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Volume 44, 1911
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Art. II.—Some Hitherto-unrecorded Plant-habitats (VII).

[Read before the Philosophical Institute, of Canterbury, 4th October, 1911.]

This paper is divided into three sections, the first containing the usual general plant-habitats, the second devoted to the neighbourhood of the Franz Josef Glacier, and the third to the plants of the Omeroa Saddle.

My list of plants in Dr. J. M. Bell's report on the Franz Josef Glacier is, as is therein indicated, most incomplete. With the addition of the species here published and those recorded only for the Omeroa Saddle the total is increased from 287 to 356, while a fair idea may be gained of the vascular flora of that part of Westland from the sea-shore to an altitude of 1,200 m. Doubtless there are still many mountain species not recorded, since, so far as the higher land was concerned, I was only able to visit the fell-field, &c., on the right-hand side of No-go Creek, where the slopes are very steep and much broken, and the vegetation merely in patches.

The Omeroa Saddle is situated on a spur which is crossed by the bridle-track leading from the Franz Josef to the Fox Glacier. Its altitude is about 330 m. There is a small amount of open boggy ground, but the bulk of the vegetation is forest. The occurrence of certain subalpine shrubs is remarkable for so low an altitude, but it must be borne in mind that every Westland lowland river-bed contains a percentage of plants which are generally to be found only at a higher altitude.

To Messrs. W. Willcox, D. L. Poppelwell, W. Wilson, and C. Foweraker I am much indebted for various specimens mentioned below. Mr. Poppelwell further has sent me full lists of his collections on the Garvie, Eyre, and other mountains, but these are so extensive and important that it is better that he himself should publish them.

I. Species from various Localities.

Alsophila Colensoi Hook. f.

South Island: (1.) Nelson—Forest near Reefton; L. C. (2.) Canterbury—Forest, Makarora Valley; L. C.

Anisotome Haastii (F. Muell.) Cockayne and Laing.

South Island: Canterbury — Herb-field of Mount Ernest, head of Lake Wanaka. The Misses Ewing!

Anisotome intermedia Hook. f.

South Island: (1) Otago—Curio Bay, near Waikawa, on cliff; L. C. (2.) Westland—Big Bay; L. C.

Australina pusilla Gaud.

South Island: Canterbury—Remains of forest near Waimate. C. Foweraker!

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Blechnum Banksii (Hook. f.) Mett.

South Island: Westland—Jackson's Bay; Paringa Bay. L. C.

There are no Westland records in Cheeseman's Manual either for this or B. durum.

Blechnum durum (Moore) C. Chr.

South Island: Westland—Jackson's Bay; Paringa Bay. L. C.

Carex Buchanani Berggren.

South Island: Canterbury—Canterbury Plain, by side of water-races, almost to sea-level. L. C.

This is an example of an indigenous plant becoming more widely spread through the farming operations of the settler.

Celmisia bellidioides Hook. f.

South Island: Otago—Cecil Peak, Lake Wakatipu. W. Willcox!

Only three habitats are given by Petrie in his “List of the Flowering-plants of Otago” (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 28, p. 559).

Celmisia densiflora Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Studholme, Hunter's Hills. C. Foweraker!

Celmisia mollis Cockayne.

South Island: Nelson—Mountains near Hanmer. W. Willcox!

Celmisia pseudo-Lyallii (Cheesem.) Cockayne.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Studholme, Hunter's Hills. C. Foweraker!

This is, so far, the most southern record for this species. Mount Studholme is only 1,085 m. high, but it contains, besides the two species already noted, C. coriacea Hook. f., C. Lyallii Hook. of., and C. spectabilis Hook. f.

Celmisia ramulosa Hook. f.

South Island: Otago—Cecil Peak, near summit. W. Willcox!

Celmisia Walkeri T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Ernest, head of Lake Wanaka. The Misses Ewing!

Corallospartium crassicaule (Hook. f.) J. B. Armstg.

South Island: Otago—Mount Roy, Lake Wanaka; 1,200 m. altitude. L. C.

Coriaria angustissima Hook. f.

