albiflora Sol. Common in hilly bush.

" diffusa Sm. Not uncommon.

" hypericifolia A. Cunn. Abundant.

" robusta A. Cunn. Common in forests.

" tomentosa A. Rich. Plentiful along the coast.

" scandens Sol. Abundant.

Myrtus bullata Sol. Common.

" Ralphii Hook. f. Tauroa; rare.

" obcordata Hook. f. Tauroa; common.

" pedunculata Hook. f. Fairburn and Kaitaia.

Eugenia maire A. Cunn. Swampy forests; common.


Epilobium pallidiflorum Sol. In swamps; plentiful.

" chionanthum Haussk. Ahipara; Waihi.

" Billardierianum Ser. Not uncommon; usually near coast.

" junceum Sol. Abundant.

" pubens A. Rich. Plentiful.

" alsinoides A. Cunn. Plentiful in places.

" rotundifolium Forst. Damp places; abundant.

" nummularifolium R. Cunn. Plentiful.

Epilobium nummularifolium var. pedunculare Hook. f. Common on creekbanks.

Epilobium nummularifolium var. nerteroides Hook. f. On hillsides; common.

Fuchsia excorticata Linn. f. Abundant throughout.

" procumbens. Sandy and rocky places near sea; rare.


Passiflora tetrandra Banks & Sol. In lowland woods; not uncommon.


Mesembryanthemum australe Sol. Abundant on rocky coasts.

Tetragonia expansa Murr. Not uncommon on the coast.

" trigyna Banks & Sol. Tauroa; not common.

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Hydrocotyle elongata A. Cunn. Mangonui; Fairburn; Kaitaia.

" americana L. Not uncommon.

" pterocarpa F. Muell. Common in wet land.

" novae-zealandiae D. C. Abundant.

" moschata Forst. Common on hillsides.

" asiatica L. Abundant throughout.

Apium prostratum Lab. Common on shores.

Apium prostratum var. filiforme Cheesm. Occasionally inland; common on shore.

Crantzia lineata Nutt. Abundant in wet sand on coast.

Daucus brachiatus Sieber. Throughout the district; not common.


Panax Edgerleyi Hook. f. Hilly forests; not uncommon.

" anomalum Hook. Not uncommon; usually in hilly forests.

" arboreum Forst. Not uncommon.

Schefflera digitata Forst. Abundant in damp gullies.

Pseudopanax Lessonii C. Koch. On coast; not uncommon.

Pseudopanax crassifolium C. Koch var. unifoliatum T. Kirk. Abundant in forests.

Pseudopanax crassifolium var. trifoliolatum T. Kirk. A few scattered trees only.

Pseudopanax ferox T. Kirk. Tauroa; rare.


Corokia buddleoides A. Cunn. Not uncommon; usually in kauri forests.

" Cotoneaster Raoul. Tauroa; in woods.

" pps. n. sp. Tauroa; in woods; rare.


lseuosmia macrophylla A. Cunn. Abundant in hilly bush.

" quercifolia A. Cunn. Abundant in hilly bush.

" Banksii A. Cunn. Abundant in hilly bush.

" linariifolia, A. Cunn. Not uncommon in hilly bush.


Coprosma grandifolia Hook. f. Abundant.

" lucida Forst. Plentiful.

" Baueri Endl. Common on sea-cliffs.

" robusta Raoul. Abundant throughout.

" Cunninghamii Hook. f. Common in damp lowlands.

" arborea T. Kirk. In high woods; common.

" spathulata A. Cunn. In hilly bush; common.

" rotundifolia A. Cunn. In lowland woods; common.

" areolata Cheesem. Plentiful.

" tenuicaulis Hook. f. Not uncommon.

" rhamnoides A. Cunn. Abundant.

" parviflora Hook. f. Abundant in lowlands.

" rigida Cheesem. Abundant in lowlands.

" acerosa A. Cunn. Abundant on sand-dunes.

– 212 –

Coprosma propinqua A. Cunn. Common in damp places.

" Kirkii Cheesm. West coast; rare.

Nertera Cunninghamii Hook. f. Creek-banks and wet rocks; rare.

" dichondraefolia Hook. f. Abundant in woods.

" setulosa Hook. f. Kaitaia and Ahipara; rare.

Galium tenuicaule A. Cunn. Damp woods and swamps; common.

Galium umbrosum Sol. Tauroa; Victoria Valley; Flat Bush; not common.


Lagenophora Forsteri D. C. Abundant throughout.

Lagenophora petiolata Hook. f. var. minima Cheesem. Mangonui and Fairburn.

Lagenophora pinnatifida Hook. f. Tauroa; rare.

