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Volume 45, 1912
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Art. V.—A Revision of New Zealand Pyralidina.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 23rd October, 1912.]

At the request of Mr. G. V. Hudson I have here revised the genera of Pyralidina occurring in New Zealand.

The representation of this group in New Zealand presents the same features as that of the Caradrinina, but in a still more exaggerated form. The group contains about ten families, and a vast number of genera and species, being most largely developed in tropical regions; but in New Zealand most of the principal divisions are either absent or barely represented by a very few stragglers or immigrants, whilst at the same time the groups of Crambus and Scoparia are so disproportionately developed that the Pyralidina as a whole form 22 per cent. of the entire lepidopterous fauna, probably a larger proportion than in any other region.

The geographical origin of these numerously developed sections is, as set forth in my paper on the Caradrinina, undoubtedly to be traced to South America. This is remarkably borne out by the curious circumstance that Crambus is virtually absent from the Australasian region, though otherwise cosmopolitan and dominant, and therefore could only have entered from the south. It is probable that Crambus and Scoparia, which are tolerant of cold climates, and feed in the larval state on grasses and moss, attained considerable development in an antarctic continent under conditions similar to those now prevailing in the Falkland Islands (which seem to be actually a remnant of such a continent, and should exhibit a similar lepidopterous fauna), the remnants of this fauna being now isolated in a few last refuges, of which New Zealand is the chief.

The fragmentary and scantily developed portion of the fauna represents the results of accidental wind-borne immigration over a wide sea, and might reasonably have been expected to be larger than it is, for many of the Pyrales are great travellers; perhaps in no other group are there so many species of very wide distribution. Many species range through most of Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific islands, and yet have failed to reach New Zealand.

The Pterophoridae present some difficulty, and seem at first to stand on a different footing from either of the above sections of the fauna. The larvae of the New Zealand species are not known (they ought to be), but, according to all experience of the family in other regions, they should feed on highly developed dicotyledonous plants, especially Compositae and Gentianaceae.* These natural orders are well represented in New Zealand, and the character of the genera is such that most of them seem to have been derived from an antarctic continent, such as is described above. I therefore have no doubt that the Pterophoridae may be reckoned to have entered by this route. If flower-heads of Celmisia, Senecio, and Gentiana are examined or collected in early summer, there would be every probability of breeding some of the species.

[Footnote] * The larva of Alucita monospilalis feeds on Nothopanax Edgerleyi, and that of A. lycosema on Coprosma grandifolia. Platyptilia aeolodes feeds on Juncus, an. l Pfalcatalis almost certainly on Veronica.—G. V. H.

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1. Phycitidae.

Maxillary palpi not triangular. Forewings with vein 7 absent. Hindwings with defined pecten of hairs on lower margin of cell.

A very large and highly developed family of recent origin, barely represented in New Zealand; it is not improbable that none of the three species is truly indigenous.

1. Sporophyla Meyr.

Sporophyla Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 224; type, oenospora Meyr.

Tongue developed. Antennae in ♂ simple, shortly ciliated. Labial palpi moderately long, obliquely ascending, second joint much thickened with dense scales, terminal joint short, obtuse. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Forewings with 4 absent, 3 and 5 connate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 2 almost from angle, 4 absent, 3 and 5 stalked, 6 and 7 connate, 8. closely approximated to cell and anterior portion of 7.

The single species is apparently endemic, but I think it may prove to be derived from Tasmania. The genus is nearly allied to the following.

1.

S. oenospora Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1897, 388. Castle Hill, Dunedin.

2. Crocydopora Meyr.

Crocydopora Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, 158; type, cinigerella Walk.

Tongue developed. Antennae in ♂ ciliated, with large tuft of scales in a sinuation at base. Labial palpi long, stout, densely scaled, porrected, terminal joint short, obtuse. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Forewings with 4 absent, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 2 almost from angle, 4 absent, 3 and 5 stalked, 6 and 7 stalked, 8 closely approximated to cell and anterior portion of 7.

Includes only the following species, which is doubtless of Australian origin, and probably recently introduced into New Zealand.

2.

C. cinigerella Walk., Cat., 35, 1719; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 72: stenopterella Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1878, 200.

Whangarei, Nelson. Common and widely distributed in Australia.

3. Homoeosoma Curt.

Homoeosoma Curt., Ent. Mag., 1, 190 (1833); type, sinuella Fab.

Tongue developed. Antennae in ♂ ciliated, with a notch above basal joint. Labial palpi moderately long, arched, ascending with appressed scales, terminal joint rather short, tolerably pointed. Maxillary palpi moderate, loosely scaled. Forewings with 4 and 5 stalked, 9 absent. Hindwings withs with cell not nearly reaching middle, 4 absent, 3 and 5 approximated or connate, 7 anastomosing with 8 to near apex.

A cosmopolitan genus, but not numerous in species. As I have now undoubted examples of uagella from New Zealand, including an unusually large and strongly marked specimen, I am disposed to regard my anaspila as an obscure form of that species; but the point deserves further investigation. Larvae of this genus usually feed in heads of Compositae.

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3.

H. vagella Zell., Isis, 1848, 863; Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1878, 214: anaspila Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 566.

Kermadec Islands, Waipukurau, Christehurch, Invercargill. Common throughout Australia.

2. Gallriadae.

Maxillary palpi not triangular. Forewings with 8 and 9 out of 7. Hindwings with defined pecten of hairs on lower margin of cell.

A rather small family of general distribution, but only represented in New Zealand by one artificially introduced species.

4. Meliphora Guen.

Meliphora Guen., Eur. Micr. Ind., 70 (1845); type, grisella Fab. Achroia Hüb., Verz., 163 (1826) (praeocc.); type, grisella Fab.

Labial palpi very short, in ♂ ascending, in ♀ porrected. Forewings with 4 and 5 stalked, 10 absent. Hindwings in ♂ with long dorsal hair pencil, 3 and 5 stalked, 4 absent, 7 anastomosing with 8 to beyond middle.

The single species is probably of European origin, but has been carried by man over a large part of the world.

4.

M. grisella Fab., Ent. Syst., 3, 289; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 73: anticella Walk., Cat. 28, 483.

Nelson, Christchurch. Widely distributed in Australia, and occurs also in Europe, central Asia, and North America. Larva on wax in beehives, to which it is often very injurious; also on dried apples.

3. Crambidae.

Labial palpi usually very long, straight, porrected, loosely rough-scaled, attenuated forwards. Maxillary palpi well developed, strongly triangular. Forewings with 7 separate or out of 9. Hindwings with defined pecten of hairs on lower margin of cell.

