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Volume 43, 1910
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Annual Meeting: 7th December, 1910.

Present: Mr. R. M. Laing, President, in the chair, and forty others.

New Member.—Mr. J. D. Hall.

Annual Report.—The annual report as submitted by the Council was unanimously adopted.


The condition of the Institute continues to be still most satisfactory both as regards the number of members and the active interest displayed in those special branches of scientific inquiry which constitute its aim and object. The special lines of research outlined in last year's report have been developed, and some have already given good results. These lines of inquiry are as follows: Observations on the Arthur's Pass Tunnel, a survey of the Canterbury lakes, and an examination of the Christchurch artesian system. This is quite apart from a considerable amount of original work which has been carried on by the individual members of the Institute.

Arthur's Pass Tunnel.—The temperature-observations have been regularly taken throughout the year at every 10, chains, and specimens collected at frequent intervals in order to have a permanent record of the rocks encountered. The lie of the beds, faults, and other features have been observed throughout the 86 chains that the bore has penetrated at the Otira end of the tunnel. Little work has been done at the Bealey end. The general results are somewhat inconclusive in that there has been no appreciable rise in temperature, a result which is no doubt due to the rapid percolation of water through the beds; and, since the Tunnel follows the general strike, little variation is to be met with in the character of the rocks encountered. The thanks of the Institute are due to Messrs. John McLean and Sons, the contractors, for the facilities afforded for the examination of the Tunnel, and to Mr. John Manson, of the Public Works Department, for the valuable services he has rendered in taking temperatures and collecting specimens when members of the Institute were unable to visit Otira.

Lakes Committee.—As mentioned in the report last year, it was originally intended to commence investigations on Lake Coleridge, and, as a preliminary step, a representative of the committee visited the lake. It was decided later to examine first a lake of smaller area, and Lake Sarah, on the West Coast Road, was therefore chosen. Early in the year three members spent a few days in the locality, and did some useful preliminary work, making collections and surveying the lake. On the completion of the present section of the Midland Railway, facilities for visiting the lake will be greatly increased, when it is hoped that the investigations may be continued.

Artesian Investigation.—Owing to pressure of other matters the Committee for the Investigation of the Artesian System of Christchurch and Neighbourhood has been unable to meet and work as a general committee; investigations have, however, been carried out by individual members, and a paper dealing with further experiments on the effect of artesian water on fish has already been presented at the Institute by Dr. Farr and Mr. D. B. Macleod, and a comprehensive paper dealing with the depths of the artesians in different districts and the strata through which they pass will be brought forward by Mr. R. Speight at the annual meeting.

Animals Protection Act.—This question has been fully considered by a subcommittee of the Council, and also by the Council itself working in conjunction with the local acclimatization society and the Otago Institute, and there is some satisfaction in noting that their combined efforts were successful in securing a modification of the present Act so as to give more adequate protection to oury native fauna. A Government BiH recently introduced into Parliament contained a clause which declared all native birds to be protected, and imposed a substantial penalty for molesting them. The Hon. D. Buddo, Minister of Internal Affairs, has kindly informed the Council that this clause has been finally adopted, and it is hoped that it will check the destruction which went on formerly in spite of the regulations. The hearty thanks of the Institute are specially due to Mr. H. G. Ell, M.P., and to Colonel Heaton Rhodes, M.P., for their cordial and ready assistance in the matter.

Auckland Islands.—The Council notes with much pleasure the decision of the Government to make Adams Island, the large island to the south of Carnley Harbour, a sanctuary for the preservation of the unique native fauna and flora of our subantarctic islands. It is to be hoped that arrangements will also be made for

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declaring as scenic reserves the two beautiful harbours on the east coast of the island—viz., Norman Inlet and Cascade Inlet; and also Ewing Island, at the north end of the group, with its remarkable forest of Olearia Lyalli, which, with the exception of a similar patch at the Snares, is the only one in existence. Norman Inlet is further remarkable as possessing the most southerly known tree-fern in the world.

“Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand.”—At the end of the year 1909 the report of the expedition to the southern islands of New Zealand, organized by this Institute, was issued to the public. The result has been specially gratifying to all concerned, the general appearance of the volumes reflects great credit on the printer, and it is confidently hoped that they will be welcomed by the scientific world as a substantial contribution to knowledge of the Antarctic, and especially of the part immediately to the south of New Zealand. The work has been well received throughout New Zealand and the Australian States, and the sales from this part of the world are very satisfactory. It is too early to speak of its reception in Europe and America, but judging from the few reviews that have been received, and from the cordial congratulations and appreciative references from such well-known men as Sir Joseph Hooker, Dr. W. S. Bruce, Professor L. Joubin, Dr. C. Skottsberg, Dr. L. Diels, an equally good reception may be expected from those parts of the world as well.

During the year the Institute communicated with the New Zealand Government urging the establishment of a high-power wireless telegraph-station at the Bluff, so that communication could be made with expeditions to the Antarctic equipped with a similar outfit. The Premier stated, in reply, that the station proposed by the New Zealand Government would be of sufficient power to communicate under favourable conditions with the Antarctic mainland. The Institute hopes that this may lead in the near future to the establishment of a permanent or semi-permanent meteorological station in the neighbourhood of Cape Adare, since such a station would prove of the very greatest value in making accurate weather-forecasts for Australia and New Zealand.

Library.—The amount spent on the library was far in excess of the proportion fixed by the constitution, and as many donations were also received, the additions are more than usually numerous.

As Port Lyttelton has been chosen as the point of departure for yet another British Antarctic Expedition, it is felt that the formation of a section dealing with works devoted to Antarctica was more than justified, and the Council was pleased to be able to place the library at the disposal of Captain Scott and his fellow-explorers of the “Terra Nova,” to whom it has already proved of service.

