New Zealand Institute
Edited and Published under the Authority of the Board of Governors of the Institute
John Mackay, Government Printing Office
WM. Wesley and Son, 28 Essex Street, Strand, London WC
New Zealand Institute: Minutes, annual meeting, 26th January, 1911.
Auckland Institute: Meetings, 22nd November, 1910; 6th February, 1911; annual meeting, 27th February, 1911.
Wellington Philosophical Society: Annual meeting, 5th October, 1910.
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury: Meeting, 2nd November, 1910; annual meeting, 7th December, 1910.
Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute. Meeting, 4th November, 1910; annual meeting, 6th January, 1911.
Manawatu Philosophical Society: Annual meeting, 7th December, 1910.
Otago Institute: Meeting, 1st November, 1910, annual meeting, 6th December, 1910.
“Glaciated Surfaces and Boulder-clay near Bealey,” by R. Speight.
“Notes on the Discovery of Dactylanthus Taylori,” by James Grant.
“Geoplana aucklandica and Geoplana marrineri: a Correction in Nomenclature,” by Arthur Dendy.
“Notes on the Vegetable Caterpillar,” by G. Howes.
New Zealand Institute., 1910.
Eighth Annual Meeting.
The annual general meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute was held in the Auckland Museum Library, Auckland, on Thursday, 26th January, 1911.
Present: Mr. A. Hamilton, President (in the chair), Professor W. B. Benham, F.R.S., Dr. L. Cockayne, Dr. Hilgendorf, Mr. D. Petrie, Mr. R. Speight, Mr. J. Stewart, Mr. K. Wilson.
Changes in the Representation.—The Secretary announced the following changes in the representation of the Government and of the incorporated societies on the Board of Governors :—
Nominated by the Government: Mr. C. A. Ewen (vice Mr. J. W. Joynt, resigned). Elected by incorporated societies: Dr. Hilgendorf (vice Dr. Farr, resigned).
The Secretary then called the roll.
The President declared the meeting open, and apologized for the absence of His Excellency the Governor, the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs, Mr. Martin Chapman, K.C., Professor Easterfield, Mr. C. A. Ewen, Mr. H. Hill, and Mr. John Young.
Presidential Address.—The President then delivered his presidential address. (See p. 74.)
Report of the Standing Committee.—The Secretary read the report of the Standing Committee, which was adopted, as follows :—
Report of the Standing Committee.
During the past year seven meetings of the Standing Committee of the Board have been held, the attendance being as follows: Mr. Hamilton, 6; Mr. Chapman, 4; Professor Easterfield, 6; Mr. Joynt, 3; Mr. Petrie, 2; Mr. Thomson, 2; Mr. Young, 2; Professor Benham, 1; Dr. Cockayne, 1; Mr. Stewart, 1; Mr. Wilson, 1. Dr. Chilton, Hon. Editor, was present at two meetings, at the request of the Committee.
Hector Memorial Fund.—The individual members of the Board having signified their concurrence with the request of the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee (a body acting independently of the Institute) that the Institute should assume, under certain stated conditions, the custody and management of the fund, the Standing Committee has given effect to the wishes of the Governors. The report of the Institute's Hector Memorial Committee, presented with this report, deals fully with the subject. A deed of trust will be prepared.
Hutton Memorial Fund.—The Committee of Award in Sydney has been instructed in the conditions under which an award may be made, and their recommendation will be opened later at this meeting. The Standing Committee recommends for the favourable consideration of the Board an application for a research grant from the fund.
Purchase of Back Numbers of the Transactions.—The Secretary is corresponding with the owners of certain volumes, and if negotiations are successful a number of complete sets will be available for sale.
London Agency.—The transfer of this agency to Messrs William Wesley and Son has been completed, and the engagement existing with the previous agents satisfactorily terminated.
Publications.—The cost of the publications—Transactions, Proceedings, and Bulletins—issued last year was somewhat greater than usual, and prompts the suggestion that there should be a closer connection between the Standing Committee and the Publication Committee on the question of finance. The publication of bulletins requires to be authorized and regulated.
As before, publications have been distributed direct from Wellington to members, according to the roll kept. The matter of distribution is, however, somewhat bound up with the succeeding subject here dealt with, and the practice of distribution will not be entirely uniform until that matter is settled.
Copies of Vol. xlii of the Transactions were, in accordance with the Act, laid on the table of the House of Representatives on 6th July, 1910, and of the Legislative Council on 5th July, 1910.
The Board at the last meeting decided to bind up the Proceedings published during the year with the Transactions, but this could not be accomplished with Vol. xlii, as the limited number of Parts i, ii, and iii had been distributed. The Secretary was, however, able to obtain about a hundred complete sets of the year's Proceedings, which were bound with Vol. xlii, these copies being supplied to the leading libraries on the exchange list. The new rule will commence with Vol. xliii
Position of Incorporated Societies.—The sub-committee which was appointed by the Standing Committee has not been able to make any report, owing to the absence from Wellington of one of the members.
British Association in Australia in 1914.—A resolution was passed at the last annual meeting of the Board, assuring the Melbourne University and the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science of the Institute's sympathy and support in the endeavours of those bodies to induce the British Association to visit Australia. It may be possible to go further than this and invite as many of the British delegates who can to visit New Zealand. The matter is obviously one in which the Institute can only act by suggestion, and it is hoped that the Government may be induced to take part in the movement.
Resolutions having the Force of Regulations.—As resolved at the last annual meeting, the Secretary has prepared a list of the resolutions passed by the Board and Standing Committee from time to time since 1904. It is desirable that a Committee be appointed to formulate these so that they may be gazetted or printed, as may be decided.
Exchange List.—The Standing Committee has added to the list the Cambridge Philosophical Society and the New Zealand Geological Survey. Other applications are held over to await the decision of the Board.
Outlying Islands of New Zealand.—Professors Easterfield and Kirk and the Secretary were appointed a sub-committee to inquire into the conditions for leasing the outlying islands of New Zealand. A report from Professor Kirk is appended
For the Standing Committee.
Wellington, 19th January, 1911.
A. Hamilton, President.
Committee to deal with the Australian Visit of the British Association.—It was resolved, on the motion of Professor Benham, seconded by Mr. Speight, that the President (Mr. Hamilton) and Professor Easterfield be appointed a committee to deal with the Australian visit of the British Association, with power to add to their number.
Committee to formulate Regulations passed by the Standing Committee.—It was resolved, on the motion of Mr. R. Speight, seconded by Professor Benham, that a committee, consisting of the President, the Hon. Editor, Mr. Hamilton, and Mr. Martin Chapman, K.C., consider the question of formulating and preparing for publication the regulations passed by the Standing Committee. The committee to report to the next annual meeting.
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure.—The statement of receipts and expenditure, audited by the Auditor-General, was, on the motion of Mr. Petrie, seconded by Dr. Hilgendorf, adopted.
|Balance brought forward||402||10||7||Grant to Hector Memorial Fund||20||0||0|
|Government grant||500||0||0||Secretary's salary||25||0||0|
|Kegan, Paul, and Co.—Balance of account||55||4||4||Travelling-expenses of Board of Governors||23||17||4|
|refund of postage||12||0||5||Alterations to seal||4||15||0|
|Sales, “Maori Art,” &c.||5||17||3||Insurance||9||0||0|
|Hon. Editor's petty cash||5||0||0|
|Secretary's petty cash||6||0||0|
|W. A. Mackay—Services||5||0||0|
|Postage of Transactions||24||0||0|
|Purchase back volumes Transactions||0||16||6|
|Catalogue for scientific literature||10||0||0|
|Printing Transactions, Proceedings, and Bulletins||699||12||0|
|Expenses Auckland meeting||50||0||0|
|Bank charges and cheque-book||0||12||0|
Carter Bequest.—The following statement, showing the state of the Carter Bequest, was received from the Public Trustee :—
|Balance as at 31st March, 1904||2,247||9||5||Administration expenses—Carting books||0||2||0|
|Shares, N.Z. Loan and Mercantile Agency Company||0||12||0||Public Trust Office commission||0||4||5|
|Interest, N.Z. Loan and Mercantile Agency Company||4||4||3||Balance||2,988||18||7|
|Interest, Public Trust Office||736||19||4|
|Balance as above||2,988||18||7|
|Debenture stock, N.Z. Loan and Mercantile Agency Company (face value)||32||5||5|
Hutton Memorial Trust Fund.—The following statement, showing the position of the Hutton Memorial Research Fund, was received from the Public Trustee :—
|New Zealand Institute||650||0||0|
|Balance forwarded by Hon. Treasurer of fund||19||9||1|
|Interest, Public Trust Office||71||12||0|
Position of the Incorporated Societies.—It was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, that Mr. Martin Chapman, K.C., Mr. Hamilton, and Dr. Cockayne be a committee to consider the position of the incorporated societies.
Hutton Memorial Award.—A recommendation, dated 6th December, 1910, was received from Professors T. W. E. David, W. A. Haswell, and Mr. Maiden, the Committee of Award appointed to recommend a suitable recipient for the Hutton Medal. The committee recommended that the medal be awarded to Professor W. B. Benham for his contributions to the zoology of New Zealand.
On the motion of Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Dr. Hilgendorf, it was resolved that the report of the committee be adopted.
It was resolved that the Secretary be authorized to act with the President in getting a suitable inscription engraved on the medal.
It was resolved that the Chancellor of the University of Otago be asked to present the Hutton Medal to Professor Benham at the first public ceremonial held by the University Council.
On the motion of Mr. Speight, seconded by Dr. Hilgendorf, it was resolved that the thanks of the Institute be accorded to the committee for their assistance in making this award of the Hutton Medal.
On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, it was resolved that Professor David, Mr. Maiden, and Professor Benham be appointed a committee to make the next award of the Hutton Medal.
Hutton Fund Research Grant.—An application, dated 26th September, 1910, from Dr. C. Chilton, applying for a grant of £10 towards the cost of preparing illustrations for a revision of the New Zealand Crustacea, was, on the motion of Dr. Benham, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, granted.
Hector Memorial Committee Report.—The report of the Institute's Hector Memorial Committee was then read and received, together with the audited statement of the fund at the time of taking it over on 30th August, 1910. A statement by the Public Trustee showing the condition of the fund on 21st January, 1911, was also received.
In presenting this report your committee desires to preface its remarks by a short summary of the means which have been adopted to collect the sum in hand, how the Institute became the administrator of the fund, and under what conditions it accepted the responsibility.
Sir James Hector died in November, 1907. Committees were at once set up in the various centres with the object of collecting funds to perpetuate by some fitting
memorial the great services rendered to science and to the colony by the late. At the fifth annual meeting of the New Zealand Institute, in January, 1908, a committee of the Institute was appointed “to co-operate with the other, committees already moving in the direction of collecting funds for a memorial.” This committee consisted of Professor Benham, Mr. M. Chapman, Dr. Cockayne, Professor Easterfield, Messrs. T. Gill, D. Petrie, and R. Speight. The Wellington Philosophical Society elected a committee consisting of Messrs. G. V. Hudson and A. Hamilton, and the Canterbury Philosophical Institute a committee consisting of Dr. Chilton, Dr. C. C. Farr, Messrs. Speight and Waite. Committees formed outside of the Institute were the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee, consisting of Sir Robert Stout, Mr. M. Chapman, Mr. A. Crawford, Professor Easterfield, Dr. J. M. Mason, with Mr. T. King as Secretary. This was the chief committee, to which the other committees remitted the funds collected by them. The Dunedin Hector Memorial Committee consisted of Professor Benham, Dr. Colquhoun, Dr. Hocken (Secretary), Professor Marshall, Professor Scott, Professor Park, and Mr. G. M. Thomson. By May, 1908, the chief committee had in hand £230, the greater portion of which had been collected in Wellington Province. In July, 1908, the Standing Committee of the Institute passed the following resolution: “That Dr. J. M. Mason be informed that the Standing Committee is of opinion that the several Hector Memorial Committees should issue a joint circular inviting further subscriptions to the fund, and undertaking “that the final allocation of the fund shall not be decided on until the subscribers have been duly consulted upon the subject. On 4th February, 1909, a conference of the delegates from the various committees was held, and it was agreed to issue a joint circular appealing for more funds. The circular was issued on 1st March, 1909, and resulted in a considerable augmentation of the funds.
The Institute's Wellington committee was not reappointed at the sixth annual meeting in February, 1909.
Your committee was not appointed until the annual meeting in January, 1910.
On 1st March, 1910, the Government having promised the fund a pound-for-pound subsidy up to £500, the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee issued a further circular calling for additional subscriptions before 31st March. Subscriptions more than enough to enable the Government subsidy to be earned were quickly received. The subscribers were then appraised of the proposal of the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee to hand over the funds to the Institute in the following circular (dated 18th April, 1910), a copy of which was sent to every subscriber :—
Circular to Subscribers.
I have the honour to state that there is now £1,045 10s. 2d., which includes a subsidy of £500 received from the Government, standing to the credit of the fund.
The following terms under which the Hector Memorial Committee is prepared to hand over the management of the fund to the Governors of the New Zealand Institute have been approved by the committee :—
The fund shall be invested in such securities as are proper for the investment of trust funds.
The Governors shall, out of the income arising from the fund, provide an annual prize, to be called the “Hector Prize,” which shall have for its object the encouragement of scientific research within New Zealand.
The prize shall be awarded by rotation for the following subjects: Botany, chemistry, geology, physics (including mathematics and astronomy), and zoology.