A large and interesting family, found everywhere, but specially prominent in New Zealand, where they constitute one-thirteenth of the whole lepidopterous fauna; in Great Britain they form about one sixty-fifth. A remarkable feature is the absence of relationship with the Australian region, where Talis is the dominant genus of the family, and Crambus is virtually absent.

5. Orocrambus Meyr.

Orocrambus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 133; type, melampetrus Meyr.

Characters of Crambus, but with the under-surface of thorax and coxae densely hairy; labial palpi clothed with dense rough hairs, except towards apex.

An interesting endemic genus, derived from Crambus.

5.

O. melampetrus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 133; N.Z. Journ. Sci., 2, 168.

Castle Hill, Mount Hutt, Arthur's Pass; 3,000–5,000 ft. Hampson attributes the authorship of this species to Purdie, but the names and diagnoses published by Purdie were not composed by him, but furnished by myself as an abstract of my paper.

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6.

O. mylites Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 67.

Mount Arthur; 4,000–4,800 ft.

7.

O. catacaustatus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 134.

Arthur's Pass, Mount Arthur; 3,000–4,500 ft.

8.

O. pervius Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1912, 118.

Lake Wakatipu; 3,600 ft.

9.

O. subitus Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1912, 116.

Hump Ridge; 3,500 ft.

10.

O. thymiastes Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 567.

Invercargill.

11.

O. tritonellus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 134.

Porter's Pass.

12.

O. machaeristes Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 224.

Mount Earnslaw; 5,300 ft.

6. Crambus Fab.

Crambus Fab., Ent. Syst. Suppl., 464 (1798).

Forewings with 4 and 5 sometimes stalked, 7 and 8 out of 9. Hindwings with 4 and 5 connate or stalked, 7 out of 6, anastomosing with 8.

A. very large genus, common throughout the world, except in Australia, where there are no indigenous species, and the Indo-Malayan region, where there are comparatively few. The larvae probably nearly all feed amongst stems or roots of grass, or seldom on moss, but are little known, notwithstanding their abundance. The New Zealand species are all endemic.

13.

C. corruptus Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 399, pl. 43, 9; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 20.

Mount Hutt, Dunedin.

14.

C. heliotes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 68.

Mount Arthur (3,800 ft.), Lake Wakatipu.

15.

C. antimorus Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 567.

Mount Cook; 2,500 ft.

16.

C. aethonellus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 19; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 225.

Mount Hutt.

17.

C. aulistes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1909, 9.

Invercargill.

18.

C. saristes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1909, 8.

Invercargill.

19.

C. heteranthes Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 568.

Mount Cook; 2,500 ft.

20.

C. melitastes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1909, 9.

Invercargill.

21.

C. apselias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 108.

Invercargill.

22.

C. ramosellus Doubl., Dieff. N.Z., 2, 288; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 21: rangona Feld., Reis. Novar., pi. 137, 25: leucanialis Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 401.

North and South Islands, common everywhere at low levels; Chatham Islands.

23.

C. conopias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 109.

Dunedin.

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24.

C. angustipennis Zell., Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross., 13, 15, pl. 1, 3 (1877); Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 22.

Christchurch, Rakaia, Castle Hill (2,500 ft.).

25.

C. ephorus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 135.

Arthur's Pass; 4,800 ft.

26.

C. dicrenellus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 22.

Mount Hutt, Castle Hill, Arthur's Pass, Nelson, Springfield; 2,500–5,000 ft.

27.

C. isochytus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 68.

Mount Arthur; 4,000–4,500 ft.

28.

C. heteraulus Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 225.

Humboldt Range, Lake Wakatipu; 3,600 ft.

29.

C. crenaeus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 135.

Arthur's Pass, Mount Arthur, Springfield, Dunedin; to 4,000 ft.

30.

C. haplotomus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 23.

Castle Hill, Bealey River, Arthur's Pass, Lake Wakatipu; 2,000–2,500 ft.

31.

C. enchophorus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 136.

Castle Hill (2,500–4,000 ft.), Waikari.

32.

C. diplorrhous Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 136.

Mount Earnslaw, Castle Hill, Lake Wakatipu.

33.

C. callirrhous Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 24.

Christchurch, Castle Hill (2,500 ft.), Lake Guyon, Invercargill.

34.

C. schedias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1911, 60.

Wellington.

35.

C. pedias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 137.

Wanganui, Masterton, Wellington.

36.

C. simplex Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 400, pl. 43, 12; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 24.

Napier, Waipukurau, Wellington, Christchurch, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill.

37.

C. siriellus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 25.

Hamilton, Wellington, Mount Arthur (3,000–4,000 ft.).

38.

C. apicellus Zell., Mon. Cramb., 31; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 26.

Hamilton, Wellington, Mount Hutt.

39.

C. paraxenus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 137.

Lake Wakatipu; 2,000–6,000 ft.

40.

C. obstructus Meyr., Ent. Mo. Mag., 1911, 82.

Lumsden.

41.

C. vittellus Doubl., Dieff. N.Z., 2, 289; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 27: nexalis Walk., Cat., 27, 178: transcissalis, ibid., 178: bisectellus Zell., Mon. Cramb., 32: incrassatellus, ibid., 32: vapidus Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 399.

North and South Islands, common everywhere at low levels.

42.

C. horistes Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1902, 276.

Chatham Islands.

43.

C. flexuosellus Doubl., Dieff. N.Z., 2, 289; Fold., Reis. Novar., pl. 137, 32; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 28.

North and South Islands, common everywhere at low levels, sometimes ascending to 4,000 ft.

44.

C. thrincodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1910, 64; ibid., 1911, 61.

Kaitoke.

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45.

C. tuhualia Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 137, 18; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 28: vulgaris Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 400, pl. 43, 7.

Wellington, Christchurch, Castle Hill (2,500 ft.).

46.

C. sophronellus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1886, 138.

Wellington.

47.

C. cyclopicus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883. 29.

Napier, Waipukurau, Wellington, Christchurch, Lake Guyon, Nelson.

48.

C. sophistes Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 226.

Dunedin.

49.

C. harpophorus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 30.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Lake Wakatipu; 2,500–4,200 ft.

50.

C. oncobolus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 138.

Castle Hill; 2,300 ft.

51.

C. xanthogrammus Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 32.

Bealey River, Castle Hill, Lake Coleridge; 2,000–2,500 ft.

7. Protyparcha Meyr.

Protyparcha Meyr., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z., 1, 71 (1909); type, scaphodes Meyr.