" lanata A. Cunn. Moorlands, Fairburn and Kaitaia.

Olearia furfuracea Hook. f. Common along coast.

" Cunninghamii Hook. f. Abundant in woods.

" angulata T. Kirk. Near the coast, Ahipara, Tauroa.

" Solandri Hook. f. Plentiful near coast rare inland.

Gnaphalium Keriense A. Cunn. Sides of streams; not uncommon.

" luteo-album L. Abundant throughout.

" japonicum Thunb. Abundant throughout.

" collinum Lab. Common.

Helichrysum glomeratum Benth. & Hook. Tauroa; in woods.

Cassinia retorta A. Cunn. Abundant on coast.

" " var. approaching C. leptophylla. In woods at Tauroa.

Siegesbeckia orientalis L. Common.

Bidens pilosa L. On coast, Mangonui, Tauroa.

Cotula coronopifolia L. Plentiful in wet places.

" australis Hook. f. Fairburn; Mangonui; not common.

" minor Hook. f. Dripping cliffs at Waihi. T. F. C.

Centipeda orbicularis Lour. Common in wet land.

Erechtites prenanthoides D. C. Common throughout.

" arguta D. C. Common throughout.

" scaberula Hook. Generally distributed.

" quadridentata D. C. Generally distributed.

Brachyglottis repanda Forst. Common throughout.

Senecio lautus Sol. On the coast; common.

" Kirkii Hook. f. Common in forests.

Picris hieraciodes L. Common in open dry lands.

Sonchus asper Hill. Common throughout.

" oleraceus L. Common throughout.


Sellira radicans Cav. Abundant in salt marshes.


Colensoa physaloides Hook. f. Mount Camel; Merita Bay; gullies near Ahipara; Toatoa Gully; Herekino; Maungataniwha Ranges.

Pratia angulata Hook. f. Banks of streams; rather local.

Lobelia anceps Linn. f. Common throughout.

Wahlenbergia gracilis A. D. C. Generally distributed; most plentiful near the sea.

– 213 –


Gaultheria antipoda Forst. Common.


Cyathodes acerosa R. Br. Plentiful throughout.

Leucopogon fasciculatus A. Rich. Abundant in-open land.

" Fraseri A. Cunn. Common in open country.

Epacris pauciflora A. Rich. Common in open country.

Dracophyllum latifolium A. Cunn. Plentiful in hilly forests.

" Urvilleanum A. Rich. Plentiful in open country.


Samolus repens Pers. Common along the coast.


Myrsine salicina Heward. Common in forests.

" Urvillei A. D. C. Common in forests.

" divaricata A. Cunn. On muddy alluvial banks of Lower Awanui.


Sideroxylon costatum F. Muell. Mount Camel, abundant; several places on coast.


Olea Cunninghamii Hook. f. Not uncommon throughout.

" lanceolata Hook. f. Plentiful in forests.

" montana Hook f. Maungataniwha Range; Fairburn; rare.


Parsonsia heterophylla A. Cunn. Common throughout.

" capsularis R. Br. Not uncommon.


Geniostoma ligustrifolium A. Cunn. Abundant.


Myosotis spathulata Forst. Kaitaia; rare.


Ipomoea palmata Forst. Along coast; common.

Calystegia sepium R. Br. Abundant throughout.

" tuguriorum R. Br. Plentiful in damp lowland woods.

" Soldanella R. Br. Plentiful on sandy shores.

Calystegia marginata R. Br. Fairburn, not uncommon; Kaitaia, rare; coast near Mangonui.

Dichondra repens Forst. Common.


Solanum nigrum L. Abundant throughout.

" aviculare Forst. Abundant throughout.

– 214 –


Mimulus repens R. Br. Brackish-water swamp at Waimimiha; rare.

Mazus pumilio R. Br. Wet places, Ahipara; Kaitaia; Waihi; near Awanui.

Gratiola peruviana L. Wet places; not uncommon.

Glossostigma elatinoides Benth. Common in wet places.

Limosella tenuifolia Nutt. Salt marshes; common.

Veronica salicifolia Forst. Common throughout.

" macrocarpa Vahl. Mangonui. T. F. C.

" diosmaefolia R. Cunn. Not uncommon; usually near the sea.

" plebeia R. Br. Open situations throughout; common.


Utricularia protrusa Hook. f. Lake Tangonge; near Kaitaia.

" novae-zealandiae Hook. f. Swamps on Lake Ohia; at Kaitaia.

Utricularia delicatula Cheesem. Moorland swamps, Kaitaia; Peria; Mangatete; Rangaunu Harbour.


Rhabdothamnus Solandri A. Cunn. Abundant.


Myoporum laetum Forst. Plentiful, especially on coast.