South Island: Westland—(1) Subalpine belt of mountains bounding Taramakau and Otira Valleys; (2) river-bed of Otira, at 300 m. altitude, in company with the two other species, but much less abundant. L. C.

Dacrydium laxifolium Hook. f.

South Island: Otago—Near Curio Bay, Waikawa, within a metre or two of sea-level, in Sphagnum bog. L. C.

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Dracophyllum virgatum (Cheesem.) Cockayne sp. nov. = D. uniflorum Hook. f. var. virgatum Cheesem. in “Manual of the New Zealand Flora,” p. 427 (1906).

South Island: Westland—Swamp near Lake Brunner. L. C.

Fuchsia Colensoi Hook. f.

South Island: Westland—Near Lake Ianthe. L. C.

F. Colensoi appears to be quite an uncommon species in Westland. For other stations, see II below.

Gahnia rigida T. Kirk.

South Island: Westland—What I take to be this species is common as far south as the Waiho River. L. C.

Gunnera dentata T. Kirk.

South Island: Canterbury—River-bed of River Makarora, head of Lake Wanaka. L. C.

Korthalsella Lindsayi (Oliver) Engler.

South Island: Otago—Crescent Island, Lake Wanaka; parasitic on Pseudopanax ferox. L. C.

Leptolepia novae-zelandiae (Col.) Kuhn.

Stewart Island—In rimu-kamahi forest. R. B. Oliver!

Librocedrus Bidwillii Hook. f.

South Island: Westland—One of the members of the low river-bed forest in the Otira Valley. L. C.

The most important trees of this association are Phyllocladus alpinus Hook. f., Podocarpus Hallii T. Kirk, and Pseudopanax crassifolium Seem.

Lycopodium fastigiatum R. Br.

South Island: Westland—Otira Valley, on old river-bed. L. C.

Mazus radicans (Hook. f.) Cheesem.

South Island: Westland—A characteristic plant of lowland and montane river-beds. L. C.

Myosotis Goyeni Petrie.

South Island: Otago—Mount Roy, Lake Wanaka, on dry rock-face, at altitude of 450 m. L. C.

Nothofagus Menziesii (Hook. f.) Oerst.

South Island: Canterbury—Valley of the Makarora, forming a pure forest. L. C.

Olearia Haastii Hook. f.

South Island: (1.) Westland—Otira Gorge, in subalpine scrub; only one plant noted. (2.) Canterbury—Bank of Sloven's Creek, Waimakariri basin. L. C.

O. Haastii, although evidently widely spread, is a rare species, having been recorded from seven localities only, including the above.

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Pennantia corymbosa Forst.

South Island: Canterbury—Makarora Valley. L. C.

Pittosporum divaricatum Cockayne sp. nov. ined.

South Island: Westland—Otira Valley, in low forest. L. C.

This attains considerable dimensions. One example was 2·5 m. tall, and had a trunk 12·5 cm. in diameter. I am not sure but that the West-land form is distinct from that of the steppe climate of Canterbury. The seedling leaves are more deeply cut (see Plate VIII, Article I, in this volume).

Poa imbecilla Forst. f.

Stewart Island—R. B. Oliver!

Podocarpus spicatus R. Br.

South Island: Canterbury—Makarora Valley; formerly common in lowland forest. L. C.

Pseudopanax ferox T. Kirk.

South Island: Otago—Crescent Island, Lake Wanaka. on rocky slope. L. C.

Both old and young trees are plentiful.

Rubus cissoides A. Cunn. var. pauperatus T. Kirk.

South Island: Otago—Crescent Island, Lake Wanaka. L. C.

Schoenus pauciflorus Hook. f.

South Island: Canterbury—Kaiapoi Island; Canterbury Plain, almost at sea-level. L. C.

Trichomanes Colensoi Hook. f.

South Island: (1.) Westland—Mount Rangi Taipo, on rock, at about 600 m. altitude; L. C. (2.) Otago—In forest, Anita Bay; L. C.

The number of records for this fern are few, but it is easily overlooked.

Uncinia uncinata (L. f.) Kukenth.

Stewart Island. R. B. Oliver!

Veronica Buchanani Hook. f.