Antennae in ♂ unipectinated to apex. Thorax, coxae, and femora clothed with long loose hairs beneath. Forewings with 7 separate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 4 and 5 approximated, 7 connate with 6, anastomosing shortly with 8. At present includes only the following species: a development of Argyria.

52.

P. scaphodes Meyr., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z., 71, pl. 2, 16.

Auckland Island.

8. Argyria Hüb.

Argyria Hüb., Verz., 372 (1826); type, nummulalis Hüb.

Antennae in ♂ ciliated. Forewings with 7 separate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 4 and 5 connate or stalked, 7 out of 6, anastomosing with 8.

A genus of some extent and wide distribution, but more especially American.

53.

A. strophaea Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 226.

Wellington.

54.

A. pentadactyla Zell., Mon. Cramb., 38: claviferella Walk., Cat., 35, 1765: strigosus Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 398, pl. 43, 10; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 31.

Palmerston, Masterton, Christchurch; also in south-east Australia and Tasmania. This is probably an indigenous New Zealand. species; it has no near ally in Australia.

9. Tauroscopa Meyr.

Tauroscopa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 69; type, gorgopis Meyr.

Labial palpi, thorax, and coxae clothed with dense rough hairs beneath. Forewings with 7 separate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 4 and 5 stalked, 6 remote from 7 at origin, 7 anastomosing shortly with 8.

An endemic derivative of Talis.

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55.

T. trapezitis Meyr., Trans. But. Soc. Lond., 1905, 227.

Mount Earnslaw; 5,300 ft.

56.

T. gorgopis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 69.

Mount Arthur; 4,000 ft.

57.

T. glaucophanes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 109.

Lake Wakatipu.

10. Scenoploca Meyr.

Secnoploca Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 9; type, petraula Meyr.

Labial palpi with hairs of second joint produced beneath into an obliquely projecting tuft. Wings in ♀ much abbreviated, incapable of flight. Forewings with 7 separate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 4 and 5 connate, 6 widely remote from 7 at origin, 7 anastomosing with 8. Also endemic and derived from Talis.

58.

S. petraula Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 9.

Christchurch. Larva on lichens on rocks.

11. Talis Guen.

Talis Guen., Eur. Micr. Ind., 86 (1845); type, quercella Schiff. Hednota Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1886, 270; type, bifractella Walk.

Forewings with 4 and 5 sometimes stalked, 7 separate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 4 and 5 connate, stalked, or seldom coincident, 6 remote from 7 at origin, 7 anastomosing with 8.

An interesting genus, considerably developed in Australia, where it is the principal representative of the family, elsewhere apparently confined to a few widely scattered forms. Their habits are similar to those of Crambus.

59.

T. leucophthalma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 7.

Christchurch.

12. Diptychophora Zell.

Diptychophora Zell., Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1866, 153; type, kuhlweinii Zell.

Forewings with termen twice sinuate, 7 separate, 8 and 9 stalked, 11 usually running into 12. Hindwings with 4 rarely absent (not in New Zealand species), 5 separate, rising from above angle, 6 remote from 7 at origin, 7. anastomosing shortly with 8.

Probably Indo-Malayan in origin, being fairly represented in that region, and less numerously in South Africa, east Australia, and South America; but the New Zealand species still form the largest local group, and include the largest and handsomest species. The larvae feed on moss, and the species mostly frequent forest.

60.

D. microdora Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 227.

Wellington, Mount Arthur (3,000 ft.).

61.

D. pyrsophanes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 11.

Wellington, and common in the South Island.

62.

D. chrysochyta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 12.

Whangarei, Auckland.

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63.

D. interrupta Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 135, 15: astrosema Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 13.

Wellington, Nelson, Arthur's Pass, Christchurch.

64.

D. lepidella Walk., Cat., 35, 1761; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 14: gracilis Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 137, 26.

Wellington, and common in South Island.

65.

D. leucoxantha Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 15.

Wellington, Lake Wakatipu.

66.

D. metallifera Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 401, pl. 43, 11; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 70.

Auckland, Wellington, Nelson.

67.

D. selenaea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 131.

Whangarei, Auckland, Wellington, Otira River, Dunedin.

68.

D. auriscriptella Walk., Cat., 30, 976; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 16.

Whangarei, Auckland, Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, Otira River.

69.

D. holanthes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 131.

Otira Gorge; 1,800 ft.

70.

D. harmonica Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 71.

Auckland.

71.

D. bipunctella Walk., Cat., 35, 1761.

Probably North Island.

72.

D. helioctypa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 17.

Lake Wakatipu.

73.

D. epiphaea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 132.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Lake Wakatipu.

74.

D. elaina Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 17.

North and South Islands, generally common.

13. Gadira Walk.

Gadira Walk., Cat., 35, 1742 (1866); type, acerello Walk. Cryptomima, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 8; type, acerella Walk.

Forewings with tufts of scales; 7 separate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 4 and 5 stalked, 6 widely remote from 7 at origin, 7 anastomosing with 8.

Only includes the following species, apparently an early form.

75.

G. acerella Walk., Cat., 35, 1742; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1883, 8 mahanga Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 137, 27.

Auckland, Wellington, Bealey River, Christchurch, Dunedin.

4. Pyraustidae.

Maxillary palpi present. Forewings with 7 separate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings without defined pecten of hairs on lower margin of cell, 4 and 5 closely approximated or stalked, 7 usually out of 6 near origin, anastomosing with 8.

A very large family, mainly characteristic of tropical countries, but in New Zealand very scantily represented, except for the species of the genus Scoparia, which by its excessive development almost compensates for all other deficiencies. The characters on which Hampson separates from this family his groups Hydrocampinae and Scoparianae appear to me to be

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entirely illusory; the former group is merely obtained by confounding together a number of unrelated genera which happen to agree in having vein 10 out of 8 (though even this is not constant), and is therefore unnatural and artificial, whilst the latter is nominally based on the possession of raised types of scales in the cell of forewings, whereas in my opinion these tufts are not merely sometimes, but usually, non-existent.

14. Nymphula Schranck.

Nymphula Schranck, Faun. Boic., 2, 162 (1802); type, stagnata Don. Paraponyx Hüb., Verz., 362 (1826); type, stratiotata Linn.

Antennae ⅔. Labial palpi ascending, second joint with projecting scales beneath, terminal joint slender, somewhat pointed. Maxillary palpi with apex loosely scaled. Forewings with 10 rising out of 8. Tibial outer spurs half inner.

An Indo-Malayan genus, spreading more or less into surrounding regions. Larva aquatic, sometimes breathing by branchiae. The single New Zealand species is an immigrant from Australia.

76.

N. nitens Butl., Cist. Ent., 2, 556; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 130.

Hamilton, Napier, Masterton, Christchurch, Lake Wakatipu. Also common in south-east Australia.