Vitex lucens T. Kirk. Plentiful throughout.

Avicennia officinalis L. Mangonui Harbour; Rangaunu Harbour; Hohoura Harbour.


Mentha Cunninghamii D. C. Common in damp places, especially near the coast.


Plantago Raoulii Decne. Common in moist places, especially near the sea.


Scleranthus biflorus Hook. f. Not uncommon in dry places near the sea.


Alternanthera sessilis R. Br. Oruru; near Awanui; Tauroa.


Chenopodium glaucum L. Brackish-water marshes; common.

" ambrosioides L. Maori cultivation at Parapara.

" carinatum R. Br. Near Mangonui. T. F. C.

Atriplex patula L. In wet sand, Tauroa. Probably an immigrant.

Rhagodia nutans R. Br. Houhora. T. F. C.

Salicornia australis Sol. Abundant along shores.

Suaeda maritima L. Salt marshes in Mangonui Harbour. T. F. C.

Salsola Kali L. Spreading rapidly along coast. Almost certainly an immigrant.

– 215 –


Polygonum aviculare L. Abundant in moist places. Most probably an immigrant.

Polygonum serrulatum Lag. Abundant on muddy banks of creeks and in swamps.

Rumex flexuosus Sol. Not uncommon in open country.

Muehlenbeckia australis Meissn. Abundant.

" complexa Meissn. Abundant on shores, less so inland.


Piper excelsum Forst. Common throughout.

Peperomia Endlicheri Miq. Generally distributed.


Hedycarya arborea Forst. Abundant in forest.

Laurelia novae-zealandiae A. Cunn. Common in wet land.


Beilschmiedia tarairi Benth. & Hook. Abundant.

" tawa Hook. f. Common in forests.

Litsaea calicaris Benth. & Hook. Common in forests.

Cassytha paniculata R. Br. Abundant in tea-tree; always near the sea.


Persoonia toru A. Cunn. Throughout the district, but never plentiful.

Knightia excelsa R. Br. In forests; common.


Pimelea virgata Vahl. Not uncommon; usually near the sea.

" arenaria A. Cunn. Abundant on sandhills.

" laevigata Gaertn. Common on moorlands.


Loranthus micranthus Hook. f. Near Kaitaia.

Korthalsella salicornioides Van Tiegh. Near Kaitaia.


Fusanus Cunninghamii Benth. & Hook. Common throughout.


Euphorbia glauca Forst. Common on sandy shores.


Paratrophis heterophylla Blume. Abundant.

Urtica incisa Poir. In damp shady places; common.

Elatostemma rugosum A. Cunn. In damp shady places; abundant.

Parietaria debilis Forst. Not uncommon on coast.


Fagus fusca Hook. f. Between Kaitaia and Mangatete. One tree reported. I have not seen it.

– 216 –


Agathis australis Salisb. Formerly abundant, becoming less so each season.

Libocedrus Doniana Endl. Scattered throughout the forests; never plentiful.

Podocarpus totara D. Don. Plentiful in hilly forests.

" Hallii T. Kirk. Not common in hilly forests.

" ferrugineus D. Don. Common in forests.

" spicatus R. Br. Not uncommon.

Podocarpus dacrydioides A. Rich. Abundant in lowlands; not uncommon in hilly bush.

Dacrydium cupressinum Soland. Abundant.

Dacrydium Colensoi Hook. = D. westlandicum Kirk. Near Fairburn, one tree (full grown) and a few young ones; Victoria Valley, one tree?

Phyllocladus trichomanoides D. Don. In hilly forests; not uncommon.


Dendrobium Cunninghamii Lindl. On upper branches of trees; common.

Bulbophyllum tuberculatum Col. On upper branches of trees, Kaitaia and Fairburn; probably not uncommon throughout.

Bulbophyllum pygmaeum Lindl. On branches and stems of trees; common.

Earina mucronata Lindl. A common epiphyte.

" suaveolens Lindl. Less common than above.

Sarchochilus adversus Hook. f. On trunks and branches of trees; common.

Spiranthes australis Lindl. In swamps, Kaitaia; Waipapakauri; Rangaunu Heads.

Thelymitra ixioides Swz. Kaitaia, common; near Victoria Valley, rare.

" longifolia Forst. Moorlands; common.

" intermedia Bergg. Kaitaia; Fairburn; not uncommon.

" pulchella Hook. f. Moorlands; common.

" imberbis Hook. f. Moorlands; not uncommon.

Orthoceras strictum R. Br. Not uncommon throughout.

Microtis porrifolia R. Br. Plentiful.

Prasophyllum Colensoi Hook. f. On clay hills; not uncommon.

Prasophyllum pumilum Hook. f. On clay hills; not uncommon.

