** The “Rimu-Kamahi” Forest.
Lying to the back of the sandhills, an extensive area of forest of this class is visible. Its outer fringe touches the sand-dunes, and it extends to the highest parts of the island, although the trees become stunted on the heights, and rocks show through the low scrub on the very summit The lowland bush consists principally of Griselinia littoralis, Muehlenbeckia
Fig. 2—View of Northern Aspect of One of Rugged Islands Olearia angustifolia in bloom Olearia Colensoi on summit
complexa, Dicksonia squarrosa, Hemitelia Smithii, Fuschia excorticata, Carpodetus serratus, Weinmannia racemosa, Pittosporum Colensoi, Myrsine Urvillei, Coprosma lucida, Aristotelia racemosa, Schefflera digitata, Pseudopanax crassifolia, and Rhipogonum scandens. Some plants of the latter were resplendent with their scarlet drupes. The principal undergrowth consisted of Lomaria dura, L. lanceolata, Asplenium bulbiferum, Nertera dichondraefolia, Asplenium flaccidum, Polypodium Billardieri, P. australe, Lomaria capensis, Hymenophyllum demissum, H. dilatatum, H. sanguinolentum, and a species of Uncinia. In the damper parts I also noted Nothopanax Colensoi, Coprosma areolata, Nothopanax Edgerleyi, Alsophila Colensoi, Rubus schmidelioides, Leptospermum scoparium, Myrtus pedunculata, Luzuriaga marginata, Suttonia divaricata, Coprosma Colensoi, C. propinqua, C. rhamnoides, and Metrosideros hypericifolia. After crossing a swampy creek the ground became drier, and Podocarpus Hallii, P. ferrugineus, and Dacrydium cupressinum joined the association, while the floor became covered with Lomaria discolor of immense size. An occasional plant of Gaultheria antipoda var. erecta was also seen. Dacrydium cupressinum here tops the forest, some of the trees being of large size, with fine clean boles, and in many cases no branches for a height of 40 ft. to 50 ft. There was little growth of intermediate height, the principal being Metrosideros lucida, Nothopanax Colensoi, and, strange to say, dwarfed specimens of Sencio rotundifolius; but the forest-floor was covered by a strong growth of ferns, principally Lomaria capensis, L. discolor, and Polypodium Billardieri. Astelia nervosa was also plentiful, with quantities of the beautiful filmy ferns. At a height of about 350 ft. a plant of Styphelia acerosa was encountered, and from this upwards this plant became fairly plentiful. We ultimately attained a height of about 450 ft. with little change in the association, but Weinmannia racemosa became less and Metrosideros lucida more plentiful, while the floor-covering alternated between Lomaria capensis and Polypodium Billardieri, each almost pure. On our return we traversed an exposed open rocky spur, where a small heath made its appearance, the principal plants being Lomaria capensis, Leptospermum scoparium, Muehlenbeckia complexa, Lycopodium volubile, Gaultheria antipodum, stunted Aristotelia racemosa and Weinmannia racemosa, Dracophyllum longifolium, Pteris incisa, and Pteridium aquilinum.