15. Musotima Meyr.

Musotima Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 288; type, aduncalis Feld.

Antennae ¾. Labial palpi more or less ascending, second joint with evenly projecting scales beneath, terminal joint slender, rough-scaled beneath towards apex. Maxillary palpi dilated with rough scales, truncate. Tibial spurs long, almost equal. Forewings with 10 rising out of 8. Hindwings with 7 out of cell before angle, separate from 6.

Besides the New Zealand species there are a few others from Australia and the Indo-Malayan region, and one from Brazil.

77.

M. aduncalis Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 135, 11.

Whangarei, Auckland, Taranaki, Wellington, Nelson.

78.

M. nitidalis Walk., Cat., 34, 1317: timaralis Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 135, 23.

North and South Islands, common in forest. Also widely distributed in Australia. Larva on Adiantum, and perhaps other ferns. As it is sometimes very destructive to ferns in greenhouses, it might easily be spread artificially.

16. Diasemia Hüb.

Diasemia Hüb., Verz., 348 (1826); type, litterata Scop.

Antennae ¾, in ♂ fasciculate-ciliated. Labial palpi porrected, second joint triangularly expanded with dense projecting scales, terminal short, concealed. Maxillary palpi with apex expanded with loose scales. Tibial outer spurs ¾ of inner.

A small widely ranging genus; the New Zealand species is one of a group of representative geographical forms indicating a former single species.

79.

D. grammalis Doubl., Dieff. N.Z., 2, 287.

Whangarei, Hamilton, Napier, Masterton, Castle Hill.

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17. Sceliodes Guen.

Sceliodes Guen., Pyr., 400 (1856); type, cordalis Doubl.

Forehead with conical prominence. Antennae ¾. Labial palpi porrected, second joint with projecting scales beneath, terminal joint exposed, obtuse. Maxillary palpi filiform. Tibial spurs short, nearly equal.

Besides the following there is a closely allied species from Arabia and Africa.

80.

S. cordalis Doubl., Dieff. N.Z., 2, 288: mucidalis Guen., Pyr., 400: extensalis Walk., Cat., 34, 1311: obsistalis Snell., Tijd. v. Ent. 1880, 206; ibid., 1883, pl. 6, 12.

Taranaki, Wanganui, Napier, Wellington. Also common in eastern Australia and Celebes. Larva in berries of Solanum aviculare.

18. Proternia Meyr.

Proternia Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 317; type, philocapna Meyr.

Forehead with conical prominence. Antennae ¾, in ♂ with a somewhat thickened sinuation at ⅔, containing a row of projecting scales beneath. Labial palpi porrected, second joint with dense projecting scales beneath, terminal joint almost concealed. Maxillary palpi filiform. Tibial outer spurs half inner.

Only includes the following species.

81.

P. philocapna Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 317.

Whangarei, Hamilton, Wellington, Mount Hutt.

19. Hymenia Hüb.

Hymenia Hüb., Verz., 360 (1826); type, fascialis Cram. Zinckenia Zell., Lep. Caff., 55 (1852); type, fascilis Cram.

Antennae ⅔, basal joint in ♂ with erect apical spine or scale-projection on inner side, stalk notched above basal joint. Labial palpi arched, ascending, second joint with dense projecting scales beneath, terminal joint moderate, pointed. Maxillary palpi filiform. Tibial spurs nearly equal.

A genus of few species, of which the following is now spread by man throughout the warmer regions of the world. New Zealand is hardly warm enough for it.

82.

H. fascialis Cram., Pap. Exot., 4, pl. 398, f. O: recurvalis Fab., Ent. Syst., 237.

Auckland. Also in Australia (as far south as Sydney), and throughout the warmer parts of Asia, Africa, and America. Larva feeds on Cucurbitaceae (melons, &c.) in gardens.

20. Nesarcha Meyr.

Nesarcha Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 330; type, hybrelis Walk. Adena Walk., Cat., 27, 197 (1863); type, hybrealis Walk. Deana Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), 4, 451 (1879); type, hybrealis Walk.

Antennae ⅔. Labial palpi very long, porrected, second joint triangularly expanded with projecting scales, terminal joint concealed. Maxillary palpi

– 40 –

dilated with scales towards apex. Tibial outer spurs in ♂ very short, in ♂ half inner.

Besides the following, Snellen attributes to this genus a species from Java which I do not know. The generic name Adena Walk. is strictly preoccupied, having been used as a correction of Hadena; for this reason Butler proposed to substitute Deana, but as there was already a genus Deanea the suggestion was not a happy one; in these circumstances it seems better to retain Nesarcha, which has been generally adopted.

83.

N. hybrealis Walk., Cat., 18, 797 (hybreasalis): paronalis, ibid., 797 xanthialis, ibid., 27, 198.

Auckland, Palmerston, Nelson, Christchurch, Dunedin.

21. Mecyna Steph.

Mecyna Steph., List Brit. Mus., 5, 240 (1850); type, polygonalis Hüb. Mnesictena Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 328; type, marmarina Meyr.

Antennae ¾. Labial palpi long or rather long, porrected, second joint triangularly expanded with projecting scales, terminal joint more or less concealed. Maxillary palpi dilated with scales towards apex. Tibial outer spurs half inner. Hindwings with some loose hairs on and beneath median vein, but without defined pecten.

A small genus, of wide distribution; the New Zealand species are of South American affinity, except the first.

84.

M. maorialis Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 134, 34.

Auckland, Napier, Wanganui, Nelson, Christchurch. This is nearly allied to a group of similar species extending through Europe, the Indo-Malayan region, and Australia, and has formerly been supposed identical with one or other of them, but is now regarded as distinct. Larva on Sophora tetraptera.

85.

M. daiclealis Walk., Cat., 19, 1017 (daiclesalis); Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1889, 155.

Wellington, Dunedin.

86.

M. notata Butl., Cist. Ent., 2, 493.

Arthur's Pass, Dunedin.

87.

M. flavidalis Doubl., Dieff. N.Z., 2, 287: quadralis, ibid., 288: dipsasalis Walk., Cat., 18, 796: otagalis Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 134, 35.

North and South Islands, up to 4,000 ft. Common and variable.

88.

M. pantheropa Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1902, 277.

Chatham Islands.

89.

M. marmarina Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 329.

Auckland, Palmerston, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin; also in the Chatham Islands.

22. Proteroeca Meyr.

Proteroeca Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 335; type, comastis Meyr.