Caleana minor R. Br. On clay hill, Kaitaia; rare.

Pterostylis Banksii R. Br. Abundant in forests.

Pterostylis graminea Hook. f. Fairburn; vicinity of Kaitaia; not uncommon.

Pterostylis micromega Hook. f. Kaitaia; rare.

Pterostylis trullifolia Hook. f. Dry ridges in forest, and on moorland; common.

Pterostylis barbata Lindl. In damp soil among Leptospermum, near Kaitaia; rare.

Acianthus Sinclairii Hook. f. Abundant in forests.

Cyrtostylis oblonga Hook. f. Scattered throughout the district.

Calochilus paludosus R. Br. Kaitaia; rare.

Caladenia minor Hook. f. Moorlands and open scrub; common.

" " var. exigua Cheesem. Kaitaia; Fairburn.

Chiloglottis cornuta Hook. f. Kaitaia; Fairburn; not common.

" formicifera Fitzg. Kaitaia; rare.

Corysanthes Cheesemanii Hook. f. Kaitaia; Fairburn.

" Matthewsii Cheesem. Kaitaia; Fairburn.

– 217 –

Corysanthes oblonga Hook. f. On damp clay banks throughout.

Corysanthes rivularis Hook. f. Fairburn, in wet part of open forest; not common.

Corysanthes rotundifolia Hook. f. On rocks and creek-banks; not uncommon.

Corysanthes triloba Hook. f. Kaitaia; rare.

Gastrodia sesamoides R. Br. In shaded gully near Kaitaia, rare; edge of swamp, Tauroa.


Libertia ixioides Spreng. Ahipara. T. F. C.

" grandiflora Sweet. Throughout the district, but local.

" pulchella Spreng. In hilly forests; not common.


Rhipogonum scandens Forst. Plentiful throughout.

Cordyline terminalis Kunth. Represented by two plants in Mrs. Reed's garden at Ahipara, originally growing on the cliffs behind the house.

Cordyline Banksii Hook. f. In places plentiful, but absent from large areas.

Cordyline australis Hook. f. Abundant in lowlands.

" pumilio Hook. f. Ridges in forests and on moorlands; common.

Astelia Cunninghamii Hook. f. Usually epiphytic; abundant.

" Banksii A. Cunn. Cliffs, Hohoura and Rangaunu; not common.

" trinervia T. Kirk. Chiefly in kauri forests; abundant.

" Solandri A. Cunn. Abundant in forests.

Astelia nervosa Banks & Sol. = A. grandis Hook. f. Not uncommon; usually in kauri forests.

Astelia sp. ined. A very small plant, not yet identified, ripe fruit not having been seen. On trunks and branches; not uncommon.

Dianella intermedia Endl. Common on dry banks.

Phormium tenax Forst. Lowland swamps, abundant; hilly bush, occasional plants seen.

Arthropodium cirrhatum R. Br. High ranges and sea-cliffs; common.


Juncus pallidus R. Br. Fairburn; Broadwood; rare.

" pauciflorus R. Br. Ahipara; Kaitaia; probably not uncommon.

" effusus Linn. Abundant, especially in low-lying country.

Juncus maritimus Lam. var. australiensis Buchan. Brackish-water marshes, common; inland swamp near Kaitaia.

Juncus bufonius Linn. Abundant in wet places.

Juncus tenuis Willd. A troublesome weed; has spread greatly. Probably an immigrant.

Juncus planifolius R. Br. Plentiful in wet places.

Juncus lampocarpus Ehr. Has spread rapidly during the last three or four years. A doubtful native.

Luzula campestris D. C. Scattered; nowhere common.


Rhopalostylis sapida Wendl. & Drude. Abundant.

– 218 –


Freycinetia Banksii A. Cunn. In woods; abundant.


Typha angustifolia L. Abundant in marshy places.

Sparganium antipodum Graebner. In swamps; abundant.


Lemna minor Linn. Still waters in maritime marshes; common.


Triglochin striatum Ruiz & Pav. var. filifolium Buch. Maritime marshes; common.

Potamogeton polygonifolius Pourr. In muddy places; not common.

Potamogeton Cheesemanii A. Bennett. Abundant in streams, lakes, and swamps.

Potamogeton ochreatus Raoul. Kaitaia River; common.

Ruppia maritima Linn. Brackish-water lagoon. Waimimiha.

Zostera nana Roth. Houhora Harbour.

Zostera tasmanica Martens. Common in harbours and on mud-covered rocks; Reef Point.


Hydatella inconspicua Cheesem. Sandy margin of Lake Ngatu.


Lepyrodia Traversii F. Muell. Swamp near Lake Tangonge; Kaitaia; rare.