In each year the prize shall be awarded to that investigator who, working within the Dominion of New Zealand, shall, in the opinion of the Governors of the Institute, have done most towards the advancement of that branch of science to which the prize is in such year allotted.
The Governors of the Institute shall draw up regulations giving effect to the foregoing scheme, and may, if they think proper, provide for the appointment from time to time of a committee of experts to give advice in the awarding of the prize.
Whilst not wishing to lay down any hard-and-fast rule, it is the desire of the Hector Memorial Committee that the recipient of the prize devote the same towards defraying the expenses of further investigation, or of the publication of researches already completed.
On behalf of the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee
No replies of any kind were received from any subscriber.
The following correspondence then took place between the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee and the Standing Committee of the New Zealand Institute :—
Hector Memorial Committee, 20th June, 1910
At a meeting of the Hector Memorial Committee, Sir Robert Stout presiding, it was resolved that a copy of the circular to subscribers to the fund, dated 18th April, 1910, be sent to the New Zealand Institute, with the addition of the words “including physiology” after the word “zoology” in condition 3; and after condition 2 the words “The Governors may also cause a medal to be struck in connection with this memorial, and may decide under what circumstances it shall be from time to time awarded”
I am directed to inquire whether the Institute will, under the terms of the amended circular, undertake the management of the Hector Memorial Fund, and in the event of your reply being in the affirmative, to ascertain your wishes as to the custody of the funds in hand.
B. C. Aston, Hon Secretary
The President, New Zealand Institute, Wellington.
The President of the Institute thereupon circularized all members of the Board of Governors as under :—
New Zealand Institute, Wellington, 24th June, 1910.
The President of the Institute has received a letter from the Hector Memorial Committee, asking if the Institute will undertake the management of the Hector Memorial Fund in terms of the amended circular enclosed.
The President desires me to ascertain by application to each Governor of the Institute whether he is willing that the Board of Governors should administer the fund. The conditions of the circular are such that most of the details of the administration may be provided for by regulation to be made at the next annual meeting of the Board. Your reply merely in the affirmative or negative is therefore only desired at present.
In case the majority are in the affirmative, the President proposes to accept the fund from the Hector Committee, and to consult the Standing Committee as to the future investment of it.
B. C. Aston, Secretary.
Sixteen Governors replied to the circular, three qualifying their replies by suggesting the inclusion of other subjects; in all other instances the replies were in the affirmative, and unqualified.
The following minute of the Standing Committee, dated 13th July, 1910, was duly communicated to Sir Robert Stout, Chairman of the Hector Memorial Committee: “It was resolved that the inquiry of the Hector Memorial Committee as to whether the Board of Governors would be willing to undertake the management of the fund be answered in the affirmative, and that the Hector Committee be informed that the Institute is prepared to accept the custody of the fund forthwith.”
On 13th August the following inquiry was addressed to the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee by the Standing Committee :—
Whether it is the desire of the Hector Memorial Committee that the medal should go to the recipient of the Hector Prize, or that a portion of the whole of the fund may be awarded to another individual.
Condition 5, last paragraph: The Standing Committee suggest that this might be amended by the addition of the words “or be devoted towards the furtherance of the cause of that science with which the name of the recipient of the prize was most intimately associated.”
This was dealt with on the same day by the Hector Memorial Committee in the following minute, which was duly communicated to the Standing Committee: “It was decided to inform the Institute—(1) That it is the Committee's intention that, if an award is made, the medal and prize should go to the same individual in each year, and that the money awarded should not be divided among several recipients; and (2) that the Committee agree to the addition of the words quoted above to condition 5, last paragraph, of the amended circular of 18th April.”
On 15th August Messrs. Chapman, Skerrett, Wylie, and Tripp were instructed by the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee to hand over to the Board of Governors of the Institute the funds collected, and on 16th September the transfer was completed.
|Subscriptions received||557||13||6||Petty cash payments||8||15||9|
|Government subsidy||500||0||0||Printing and stationery||5||14||1|
|Balance, 12th August, 1910||1,043||3||8|
|Petty cash owing Mr. Aston.||0||4||3||Cash on deposit with W.I.T. and A. Company||1,043||3||8|
|Chapman, Skerrett, Wylie, and Tripp||0||17||4||Accrued interest to 13th August, 1910||18||0||4|
|Fixed deposit, W.I.T. and A. Company, £20 0s. 7d.; less balance due to Chapman and Co., £1 9s. 4d.||18||11||3|
|Interest, Public Trust Office||1||12||0|
|Balance as above||444||7||10|
|Fixed deposits, W.I.T. and A. Company||619||4||0|
Hector Memorial Regulations.—The President submitted a draft of the regulations which the sub-committee appointed by the Standing Committee had framed. After discussion the rules were adopted in the following form :—
The Hector Memorial Medal and Prize Fund.
Resolved by the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute that,—
The funds placed in the hands of the Board by the Wellington Hector Memorial Committee be called “The Hector Memorial Research Fund,” in memory of the late Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. Such fund shall consist of the moneys subscribed and granted for the purpose of the memorial and all other funds which may be given or granted for the same purpose.
The funds shall be vested in the Institute. The Board of Governors of the Institute shall have the control of the said moneys, and may invest the same upon any securities proper for trust-moneys.
A sum not exceeding £100 shall be expended in procuring a bronze medal to be known as the Hector Memorial Medal.
The fund, or such part thereof as shall not be used as aforesaid, shall be invested in such securities as may be approved by the Board of Governors, and the interest arising from such investment shall be used for the furtherance of the objects of the fund.
The Hector Memorial Medal and Prize shall be awarded annually by the Board of Governors.
The research for which the medal and prize are awarded must have a distinct bearing on New Zealand (1) botany, (2) chemistry, (3) ethnology, (4) geology, (5) physics (including mathematics and astronomy), (6) zoology (including animal physiology).
Whenever possible the medal shall be presented in some public manner.
Appointment of Committee of Award.—On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Mr. K. Wilson, it was resolved that a committee be appointed to recommend the Governors of the Institute as to the award of the Hector Medal and Prize. The committee for 1911 to be the Professors of Biology of the four University Colleges and Mr. Speight. The awards to be made in the order in which the subjects are herein numbered.
Committee to obtain Hector Medal.—On the motion of Mr. Petrie, seconded by Mr. James Stewart, it was resolved that a committee, consisting of the President, Mr. Hamilton, and Professor Easterfield, be appointed to arrange for preparing the Hector Medal: the cost not to exceed £100.
Report of the Publication Committee.—The following report of the Publication Committee was then read :—
The Committee begs to report that seventy-five papers were sent in for publication in the Transactions for 1909 (i.e., Vol. xlii). These were considered at a meeting held in January, 1910, immediately after the annual meeting of the Board of Governors, and, with the exception of a few that were held over for further consideration, were at once handed to the Government Printer. Sixty-three papers were published in the Transactions, Vol. xlii, two in the Proceedings for 1909, Part IV, and two as separate bulletins; one was referred back to the author for condensation, and the remainder were not recommended for publication. With regard to two of these there was some correspondence with the author, but the committee adhered to its decision, on the ground that papers that are purely controversial and add no new facts of importance to the subject discussed are not suitable for inclusion in the Transactions; moreover, fairly full abstracts of these papers appear in the Proceedings. The Transactions for the year 1909, Vol. xlii, contains vi and 642 pages and 67 plates, in addition to a very large number of figures included in the text; the fourth part of the Proceedings for 1909 extends from pages 91 to 160, and includes the lists of members, the New Zealand Institute Acts, &c., which have hitherto been given in the volume of the Transactions. The final proofs of the Transactions were corrected about the middle of May, and the volume was ready for issue early in June. The thanks of the Institute are due to the Government Printer for getting the volume out at such an early date.
A few of the papers in the Transactions are of great length, and in the opinion, of the committee some of them are capable of being condensed with advantage, and it may be necessary in the future to recommend this course in a greater number of cases than has been done in the past. In some cases, again, the papers are accompanied by a large number of photographs, some of which are not absolutely necessary for the illustration of the paper. As these photographs have to be reproduced as half-tone blocks on special paper, they add very considerably to the cost of the volume, and it may be necessary for the future to restrict in some way the number of plates allowed to each paper. It is desirable whenever possible that papers should be illustrated by line drawings prepared in accordance with the instructions printed for the guidance of authors of papers. Most of these can be then incorporated as text-figures, and in many respects are preferable to separate plates.
In accordance with the instructions of the Board of Governors, the committe arranged for the publication of two of Major Broun's papers on New Zealand Coleoptera as separate publications under the name of “Bulletins,” and it hopes that the example thus set may be taken further advantage of, and that other lengthy and important papers which for any reason cannot suitably be included in the Transactions may be published as separate bulletins Bulletin No. 1, “New Genera and Species of Coleoptera,” contains 78 pages, and Bulletin No. 2, “Revision of the New Zealand Byrrhidae,” 26 pages and 1 plate. Both were issued on 30th August, 1910.
The first part of the Proceedings for 1910, amounting to 30 pages, was issued on 10th September, 1910; the manuscript of the second part was sent in to the Printer early in November, and, though delayed owing to pressure of other work in the Printing Office, it is now ready for press, and will probably be issued before the annual meeting of the Board of Governors.
For the Transactions for 1910 (Vol. xliii) sixty-five papers have been sent in. These have already been considered to some extent by the Publication Committee;
several of them have been sent on to the Government Printer for insertion in the volume, and the rest will be definitely dealt with at a subsequent meeting of the committee. Three short papers have already been printed in the Proceedings at the request of the authors, and several of the others sent in seem suitable for dealing with in the same way. The committee would, however, like to have some expression of opinion from the Board of Governors as to the policy to be adopted in future with regard to the insertion of such papers in the Proceedings. Their insertion in the Proceedings would insure more speedy publication, and would probably encourage members to present their papers at an earlier period of the year.
A considerable number of papers are still hand-written, although the instructions to authors are that the manuscripts must be typewritten unless special permission to send in written manuscripts has been given by the Editor. Some opposition has been shown to the strict interpretation of this rule. Unfortunately, in written manuscripts there is room for much difference of opinion as to what constitutes a clear manuscript, and many, though apparently clear, contain numerous technical terms which are by no means clear to those unacquainted with them, and unnecessary trouble and mistakes are thus caused. The committee is of opinion that the Editor should have the support of the Board of Governors in returning any manuscript which in his opinion is likely to give the compositor more trouble than a typewritten manuscript would do. It is desirable also that greater attention should be paid to the instructions issued for the preparation of drawings for the Transactions.
The question of the number of reprints to be supplied to each author has been brought before the notice of the committee, and after carefully considering the matter the committe recommends that, as hitherto, twenty-five should be the ordinary number supplied gratis, but, in consideration of the facts that a wide distribution of the scientific work done in the Dominion is desirable, and that reprints reach many more persons interested in a particular subject than the complete volume of the Transactions can do, the committee suggests that authors who so desire may, with the approval of the Publication Committee, be allowed fifty copies free of charge, and that additional copies, if required, be charged for at cost-price, the rate to be duly announced; the committee to have power, subject to the approval of the Board of Governors at its annual meeting, to deal with any exceptional cases that may arise.
The committee has also considered the possibility of more fully indexing the future volumes of the Transactions as they appear. There are several difficulties in the way, and the preparation of a complete index might delay the appearance of the volume, but the committee hopes that when the second part of the index to the first forty volumes, containing the titles of the papers classified according to the subjects dealt with, has appeared it may be possible to include in each volume of the Transactions a subject-index on somewhat the same plan.
For the Publication Committee.
Christchurch, 11th January, 1911. Chas. Chilton, Hon. Editor.
On the motion of Professor Benham, seconded by Dr. Hilgendorf, it was resolved that the report of the Publications Committee be received.
Papers to be printed in Proceedings.—On the motion of Mr. Petrie, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, it was resolved that the Board of Governors approve of the policy of printing short scientific papers in the Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute.
Instructions to Authors of Papers.—On the motion of Professor Benham, seconded by Mr. R. Speight, it was resolved that the memorandum for authors in the Transactions, section 1, be amended by the insertion of the words “for the time being” after the word “Editor”; also that the words “By order of the Board of Governors” be placed at the end of the memorandum.
Authors' Separate Copies.—On the motion of Mr. Speight, seconded by Mr. K. Wilson, it was resolved that the recommendations of the Publications Committee re authors' separate copies be approved, and that the authors must intimate their wishes as regards the number of copies required when sending in manuscript.
Professor Benham moved, and Mr. Speight seconded, that the rule in regard to authors' separate copies be inserted in the memorandum to authors Carried.
Monographs and Bulletins.—On the motion of Professor Benham, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, it was resolved that a new regulation be adopted: “In addition to Proceedings and Transactions, special monographs or bulletins may be published from time to time.”
Report of the Librarian.—The report of the Hon. Librarian was received, as follows :—
During the past year considerable progress has been made in the arrangement of the library. Proper pigeon-holes have been provided, and labelled for the current numbers of the serial publications received from various parts of the world. This enables the parts as they arrive to be kept together in definite places, A new system of entering the parts received has also been instituted, and will enable the checking of parts received to be more easily accomplished, it also points out the missing numbers. Owing to the kindness of the Minister of Internal Affairs, a lady has been employed for two months in tying up and checking bound and unbound sets of serial publications. A list has also been prepared of the unbound volumes, showing the parts missing. From this list it will be easy to compile a list of parts to be ordered on some future occasion to complete the sets. The number of items received during the year is 859. I would’ draw your attention to a book which has been received, the report of the exploration of the subantarctic islands, carried out by the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, a work which is in every way a credit to New Zealand.