Forehead with slight conical prominence. Antennae ¾, in ♂ fasciculate-ciliated. Labial palpi porrected, clothed with long rough projecting hairs, terminal joint penicillate, partially concealed. Maxillary palpi filiform, apex penicillate. Tibial outer spurs more than half inner.

Contains only the following species.

– 41 –
90.

P. comastis Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 335.

Nelson, Christchurch, Castle Hill, Wedderburn.

23. Heliothela Guen.

Heliothela Guen., Pyr., 152 (1854); type, atralis Hüb. Nyctarcha Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 344; type, ophideres Walk.

Antennae less than ⅔. Labial palpi porrected, second joint with dense projecting scales beneath, longer towards apex, terminal joint exposed, stout. Maxillary palpi not much shorter than labial, expanded with scales towards apex, truncate. Tibial outer spurs half inner. Hindwings with lower margin of cell more or less clothed with loose hairs towards base, but without defined pecten.

A small genus of early type, containing at present two European species, one Indian ranging into Australia and Madagascar, three Australian, and one New Zealand species.

91.

H. erebopis n. sp.: atra Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 404; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 70.

Castle Hill, Lake Wakatipu; 2,000–5,000 ft. I think it necessary to rename this species, as Butler's name atra is certainly likely to lead to confusion with the European atralis, the type of the genus. Butler did not recognize his species as a Heliothela.

24. Scoparia Haw.

Scoparia Haw., Lep. Brit., 491 (1911); type, cembrae Haw. Xeroscopa Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 349; type, ejuncida Knaggs.

Antennae ⅔. Labial palpi porrected, second joint with long dense projecting scales beneath, longer towards apex, terminal joint exposed. Maxillary palpi rather long, triangularly dilated with scales. Tibial outer spurs half inner. Hindwings with 4 and 5 connate or stalked.

A large genus, of world-wide distribution, but nowhere very prominent except in New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands, in each of which regions it is very numerously developed; in New Zealand it has eighty-eight species, being the largest genus of Lepidoptera, and forming nearly a tenth of the whole lepidopterous fauna, and in the Hawaiian Islands it has about sixty species. The larvae mostly feed on mosses and lichens, but sometimes on the roots of other plants, and probably many of the New Zealand species feed on the roots of grass, their habits being similar to those of Crambus. The greater number of the New Zealand species are considerably larger and more diversified in appearance than those of other regions; these types are most nearly approached by the few species known from the colder parts of South America, whence others will doubtless be discovered.

92.

S. thyridias Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 228.

Lake Wakatipu.

93.

S. oreas Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 81.

Lake Wakatipu; 5,000 ft.

94.

S. philerga Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 81.

North and South Islands; generally common.

95.

S. meliturga Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 228.

Auckland, Wellington.

– 42 –
96.

S. chlamydota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 82.

Wellington, Arthur's Pass, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu.

97.

S. triclera Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 230.

Wellington.

98.

S. hemiplaca Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1889, 155.

Wellington. Larva on moss.

99.

S. dochmia Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 229.

Lake Wakatipu; 1,300 ft.

100.

S. minusculalis Walk., Cat., 34, 1503; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 82.

Akaroa, Bealey River, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu. Larva on moss.

101.

S. minualis Walk., Cat., 34, 1504; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 83.

Napier, Ohakune, Wellington, Christchurch, Otira River.

102.

S. chimeria Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 84.

Taranaki, Palmerston, Masterton, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu.

103.

S. dinodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 85.

Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin.

104.

S. parmifera Meyr., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z., 72.

Auckland Island.

105.

S. acharis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 85.

Wellington, Akaroa, Dunedin, Invercargill.

106.

S. cymatias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 86.

Nelson, Arthur's Pass, Mount Hutt, Invercargill.

107.

S. microphthalma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 87.

Christchurch, Lake Wakatipu.

108.

S. hemicycla Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 87.

Mount Holdsworth, Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass; 3,000–4,000 ft.

109.

S. xysmatias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 110.

Dunedin.

110.

S. ergatis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 88.

Wellington, Castle Hill, Invercargill.

111.

S. autochroa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 110.

Invercargill.

112.

S. encapna Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 65.

Mount Arthur; 4,000 ft.

113.

S. critica Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 88.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Lake Wakatipu; 2,500–4,000 ft.

114.

S. characta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 90.

Makatoku, Palmerston, Christchurch, Dunedin.

115.

S. ustimacula Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 135, 17; Meyr., Tran. N.Z.

Inst., 1885, 91: conifera Butl., Cist. Ent., 2, 493. Wellington, Porter's Pass, Dunedin.

116.

S. pongalis Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 137, 33; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 91.

Auckland Makatoku, Dunedin.

117.

S. melanaegis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 92.

Arthur's Pass, Lake Wakatipu; 1,700–4,200 ft.

118.

S. trapezophora Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 93.

Mount Arthur, Castle Hill; 3,000–4,000 ft.

119.

S. philetaera Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 93.

Bealey River.

– 43 –
120.

S. locularis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1912, 118.

Mount Arthur (3,400 ft.), Lake Wakatipu.

121.

S. torodes Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 568.

Mount Cook.

122.

S. triscelis Meyr., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z., 71.

Lake Wakatipu, Auckland Island.

123.

S. colpota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 65.

Wellington.

124.

S. choristis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 111.

Wellington.

125.

S. periphanes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 94.

Whangarei, Wellington, Lake Wakatipu.

126.

S. phalerias Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 230.

Wellington.

127.

S. disphtheralis Walk., Cat., 34, 1501; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 94.

Hamilton, Palmerston, Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, Otira River.

128.

S. submarginalis Walk., Cat., 27, 48; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 95: ? linealis Walk., Cat.; 34, 1503: maoriella., ibid., 35, 1720.

North and South Islands; common generally.

129.

S. cataxesta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 96.

Otira River, Castle Hill, Lake Guyon, Lake Wakatipu.

130.

S. asaleuto Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 111.

Lake Wakatipu.

131.

S. tetracycla Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 97.

Nelson, Lake Coleridge.

132.

S. gyrotoma Meyr., Trans. N.Z., Inst., 1909, 7.

Lake Tekapo, Ida Valley.

133.

S. indistinctalis Walk., Cat., 27, 48; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 97: rakaiensis Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., 4, 80.

Wellington, Christchurch, Lake Wakatipu.

134.

S. chlicodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 98.

Napier, Wanganui, Christchurch, Mount Hutt.

135.

S. fragosa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1910, 71.

Kermadec Islands.

136.

S. leptophaea Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1902., 277.

Chatham Islands.

137.

S. psammitis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 99.

Mount Ruapehu, Mount Holdsworth, Mount Arthur (4,000 ft.), Arthur's Pass (4,500 ft.), Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill.