Leptocarpus simplex A. Rich. Salt-water marshes and sandy shores; abundant.

Hypolaena lateriflora Benth. In swampy land, Kaitaia; Houhora; Lake Ohia.


Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. Abundant in damp lowlands. Has spread rapidly.

Cyperus tenellus Linn. f. Abundant throughout.

" vegetus Willd. In damp lowlands; abundant.

Mariscus ustulatus C. B. Clarke. Abundant in lowlands.

Eleocharis sphacelata R. Br. Swamp; common.

Eleocharis neo-zealandica C. B. Clarke. Damp sandy places near the sea; not uncommon.

Eleocharis acuta R. Br. In wet places; abundant.

" Cunninghamii Boeck. In wet places; abundant.

Scirpus lenticularis Poir. Submerged in Lake Tangonge, Kaitaia.

" cernus Vahl. Maritime form abundant; inland form not common.

Scirpus inundatus Poir. vars. major and gracillima. Both abundant in wet places.

Scirpus nodosus Rottb. Sand-dunes; abundant.

" frondosus Banks & Sol. Sand-dunes; abundant.

" lacustris Linn. Margins of streams and lake; abundant.

" maritimus Linn. var fluviatilis. Tidal creeks; common.

Schoenus brevifolius R. Br. Moorlands; common.

– 219 –

Schoenus Tendo Banks & Sol. Moorlands; common.

" axillaris Poir. Swampy places; common.

" apogon Roem. & Schult. Mangonui. T. F. C.

Cladium Sinclairii Hook. f. Sea-cliffs and banks; common.

" articulatum R. Br. Swamps; common.

" glomeratum R. Br. Damp places on moorlands; common.

" teretifolium R. Br. Moorlands; abundant.

" Gunnii Hook. f. Moorlands and open woods; not uncommon.

Cladium junceum R. Br. Brackish-water marshes, abundant; wet moorlands near Kaitaia, common.

Cladium capillaceum C. B. Clarke. Moorlands; not uncommon.

Lepidosperma laterale R. Br. Moorlands; common.

Lepidosperma filiforme Labill. Moorlands, Peria. So far the only known habitat in New Zealand.

Gahnia setifolia Hook. f. Abundant throughout.

" pauciflora T. Kirk. In hilly forests; abundant.

" xanthocarpa Hook. f. In hilly forests; common.

" lacera Steud. In hilly forests; common.

" Gaudichaudii Steud. On dry banks; common.

Uncinia caespitosa Boott. In hilly forests; common.

" australis Pers. Abundant.

Uncinia sp. pps. intermediate between U. australis and U. riparia. In several places, but not common.

Uncinia leptostachya Raoul. Mangonui. T. F. C.

" riparia R. Br. var. Banksii C. B. Clarke. Plentiful.

Carex virgata Sol. Common in swampy places.

" secta Boott. Common in swampy places.

" inversa R. Br. Fairburn; not common.

" subdola Boott. Lowland swamps; common.

" ternaria Forst. Abundant.

" dipsacea Bergg. Flat Bush; rare.

" testacea Sol. On the coast; common.

" lucida Boott. Abundant.

" comans Bergg. On the coast; not common.

" dissita Sol. Typical form; abundant.

" " var. Lambertiana Cheesem. Common.

" " var. ochrosaccus Cheesem. Abundant.

" Solandri Boott. Ahipara and Mangonui. T. F. C.

" breviculmis R. Br. Plentiful on moorlands.

" pumila Thunb. Plentiful on sand-dunes.

" Brownii Tuckerm. Near Lake Tangonge; rare.

" pseudo-cyperus Linn. Abundant in lowlands.

" " var. fascicularis. Common.


Imperata arundinacea Cyr. var. Koenigii Benth. Hillside near Kaitaia.

Zoysia pungens Willd. Abundant on sandy shores.

Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. Moorlands; common.

Paspalum digitaria Poir. Roadsides, and margins of streams and swamps; abundant and rapidly spreading. Most likely an immigrant.

Paspalum distichum L. Salt marshes and rocks by the sea; common.

Isachne australis R. Br. Plentiful in swamps.

– 220 –

Oplismenus undulatifolius Beauv. Abundant in forests.

Spinifex hirsutus Labill. Abundant on sand-dunes.

Microlaena stipoides R. Br. Abundant in open places.

" avenacea Hook. f. Abundant in forests.

" polynoda Hook. f. Small wood, Tauroa; not common.

Hierochloe redolens R. Br. Not uncommon in swampy places.

Stipa teretifolia Steud. Near the sea; common.

Echinopogon ovatus Beauv. Not uncommon.