Report of the Index Committee.—The report of the Index Committee was received, as follows :—
The Index Committee report that work on the index has been proceeding steadily during the year. The first part of the index is already set up, and a few copies have been printed, but the Government Printer has hitherto been unable to work off the number of impressions ordered. The second part, which gives titles and contents in a more detailed manner, has taken some considerable time, but is now ready in card form for the Printer, and the printing has been authorized by the Standing Committee. As soon as the Printer can proceed with the work it will be gone on with.
Election of Honorary Members.—The election of an honorary member in place of the late Mr. R. B. Sharp was then proceeded with.
Nominations were as follows: Captain R. H. Scott, nominated by the Auckland Institute; Sir Robert Ball, nominated by the Manawatu Philosophical Society; Dr. W. S. Bruce, nominated by the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury; Mr. W. W. Froggatt, nominated by the Wellington Philosophical Society; Sir John Murray, nominated by the Otago Institute. The ballot resulted in the election of Dr. W. S. Bruce, leader of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition.
Bathymetrical and Biological Survey.—On the motion of Mr. Speight, seconded by Professor Benham, it was resolved that the New Zealand Institute respectfully request the Government of New Zealand to take advantage of the unique opportunity afforded by the presence of the exploring ship “Terra Nova” to carry out as complete a bathymetrical and biological survey as possible of the seas around the Auckland, Campbell, and Macquarie Islands.
Dr. Mawson's Expedition.—It was resolved, on the motion of Mr. Hamilton, seconded by Mr. Stewart, that this meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute desire to express their best wishes to Dr. Mawson for the success of his Antarctic expedition.
Report of Committee on Outlying Islands of New Zealand.—The report of the sub-committee appointed by the Standing Committee to report on the conditions of leasing the Auckland and other islands was read as follows :—
The Committee did not meet, but its members communicated with each other and interviewed members of the House and the Secretary to the Lands Department. Mr. Ell, M.P., laid the views of the committee before the Premier. The islands have, it is now known, been leased for £47 per annum.
—Correspondence. — Correspondence was received as follows :—
From the Melbourne University (23rd February, 1910), acknowledging the resolution passed at the last annual meeting with reference to the British Association.
From Captain Scott (27th April, 1910), acknowledging the resolution of the last annual meeting with regard to antarctic soundings.
From Dr. W. S. Bruce (21st May, 1910), on the same subject.
From the Under-Secretary of Internal Affairs (17th February and 26th April, 1910), with reference to the printing of Government scientific reports.
From Nelson College, requesting to be placed on the exchange list. Approved.
Election of Officers.—The following officers for 1911 were elected: President, Mr. T. F. Cheeseman; Hon Treasurer, Professor Easterfield; Hon. Librarian, Mr A. Hamilton; Hon. Editor, Dr. Chilton; Publication Committee, Professor Benham, Dr. Chilton, Dr. Hilgendorf, and Mr. Speight. Index Committee, Dr. Chilton, Mr. Hamilton, Professor Easterfield, Professor Benham, Mr Speight. Mr B. C. Aston was appointed Secretary.
Place of Meeting.—On the motion of Professor Benham, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, it was resolved that the next meeting be held at Christ-church, on the last Thursday in January, 1912.
Travelling-expenses —On the motion of Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Mr. Stewart, it was resolved that the hotel and travelling expenses of members and the Secretary be paid by the Institute.
Reports of Incorporated Societies.—The annual reports of the Manawatu and Canterbury Societies were received.
Moved by Professor Benham, seconded by Mr. Speight, that the attention of Secretaries of societies be drawn to the resolution passed last year, and that the Governors reaffirm the need of the annual report and balance-sheet of each branch of the Institute being forwarded to the Secretary of the New Zealand Institute before the 31st December in each year, for presentation to the annual meeting.
Votes of Thanks.—On the motion of Professor Benham, seconded by Mr. Wilson, it was resolved that a special vote of thanks be forwarded to Dr. Chilton for his work as Hon. Editor.
A vote of thanks to the Auckland Institute for the use of the Museum Library was carried.
27th January, 1911.
A. Hamilton, President.
The following is the presidential address delivered at the annual meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute at Auckland, 26th January, 1911, by A. Hamilton, Director, Dominion Museum :—
Gentlemen of the Board of Governors,—It is my duty to lay before you a few remarks relating to the progress of the work of the Institute during the last year, and to supplement in some cases the items which you will find in the annual report of the Board of Governors and the balance-sheet.
In accordance with the resolution of the Board passed last year, the Secretary has drawn up a list of the resolutions of the Standing Committee which have the force of regulations, and these are submitted for the purpose of being put into such form as may be required to bring them into line with the regulations originally gazetted. As I have said before, I think it is our duty to have these duly printed and set forth for the information of members so long as they stand as valid and operative regulations of the Board of Governors. I have suggested that instead of their being dealt with seriatim in this meeting they should be referred to a small committee, who could report later on to the Council, and that we should consider the report of the committee as a whole.
In the report of the Publication Committee you will find a good many practical suggestions for the improvement of the Transactions. It is a matter which requires constant attention, and although many improvements have been brought about within the last few years, still much might be done with advantage, especially in the way of condensing a good deal of the matter which is now printed in full. The question of the expense of publishing is also one which will require very careful consideration, as the publication of Proceedings quarterly increases the total annual cost of publication.
When in Australia, recently I noticed that there is also a movement there in the direction of co-ordinating the serial publications taken by the various bodies, and that an effort is being made to avoid the duplication of necessary and expensive works in the collection. The same movement is being initiated in Wellington, and the various libraries in that city have agreed to a systematic and mutual co-operation in the procuring of magazines, and have agreed to render them available to all students under certain conditions. By this means a certain amount has been set free for expenditure in magazines not hitherto taken. There are still several important serial publications which are not taken by any branch of the Institute or by any public library in New Zealand, and I think it would be within the province of the Institute to ascertain which of these are most necessary and desirable, and to subscribe for them for the library of the Institute, where they would be at the service of students generally. I think also that it would be to our advantage to circulate within the year, if possible in the first part of the Proceedings, a full list of the periodicals received by the societies, universities, parliamentary and public libraries, and that the list should indicate how far the back volumes are available. I do not propose that in the list any of the regular publications of learned societies, public institutions, and museums should be included, but a separate list might be published quarterly of these. It is true that all the universities, colleges, and public libraries have not hitherto been asked to agree to render their serial publications available under certain conditions, but I feel sure that we are approaching a time when universities and public institutions will do more in this direction than they have done. In the Librarian's report the necessity is pointed out for a Librarian who can give some time to library work and cataloguing. I must not omit to mention that the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs consented to the employment of a lady for library work for two months. During that time lists were prepared showing the completeness or otherwise of the most valuable serial publications, and from these lists the missing parts can be ordered and procured if possible.
A sum of money has been collected and placed in the hands of the Institute for the purpose of providing a memorial medal and prize in memory of the late Sir James Hector, who devoted so many years of his life to the furtherance of the interests of the Institute. This year, too, the Institute is bringing into operation the memorial fund raised in honour of the late Captain Hutton, whose researches laid such a good foundation in a number of branches of natural history. There is also an application for a grant from the fund in aid of research, which will be submitted for your consideration.
It is pleasing to me to be at the inception of these funds and to have a small part in the commencement of their work. Apart from worthily commemorating the friends whom we have lost and keeping their memory alive, there is satisfaction in knowing that at last we have some funds (which are, however, but small) which may be devoted to the advancement of research and of assistance to those engaged in research. Although we cannot yet compare with scientific institutions in other countries, still we have a beginning, and in these matters an actual start is a matter of importance. With careful administration the results obtained frequently lead to the establishment of other funds, and matters then progress much more easily. In Australia it is to the munificence of private individuals that science has fellowships which may be awarded for research work in connection with societies. The value of these fellowships is quite considerable, and they are found to be useful and productive of good work.
We have this year seen another well-equipped Antarctic expedition leave these shores under the command of Captain Scott. On behalf of the Institute, I wished Captain Scott success and a safe return.
In Sydney at a recent meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science I had the pleasure of attending an enthusiastic meeting of the General Council, when a sum of £1,000 was voted from the funds of the association towards purely Australasian explorations, which have been organized for the purpose of antarctic research under the leadership of Dr. Mawson. New Zealand is not within the political bounds of the Commonwealth of Australia, but nevertheless we must feel as a scientific body deep interest in any scientific work within the Antarctic area, and I think perhaps more especially in Dr. Mawson's expedition, as they intend exploring, if possible, a particular part of the southern continent within which the meteorological observations that will be made will be of the greatest possible interest to New Zealand and the shipping of the surrounding waters. The commercial advantages which are hoped for may or may not be realized, but the scientific data in meteorology will certainly be of interest and value. It is therefore, I think, right and proper that at this our meeting we should send to Dr. Mawson our best wishes for his success and safe return of his expedition.
At the Australasian meeting several matters of interest to New Zealand were dealt with, and several recommendations were passed by the committee which are of interest to scientists in New Zealand. One of them relates to the desirability of the New Zealand Government taking steps to arrange for the description of the New Zealand fossils collected by the New Zealand geological surveys. This resolution also refers to a previous one which had been communicated to the New Zealand Government during the Dunedin meeting. It recognized that certain steps had been taken to prepare the mass of fossils for description, and hoped that the further and more important step would be taken of having them properly described and published.
It is with considerable satisfaction that I notice that the Animals Protection Act has been so altered by the last Parliament as to declare all indigenous birds protected. This is a matter which I have been advocating for some considerable time as being the best way to carry out protective measures. With this principle as a basis it is easy to exempt from protection for any time that is desirable, or in any place, birds which may be proved to be a real nuisance in destroying fish or injuring sheep. No doubt the steps taken by the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury assisted in bringing about the present result. In other countries where this principle has been adopted it has been found to work satisfactorily, and I have no doubt that eventually this principle will be adopted by all countries which find it necessary to have protective legislation on their statute-books. I interviewed members of the House on behalf of the Institute with a view to making representations to the Government as to leasing the Auckland Islands. It is true that we recognize with much pleasure the reservation of Adams Island as a sanctuary for the native flora of that part, but the leasing of the main island must be regarded with regret in view of the small amount of revenue which is thereby obtained. The Standing Committee considered the question of themselves applying for the lease, but it was found that matters had gone too far.
There is one subject that I should like, in this my last opportunity of addressing you from the presidential chair, to bring forward. Once every year we have a general meeting of the members of this Board. Owing to geographical considerations it is sometimes difficult to get a full meeting. Those who do attend the meeting have to receive the annual report of the work that has been done by the Standing Committee, which is practically the executive of the Board. As a rule, it is best to have an executive consisting of a small number of the members, and I have no
fault to find with this part of the arrangements, but the work so far of the Board at its annual meeting, and of the executive at their more frequent meetings, is confined to matters relating to the minor affairs of the Institute and its financial arrangements. At the general meeting the annual report and the general report and balance-sheet are submitted, and if necessary there is then an opportunity for discussion. Hitherto any time that we have had at the general meetings has been devoted to the reading and criticizing and passing of these reports and the election of the officers. It is true much has been done since the passing of the new Act in the matter of initiating the new system of dealing with the affairs of the Institute, and that good work has been done in this direction, but I do not think we should consider we have done hitherto all that we should have done or that we ought to do at the annual meeting of the Governors of this Institute. This Institute occupies a position which is likely to remain unique, inasmuch as it is and will be, if properly administered, the sole scientific body in the Dominion of New Zealand Here I may again remind you that under the new Act the various local societies which are working now in the chief centres of New Zealand are not, as aforetime, affiliated to the Institute, but they are the Institute, though they may have an independent existence: under the regulations they are the Institute. It seems to me, however, that at our annual meeting we should not meet expecting only to receive the reports, make suggestions on them, pass the annual accounts, and confer prizes and medals, but that we should look forward to a time when the Board of Governors will be recognized as the central authority for the co-ordination of official and private inquiry into scientific matters in the Dominion of New Zealand. It is well known that in our great Empire of India the Government constituted in 1902 a Board of Scientific Advice for India, which originally consisted of the heads of the Meteorological, Geological, Botanical, Forest, Survey, Agricultural, and Veterinary Departments. At the same time they intimated their intention to invite from time to time to serve upon it other scientific officers in the service of the Imperial and Provincial Governments whose special attainments might render their assistance desirable. The Board was declared to be a central authority for the co-ordination of official inquiry, its object being to insure that the work of research is distributed to the best advantage, that each investigator confines his researches to the subject with which he is most capable of dealing, and that energy is not dissipated by the useless duplication of inquiries or misdirected by a lack of inter-departmental co-operation. It was also hoped that while the claims of abstract science would continue to be recognized in the work of the scientific departments, the Board's advice would aid the Government of India in prosecuting practical research into those questions of economic or applied science on the solution of which the progressive prosperity of the country, especially as regards its agricultural and industrial development, so largely depends. The Board advises generally upon the operations of the departments, with due attention to the economic side of their work, and serves as a reference on all matters connected with the organization of scientific inquiry in India. It annually discusses the proposals of each departmental head in regard to the programme of investigation in his department, and in cases where inter-departmental co-operation is necessary it adviśes as to the lines on which mutual assistance should be given and the department to which the inquiry should primarily appertain. It submits annually to the Government a general programme of research, embodying the proposals of the departmental heads in so far as its subjects are to be exclusively dealt with in one department, and its own proposals in cases where two or more departments are to co-operate, and at the end of the year it presents a brief review of the results obtained during the year in all lines of scientific investigation controlled by its members.