138.

S. leptalea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. List., 1885, 98.

Hamilton, Napier, Masterton, Wellington, Christchurch.

139.

S. epicomia Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 99.

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Auckland Island; up to 3,800 ft.

140.

S. feredayi Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., 4, 80; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 100: moanalis Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 137, 34.

Wellington, Bealey River, Lake Guyon, Lake Wakatipu.

141.

S. acompa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 100.

Lake Wakatipu; 1,200 ft.

142.

S. cyptastis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1909, 7.

Invercargill.

– 44 –
143.

S. manganeutis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 102.

Otira Gorge; 1,600–2,600 ft.

144.

S. crypsinoa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 102.

Castle Hill (3,000 ft.), Lake Wakatipu (3,000–4,000 ft.), Ida Valley.

145.

S. agana Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1912, 119.

Mount Ruapehu (4,500 ft.), Arthur's Pass (3,000 ft.), Lake Wakatipu.

146.

S. alopecias Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 570.

Mount Cook.

147.

S. axena Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 103.

Mount Arthur (4,000–4,500 ft.), Arthur's Pass (4,000 ft.), Castle Hill, Dunedin.

148.

S. steropaea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 103.

Castle Hill; 2,500–3,000 ft.

149.

S. exilis Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., 4, 81; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 104.

Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Lumsden, Lake Wakatipu.

150.

S. elaphra Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. 1885, 105.

Palmerston, Christchurch, Invercargill.

151.

S. paltomacha Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 105.

Tararua Range, Castle Hill, Mount Hutt, Lake Wakatipu.

152.

S. deltophora Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 106.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass; 3,000–4,500 ft.

153.

S. sabulosella Walk., Cat., 27, 178; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 106.

North and South Islands, common generally at low levels; Enderby Island.

154.

S. panopla Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 107.

Mount Hutt.

155.

S. clavata Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1912, 116.

Hump Ridge; 3,000 ft.

156.

S. trivirgata Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 137, 29; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 107.

Mount Ruapehu (4,500 ft.), Christchurch, Mount Arthur, Lake Wakatipu.

157.

S. augastis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 112.

Invercargill.

158.

S. petrina Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 111.

Castle Hill, Bealey River, Lake Guyon, Aorangi.

159.

S. halopis Meyr., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z., 72.

Auckland Island.

160.

S. cyameuta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 112.

Wellington, Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Mount Hutt, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu.

161.

S. dryphactis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1911, 61.

Wellington, Lake Wakatipu.

162.

S. astragalota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 113.

Wellington, Mount Arthur (4,000 ft.), Mount Hutt, Lake Wakatipu.

163.

S. rotuella Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 137, 30; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 113.

Wellington, Mount Hutt.

164.

S. harpalea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 114.

Wellington, Otira Gorge.

– 45 –
165.

S. ejuncida Knaggs. Ent. Mo. Mag., 4, 81; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 114.

Bealey River, Lake Coleridge, Mount Hutt (3,000 ft.), Lake Wakatipu (3,000–4,000 ft.).

166.

S. niphospora Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 115.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Castle Hill, Lake Wakatipu; 2,500–4,500 ft.

167.

S. apheles Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 115.

Arthur's Pass; 4,500 ft.

168.

S. aspidota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 115.

Wellington, Mount Hutt, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu.

169.

S. sideraspis Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 231.

Mount Earnslaw (5,300 ft.), Humboldt Range (5,300 ft.).

170.

S. nomeutis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 116.

Mount Arthur, Hump Ridge, Lake Wakatipu; 3,500–5,000 ft.

171.

S. parachalca Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc., Lond., 1901, 569.

Mount Cook.

172.

S. organaea Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 569.

Mount Cook.

173.

S. epicremma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 117.

Arthur's Pass, Castle Hill.

174.

S. luminatrix Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1909, 8.

Otira Gorge, Invercargill.

175.

S. legnota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 117.

Otira Gorge, Mount Hutt, Lake Wakatipu.

176.

S. chalara Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1901, 570.

Mount Cook.

177.

S. octophora Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 118.

Christchurch, Mount Hutt (3,000 ft.), Bealey River, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill.

178.

S. asterisca Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 118.

Wellington, Mount Hutt, Arthur's Pass (4,500 ft.), Lake Wakatipu.

179.

S. leucogramma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 119.

Mount Hutt, Lake Wakatipu.

25. Clepsicosma Meyr.

Clepsicosma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 63; type, iridia Meyr.

Face slightly prominent, oblique. Antennae ¾ in ♂ fasciculate-ciliated. Labial palpi long, porrected, with long loosely projecting scales, attenuated to apex, terminal joint concealed. Maxillary palpi rather long, triangularly dilated with loose scales. Tibial outer spurs ⅔ of inner.

A curious endemic genus.

180.

C. iridia Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 64.

Auckland, Tararua Range, Kaitoke.

5. Pyralididae.

Maxillary palpi present. Forewings with 7 and 8 out of 9. Hindwings without defined pecten of hairs on lower margin of cell, 4 and 5 closely approximated or stalked, 7 out of 6 near origin, free or anastomosing with 8.

A family of moderate extent and general distribution, but the only two New Zealand species are not indigenous.

– 46 –

26. Diplopseustis Meyr.

Diplopseustis Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 284; type, perieralis Walk.

Labial palpi rather long, porrected, second joint with dense rather short projecting scales, forming a short apical tuft beneath, terminal joint moderate, slender, obliquely ascending. Maxillary palpi moderate, triangularly dilated with scales. Forewings with 4 and 5 stalked. Hind-wings with 4 and 5 stalked, 7 anastomosing with 8.

Perhaps contains only the following species.

181.

D. perieralis Walk., Cat., 19, 958 (perieresalis): minima Butl., Proc.

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, 684; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 285; Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1888, 63.

Auckland, Wanganui, Christchurch. Also common in eastern Australia, and occurs in Fiji, Formosa, Borneo, and Assam. It occurs near towns, and is probably attached to some cultivated plant.

27. Pyralis Linn.

Pyralis Linn., Syst. Nat. (12), 881 (1767); type, farinalis Linn.

Labial palpi ascending, second joint rough-scaled, terminal joint moderate. Maxillary palpi filiform. Forewings with 4 and 5 stalked. Hindwings with 4 and 5 stalked, 8 free.

A genus of about 20 species, chiefly Indo-Malayan, but some of the species have been very widely spread.

182.

P. farinalis Linn., Syst. Nat. (10), 226; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 122.

Christchurch. Generally distributed in Australia, and occurs also through most of the world, but probably Central Asiatic in origin. Larva on flour and corn-refuse, and therefore readily imported by man.