Sporobolus indicus R. Br. Abundant. As pointed out in “Manual of the New Zealand Flora,” p. 861, this is an immigrant.

Deyeuxia Forsteri Kunth. Abundant in waste places.

" Billardieri Kunth. Near the sea; common.

" avenoides Buch. var. brachyantha Hack. Not uncommon.

" quadriseta Benth. Moorlands; common.

Dichelachne crinita Hook. f. Plentiful in open situations.

" sciurea Hook. f. Not common.

Trisetum antarcticum Trin. Mangonui. T. F. C.

Danthonia pilosa R. Br. Abundant.

" semiannularis R. Br. Abundant.

Arundo conspicua Forst. Abundant on sandhills on cost; rare in inland situations.

Arundo fulvida Buch. Creek-banks; common.

Poa anceps Forst. Not uncommon.

" seticulmis Petrie. Sandy places near sea; common.

Festuca littoralis Labill. Sand-dunes; plentiful.

Agropyrum multiforum T. Kirk. Common on coast.


Hymenophyllum rarum R. Br. On tree trunks and branches; common.

Hymenophyllum polyanthos Swartz var. sanguinolentum Hook. Abundant in forests.

Hymenophyllum australe Willd. In damp woods; not common.

" dilatatum Swartz. In damp woods; plentiful.

" demissum Swartz. In damp woods; abundant.

" scabrum A. Rich. In damp woods; common.

" flabellatum Lab. In damp woods; common.

Hymenophyllum subtilissimum Kunze. Chiefly on stems of Dicksonia and on damp rocks; not uncommon.

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense Smith. In woods; abundant.

" multifidum Swartz. In woods; common.

Trichomanes reniforme Forst. In woods; common.

Trichomanes humile Forst. In woods, on damp rocks; common on stems of Dicksonia.

Trichomanes venosum R. Br. In woods; common.

" strictum Menz. Kaitaia; rare.

" elongatum A. Cunn. Damp shaded banks in woods; common.

Loxsoma Cunninghamii R. Br. In woods and on banks of streams; local.

Cyathea dealbata Swartz. Abundant in woods.

" medullaris Swartz. Abundant in woods.

Hemitelia Smithii Hook. Abundant in woods.

Dicksonia squarrosa Swartz. In damp woods; abundant.

" lanata Col. In hilly forests; abundant.

– 221 –

Davallia novae-zealandiae Col. On shaded creek-banks; rare.

Lindsaya linearis Swartz. Moorlands; common.

Lindsaya trichomanoides Hook. f. and var. Lessonii Hook. f. Not uncommon in hilly forests.

Adiantum aethiopicum Linn. Plentiful in places, but local.

Adiantum diaphanum Blume. Creek-banks and rocky places in woods; common.

Adiantum hispidulum Swartz. On dry banks; plentiful.

" affine Willd. Abundant.

" fulvum Raoul. In woods; abundant.

Hypolepis tenuifolia Bernh. In damp open situations; abundant.

" distans Hook. Several places in woods; not common.

Cheilanthes Sieberi Kunze. Ahipara; Kaitaia; Mount Camel; maritime rocks.

Pellaea rotundifolia Hook. Usually in damp lowland woods; common.

Pteris aquilina Linn. var. esculenta Hook. f. Abundant.

" scaberula A. Rich. Abundant; usually in dry open places.

" tremula R. Br. Abundant in woods.

" comans Forst. Along the coast; not uncommon.

" macilenta A. Rich. In woods; plentiful.

" " var. pendula Cheesem. Common.

" incisa Thunb. Abundant.

Lomaria discolor Willd. Abundant in woods.

Lomaria lanceolata Spreng. Creek-banks and damp slopes in woods; abundant.

Lomaria Banksii Hook. Dripping rocks, west coast; rare.

" capensis Willd. Abundant.

" " var. minor Hook. f. In kauri bush; not common.

" filiformis A. Cunn. Abundant in woods.

Lomaria nigra Col. In dark ravines between Fairburn and Hokianga; never plentiful.

Lomaria fluviatilis Spreng. Banks of creeks; not uncommon.

" membranacea Col. Banks of streams and shaded slopes; common.

" Fraseri A. Cunn. In hilly forests; abundant.

Doodia media R. Br. On dry banks and slopes; common.

Doodia caudata R. Br. Damp lowlands, Kaitaia; one plant among damp rocks in hilly bush, Fairburn.

Asplenium falcatum Lam. Common in woods; usually pendulous from trees.

" obtusatum Forst. On maritime rocks; not common.

" lucidum Forst. Abundant on trees and rocks.

" " var. obliquum Moore. Dry rocks and banks; common.

" Hookerianum Col. Kaitaia; rare and local.