Although I do not consider that this or any other similar scheme could be adopted in toto, yet I hold that the principle is a good one. Hitherto in matters of scientific research, public and private, we have been largely opportunists, possibly by force of circumstances; but I do not think it would require much argument to convince you that co-operation and scientific organization of the various branches of research which are so largely interdependent on each other would be desirable and economical, and that it would be a great advantage to arrange such investigation on lines by which mutual assistance could be given. Take the universities, for instance: for some time past research has been carried on, notwithstanding disabilities of various kinds—such as want of necessary literature and other disabilities—in the biological laboratories of the University Colleges; a number of papers showing a considerable amount of hard work have been produced, and many of them printed in our Transactions. It would seem that more scientific good would result from intelligent co-operation in the choice of subjects for investigation, also in
private work, but an annual conference of workers would stimulate research and eventually its methods and aims. The geographical difficulties to which I before alluded to, which keep us separated by wide intervals during the year, are in one respect advantageous, as they give opportunities for detailed study over areas of the Dominion which vary much in their natural-history productions. By the Act of incorporation we are given a great opportunity, and we should see to it that we break new ground well in the forefront of our onward track.
The body of research work done is much larger than those unacquainted with it might suppose, and much of it is of excellent quality within certain narrow limits. Those limits are in part inevitable and in part justifiable. So far there has been little endowment of research, and nearly all the work is done in a necessarily scrappy fashion by men in professional employment. The man who can give his life for an idea is unknown among us, and, following the line of least resistance, we are apt to do the work nearest us with no eagle eye on ultimate issues. Once we are made to feel the influence of science, not merely on the accelerating progress of the State, but on the world of ideas, of morals, and of emotion, we may expect endowment to be much more frequent than it has been in the past. Men could be found to do the work if the opportunity was present. Undoubtedly the best plan is to provide research scholarships for young graduates, tenable for short terms: from them in time will come the born investigator—the one in a thousand—who should be permanently kept at work by private endowment or by the State.
Eighth Meeting: 22nd November, 1910.
Mr. E. V. Miller, Vice-President, in the chair.
Papers.—1. “Maori Rock-engravings in the Kaipara District,” by R. Buddle.
2. “Maori Methods of Shark-fishing and Pigeon-snaring Fifty Years ago,” by R. H. Matthews.
3. “Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Coleoptera,” by Major T. Broun.
4. “Additions to the Coleopterous Fauna of the Chatham Islands,” — by Major T. Broun.
5. “Descriptions of New Native Phanerogams,” by D. Petrie, M.A.
6. “Contributions to a Knowledge of the New Zealand Flora: No. 4,” by T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.
7. “On some Recently Discovered Additions to the New Zealand Flora,” by T F. Cheeseman, F.L.S.
8. “On the Flora of the Mangonui County,” by H. Carse.
9. “The Economic Aspect of the Sugar-beet Industry in New Zealand,” by S. Gray.
The last paper called forth a lengthy discussion, in which the Chairman, Mr. Bagnall, Mr. H. B. Morton, Mr. J. A. Pond, Professor Segar, and others took part. Most of the speakers supported the contention of the author, which was to the effect that it would be an economic mistake for the Dominion to embark in the production of beet-root sugar, which was an industry hardly likely to succeed against the competition of cane-sugar, unless a bonus was granted, or unless import duties were levied on cane-sugar.
Ninth Meeting: 6th February, 1911.
Dr. R. Briffault, President, in the chair.
Lecture.—Professor E. W. Skeats, D.Sc., F.G.S., Professor of Geology and Mining in the University of Melbourne, delivered a lecture, illustrated with lime-light transparencies, on the “Relation of Scenery to Geology.”
The lecture was an attempt to show how far the scenery of any country was dependent on its geological structure and previous geological history.
Annual Meeting: 27th February, 1911.
Dr. R. Briffault, President, in the chair.
Annual Report.—The annual report and audited financial statement were read to the meeting, and ordered to be printed and circulated amongst the members.
Report of the Council.
As provided for by the constitution of the society, the Council have now to present to the members their forty-third annual report on the financial and general condition of the Institute, and the progress it has made during the year.
Members.—It is satisfactory to announce that thirty-two new members have been elected since the date of the last annual meeting—a number considerably above the average. On the other hand, fourteen names have been removed from the roll—three from death, seven from resignation, and four from non-payment of subscription for more than two consecutive years. There is thus a net increase of eighteen, the total number on the roll at the present time being 204, of whom twelve are life members and 192 annual subscribers. The Council trust that the increase in the membership will be maintained in coming years. They would point out that the chief aim of the Institute—the maintenance of a free public museum for the instruction and recreation of the people of Auckland—is one which appeals to all classes and which should command a liberal amount of support.
Finance.—The detailed balance-sheets will make the financial position of the Institute intelligible to all who inspect them, but it may be useful to give a brief synopsis here. The total revenue credited to the Working Account, excluding the balance in hand at the commencement of the year, has been £1,170 11s. Last year the amount was £1,195 0s. 9d., so that there has been a decrease of £24 9s. 9d. Examining the chief heads of the balance-sheet, it will be seen that the receipts from the invested funds of the Costley Bequest have been £402 18s. 8d., as against £386 15s for the previous year. The Museum Endowment has yielded £424 15s. 2d., the amount for 1909–10 being £502 8s. But the amounts for that period have swollen through the payment of some arrears of rent and interest which should have been credited during the previous twelve months. The members' subscriptions have realized £191 2s., showing an increase of £17 17s. The total expenditure has been larger than usual, amounting to £1,283 9s., as against £1,209 11s. 8d. for 1909–10. The increase is principally due to three items—the enlarged expenditure over the library caused by the publication of the library catalogue (presently to be referred to), the cost of certain show-cases indispensably required in the Museum, and some unavoidable repairs to the roof and other portions of the building. The balance in hand at the present time amounts to £144 1s. 11d. There are no changes of importance respecting the invested funds of the Institute, the total amount of which, £16,379 4s. 3d., only very slightly exceeds that announced last year.
Meetings.—Nine meetings have been held during the year, at which the following lectures or papers were read :—
“Halley's Comet,” by Professor H. W. Segar.
Presidential address, “The Nature of Life,” by Dr. R. Briffault.
“Ferro-concrete Structures,” by S. E. Lamb, B.Sc.
“Wireless Telephony,” by A. Wyllie, M.I.C.E.
“The Ultra-microscope and what it reveals,” by E. V. Miller.
“The Effects of the Disappearance of the New Zealand Bush,” by Archdeacon Walsh.
“Huxley: a Criticism and an Appreciation,” by the Rev. D. D. Scott.
“The Relation of Scenery to Geology,” by Professor E. W. Skeats, D.Sc.
Also nine papers on various scientific subjects (see proceedings of Eighth Meeting supra, p. 78).
Most of the above papers have been forwarded to the New Zealand Institute, with the view of publication in the next volume of Transactions. Volume xlii of the Transactions, containing the papers read before the incorporated societies during the year 1909, has been issued and distributed among the members.
In last year's report the Council hinted that it would probably be necessary to make temporary arrangements for holding the meetings outside the Museum buildings in the future. The selection of a hall was by no means an easy task, but after full consideration it was decided to engage St. Andrew's Hall, in Symonds Street, for the purpose. On the whole, the choice has proved satisfactory, although it is much to be regretted that want of space should prevent the meetings from being held within the Institute's own buildings. The Council trust that this end may be achieved at no distant date.
Museum.—With the exception of a few days required for cleaning and re-arrangement, the Museum has been open to the public daily throughout the year. The hours of admission have been, as in former years, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. on week-days, and from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. on Sundays. The register kept by the janitor on Sundays shows that 17,311 visitors entered the building on that day, being an average of 333 for each Sunday. The greatest attendance was 599 on 31st July; the smallest, 65 on 8th May. On the seven chief holidays of the year the number of visitors was 2,993, or an average of 427. The number of visitors on ordinary week-days is certainly not less than 180, which would make a total of 55,080. Adding to this number the attendance on Sundays and holidays, we have 75,384
as the approximate total number of visitors during the whole year. This is only very slightly under the estimated attendance for the previous year, which was 75,957
The progress made by the Museum during the year must be considered as satisfactory. Many important additions have been received, and most of these have been placed on exhibition. Much time and labour have been devoted to the task of preparing and mounting the specimens intended for public view; and through the efforts of Mr. Griffin, who has charge of this branch of the society's work, the general appearance of the collections, and their value for educational purposes, have been much enhanced.
In last year's report it was stated that a commencement had been made in the formation of a collection of New Zealand food-fishes. This object has been kept steadily in view, and, in order to obtain material, special expeditions have been made to the Bay of Islands, the Great Barrier Island, and to various parts of the Hauraki Gulf. Altogether sixty-eight specimens have been carefully mounted and painted from life, and it is intended to materially extend the collection during the coming autumn. Another novel addition consists in the preparation of a series of gelatine casts of the tuatara lizard and other New Zealand Reptilia. Among other work performed during the year may be mentioned the complete rearrangement of the collection of New-Zealand birds, and the addition thereto of several freshly prepared specimens.
Other noteworthy additions are as follows: A fine specimen of the rare Haast's kiwi, obtained through the good offices of the Tourist Department; a very fair example of the white crane, now nearly extinct in New Zealand, purchased from Mr. W. Townson; a specimen of Sula fusca, shot at the Bay of Islands; and an example of the widely spread water-snake Hydrus platurus, stranded on the ocean-beach west of Helensville. This last specimen came ashore alive, and was promptly forwarded to the Museum by the finder, Mr. E. Smith. Mention must also be made of three fine specimens of the robber-crab (Birgus latro), obtained on Caroline Island. north of Tahiti, and presented by Mr. J. L. Young. These have been mounted so as to show the tree-climbing habits of the species, a peculiarity hardly known in other forms of the Crustacea.
Another important addition consists of a large and varied collection of butterflies, presented by Mr. H. Dobbie. The greater portion of the collection was formed by Mr. Dobbie during a lengthened visit made to tropical South Africa a few years ago; another part consists of species forwarded by the British Museum to Mr. Dobbie in exchange for specimens from South Africa. To those have been added a considerable number of species obtained by the Museum from various sources during the last eight of ten years, including species from China, Indo-Malaya, New Guinea, &c. It should be mentioned that the show-case in which the collection is displayed has been presented to the Museum by the subscriptions of several Auckland gentlemen.
A considerable number of improvements have been made in the arrangement of the Maori collections. Among the objects which have been altogether rearranged are those which can be described as fishing-materials, such as fish-books, fishing-lines, fishing-weights, nets, mussel-dredges, col-baskets, &c. The collection of canoe-balers has been remounted, as also a good series of bird-snares, &c. Among the new additions the following may be particularized: A large river-canoe, obtained by purchase in the Upper Thames district; two canoe-memorials from the Lower Waikato; a series of carvings in pumice-stone found near the north end of Lake Rotoehu, presented by Mr. V. J. Blake; two remarkable carvings in pumice: presented by Mr. W. J. Benner and Mr. J. Griffin respectively; a large and highly polished stone axe found near Ngaruawahia, forwarded by Mr. H. Tarver; an elaborately carved step of a ko or spade, some wooden flax-beaters, a carved fork, and various other articles presented by Mr. G. Graham; a very interesting series of seventeen articles in greenstone, ordinary stone, and bone, purchased from Mr. W. Townson.
In foreign ethnology by far the most valuable addition is a series of over five hundred articles from Japan, including a few from China, deposited by Mr. H. S. Dadley. The collection includes many fine bronzes, swords, daggers, and other articles in metal; numerous carvings in wood and ivory; many varied specimens of pottery, porcelain, and cloisonné; specimens of lacquer-work; of silks embroidered with gold and silver; and other articles too numerous to mention. This collection is the result of Mr. Dadley's personal efforts during three visits to Japan, and the specimens have been carefully and judiciously selected. The Museum was so poorly supplied with ethnographical material from China and Japan that Mr. Dadley's deposit was a most welcome addition, and its presence in the Museum has attracted great numbers of visitors.
Library.—The Mackelvie Library’ Bequest has yielded its usual revenue during the year, and this, in compliance with the terms of the bequest, has been expended solely in the purchase of books. Two consignments have been obtained from London, numbering about 125 volumes. In addition to the purchase of books, a large expenditure has been incurred in binding scientific journals, publications of societies, &c., about eighty-five volumes having been added to the library from that source alone. The usual presentations and exchanges have been received from foreign societies, in addition to several donations from private individuals.
In last year's report it was stated that the Council had decided to proceed with the preparation of a printed catalogue of the library. The work has been completed during the year, and copies of the catalogue can now be obtained from the Secretary at the price of 5s. each. The usefulness of the catalogue cannot be questioned, but so far the sale of copies has hardly equalled the anticipations of the Council. It should be mentioned that purchasers of the catalogue will be supplied each year with a printed list of additions to the library.
In concluding the report, the Council have once more to thank the members for the assistance they have given in furthering the objects of the society. They have also to express their gratification at the countenance and sympathy evinced by the general public, and particularly at the increasing number of donations to the Museum forwarded by country residents. In many respects the steady progress of the Institute and Museum is a matter for congratulation. It is true that the slender means available will not permit of rapid or startling advances, but the Council can fairly claim that in carrying out the work of maintaining a free public Museum and scientific library they are discharging a duty of no small importance, and one which entitles them to the sympathetic assistance of the whole community.