6. Thyrididae.

Maxillary palpi obsolete. Forewings with 8 and 9 usually separate. Hindwings without defined pecten of hairs on lower margin of cell, 1 absent, 8 usually free.

A family of moderate size, mainly tropical in distribution; only one species reaches New Zealand.

28. Morova Walk.

Morova Walk., Cat., 32, 523 (1865); type, subfasciata Walk.

Face prominent. Labial palpi short, stout, subascending, with appressed scales, terminal joint very short, obtuse. Forewings with 8 and 9 short-stalked or approximated towards base. Hindwings with 5 tolerably remote from angle, 7 from before upper angle, 8 free.

Includes only the following species.

183.

M. subfasciata Walk., Cat., 32, 523; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1884, 108: gallicolens Butl, Voy. Ereb. Terr., Ins., 46.

Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin. Also occurs in Fiji. Larva in gall-like swellings of the stem of Parsonsia.

– 47 –

7. Pterophoridae.

Maxillary palpi obsolete. Forewings usually fissured, forming two (rarely three or four) segments, 8 and 9 usually stalked. Hindwings without defined pecten of hairs on lower margin of cell, on lower surface with a double row of short dark spine-like scales on lower margin of cell, 6 remote from 4, 7 remote from 6, shortly approximated to 8 beyond origin, wing usually figured, forming three segments.

A considerable family of very general distribution.

29. Platyptilia Hüb.

Platyptilia Hüb., Verz., 429 (1826); type, gonodactyla Schiff.

Forehead usually with tuft of scales. Forewings bifid, segments moderate, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings trifid, third segment with black scales in dorsal cilia, sometimes barely traceable.

An extensive and cosmopolitan genus. The larvae are usually attached to species of Compositae.

184.

P. isoterma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1909, 10.

Wellington.

185.

P. heliastis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 129.

Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Lake Wakatipu.

186.

P. falcatalis Walk., Cat., 30, 931; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 128: repletalis Walk., Cat., 30, 931.

North and South Islands, common; up to 3,600 ft.

187.

P. aeolodes Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1902, 278; Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1909, 10.

Wellington, Invercargill, Chatham Islands, Auckland Island.

188.

P. deprivatalis Walk., Cat., 30, 946: haasti Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 140, 58; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 128.

Hamilton, Christchurch, Otira River, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill.

189.

P. campsiptera Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1907, 112.

Lake Wakatipu.

190.

P. epotis Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1905, 231; Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1911, 73.

Mount Arthur, Humboldt Range (3,600 ft.).

30. Alucita Linn.

Alucita Linn., Syst. Nat., 542 (1758); type, pentadactyla Linn.

Forehead without tuft. Forewings bifid, segments narrow, 2 sometimes absent, 3 absent, 8–10 absent, 11 sometimes absent. Hindwings trifid, third segment without black scales in dorsal cilia; 3 absent.

Fairly extensive, but mainly located round the shores of the Mediterranean; some of the species range very widely. The New Zealand species seem to be of Indo-Malayan affinity, but are all endemic.

191.

A. monospilalis Walk., Cat., 30, 950; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885; 124: patruelis Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 140, 56.

Whangarei, Auckland, Wellington, Nelson, Otira River, Christ-church, Dunedin.

192.

A. lycosema Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 124.

Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin.

– 48 –
193.

A. furcatalis Walk., Cat., 30, 950; Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 140, 52;

Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 123.

Auckland, Cambridge, Palmerston, Makatoku, Wellington, Otira River.

194.

A. innotatalis Walk., Cat., 30, 948; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 124; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1885, 424.

Napier, Palmerston, Masterton, Nelson, Otira River, Christchurch, Invercargill.

31. Stenoptilia Hüb.

Stenoptilia Hüb., Verz., 430 (1826); type, pterodactyla Linn.

Forehead with horny prominence or tuft of scales. Forewings bifid, segments moderate or rather narrow, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings trifid, third segment without black scales in dorsal cilia.

A genus of moderate extent, generally distributed.

195.

S. celidota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 125.

Christchurch, Lake Wakatipu. Also widely distributed in Australia.

196.

S. lithoxesta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 127; Gen. Ins., 100, f. 18.

Arthur's Pass.

197.

S. charadrias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 126.

Arthur's Pass.

198.

S. vigens Feld., Reis. Novar., pl. 140, 49; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1912, 119.

Lake Wakatipu.

199.

S. orites Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1885, 126.

Clinton.

200.

S. zophodactyla Dup., Hist. Nat. Lép. Fr., 11, 314: canalis Walk., Cat., 30, 944.

Wellington. Occurs also in eastern Australia, India, Europe, Africa, and South America.

In the following indexes the numbers refer to those attached to the genera and species in consecutive order. Names italicized are synonyms.