" bulbiferum Forst. Abundant in damp woods.

" " var. tripinnatum Hook. f. Not common.

Asplenium flaccidum Forst. Forms pendulous from trees abundant; terrestrial bulbiferous forms much less common.

Asplenium umbrosum J. Sm. Alluvial flats; abundant.

Asplenium japonicum Thunb. Alluvial flats and creek-banks, Fairburn, common; Kaiatia, rarer.

Aspidium Richardii Hook. Not uncommon on rocks, inland and maritime.

" capense Willd. Not uncommon in woods, often climbing up trees.

Nephrodium Thelypteris Desv. var. squamulosum Schl. Maritime marshes, not uncommon; swamp, Lake Tangonge.

– 222 –

Nepdrodium decompositum R. Br. Damp open situations; common.

Nephrodium glabellum A. Cunn. Fairly dry slopes and creek-banks; common.

Nephrodium velutinum Hook. f. Dry rocky slopes in woods; not uncommon.

Nephrodium hispidum Hook. Plentiful in woods.

Nephrodium unitum R. Br. Maritime marshes, margin of Lake Tangonge; not uncommon.

Nephrodium molle Desv. Near Mangatete; rare.

Polypodium punctatum Thunb. Common.

" pennigerum Forst. Abundant throughout.

" australe Mett. On tree-trunks; common.

" grammitidis R. Br. On tree-trunks; common.

" tenellum Forst. In damp lowland woods; common.

" serpens Forst. On upper branches and rocks; abundant.

Polypodium Cunninghamii Hook. On damp rocks and tree-trunks; common.

Polypodium pustulatum Forst. Abundant in woods.

" Billardieri R. Br. Usually on trees or rocks; abundant.

Gleichenia circinata Swartz. Throughout the district; not common.

" dicarpa R. Br. var. hecistophylla. Abundant on wet moorlands.

" Cunninghamii Heward. Plentiful in forests.

" flabellata R. Br. Damp moorlands; not uncommon.

Schizaea fistulosa Labill. Moorlands; common.

" bifida Swartz. Moorlands, Peria; Kaitaia; not common.

" dichotoma Swartz. Kauri forests; common.

Lygodium articulatum A. Rich. In forests; abundant.

Todea barbara Moore. On or near the coast, common; inland, Kaitaia.

" hymenophylloides A. Rich. In damp woods; common.

Marattia fraxinea Smith. In deep gullies of the Maungataniwha Ranges; Herekino; Parapara.

Ophioglossum lusitanicum Linn. Dry sandy places; not common.

Ophioglossum vulgatum Linn. Moist lowland bush and scrub; not uncommon.

Botrychium ternatum Swartz. Not uncommon.

" dissectum Muhl. Rangaunu Heads.


Phylloglossum Drummondii Kunze. Barren open places, Kaitaia, and near Rangaunu Harbour.

Lycopodium Billardieri Spring. Usually pendulous from trees, but often terrestrial among Leptospermum.

Lycopodium densum Labill. On moorlands among scrub; common.

Lycopodium cernuum L. On moorlands, old land-slips, and roadside cuttings; common.

Lycopodium laterale R. Br. In peaty swamps; common.

Lycopodium Drummondii Spring. Wet peaty swamp near Lake Tangonge; Kaitaia.

Lycopodium volubile Frost. Abundant among scrub.

Tmesipteris tannensis Bernh. Usually on the stems of tree-ferns; common.

Psilotum triquetrum Swartz. Rangaunu Harbour, and at Merita Bay.

– 223 –

Naturalized Plants.

Ranunculus sceleratus Linn.

" repens Linn.

" bulbosus Linn.

" sardous Crantz.

" parviflorus Linn.

" muricatus Linn.

Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

Sisymbrium officinale Scop.

Brassioca oleracea Linn.

Capsella Bursa-pastoris D.C. T.F.C.

Senebiera didyma Pers.

" coronopus Poir.

Raphanus sativus L. T. F. C.

Silene gallica L.

Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.

Stelaria media. Cyr.

Stellaria holostea Linn.

Arenaria serpyllifolia Linn.

Sagina apetala Linn.

Spergula arvensis Linn.

Polycarpon tetraphyllum Linn.

Caladrionia sp.

Portulaca oleracea Linn. T. F. C.

Hypericum perforatum Linn. T. F. C.

" humifusum Linn.

Lavatera arborea Linn.

Malva verticilata Linn.

Modiola mulitfida Moench.

Linum marginale A. Cunn.

" gallicum Linn.

Erodium circutarium L'Herit.

" malachoides Willd. T. F. C.

Vitis vinifera Linn.

Melianthus major Linn.

Ulex europaeus Linn.