Election of Officers for 1911.—President—J. H. Upton; Vice-Presidents—Dr. R. Briffault, Professor C. W. Egerton; Council—L. J. Bagnall, Professor F. D. Brown, E. V. Miller, T. Peacock, J. Reid, Dr. E. Roberton, Professor H. W. Segar, J. Stewart, Professor A: P. W. Thomas, Trustees — Professor F. D. Brown, T. Peacock, J. Reid, J. Stewart, J. H. Upton; Secretary and Curator — T. F. Cheeseman; Auditor—S. Gray.
On the motion of Mr. T. Peacock, a special vote of thanks was passed to the retiring auditor, Mr. W. Gorrie, who had acted in that capacity for eighteen years.
A vote of thanks to the retiring President, Dr. R. Briffault, was also passed, also to Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, with congratulations on his election as President of the New Zealand Institute.
Wellington Philosophical Society.
Sixth (Annual General) Meeting: 5th October, 1910.
Mr. A. Hamilton, President, in the chair.
The annual general meeting was held in the Dominion Museum; Mr. A. Hamilton, President, was in the chair, and about forty members and friends were present.
New Members.—Mr. H. R. Tolley, Mr. J. Thomson, B.E., M.Inst.C.E., Mr. R. W. Holmes, M.Inst.C.E., Mr. H. Sladden, Miss J. A. Wilson, Rev. Dr. Kennedy, F.R.A.S., Mr. D. McKenzie, Mr. H. Oram, M.A., LL.B., Mr. F. M. Renner, M.A., Mr. P. Levi, M.A., Dr. J. M. Mason, Mr. H. H. Tombs, Mr. J. B. Robertson, Mr. J. Mackenzie.
The Council's report for the session, and a statement of the receipts and expenditure, were read, and, on the motion of Mr. Thomas King, seconded by Mr. P. G. Morgan, both were duly adopted. The report was as follows :—
The session opened on the 4th May with an inaugural address by the President, Mr. A. Hamilton, in which he referred to the work done in opening up the Tararuas for investigation by naturalists, and urged the establishment of a mountain observatory on Mount Hector.
During the session no less than twenty-nine papers have been read, and a number of interesting exhibits have been laid on the table.
In addition to the six ordinary meetings three special meetings have been held. At the first one Professor Bickerton, of Christchurch, delivered a lecture on the astronomical importance of the theory of the third body *; at the second one Mr. T. Buckley, Chief Electrician of the Telegraph Department, delivered a lecture on wireless telegraphy, illustrated by a number of experiments; while the third special meeting was held to constitute the Astronomical Section.
A feature of the session has been the establishment of the Astronomical Section of the society, formed for the promotion of the study of astronomical subjects generally and the establishment of an observatory in or about Wellington.
The section has already held one meeting, when Dr. Kennedy, F.R.A.S., delivered a lecture on astronomy, illustrated by a series of lantern-slides, in the Concert Chamber of the Town Hall, the use of which was kindly granted by the City Council.
The joint-library scheme has been advanced another step by the Council allowing Victoria College students and other interested persons the privilege of consulting books in the library under suitable regulations.
Captain Scott's expedition to the Antarctic: As this expedition will furnish an excellent opportunity of obtaining tidal records at the Antarctic, the Council waited on the Minister of Marine and proposed that the Government should authorize the society to expend a sum not exceeding £20 on purchasing an automatic tide-gauge to be placed in Captain Scott's care. The suggested gauge would be similar to, though smaller than, the Wellington tide - gauge. The observations would be of great use to the recently established Tidal Survey of the Dominion. The Minister, while recognizing the great value of these observations, considered it highly probable that Captain Scott is already provided with a suitable tide-gauge, but if he is not so equipped, the Government will be prepared to supply the necessary instrument if Captain Scott will undertake the work and furnish the Government with a copy of his observations.
[Footnote] * At a subsequent meeting of the Council the sum of £10 was voted to the Bickerton Fund for the purpose of enabling the Professor's astronomical theory to be put before the Astronomical Societies for criticism. The Council, however, do not desire to express any opinion on the theory, but wish him every success in his efforts to obtain a full hearing for it.
The important subject of tidal observations at the outlying islands has also received consideration, and the Council is now endeavouring to obtain the services of an observer at the Chatham Islands.
Since the last annual meeting twenty-two new members have been elected, three have resigned, two have died, and one has been struck off the roll for non-payment of subscription. The total number on the roll is now 132, including five life members and one honorary member.
A statement of the receipts and expenditure for the year ended 30th September, duly audited, shows that, inclusive of the balance brought forward from last year (£39 9s. 8d.), the receipts amounted to £163 8s. 2d., and the total expenditure was (£108 0s. 9d., leaving a credit balance of £55 7s. 5d. The Research Fund, on fixed deposit with the Bank of New Zealand, now amounts to £48 1s. 4d., making a total sum in hand of £103 8s. 9d.
Alteration of Rules.—In accordance with Rule No. 26, the resolution of the Council of 27th July, 1910, to rescind the following paragraph at the end of Rule No. 26, was submitted for confirmation :—“Resolution for by-law, -adopted by the society 7th April, 1868: That one-sixth part of the annual income of the society be contributed towards the extension and maintenance of the museum and library of the New Zealand Institute.” On the motion of Mr. Thomas King, seconded by Mr. P. G. Morgan, the Council's resolution was confirmed.
Papers. — 1. “The Post-Tertiary Geological History of the Ohau River and of the Adjacent Coastal Plain,” by G. Leslie Adkin.
2. “The Igneous Rocks of the Waihi Goldfield,” by Percy G. Morgan, M.A.
3. “A Note on the Structure of the Southern Alps,” by Percy G. Morgan, M.A.
4. “Notes on Actinians from the Kermadecs,” by F. G. A. Stuckey, M.A.
5. “Notes on Tunicates from the Kermadecs,” by F. G. A. Stuckey, M.A.
6. “The First Noted Occurrence of Pentathionic Acid in Mineral Waters,” by Dr. J. S. Maclaurin.
7. “The Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations,” by C. E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S.
The ‘paper gives a complete example of Dr. Börgen's method * of harmonic analysis of tidal observations. The observations submitted to analysis are those given in the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, Vol. xvi, and are hourly observations for Bombay for the year 1884. The hourly observations were first summed continuously throughout the year, and were cut down to one decimal of a foot and written out in a list of sums, as under :—
The figures in the list are given in tenths of a foot. The method consists in selecting from the list the particular days that will give the best values of the tide sought, at the same time eliminating the effect of the S. tides and reducing the effect of the other tides as much as possible.
[Footnote] * Ueber eine neue Methode, die harmonischen Konstanten der Gezeiten abzulciten, Von Admirah-tatsrath Prof. Dr. Borgen. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen Meteorologie, Juni, Juli, August, 1894.
Example for K2 tide :—
If the following lines are used from the list :—
(185 – 97); (96 – 8)
—i.e., equal intervals of 88 days—then the S. tides are completely eliminated, and the maximum value is obtained for the K2 tide.
If the following lines are used (when the observations extend over a year), a further value is obtained :—
(362 – 274); (273 – 185).
The selection of these lines and the sums from the list is shown in detail on the schedule, giving the 24 values of Dt, which are subjected to analysis. St and Sh6 + t are next formed, and then Δt. The calculation of the values of
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
Fk′ = Σo5Δt sin (9 + t) ik and Gk′ = Σo5 Δt cos (9 + t ik
is most readily done on the calculating-machine. The corrections due to the tides M2, N, L, V, T, and R are calculated and applied to F and G. The rest of the calculation is shown on the schedule, where comparisons with the results in Vol. xvi of the Indian Survey (p. 296) are also given, the differences in the values of k and R being 4·745° and 0·0020 ft
reference must be made to Dr. Borgen's paper for details of the method. The whole of the calculation is, however, given in full, and the brevity of the method will be appreciated by those who have had experience in the analysis of tidal observations.
For the other tides more lines from the list of sums are used, but even then the labour of analysing a year's observations is estimated by Dr. Börgen to be about a tenth of the labour of the method proposed by Sir W. Thomson and Mr. Roberts, and to be about a third or a half of that of Darwin's abacus
8. “The Time-control of the Wellington Tide-gauge,” by C E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S.
Owing to the situation of the Wellington tide-gauge * in one of the cargo-sheds on the wharf, it was considered desirable to have an independent control of the time, for owing to the vibrations of the shed the gauge-clock's rate has been found to vary irregularly, and the clock has occasionally been stopped by the vibrations. A time-control has been attached to the pencil-carriage, carrying a small plunger in circuit with the Observatory clock, and by means of this plunger a mark is made on the record-paper every mean solar hour. The distance between the pencil and the plunger is 1·14m, the line joining them being always at right angles to the axis of the cylinder It is found that the tide-gauge clock runs regularly while undisturbed by cargo-shifting, but that at other times its rate is affected by the vibrations of the shed
9. “Further Contributions to the Chemistry of the Flora of New Zealand;” by Professor Easterfield.
10. “Notes on the Lepidoptera added to the Collection in the Dominion Museum during the Season 1909–10,” by H. Hamilton, A O.S.M.
11. “Some Recent Discoveries of Moa-bones,” by A Hamilton, F.L.S.
12. “Notes on Some Strange and Rare Fishes,” by A. Hamilton, F.L.S.
13. “Sponges from the Kermadecs,” by Professor Kirk.
14. “Chemistry and Toxicology of New Zealand Plants,” by B. C. Aston, F.C.S.
15. “List of Indigenous Phanerogamic Plants of the Wellington Province,” by B. C Aston, F.C S.
16. “A Further Botanical Exploration of the Tararuas,” by B. C. Aston, F C.S.
17. “Notes and Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera,” by E. Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S
[Footnote] *Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol Xli, p. 407
Exhibits.—Mr. Phillips Turner exhibited a crested Polypodium Cunninghami, a very interesting specimen of rare occurrence.
The President exhibited a number of cases of foreign butterflies from the museum collection.
Astronomical Section.— The President of the Astronomical Section, Mr. C. P. Powles, announced that the funds in hand amounted to £34, being the proceeds of the Rev. Dr. Kennedy's lecture and private donations; and that the first meeting of the section will be held on 11th October.
Election of Officers for 1911.—The following officers were elected for 1911: President —Mr. G. V. Hudson, F.E.S.; Vice-Presidents — Mr. Thomas King, F.R.A.S., Dr. C. Munro Hector; Council—Mr. Martin Chapman, K.C., Professor H. B Kirk, Mr. F. G. A. Stuckey, M.A., Professor D. K. Picken, Rev. Dr. Kennedy, F.R.A.S., Professor T. H. Easterfield, Mr. A. Hamilton, F.L.S.; Secretary and Treasurer—Mr. C. E. Adams, M.Sc., F.R.A.S.; Librarian—Miss J. A. Wilson; Auditor—Mr. E. R. Dymock, A.I.A.N Z.
Meeting, 22nd August, 1910.
Dr. C. Munro Hector in the chair.
The section was formed with the following objects: To promote the study of astronomical subjects generally, and to secure the establishment of an observatory in or near Wellington.
The following officers were elected: President and Treasurer—Mr. C. P Powles; Council—Mr. C E. Adams,’ M.Sc., F.R.A.S., Dr. C. Munro Hector, Rev. Dr. Kennedy, F.R.A.S., Professor Picken, Mr. G. Hogben, M.A.; Hon. Secretary—Mr. A. C. Gifford, M.A.
A fund in aid of the proposed observatory was opened by subscription.
Meeting, 29th September, 1910.
Mr. J. P Firth in the chair.
The Rev. Dr. Kennedy, F.R.A.S., gave an illustrated popular lecture on astronomy, in aid of the Observatory Fund, in the Concert Chamber of the Town Hall, which was granted free by the City Council.
Meeting, 11th October, 1910.
Mr. C. P. Powles, President, in the chair.
The rules of the section, which had been drawn up by the Council, were read and confirmed.
Mr. C. P. Powles then gave his presidential address on astronomy, which was illustrated with a fine collection of lantern-slides.
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury.
Eighth Meeting: 2nd November, 1910.
Present: Mr. R. M. Laing, President, in the chair, and sixty others.
New Members. — Messrs. A. G. Marshall, N. C. Staveley, G. W. Bishop, and M. H. Godby.
Captain Scott, of the British Antarctic Expedition, wrote acknowledging with thanks the offer of the Institute to place its library at the disposal of the officers of the “Terra Nova.”
Animals Protection Act.—A copy of the Animals Protection Act as amended by the Legislative Council was received from Colonel Heaton Rhodes, M.P. General approval of the Act in its present form was expressed by the meeting, and a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Colonel Rhodes for his energetic support of the proposals submitted to the Government by the Institute.
Papers.— 1. “Classification of British Poetry: the Verse-unit,” by Johannes C. Andersen.
This is the second paper dealing with the analysis of the units that form the metrical scheme of poetry. The former paper analysed the “foot” or “stress-unit”; the present paper analyses the “line” or “verse-unit.” The lyric line only is dealt with; the heroic and blank verse must be the subject of separate analysis. It is shown that the lyric verse (the two lines as ordinarily printed) is normally a verse of eight stress-units, with varying number of syllables. The ordinary ballad verse of seven stress-units still observes the eighth in its end-pause; the Alexandrine and Nibelungen metres of six stress-units observe mid and end pauses. Upon these four main types is built the whole body of lyric poetry. The paper shows how certain constant variations may be taken as the forms for classifying poetry.