South Island: Otago—Lindis Peak; on summit. L. C.

Veronica dasyphylla T. Kirk.

South Island: Otago—(1.) Cecil Peak; W. Willcox! (2.) Summit of Mount Roy, Lake Wanaka; L. C.

Veronica epacridea Hook. f.

South Island: Otago—Mount Roy, Lake Wanaka; on summit, 1,560 m. altitude. L. C.

Veronica odora Hook. f.

Stewart Island—Exact habitat forgotten, but perhaps Lord's River. D. L. Poppelwell!

Veronica subalpina Cockayne.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Ernest. The Misses Ewing.

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II. Additional Species for the Neighbourhood of the Franz Josef Glacier from the Sea to about 1,200 m. Altitude.

Anisotome pilifera (Hook. f.) Cockayne and Laing.

Subalpine fell-field.

Arundo conspicua Forst. f.

Astelia montana (T. Kirk) Cockayne.

Forest; subalpine fell-field.

Astelia Petriei Cockayne.

Subalpine fell-field, forming extensive patches.

Calamagrostis pilosa (A. Rich.).

Roche moutonnée; moraine; fell-field.

Carex Cockayniana Kükenth.


Carex comans Berggren.

River-bed; very common.

Carex dissita Sol.

Near pools of water, at about 210m. altitude.

Carmichaelia (two species).

River-bed. These species are probably “new.” One is prostrate, and the other semi-prostrate. I have only fruiting specimens.

Celmisia petiolata Hook. f.

Subalpine fell-field.

Celmisia Sinclairii Hook. f.

Subalpine fell-field, forming large patches.

Celmisia Walkeri T. Kirk.

On rock where there is covering of soil, forming extensive patches.

Cladium teretifolium R. Br.

Lowland moor.

Claytonia australasica Hook. f.

Small wet stony debris in subalpine belt.

Coprosma brunnea (T. Kirk) Cockayne.

River-bed near terminal face of glacier.

Coprosma ciliata Hook. f.

Subalpine scrub.

Coprosma serrulata Hook. f.

Roche moutonnée, at 650 m.; old moraine, at 900 m.

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Coriaria angustissima Hook. f.

Fell-field, at 1,200m.

Cotula dioica Hook. f.

Salt meadow, Okarito.

Cotula squalida Hook. f.

Old moraine; river-bed and fell-field up to] 1,200 m

Dacrydium Colensoi Hook.

Lowland forest.

Dacrydium intermedium T. Kirk.

Lowland forest.

Dracophyllum Kirkii Berggren.

Roche moutonnée.

Dracophyllum Urvilleanum A. Rich. var. montanum Cheesem. Roche moutonnée.

Epilobium chloraefolium Hausskn.


Epilobium microphyllum A. Rich.


Epilobium sp.

This is the western plant included by Cheeseman with E. gracilipes T. Kirk (see Manual, p. 181). I hope to publish a description of this species shortly, and point out its distinguishing characters.

Fell-field, 1,200 m.

Euphorbia glauca Forst. f.

Shore, Okarito.

Euphrasia Monroi Hook. f.

Fell-field, 1,200 m.

Fuchsia Colensoi Hook. f.

Near Lake Mapourika

Gahnia rigida. T. Kirk.

Forest; lowland moor.

Gaultheria perplexa T. Kirk.

Old river-bed.

Gentiana sp. (perhaps G. bellidioides Hook. f., but not in flower).

Fell-field, at 1,200 m.

Geum parviflorum Sm.

Old moraine; fell-field, at 1,200 m.

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Hypolepis millefolium Hook.

Fell-field, at 1,200 m.

Juncus maritimus Lam. var. australiensis Buchen.

Salt meadow, Okarito.

Loranthus micranthus Hook. f.

Parasitic on various trees and shrubs.

Mazus radicans (Hook. f.) Cheesem.

On river-beds; abundant.

Metrosideros scandens Sol.

Sea-cliff, Okarito.

Muehlenbeckia axillaris Walp.


Myosotis Forsteri Lehm.

Roche moutonnée.

Myosotis macrantha Hook. f. & Benth.