The following are among the works added to the section during the year: “The Antarctic Regions”: Fricker; 1904. “The Heart of the Antarctic”: Shackleton; 1909 “The Birds of Terra del Fuego”: Crawshay; 1907. Schwedische Sud-polar Exp. IV: Nordenskiold; 1901–3 National Antarctic Exp, 1901–3: Magnetic Observations. British Antarctic Exp., 1907–9: Rep. Scientific Observations—I, Biology; 1910. Exp. Antarctique Francaise, 1903–5 (in part); 1909 (ed. Charcot), (presented by the French Government). “Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn”; 1882–83, 1888–91. “Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand”; 1909.

Meetings of the Institute.—Ten meetings of the Institute have been held during the year, at which the average attendance has been sixty-four. At these, twenty-seven papers embodying the results of original research have been read These may be classified as follows: Botany, 4; zoology, 7; geology, 5; chemistry, 6; physics, 2, mathematics, 1; miscellaneous, 2. The number for the year is well up to the usual average, and it is pleasing to note that a fair proportion of these are by young members of the Institute Besides these original papers the following addresses of a more general and popular character have been delivered: “The Nesting Habits of Fishes” (ex-presidential address), by Edgar R. Waite; “The Permanent Pastures of New Zealand,” by A H. Cockayne; “The Geology of the Cook and Society Islands,” by Dr. P. Marshall; “Modern Views of the Constitution of Matter,” by Dr. H. G Denham.

Membership.—During the year thirty-one new members have been elected and twenty-six have resigned or been struck off, so that the number now stands at 173.

Balance-sheet.—The balance-sheet shows a credit on the Institute's ordinary account of £60 9s., and on the Tunnel Account of £142 10s. 11d A sum of £101 15s. 8d. has been spent on the library, and £7 9s. has been collected and forwarded to the Hector Memorial Committee as a further contribution to that fund, in response to an appeal made by the committee to raise the total sum subscribed to £500, in order to secure the full Government subsidy.

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Election of Officers for 1911 —The following were elected officers of the Institute for the year 1911: President—Mr. A. M. Wright; Vice-Presidents—Mr. R. M. Laing, Dr L. Cockayne; Hon Secretary—Mr. R. Speight; II on. Treasurer—Dr. C. Chilton; Hon. Librarian—Mr. E. R. Waite; Council—Dr. H. Brauer, Mr. J. Drummond, Dr H. G. Denham, Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf, Mr. E. G. Hogg, Mr. S. Page.

Papers. — 1. “The Rediscovery of Ranunculus crithmifolius,” by R M. Laing.

In this paper the author gives an account of the rediscovery of this species of Ranunculus on the mountains at the head of the Cameron River, in Central Canterbury.

2. “Some Hitherto-unrecorded Plant-habitats (VI),” by Dr. L. Cockayne.

3. “Note on the Dispersal of Marine Crustacea by Means of Ships,” by Dr. C. Chilton.

This paper records the finding in the Lyttelton Dock of specimens of an Australian Sphaeromid, which had been brought over from Melbourne by adhering to the hull of the Antarctic Exploring Expedition ship “Terra Nova.” Both male and female specimens were found, and some of them were still alive when taken from a crack in a plank of the vessel, in which they had apparently harboured during the voyage. Other recorded instances of the dispersal of marine Crustacea by ships are quoted

4. “Revision of the New Zealand Stomatopoda,” by Dr. C. Chilton.

This paper is an account of the New Zealand Squillidae, supplementary to that published by the author in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. xxiii, p. 58. One additional species, Lysiosquilla brazieri, is added to the New Zealand fauna; it is an Australian species, and is probably identical with L. latifrons from Japan Additional information with regard to other species is also given.

5. “Report on a Collection of Crustacea from the Kermadec Islands,” by Dr. C. Chilton.

An account of the Crustacea collected at the Kermadec Islands in 1908 by Mr W. R B. Oliver and his companions The collection is an extensive one, comprising over eighty species, all the main divisions of the Crustacea being represented Nearly all the species prove to be identical with forms already known from Australia, New Caledonia, &c, the greater majority of them being Indo-Pacific species, and only a few belonging to the New Zealand fauna being represented

6. “Glaciated Surfaces and Boulder-clay at the Bealey,” by R. Speight (see below, p 98).

7. “Preliminary Account of the Geological Features of the Christchurch Artesian Area,” by R. Speight.

In this paper an account is given of the water-bearing beds of the Christchurch artesian area, as deduced from the records kept for the past fifteen years by well-sinkers. The general sequence of the beds is represented by a series of vertical sections Some account is also given of the source of the water, and special note is made of the occurrence of wells which are markedly affected by the tide. The paper is intended to be a preliminary to others dealing with various features of the area.

8. “On Centroidal Triangles,” by E. G. Hogg.

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9. “Report on the Crustacea collected by the ‘Nora Niven’ Trawling Expedition,” by Dr. C. Chilton.

An account of the Crustacea collected by Mr. Waite during the trawling cruise of the “Nora Niven” in 1907. The collection is an interesting one, being particularly rich in the hermit-crabs, some of which have not been seen since they were taken by the “Novara” or “Challenger” expeditions. All the forms are referred to species already described, but in many cases additional information is given and the synonymy cleared up. [This paper will be published with the other Results of the “Nora Niven” Trawling Expedition in the Records of the Canterbury Museum.]

10. “Petrological Notes on a Collection of Rocks from South Victoria Land,” by R. H. Worth; communicated by T. V. Hodgson.

This paper gives a petrological description of a number of specimens collected by Mr. T. V. Hodgson when a member of the British National Antarctic Expedition (1901—3). They include descriptions of material not required in the preparation of the official report.