2. “Further Notes on New Zealand Bird-song,” by Johannes C. Andersen.
This is a continuation of a previous paper, and it contains all the new notes or songs, or variations of the same, which have been recorded since the last paper was printed.
3. “The Rate of Oxidation of Acetaldehyde to Acetic Acid,” by D. B. Macleod.
4. “The Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions of Carbon-dioxide prepared under Pressures of from One to Thirty Atmospheres,” by C. M. Stubbs; communicated by Dr. W. P. Evans.
5. “The Depression of the Freezing-point by Carbon-dioxide,” by F. D. Farrow.
6. “The Velocity of Evolution of Oxygen from Bleaching Powder Solutions in Presence of Small Quantities of Cobalt Nitrate,” by N. M. Bell.
7. “The Chemical Composition of Meat-extract,” by A. M. Wright.
8. “On certain Changes in the Composition of the Nitrogenous Constituents of Meat-extract,” by A. M. Wright.
Annual Meeting: 7th December, 1910.
Present: Mr. R. M. Laing, President, in the chair, and forty others.
New Member.—Mr. J. D. Hall.
Annual Report.—The annual report as submitted by the Council was unanimously adopted.
The condition of the Institute continues to be still most satisfactory both as regards the number of members and the active interest displayed in those special branches of scientific inquiry which constitute its aim and object. The special lines of research outlined in last year's report have been developed, and some have already given good results. These lines of inquiry are as follows: Observations on the Arthur's Pass Tunnel, a survey of the Canterbury lakes, and an examination of the Christchurch artesian system. This is quite apart from a considerable amount of original work which has been carried on by the individual members of the Institute.
Arthur's Pass Tunnel.—The temperature-observations have been regularly taken throughout the year at every 10, chains, and specimens collected at frequent intervals in order to have a permanent record of the rocks encountered. The lie of the beds, faults, and other features have been observed throughout the 86 chains that the bore has penetrated at the Otira end of the tunnel. Little work has been done at the Bealey end. The general results are somewhat inconclusive in that there has been no appreciable rise in temperature, a result which is no doubt due to the rapid percolation of water through the beds; and, since the Tunnel follows the general strike, little variation is to be met with in the character of the rocks encountered. The thanks of the Institute are due to Messrs. John McLean and Sons, the contractors, for the facilities afforded for the examination of the Tunnel, and to Mr. John Manson, of the Public Works Department, for the valuable services he has rendered in taking temperatures and collecting specimens when members of the Institute were unable to visit Otira.
Lakes Committee.—As mentioned in the report last year, it was originally intended to commence investigations on Lake Coleridge, and, as a preliminary step, a representative of the committee visited the lake. It was decided later to examine first a lake of smaller area, and Lake Sarah, on the West Coast Road, was therefore chosen. Early in the year three members spent a few days in the locality, and did some useful preliminary work, making collections and surveying the lake. On the completion of the present section of the Midland Railway, facilities for visiting the lake will be greatly increased, when it is hoped that the investigations may be continued.
Artesian Investigation.—Owing to pressure of other matters the Committee for the Investigation of the Artesian System of Christchurch and Neighbourhood has been unable to meet and work as a general committee; investigations have, however, been carried out by individual members, and a paper dealing with further experiments on the effect of artesian water on fish has already been presented at the Institute by Dr. Farr and Mr. D. B. Macleod, and a comprehensive paper dealing with the depths of the artesians in different districts and the strata through which they pass will be brought forward by Mr. R. Speight at the annual meeting.
Animals Protection Act.—This question has been fully considered by a subcommittee of the Council, and also by the Council itself working in conjunction with the local acclimatization society and the Otago Institute, and there is some satisfaction in noting that their combined efforts were successful in securing a modification of the present Act so as to give more adequate protection to oury native fauna. A Government BiH recently introduced into Parliament contained a clause which declared all native birds to be protected, and imposed a substantial penalty for molesting them. The Hon. D. Buddo, Minister of Internal Affairs, has kindly informed the Council that this clause has been finally adopted, and it is hoped that it will check the destruction which went on formerly in spite of the regulations. The hearty thanks of the Institute are specially due to Mr. H. G. Ell, M.P., and to Colonel Heaton Rhodes, M.P., for their cordial and ready assistance in the matter.
Auckland Islands.—The Council notes with much pleasure the decision of the Government to make Adams Island, the large island to the south of Carnley Harbour, a sanctuary for the preservation of the unique native fauna and flora of our subantarctic islands. It is to be hoped that arrangements will also be made for
declaring as scenic reserves the two beautiful harbours on the east coast of the island—viz., Norman Inlet and Cascade Inlet; and also Ewing Island, at the north end of the group, with its remarkable forest of Olearia Lyalli, which, with the exception of a similar patch at the Snares, is the only one in existence. Norman Inlet is further remarkable as possessing the most southerly known tree-fern in the world.
“Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand.”—At the end of the year 1909 the report of the expedition to the southern islands of New Zealand, organized by this Institute, was issued to the public. The result has been specially gratifying to all concerned, the general appearance of the volumes reflects great credit on the printer, and it is confidently hoped that they will be welcomed by the scientific world as a substantial contribution to knowledge of the Antarctic, and especially of the part immediately to the south of New Zealand. The work has been well received throughout New Zealand and the Australian States, and the sales from this part of the world are very satisfactory. It is too early to speak of its reception in Europe and America, but judging from the few reviews that have been received, and from the cordial congratulations and appreciative references from such well-known men as Sir Joseph Hooker, Dr. W. S. Bruce, Professor L. Joubin, Dr. C. Skottsberg, Dr. L. Diels, an equally good reception may be expected from those parts of the world as well.
During the year the Institute communicated with the New Zealand Government urging the establishment of a high-power wireless telegraph-station at the Bluff, so that communication could be made with expeditions to the Antarctic equipped with a similar outfit. The Premier stated, in reply, that the station proposed by the New Zealand Government would be of sufficient power to communicate under favourable conditions with the Antarctic mainland. The Institute hopes that this may lead in the near future to the establishment of a permanent or semi-permanent meteorological station in the neighbourhood of Cape Adare, since such a station would prove of the very greatest value in making accurate weather-forecasts for Australia and New Zealand.
Library.—The amount spent on the library was far in excess of the proportion fixed by the constitution, and as many donations were also received, the additions are more than usually numerous.
As Port Lyttelton has been chosen as the point of departure for yet another British Antarctic Expedition, it is felt that the formation of a section dealing with works devoted to Antarctica was more than justified, and the Council was pleased to be able to place the library at the disposal of Captain Scott and his fellow-explorers of the “Terra Nova,” to whom it has already proved of service.
The following are among the works added to the section during the year: “The Antarctic Regions”: Fricker; 1904. “The Heart of the Antarctic”: Shackleton; 1909 “The Birds of Terra del Fuego”: Crawshay; 1907. Schwedische Sud-polar Exp. IV: Nordenskiold; 1901–3 National Antarctic Exp, 1901–3: Magnetic Observations. British Antarctic Exp., 1907–9: Rep. Scientific Observations—I, Biology; 1910. Exp. Antarctique Francaise, 1903–5 (in part); 1909 (ed. Charcot), (presented by the French Government). “Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn”; 1882–83, 1888–91. “Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand”; 1909.
Meetings of the Institute.—Ten meetings of the Institute have been held during the year, at which the average attendance has been sixty-four. At these, twenty-seven papers embodying the results of original research have been read These may be classified as follows: Botany, 4; zoology, 7; geology, 5; chemistry, 6; physics, 2, mathematics, 1; miscellaneous, 2. The number for the year is well up to the usual average, and it is pleasing to note that a fair proportion of these are by young members of the Institute Besides these original papers the following addresses of a more general and popular character have been delivered: “The Nesting Habits of Fishes” (ex-presidential address), by Edgar R. Waite; “The Permanent Pastures of New Zealand,” by A H. Cockayne; “The Geology of the Cook and Society Islands,” by Dr. P. Marshall; “Modern Views of the Constitution of Matter,” by Dr. H. G Denham.
Membership.—During the year thirty-one new members have been elected and twenty-six have resigned or been struck off, so that the number now stands at 173.
Balance-sheet.—The balance-sheet shows a credit on the Institute's ordinary account of £60 9s., and on the Tunnel Account of £142 10s. 11d A sum of £101 15s. 8d. has been spent on the library, and £7 9s. has been collected and forwarded to the Hector Memorial Committee as a further contribution to that fund, in response to an appeal made by the committee to raise the total sum subscribed to £500, in order to secure the full Government subsidy.
Election of Officers for 1911 —The following were elected officers of the Institute for the year 1911: President—Mr. A. M. Wright; Vice-Presidents—Mr. R. M. Laing, Dr L. Cockayne; Hon Secretary—Mr. R. Speight; II on. Treasurer—Dr. C. Chilton; Hon. Librarian—Mr. E. R. Waite; Council—Dr. H. Brauer, Mr. J. Drummond, Dr H. G. Denham, Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf, Mr. E. G. Hogg, Mr. S. Page.
Papers. — 1. “The Rediscovery of Ranunculus crithmifolius,” by R M. Laing.
In this paper the author gives an account of the rediscovery of this species of Ranunculus on the mountains at the head of the Cameron River, in Central Canterbury.
2. “Some Hitherto-unrecorded Plant-habitats (VI),” by Dr. L. Cockayne.
3. “Note on the Dispersal of Marine Crustacea by Means of Ships,” by Dr. C. Chilton.
This paper records the finding in the Lyttelton Dock of specimens of an Australian Sphaeromid, which had been brought over from Melbourne by adhering to the hull of the Antarctic Exploring Expedition ship “Terra Nova.” Both male and female specimens were found, and some of them were still alive when taken from a crack in a plank of the vessel, in which they had apparently harboured during the voyage. Other recorded instances of the dispersal of marine Crustacea by ships are quoted
4. “Revision of the New Zealand Stomatopoda,” by Dr. C. Chilton.
This paper is an account of the New Zealand Squillidae, supplementary to that published by the author in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. xxiii, p. 58. One additional species, Lysiosquilla brazieri, is added to the New Zealand fauna; it is an Australian species, and is probably identical with L. latifrons from Japan Additional information with regard to other species is also given.
5. “Report on a Collection of Crustacea from the Kermadec Islands,” by Dr. C. Chilton.
An account of the Crustacea collected at the Kermadec Islands in 1908 by Mr W. R B. Oliver and his companions The collection is an extensive one, comprising over eighty species, all the main divisions of the Crustacea being represented Nearly all the species prove to be identical with forms already known from Australia, New Caledonia, &c, the greater majority of them being Indo-Pacific species, and only a few belonging to the New Zealand fauna being represented
6. “Glaciated Surfaces and Boulder-clay at the Bealey,” by R. Speight (see below, p 98).
7. “Preliminary Account of the Geological Features of the Christchurch Artesian Area,” by R. Speight.
In this paper an account is given of the water-bearing beds of the Christchurch artesian area, as deduced from the records kept for the past fifteen years by well-sinkers. The general sequence of the beds is represented by a series of vertical sections Some account is also given of the source of the water, and special note is made of the occurrence of wells which are markedly affected by the tide. The paper is intended to be a preliminary to others dealing with various features of the area.
8. “On Centroidal Triangles,” by E. G. Hogg.
9. “Report on the Crustacea collected by the ‘Nora Niven’ Trawling Expedition,” by Dr. C. Chilton.
An account of the Crustacea collected by Mr. Waite during the trawling cruise of the “Nora Niven” in 1907. The collection is an interesting one, being particularly rich in the hermit-crabs, some of which have not been seen since they were taken by the “Novara” or “Challenger” expeditions. All the forms are referred to species already described, but in many cases additional information is given and the synonymy cleared up. [This paper will be published with the other Results of the “Nora Niven” Trawling Expedition in the Records of the Canterbury Museum.]
10. “Petrological Notes on a Collection of Rocks from South Victoria Land,” by R. H. Worth; communicated by T. V. Hodgson.
This paper gives a petrological description of a number of specimens collected by Mr. T. V. Hodgson when a member of the British National Antarctic Expedition (1901—3). They include descriptions of material not required in the preparation of the official report.
Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute.
Sixth Meeting: 4th November, 1910.
Mr. J. Wilson Craig in the chair.
New Members.—Mr. W. J. W. Turvey and Mr. R. L. Paterson.
Paper.—“Torpedoes in Peace and in War,” by W. J. W. Turvey.
The lecture gave an account, illustrated by lantern-slides, of the history, construction, machinery, and action of the torpedo.
Hocken Endowment Fund.—£5 was voted from the funds of the Institute in support of Hocken Endowment Fund.
Annual General Meeting: 6th January, 1911.
Dr. Henley in the chair.
Report.—The annual report and balance-sheet were read and adopted, and ordered to be printed.
During the year seven meetings of the Institute were held, and the Council has met seven times.
Six papers have been read at the meetings.
Eleven new members were elected during the year, four members resigned, and one died, so that the membership is now seventy-four.
The society wishes to place on record its regret at the death of Mr. H. R. Holder, who was one of its oldest members.
The library still grows, over forty volumes having been added during the year. Two sets of valuable volumes have been presented to the library—“Hawkesworth's Voyages,” presented by Mr. T. Hyde, and “The Institutes of the Emperor Akbar,” presented anonymously. The thanks of the Institute are due to these donors.