Fell-field, at 1,200 m.; rare.

Nothopanax anomalum Hook. f.


Nothopanax parvum (T. Kirk) Cockayne.


Olearia moschata Hook. f.

Subalpine scrub; abundant.

Ourisia caespitosa Hook. f.

Fell-field, up to 1,200 m.; common.

Ourisia macrocarpa Hook. f.

Fell-field, at 1,200 m. and lower; common.

Oxalis magellanica Forst.

Fell-field, at 1,200 m.

Pennantia corymbosa Forst.

River-terrace forest.

Poa Astoni Petrie.

Coastal cliff, Okarito.

Poa pusilla Berggren.


Podocarpus Hallii T. Kirk.


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Ranunculus Godleyanus Hook. f.

Bed of No-go Creek, at about 1,000 m. altitude.

Ranunculus Lyallii Hook. f.

Fell-field; abundant from about 900 m. upwards.

Ranunculus lappaceus Sm. var.

Raoulia australis Hook. f.


Raoulia glabra Hook. f.


Rubus parvus Buchanan.

(1) Open ground near Lake Mapourika; (2) bed of River Omeroa. Both in open and amongst shrubs.

Rubus subpauperatus Cockayne.

Scrub of river-terrace.

Schizeilema Haastii (Hook. f.).

Fell-field, at 1,200 m.

Schizeilema nitens (Petrie).

Wombat Pond, on old moraine.

Senecio Lyallii Hook. f.

Fell-field, at 1,200 m.

Trisetum Youngii Hook. f.

Fell-field, at 1,200 m.

III. List of Species of Omeroa Saddle.

Aristotelia fruticosa Hook. f.

Astelia montana (T. Kirk) Cockayne.

Blechnum capense (L.) Schlecht.

— fluviatile (R. Br.) Lowe.

— penna marina (Poir) Kuhn.

Carex Gaudichaudiana Kunth.

— ternaria Forst. f.

Coprosma cuneata Hook. f.

— foetidissima Forst.

— parviflora Hook. f.

— rugosa Cheesem.

— species with yellow drupe.

Cordyline indivisa (Forst. f.) Steud.

Dacrydium biforme (Hook.) Pilger.

— Colensoi Hook.

— Cunninghamii Hook. f.

— semiannularis R. Br.

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Dicksonia lanata Col.

Dracophyllum longifolium (Forst. f.) R. Br.

— Traversii Hook. f.

Drimys colorata Raoul.

Elaeocarpus Hookerianus Raoul.

Fuchsia excorticata Linn. f.

Gaultheria antipoda Forst. f.

— depressa Hook. f.

— rupestris R. Br.

— Cunninghamii Heward.

— littoralis Raoul.

Hymenophyllum Malingii (Hook.) Mett.

— multifidum (Forst. f.) Sw.

Hypolepis millefolium Hook.

Leptopteris superba (Col.) Pr.

Libocedrus Bidwillii Hook. f.

Luzuriaga marginata (Banks & Sol.) Benth. & Hook.

Myrtus pedunculata Hook. f.

Nothopanax anomalum Hook. f.

— Colensoi (Hook. f.) Seem.

— parvum (T. Kirk) Cockayne.

— simplex (Forst. f.) Seem.

Olearia Colensoi Hook. f.

— ilicifolia Hook. f.

— lacunosa Hook. f.

— nitida Hook. f.

Phormium Cookianum Le Jolis.

Phyllocladus alpinus Hook. f.

Pittosporum divaricatum Cockayne.

Podocarpus acutifolius T. Kirk.

Polystichum vestitum (Forst. f.) Pr.

Pratia angulata (Forst. f.) Hook. f.

Rubus australis Forst. f.

Senecio eleagnifolius Hook. f.

Styphelia acerosa Sol.

Suttonia divaricata Hook. f.

Uncinia riparia R. Br. ?

Veronica salicifolia Forst. f.

Viola filicaulis Hook. f.


[Footnote] * I understand from Dr. C. Skottsberg that the New Zealand plant is distinct from that of temperate South America. That being so, the New Zealand species must receive a new name.