Index of Genera.
Achroia Hüb. 4
Adena Walk. 20
Alucita Linn. 30
Argyria Hub. 8
Clepsicosma Meyr. 25
Crambus Fab. 6
Crocydopora Meyr 2
Cryptomima Meyr. 13
Deana Butl. 20
Diasemia Hub. 16
Diplopseustis Meyr. 26
Diptychophora Zell. 12
Gadira Walk. 13
Hednota Meyr. 11
Heliothela Guen. 23
Homoeosoma Curt. 3
Hymenia Hub. 19
Mecyna Steph. 21
Meliphora Guen. 4
Mnesictena Meyr 21
Morova Walk. 28
Musotima Meyr. 15
Nesarcha Meyr. 20
Nyctarcha Meyr. 23
Nymphula Schranck. 14
Orocrambus Meyr. 5
Paraponyx Hüb. 14
Platyptilia Hub. 29
Proternia Meyr. 18
Proteroeca Meyr. 22
Protyparcha Meyr. 7
Pyralis Linn. 27
– 49 –
Sceliodes Guen. 17
Scenoploca Meyr. 10
Scoparia Haw. 24
Sporophyla Meyr. 1
Stenoptilia Hüb. 31
Talis Guen. 11
Tauroscopa Meyr. 9
Xeroscopa Meyr. 24
Zinckenia Zell. 19
Index of Species.
acerella Walk. 75
acharis Meyr. 105
acompa Meyr. 141
aduncalis Feld. 77
aeolodes Meyr. 187
aethonellus Meyr. 16
agana Meyr. 145
alopecias Meyr. 146
anaspila Meyr. 3
angustipennis Zell. 24
anticella Walk. 4
antimorus Meyr. 15
apheles Meyr. 167
apicellus Zell. 38
apselias Meyr. 21
asaleuta Meyr. 130
aspidota Meyr. 168
asterisca Meyr. 178
astragalota Meyr. 162
astrosema Meyr. 63
atra Butl 91
augastis Meyr. 157
aulistes Meyr. 17
auriscriptella Walk. 68
autochroa Meyr. 111
axena Meyr. 147
bipunctella Walk. 71
bisectellus Zell. 41
callirrhous Meyr. 33
campsiptera Meyr. 189
canalis Walk. 200
catacaustus Meyr. 7
cataxesta Meyr. 129
celidota Meyr. 195
chalara Meyr. 176
chalicodes Meyr. 134
characta Meyr. 114
charadrias Meyr. 197
chimeria Meyr. 102
chlamydota Meyr. 96
choristis Meyr. 124
chrysochyta Meyr. 62
cinigerella Walk. 2
clavata Philp. 155
claviferella Walk. 54
colpota Meyr. 123
comastis Meyr. 90
conifera Butl. 115
conopias Meyr. 23
cordalis Doubl. 80
corruptus Butl. 13
crenaeus Meyr. 29
critica Meyr. 113
crypsinoa Meyr. 144
cyameuta Meyr. 160
cyclopicus Meyr. 47
cymatias Meyr. 106
cyptastis Meyr. 142
daiclealis Walk. 85
deltophora Meyr. 152
deprivatalis Walk. 188
dicrenellus Meyr. 26
dinodes Meyr. 103
diphtheralis Walk. 127
diplorrhous Meyr. 32
dipsasalis Walk. 87
dochmia Meyr. 99
dryphactis Meyr. 161
ejuncida Knaggs 165
elaina Meyr. 74
elaphra Meyr. 150
encapna Meyr. 112
enchophorus Meyr. 31
ephorus Meyr. 25
epicomia Meyr. 139
epicremna Meyr. 173
epiphaea Meyr. 73
epotis Meyr. 190
erebopis Meyr. 91
ergatis Meyr. 110
exilis Knaggs 149
extensalis Walk. 80
falcatalis Walk. 186
farinalis Linn. 182
fascialis Cram. 82
feredayi Knaggs 140
flavidalis Doubl. 87
flexuosellus Doubl. 43
– 50 –
fragosa Meyr. 135
furcatalis Walk. 193
gallicolens Butl. 183
glaucophanes Meyr. 57
gorgopis Meyr. 56
gracilis Feld. 64
grammalis Doubl. 79
grisella Fab. 4
gyrotoma Meyr. 132
haasti Feld. 188
halopis Meyr. 159
haplotomus Meyr. 30
harmonica Meyr. 70
harpalea Meyr. 164
harpophorus Meyr. 49
heliastis Meyr. 185
helioctypa Meyr. 72
heliotes Meyr. 14
hemicycla Meyr. 108
hemiplaca Meyr. 98
heteranthes Meyr. 19
heteraulus Meyr. 28
holanthes Meyr. 69
horistes Meyr. 42
hybrealis Walk. 83
incrassatellus Zell. 41
indistinctalis Walk. 133
innotatalis Walk. 194
interrupta Feld. 63
iridia Meyr 180
isochytus Meyr. 27
isoterma Meyr. 184
legnota Meyr. 175
lepidella Walk. 64
leptalea Meyr. 138
leptophaea Meyr. 136
leucanialis Butl. 22
leucogramma Meyr. 179
leucophthalma Meyr. 59
leucoxantha Meyr. 65
linealis Walk. 128
lithoxesta Meyr. 196
locularis Meyr. 120
luminatrix Meyr. 174
lycosema Meyr. 192
machaeristes Meyr. 12
mahanga Feld. 75
manganeutis Meyr. 143
maorialis Feld. 84
maoriella Walk. 128
marmarina Meyr. 89
melampetrus Meyr. 5
melanaegis Meyr. 117
melitastes Meyr. 20
meliturga Meyr. 95
metallifera Butl. 66
microdora Meyr. 60
microphthalma Meyr. 107
minima Butl. 181
minualis Walk. 101
minusculalis Walk. 100
moanalis Feld. 140
monospilalis Walk 191
mucidalis Guen. 80
mylites Meyr. 6
nexalis Walk. 41
niphosphora Meyr. 166
nitens Butl. 76
nitidalis Walk. 78
nomeutis Meyr. 170
notata Butl. 86
obsistalis Snell. 80
obstructus Meyr. 40
octophora Meyr. 177
oenospora Meyr. 1
oncobolus Meyr. 50
oreas Meyr. 93
organaea Meyr. 172
orites Meyr. 199
otagalis Feld. 87
paltomacha Meyr. 151
panopla Meyr. 154
pantheropa Meyr. 88
parachalca Meyr. 171
paraxenus Meyr. 39
parmifera Meyr. 104
paronalis Walk. 83
patruelis Feld. 191
pedias Meyr. 35
pentadactyla Zell. 54
perieralis Walk. 181
periphanes Meyr. 125
pervius Meyr. 8
petraula Meyr. 58
petrina Meyr. 158
phalerias Meyr. 126
philerga Meyr. 94
philetaera Meyr. 119
philocapna Meyr. 81
pongalis Feld. 116
psammitis Meyr. 137
pyrsophanes Meyr. 61
quadralis Doubl. 87
rakaiensis Knaggs 133
– 51 –
ramosellus Doubl. 22
rangona Feld. 22
recurvalis Fab. 82
repletalis Walk. 186
rotuella Feld. 163
sabulosella Walk. 153
saristes Meyr. 18
scaphodes Meyr. 52
schedias Meyr. 34
selenaea Meyr. 67
sideraspis Meyr. 169
simplex Butl. 36
siriellus Meyr. 37
sophistes Meyr. 48
sophronellus Meyr. 46
stenopterella Meyr. 2
steropaea Meyr. 148
strigosus Butl. 54
strophaea Meyr. 53
subfasciata Walk. 183
subitus Philp. 9
submarginalis Walk. 128
tetracycla Meyr. 131
thrincodes Meyr. 44
thymiastes Meyr. 10
thyridias Meyr. 92
timaralis Feld. 178
torodes Meyr. 121
transcissalis Walk 41
trapezitis Meyr. 55
trapezophora Meyr. 118
triclera Meyr. 97
triscelis Meyr. 122
tritonellus Meyr. 11
trivirgata Feld. 156
tuhualis Feld. 45
ustimacula Feld. 115
vagella Zell. 3
vapidus Butl. 41
vigens Feld. 198
vittellus Doubl. 41
vulgaris Butl. 45
xanthialis Walk. 83
xanthogrammus Meyr. 51
xyamatias Meyr. 109
zophodactyla Dup. 200