The Institute has decided to encourage nature-study by offering prizes for collections of plants, shells, and insects. These prizes are offered through the Agricultural and Pastoral Society.
In order to fall in line with other Institutes and for convenience, the date of the annual meeting has been changed to December.
The Council, desiring to help in making the Hocken collection more available, decided to vote £5 for that purpose.
The Treasurer's statement shows that the Institute is in a sound position, there being a credit balance of £23.
Election of Officers for 1911.—President—H. Hill, B.A., F.G.S.; Vice-President—T. C. Moore, M.D.; Council—G. Clark, W. Dinwiddie, J. Hislop, J. P. Leahy, M.B., D.Ph., G. K. Sinclair, J. Snodgrass; Hon. Secretary—J. Niven, M.A., M.Sc.; Hon. Treasurer—J. W. Craig; Hon. Auditor—J. S. Large; Hon. Lanternist—E. G. Loten.
Valedictory.—On behalf of the Institute, Mr. Craig wished the President (Dr. Henley) a safe journey to England, and a pleasant holiday there.
Manawatu Philosophical Society.
Annual Meeting: 7th December, 1910.
The President, Mr. W. F. Durward, in the chair.
The annual meeting (adjourned from the 24th November) was held on the above date. The annual report and balance-sheet were adopted.
Since the last annual meeting only five general meetings have been held, as those from May to August lapsed, several gentlemen who had been expected to read papers having been prevented from various reasons from doing so.
During the year one of our members has been removed by death, five by leaving the district, three by resignation, and three have been struck off the list for non-payment of their subscriptions. During the same time five new members have been elected, and our present roll is sixty-five.
In consequence of the lamented death of Mr. Keeling, the Council subsequently appointed Mr. J. Mitchell auditor in his place.
The following papers have been read before the society: Mr. W. W. Smith, F.E.S.: “The New Zealand Saddleback.” Mr. D. Sinclair, C.E.: “Education among the Early Maoris.” Dr. Findlay, LL.D., K.C.: “Legal Liberty.” Mr. E. D. Hoben: “The Moving Picture.” Mr. R. McNab: “Recent Researches into the History of Te Rauparaha's Raid on Akaroa in 1830, and the French Race for the same Place in 1840.”
An admirably mounted collection of ferns was exhibited at the Agricultural and Pastoral Winter Show by Mr. T Lancaster, which, though not entirely fulfilling the conditions attached to the prizes offered by the society, was so highly commended by the Judge, Mr. T. W. Kirk, F.L S., that the Council awarded to it a prize of £2 2s., and on the judge's recommendation further altered the conditions so that, in future, collections sent in in competition for the prizes may be confined to any one or more orders in either botany or entomology, a limitation which the Council hope may encourage more competitors to enter.
Individual additions both to the museum and the library continue to come in steadily, many of them of considerable interest, there having been over 150 during the year; but the Council has been compelled to decline representative collections which have been offered by Government Departments and by individuals, on account of the total want of space available for their display. In view of the recent rejection of the loan for a new library and museum, some definite plan for obtaining increased accommodation is urgently required. An application has been made on behalf of the society for the use of the old fire-brigade station, or a portion of it, as a museum; and, failing that, it seems a matter for serious consideration whether the society should not try to raise funds for a building of its own. A site could be probably obtained either from the Corporation or the Government, and Mr. Sinclair has kindly prepared an estimate showing that a brick building providing accommodation that would be adequate for many years might be put up for from £650 to £700.
A reference to the statement of receipts and expenditure will show that if all outstanding subscriptions were paid up the society's overdraft would be reduced to £1.
A report by Captain Hewitt on the work of the Observatory is attached :—
Report on Observatory Work during 1909–10, by Captain Hewitt.
During the past year we have had only forty-nine visitors, though during the comet's visit, with the kind assistance of Messrs. Eliott and Glendinning, the Observatory was open three evenings a week. We have had only one visit from the public schools, when Mr. Vernon brought some pupils from the High School.
Observations of Halley's comet were interesting, specially before its passage of the sun, when its tail was increasing. At 5 a.m. on 18th May the tail, well defined, exceeded 75° of are, and at 3 a.m. on the 19th the tail, very diffused, covered the N.E. quarter of the heavens nearly to the zenith; at 5 a.m., no defined limits to the tail—apparently the earth was in the tail.
The dates of the comet's first appearance may be of interest. On 14th September, 1909, it was seen at Yerke's Observatory, when the observed position differed only 3″ in R.A. and 4′ in decl. from the position calculated for the Pulkowa Observatory. On 18th October, 1909, it was found on a photograph-plate at Meeanee. Here it was not seen till 18th April, 1910, in the constellation Pisces, where, though approaching the earth rapidly, it appeared to remain till 4th May, when change of position was easily perceived. On 21st April the tail extended about 45′; on 13th May I estimated it at 20°, reaching about 5° above a Pegasi. The observed position of the nucleus was then R.A. 0° 39′ 40″, decl. 11° 48′ N. At 5 a.m. on 18th May the tail stretched from the horizon at E.N.E. to a point about 7° above Altair—say, 75° of are. At 6 a.m. the nucleus had not risen, and daylight effaced the light of the comet. On 21st May I observed the comet in the evening, in position R.A. 5h. 51° 45′, and decl. 18° 11′ N. This is near the calculated position between the 18th and 19th, but 3° further north. This looks as if the comet had been retarded in its progress, though I have not heard of any one who observed the position that evening. On the following evening, 22nd May, Mr. Ward's observation at Wanganui agrees closely with mine; but if the comet was checked, subsequent observations on fourteen evenings up to 24th June show that it was gradually making up for lost time.
Observations of sun-spots have been interesting, confirming me in the idea, put before you some three years ago, that we must consider solar forces as converging on our earth and planets of our system, rather than that these bodies catch the chance rays which may hit them from a body which radiates force into space, heedless whether there is matter for those forces to act on. Unfortunately, times of magnetic disturbance are generally accompanied by bad weather, when the sun is obscured by clouds, so simultaneous observations of spots and magnetic oscillations are rare; but on two occasions—25th September and 29th November, 1909—I noted considerable movement in spots on the southern hemisphere of the sun, and the Surveyor-General's report, when published, showed that on those days there had been magnetic disturbance in the observatory at Christchurch. Commenting on these coincidences to the Surveyor-General, I was able to draw his attention to solar disturbances which [ unclear: ] I suspected had caused magnetic disturbances between 29th September and 6th October, 1910. He referred my letter to Mr. Skey, at Christchurch, who replied that the magnetograms showed considerable disturbance from 29th September to 7th October. This encourages us to ask for more observers of these phenomena, so that we may get more knowledge of that mysterious force magnetism.
We have received from Messrs. Home and Thounthwaite, at a cost of 16s., an eyepiece to replace the 70-power one that was injured.
I have to thank Messrs. Eliott and Glendinning for kind assistance when I have been unable to attend.
Papers.—1. “Local Vegetable Parasites,”
This paper dealt with some of the New Zealand mistletoes, contrasting them with the European species; also with Dactylanthus Taylori, which was stated to grow on the roots of the white miri (Pittosporum), appearing about 2 in. above ground like a fir-cone on end, and with the flower in the centre tinged with pink. The plant is rare, and its means of propagation unknown. reference was also made to various New Zealand epiphytes.
In the course of his paper the author suggested the formation of a field naturalist club in connection with the society.
2. “Assumption of the Sword of the Sutter of the Maldive Islands,”
This was an account given by the brother of the author, an officer on H.M.S. “Proserpine,” of the curious ceremonies on the “assumption of the sword” by the sutter of the Maldive Islands, the local equivalent to coronation. Special attention was called to the employment of seven as a mystical number symbolic of loyalty, the whole procession being arranged in sevens, and the proceedings being repeated at seven different stations.
3. “The Evidences of the Condition of the Interior of the Earth,”
Gravitation proves that the total mass of the earth is 5 ½ times heavier than water, the weight increasing towards the interior, the surface being from 2 ½ to 3 ½, and the interior more than 8 times heavier than water.
The shape of the earth shows that the density of the mass increases towards the centre, and in such proportion that the rocky shell must be from 800 to 1,000 miles thick.
(a.) The tides prove that the globe as a whole must be as rigid as steel, though at the same time flexible, the core being 4 times as rigid as steel. (b.) Polar oscillations show that the interior is of a plastic nature.
Earthquakes prove that at a depth of 950 miles—i.e., the point of passage from the rock mantle to the metal core—a sudden change occurs in the condition of the strata.
The temperature increases rapidly towards the centre, probably to thousands of degrees, liquefaction, however, being prevented by the enormous pressure.
The moon, formed from the same materials as the outer layers of the earth, is known from astronomical observations to have a density of 3·4, comciding exactly with the average density of the rocky mantle.
Thus the final conclusion is that the earth consists of a metal core, composed principally of iron, with some alloy of heavier metal, as nickel, surrounded by a rocky mantle about. 950 miles thick.
Election of Officers for 1911.—President—Captain Hewitt, R.N.;Vice-Presidents—Messrs. R. McNab and R. Gardner; Secretary and Treasurer—Mr. K. Wilson; Auditor—Mr. J. Mitchell; Council—Messrs. Barnicote, Bendall, Durward, Eliott, Sinclair, and Vernon.
Seventh Meeting: 1st November, 1910.
Professor Waters, President, in the chair.
New Members.—Dr. Champtaloup and Mr. D. Tannock.
Papers.—1. “The Kinetic Energy of River-currents; or The Utilization of River-currents for Power Purposes,”
The author showed interesting photographs of a current-wheel which he-had constructed and erected at Alexandra, and gave an account of its power and working-capacity, and the quantity of water it could lift and discharge, and showed clearly that there was an almost unlimited supply of power entirely untouched in the midst of a great district with enormous possibilities in the way of fruit-production under a comparatively economical system of irrigation. In the course of the discussion that followed Mr. Payne stated that the wheels could be multiplied indefinitely on a river such as the Clutha, and that the cost per head by current wheel was about £500, as against £1,400 per head for water brought in by the usual pipe-lines.
2. “Report on the Echinoderms collected at the Kermadec Islands,” by Professor Benham, F.R.S.
3. “A New Species of Syrphidae,” by D. Miller.
4. “Anatomy of Siphonaria obliquata,” by A. J. Cottrell.
5. “Description of Some New Species of New Zealand Lepidoptera,” by G Howes.
6 “The Younger Rock Series of New Zealand,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc.
Address.—Mr. A. Bathgate gave an interesting account of a trip to the Waitomo Caves and to the north-west portion of the Nelson Province.
Eighth Meeting: 6th December, 1910.
Professor Waters, President, in the chair.
New Members.—Messrs. J. Laing and G. E. Thompson, M.A.
Exhibit.—Professor Benham exhibited a very fine greenstone axe, measuring 11 in. by 6 in., discovered at a depth of about 6 ft. at the corner of Leith and Hanover Streets, Dunedin. The axe had been dug up by the workmen of the Drainage Board, which body had commendably donated the implement to the Museum.
Governor.—Mr. G. M. Thomson being unable to attend the next annual meeting of the New Zealand Institute, Dr. P. Marshall was elected a substitute Governor in his place.
Annual Meeting: 6th December, 1910.
Professor Waters, President, in the chair.
The annual report and balance-sheet were adopted.
Work of the Council.—The Council has met twelve times for the transaction of the business of the Institute, of which the following is a summary :—
Your Council co-operated with the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury in sending an emphatic protest to the Prime Minister against the destruction of seals on the outlying southern islands. The Prime Minister promised that the matter would have his attention in due course.
Your Council this year decided to offer three prizes of half a guinea each to the primary schools of Otago for the best naturalists' calendar, the best collection of insects, and the best collection of plants. The awards for this year have not yet been made.
A contribution of £25 was made to the Hocken Memorial Fund, and your Council endeavoured to induce the affiliated societies to assist in the upkeep of this national asset. We regret to say that we have received no satisfactory response from any of the affiliated societies.
Having considered the amendments in the Animals Protection Act submitted by the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, and having found them satisfactory, your Council sent word of our willingness to act with it in urging the Government to accept the amendments.
During the year your Council communicated with the Southland Land Board and the Minister of Lands, protesting against the re-lease of the Auckland Islands to a whaling enterprise, on the grounds that such enterprise is very destructive to the flora and fauna of the islands. A satisfactory assurance was received from the Minister that Adams Island would be set apart as a reserve, and that every endeavour would be made to preserve the flora and fauna on the most important areas of the islands.
Viewing with regret the great destruction of penguins and sea-elephants on the Macquaries, your Council sent representations to the local members of Parliament, the Prime Minister, and others, protesting against this, and asking for protection of the animals mentioned. Unfortunately, these islands are under the jurisdiction of Tasmania, and the New Zealand Government declined to interfere. Correspondence also took place between your Council and the Tasmanian Government and several scientific societies in Tasmania and Australia. Unfortunately, your Council has no means of proving the amount of destruction or the actual decrease of these interesting animals beyond hearsay, and the Government of Tasmania seems disposed to grant a re-lease to the owner of the oil industry on the islands. Mr. Hatch, who flatly contradicts our statements as to the damage done.
Recognizing the need for expert advice in dealing with the subject of afforestation in New Zealand, your Council sent a strong letter to the Prime Minister urging such an appointment. The Prime Minister, however, assured us that the Government have at their disposal at the present time several highly trained experts, and do not consider any further appointment necessary.