Medicago lupulina Linn. T. F. C.

" denticulata Willd.

" maculata Willd.

Melilotus officinalis Lam. T. F. C.

Trifolium arvense Linn.

" pratense Linn.

" glomeratum Linn.

" hybridum Linn.

" repens Linn.

" fragiferum Linn.

" resupinatum Linn.

" procumbens Linn.

Lotus corniculatus Linn.

" uliginosus Schkuhr.

" angustissiums Linn.

Vicia gemella Crantz.

Vicia sativa Linn.

Acacia dealbata Link.

" decurrens Willd.

" armata.

Albizzia lopantha Benth.

Prunuis persica Stokes.

Rubus Fruticosus Linn.

Fragaria vesca Linn.

Alchemilla arvensis Scop.

Rosa rubigionosa Linn.

" multiflora Thunb.

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Bluegum).

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Redgum.)

Lythrum Hyssopifolia Linn.

Aenothera sp.

Aipum graveolens Linn.

" leptophyllum F. Muell.

" Lessonii.

Daucus Carota Linn.

Sambucus niger Linn.

Galium Aparine Linn.

" parisiense Linn.

Sherardia arvensis Linn.

Scabiosa maritima Linn.

Bellis perennis Linn.

Erigeron canadensis L.

" linifolius Willd.

Gnaphalium purpureum Linn.

Achilea millefolium Linn.

Anthemis arvensis Linn.

Chrysanthemum Parthenium Bernh.

" leucanthemum Linn.

Matricaria discoidea D. C.

Soliva anthemifolia R. Br.

Tanacetum vulgare Linn.

Senecio vulgaris Linn.

" sylvaticus Linn.

" Jacobatea Linn.

" mikanioides Otto.

Cnicus lanceolatus Willd.

" arvensis Hoffm.

Cynara cardunculus Linn.

Chicorium Intybus Linn.

Lapsana communis Linn.

Crepis virens Linn.

Hypochaeris radicata Linn.

Leontodon hispidus Linn.

Taraxacum officinale Linn.

Anagallis arvensis L.

– 224 –

Vinca major L.

Erythraea centaurium Pers.

Myosois collina Hoffm.

Cuscuta epithymum Murr. var. trifoliois. (Dodder.)

Solanum sodamaeum Linn.

Physalios peruviana Linn.

Lycium chinense Mill.

Nicotiana Tabacum Linn.

Verbascum blattaria Linn.

Mimulus sp. (Musk.)

Linaria Elatine Mill.

Veronica agrestis Linn.

" arvensis Linn.

" serpyllifolia Linn.

Bartsioa viscosa Linn.

Verbena officinalis Linn.

" bonariensis Linn.

Mentha viridis Linn.

" Pulegiuim Linn.

Melissa officinalis Linn.

Prunella vulgagis Linn.

Stachys arvensis Linn.

Plantago major Linn.

" lanceolata Linn.

" hirtella H. B. K.

Chenopodium album Linn.

" murale Linn.

Phytolacea octandra Linn.

Polygonum Convolvulus Linn.

Rumex crispus Linn.

" sanguineus Linn. var. viridis.

" obtusifolis Linn.

" acetosella Linn.

Hakea acicularis R. Br.

Euphorbia Peplus Linn.

Ricinus communis Linn.

Humulus Lupulus Linn.

Ficus carica Linn.

Salix fragilis Linn.

" babylonica Linn.

Iris germanica Linn.

Antholyza aethiopica Linn.

Agave americana Linn.

Asphodelus fistulosus Linn.

Allium vineale Linn.

Colocasioa antiquorum Schott.

Richardia africana Kunth.

Cyperus lucidus R. Br.

Andeopogon annulatus Forst. T. F. C.

Paspalum dilatatum Pair.

Panicum sanguinale Linn.

" crus-galli Linn.

Stenotaphrum glabrum Trin.

Phalarios canariensis Linn.

Anthoxanthum odoratum Linn.

Phleum pratense Linn.

Alopecurus pratensios Linn.

Polypogon fugax Nees.

Agrostis vulgaris With.

" alba Linn.

Holcus lanatus Linn.

Aira caryophyllea Linn.

Avena sastiva Linn.

" strigosa Schreb.

Cynodon Dactylon Pers.

Eragrostios Brownii Nees.

Briza maxima Linn.

" minor Linn.

Dactylis gomerata Linn.

Cynosurus cirstatus Linn.

Poa annua Linn.

" pratensis Linn.

" trivialios Linn.

Festuca elatior Linn.

" Myurus Linn.

Bromus sterilis Linn.

" mollis Linn.

" racemosa Linn.

" unioloides H.B.K.

Lolium perenne Linn.