Personnel of the Council.—Dr. Fitchett was appointed a member of the Council. vice Dr. Malcolm (resigned); Mr. Alex. Bathgate was appointed Vice-President. vice Dr. Hocken (deceased); and Mr. E J. Parr was appointed to a vacancy on the Council.
Ordinary Meetings.—Papers and addresses have been given by the President (Professor Waters), Professor Marshall, Professor Park, Dr. Fulton, and Mr. F W. Payne, and a number of technical and scientific papers have been read and placed upon the table for publication in the Transactions. Many interesting exhibits have been shown by Professor Waters, Dr. Benham, Mr. George Howes. Professor Park, Professor Marshall, and others.
In pursuance of its custom, your Council invited Dr. Leonard Cockayne, F.L.S. of Christchurch, a specialist in ecological botany, to deliver an address before our members. The lecture, which was beautifully illustrated with lantern-slides, was well attended and much appreciated. The subject was, “The Scientific Importance of our Scenic Reserves and National Parks,” and the speaker gave a graphic account of the various types of floral growth upon our islands and forest areas.
Membership.—During the current session thirteen new members have joined the Institute, two have resigned, and one—our lamented Vice-President, Dr. Hocken—has been taken from us by death. Full references to his eminent services and
the great loss sustained by the New Zealand Institute will be found in the minutes of the ordinary meetings and inscribed in a permanent memorial in the volume of Transactions and Proceedings.
The Hocken Memorial, or Museum Wing, is a permanent landmark which will keep fresh in our memory one of our most active workers, and a member of the Otago Institute for a period approaching half a century.
Our membership is now 134, an increase of ten over last year's roll.
Library.—The additions to the library during the last year have been greater than usual, partly owing to the generous donation of books by the late Dr. Hocken, and partly to the number of purchases of zoological works made in accordance with an agreement with the other libraries that this Institute should specialize in works on general zoology and geology. The existing shelves are nearly full. A few years back additional accommodation was effected by the erection of shelves in the room of the Curator of the Museum, and this year the librarian was compelled to obtain permission from the Council to have some small ones built over the door. But the time is close at hand when the accommodation for periodicals will be fully occupied, and it will be necessary to consider seriously how further accommodation can be provided. A judicious culling-out of old out-of-date works ought to be undertaken this summer.
The Council authorized the sale to Messrs. Bowes and Bowes, of Cambridge, of our set of the Philosophical Magazine, for which those booksellers were advertising. As this periodical is taken by the University, and as it had not been consulted by our members for some years, the opportunity of disposing of the set for a fair price was taken.
The following additions have been made during the year. Donations (in addition to the reports presented by the Government): Dr. Hocken— “Geographical Journal,” for the last nine years; “Journal of the Anthropological Institute,” for ten years; “Man,” six volumes. Mr. G. M. Thomson—Twenty-seven pamphlets on zoological subjects; Forster's “Character: Generum Plantarum” (folio), 1776. Dr. H. Lindo Ferguson—Twenty-two volumes of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (volumes xvii-xxxix, minus xxxiii and xxiv). Dr. P. Marshall—Nicholson's “Palaeozoic Corals—the Monticuliporidae.” Numerous additions by purchase were also made.
Thanks.—The Council and members desire to thank those ladies who have been kind enough to provide and superintend the distribution of refreshments at our meetings. Our thanks are due to the Otago Employers' Association for kindly allowing the Council to hold its meetings in its board-room.
Balance-sheet.—The balance-sheet, presented by the Treasurer (Mr. J. C. Thomson), showed a credit balance of £59 11s. 8d. The finances of the Institute are in a satisfactory condition.
Officers for 1911.—President—Mr. Alex. Bathgate; Vice-Presidents—Professor W. B. Benham, D.Sc., F.R.S., Professor D. B. Waters, A.O.S.M.; Council—Dr. R. V. Fulton, Dr. S. C. Allen, Mr. J. C. Thomson, Professor P. Marshall, M.A., D.Sc., F.G.S., Professor J. Malcolm, M.D., Mr. F. H. Statham, A.O.S.M., Mr. G. M. Thomson, M.P., F.L.S.; Hon Treasurer—W. Fels; Hon. Secretary—E. J. Parr, M.A., B.Sc.; Hon. Librarian—Dr. Benham; Hon. Auditor—Mr. D. Brent, M.A.
1. Glaciated Surfaces and Boulder-clay near Bealey.
Glaciated surfaces where actual striae still remain clearly visible have not been often recorded as occurring in this country, nevertheless a careful inspection of likely places shows that they are by no means infrequent. During a visit to the Bealey I had opportunity to examine minutely several places where ice was likely to leave its traces, and specially the large roche moutonnée near which the Bealey Hotel is situated. This is in all probability an outlying fragment of a former spur which has been almost entirely removed by the erosion of the great valley glacier which occupied the Waimakariri Valley in former times, and its surface exhibits in many places the characteristic striae and flutings due to glacier erosion. These have remained hidden for years, but recent heavy rains have removed the covering of soil and clay and exposed the surface of the solid rock to view for over 3 chains along the roadside. The flutings and striae are not parallel to the axis of the valley, but make a small angle with it. The general surface of the mound shows the dimples usually associated with glacier-eroded surfaces. Similar dimples are to be observed on Goldney's Saddle, about seven miles below the Bealey near the junction of the Cass with the Waimakariri. In order that these forms may be well preserved, they must be protected from the disintegrating action of frost, which quickly breaks up any exposed surface in this region. The rapidity of this mode of disintegration is well shown on the surfaces of rocks on Goldney's Saddle, where they have been deprived of their blanket of clay, loess, or peat. The completeness of this protective covering accounts for the surface markings being so well preserved at the Bealey. On close examination this appears to be composed of an upper layer of loose material, yellowish-brown in colour, closely resembling loess, but not a true loess. The actual thickness is doubtful, and no doubt highly variable, but where exposed on the roadside it is from 4 ft. to 5 ft. thick. This portion owes its origin partly to material contained in the ice and left behind when it melted, partly to material weathered at higher levels and carried down by the action of water, snow, &c., and partly to the fine rock-flour which has been swept by strong winds from the dry river-beds left exposed as the ice retreated. The most interesting part, however, is the bottom layer of about 18 in. thick. This consists of a stiff clay containing subangular stones which are frequently striated—that is, it is a true boulder-clay, the first recorded from New Zealand which exhibits all its special characters. Such clays have been reported, but without the presence of scratched stones. In this case they are common, and a dozen good examples were collected in the course of two forenoons It must be stated, however, in order to prevent possible misunderstanding, that a portion of the upper surface of the roche moutnnée had been ploughed, and scratched stones were turned up in this part of it. It might be urged that the scratches on the stones were marks produced by the ploughshare were not equally good specimens found in the clay on that part of the hill which had not been broken up. No doubt this clay collected in some of the hollows formed in the rock-surface by the erosive action of the glacier.
Striated surfaces are also to be seen in the locality on the side of the road just past the hotel, and a very well-marked occurrence was pointed out to me by Mr Patterson, the Public Works Engineer, about six miles below the Bealey, on the Waimakariri cutting near the site of the projected railway-bridge over the river. Curiosity-hunters are rapidly destroying this surface in the desire to obtain specimens.
Both these occurrences owe their preservation to the protection afforded by the surface layer of loose material, and they have only been recently exposed.
2. Notes on the Discovery of Dactylanthus Taylori.
In Vol. xli of the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” Mr. H. Hill, in describing the Dactylanthus Taylori, Quotes a letter he received from Mr. D. H. Williamson, in which that writer claims that his father, the late Francis Williamson,
was the discoverer of the plant, but that instead of sending it to England as he originally intended he gave it to the Rev. Richard Taylor, who was then on the point of paying a visit to the Old Country. The concluding sentence of the letter indicates that Mr. Williamson has a grievance against Mr. Taylor because Dr. Hooker (now Sir Joseph) associated the name of the veteran missionary with the plant.
The Rev. R. Taylor came to New Zealand in March, 1839, and paid his first visit to England in 1855. Hence the late Mr. Williamson must have found his specimen early in that year. Possibly Mr. D. H Williamson was led to make the claim on behalf of his late father on reading an article in Vol. xxviii of the Transactions where the late Mr. T. Kirk mentions 1857 as the probable date of Taylor's discovery. But as Mr. Hill points out, there is a sketch of the Dactylanthus in Taylor's “Te Ika a Maui,” which was published in 1855.
In the second edition of “Te Ika a Maui” (page 697) Taylor says, “I first found it (Dactylanthus) on a mountain range near Hikurangi, returning from Taupo, and noticed it growing among the roots of a tree near the path…. Mr. Williamson afterwards brought me another specimen which he had found in clearing some ground. The whole plant and flowers were entirely covered with vegetable mould; the stem between the bracts was of a rusty brown. There were twenty-five flowers open all at once; another excrescence had eighteen. He states the odour of one plant was something like that of a ripe melon, whilst the other had a disagreeable earthy smell.”
Dr. Hooker, who described and named the plant, says, “For a specimen of this singular plant I am indebted to my friend the Rev. R. Taylor, of New Zealand, who brought a fragment of it to England in 1856, and, on my pointing out its probable interest, promised to procure more on his return to New Zealand. This he did, and early in the present year (1859) I had the pleasure of receiving from him a dried specimen of a female plant, a perfect male inflorescence in a letter, and a pen-and-ink sketch of the peduncle and flowers, with notes on the same.”
The most important evidence was discovered by Mrs. Harper, the wife of Mr. H. S. G. Harper, in whose possession the Rev. R. Taylor's unpublished journals are. The whole entry for the day is copied out exactly as it stands, except that the writer of these notes has supplied the punctuation-marks.
“March 18, 1845.—It was a rainy night, and very cold, wet, and cheerless. In walking through the dense, humid forest I was soon as wet as if I had been in the water. We had constantly been ascending and descending. We crossed the Mangawera [Mangawhero] after dinner. The stream here makes a remarkable noise, which I fancy is occasioned by its flowing through some cavern in the rock. The Natives say it is a large tuna. I found the Parei myself to-day. It is certainly one of the most remarkable vegetable productions I have seen, and appears to be the union of fungus with the plant. I passed several, taking them for toadstools, but one more remarkable than the rest caused me to stop and gather it. I then found that it was a plant in full flower, although very much resembling a fungus. It has no leaves, and has a calyx containing a kind of pollen with rather a disagreeable smell. The Natives say it is more prolific than the potato, but will only grow in the forest We passed through several small manias to-day and had some very wearisome and precipitous ascents. We are encamped for the night where the road for Pukehika branches off from that to Ikurangi [Hikurangi].”
This quotation, the compiler ventures to think, establishes the fact that the Rev. R. Taylor discovered the Dactylanthus in 1845. It is not improbable that the specimen received by Hooker in 1856 is the one Mr. Williamson refers to in his letter. But as Taylor had seen the plant more than ten years previously, he could hardly be expected to represent it to Hooker as the discovery of another man. Besides, he is quite frank in mentioning the specimen he received from Williamson. So I think the hint in the conclusion of Mr. Williamson's letter that Taylor was guilty of something akin to sharp practice has nothing to support it.
These notes have been compiled to vindicate the character of the Rev. R. Taylor, a man who worked strenuously not only for the good of the Natives, but also for the public generally. Like many more overworked men, he found time to study the natural history of the district over which he made so many journeys. He wrote two books, the second edition of one of these being practically a new work, numerous articles of a scientific nature, besides many volumes of unpublished matter.
Unfortunately, no biography of Taylor has yet been written. Until some one accomplishes that work the man will remain unknown. Suffice it to say here that, even if the evidence in his diary had not been forthcoming, the man was so upright in character that he would never have been guilty of attempting to appropriate another man's discovery.
3. Geoplana aucklandica and Geoplana marrineri: a Correction in Nomenclature.
In my article “On Land Planarians from Auckland and Enderby Islands,” in the “Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand” (Wellington, N.Z., 1909), I have described a new species from Auckland Island under the name Geoplana aucklandica, having overlooked the fact that I had myself eight years previously given this name to a totally different species from a widely separated locality—viz., Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand.
I now desire to rectify this error by proposing a new specific name for the subantarctic form from Auckland Island, and I suggest that it be called Geoplana marrineri, in acknowledgment of the services rendered to the study of zoology in New Zealand by my late friend and assistant, George R. Marriner.
4. Notes on the Vegetable Caterpillar.
During a recent visit to Riverton I raided a patch of the well-known vegetable caterpillar. This patch I have known of for some years, and have on several occasions drawn on it for specimens for friends. The patch of bush where they occur is but small, and the more open spaces have been depleted, but amongst the stems and roots of shrubs and creepers a fair number of the spore-bearing spikes appear.
Digging had to be carefully carried out, as carelessness or rough handling caused breakage and spoilt the specimen; indeed, it was impossible to dig up any particular specimen without running the risk of breaking some other near by. The special point I wish to place on record is that fragments from specimens accidentally broken and again buried during some previous search had sent out healthy spore-bearing spikes. Several of these fragments were less than 1 in. in length, while one of about 2 in. (being the tail half) had grown two fair-sized spikes
Along with the fungi I took an apparently healthy larva of Porina dinodes, and, so far as I could see, all the vegetable caterpillars there were those of this moth. The largest specimen I took was 5 in., but I have never seen a living dinodes larva of this length, and suppose that the fungus growth distends the skin of its-host.