Art. XV.—Some New Species of Plants.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 11th December, 1912.]
1. Aciphylla Spedeni Cheesem. sp. nov.
A. Dobsoni Hook. f. affinis, sed differt caule multo majore, foliis numerosibus et flabellatim 6–9-lobatis.
Planta robusta, e basi ramosa, 10–30 cm. diam., ramis dense compactis. Folia numerosissima, 40–60, dense conferta aut imbricata, 10–15 cm. longa, rigida, coriacea, glaberrima, nitida quasi vernicosa, flabellatim 6–9 lobata; petiolis vaginantibus, apice coriaceis, basi membranaceis, 2–3.5 cm. latis, lobis (aut segmentis) linearibus, 6–8 cm. longis, 2.5–5 mm. latis, apice acuminatis et pungentibus. Pedunculi robusti, erecti, foliis vix longiores. Umbellae compositae, in capitulum densum crassum congestae 6–8 cm. diam. Bracteae inferae 3–5 cm. longae, basi membranaceae, latae, apice breviter 7–8 partitae. Flores albi, numerosi. Fructus ignotus.
Hab.—South Island: Rocky places on Cecil Peak, near Lake Wakatipu, altitude 5,000–6,000 ft.; also in several other localities on the Eyre Mountains, of which Cecil Peak is the northern termination; Mr. James Speden!
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
Apparently forming large simple or branched masses 4–12 in. diameter or more; rootstock thick and woody, branched at the top. Leaves very numerous, 40–60 or more, crowded, spreading, the lower curved downwards, the upper more erect, 4–6 in. long, flabellately divided into 6–9 leaflets springing from the top of the petiole; petiole rather more than half the length of the whole leaf, very thick and coriaceous at the top and about ⅓–½ in. -broad, flat above, convex beneath, gradually widening and becoming thinner and more membranous towards the base, where it is ¾–1 ½ in. broad. Leaflets usually 7, but sometimes the central one is 2- or 3- fid almost to the base, thus making the number 8 or 9, very rarely 5 or 6, very thick, rigid and coriaceous, 2 ½–3 in. long, ⅙–1/10 in. broad, narrow-linear, narrowed towards the apex into a short rigid and pungent point; midrib and margin thick and cartilaginous; veins parallel with the midrib, but connected by numerous transverse veinlets. Male inflorescence alone seen; flowering - stem or peduncle stout, nearly ½ in. diameter, 3–4 in. high, bearing at the top numerous compound umbels congested into a capitate mass 3 in. diameter. Lower bracts 1 ½ in. long, composed of a broad and thin membranous sheath ½–¾ in. diameter, tipped by 7–8 short linear leaflets. Primary umbels 10–12, peduncles ½–1 in. long; secondary umbels very numerous, bractlets wanting. Flowers white; calyx-teeth short, triangular; petals obovate-spathulate, with a rather long claw. Fruit not seen.
A very distinct and curious species, which I have much pleasure in dedicating to its discoverer, who has furnished me with much valuable information respecting the botany of Central Otago and Southland. It is no doubt related to A. Dobsoni, but differs widely in the much greater size of all its parts, in the remarkable digitately or flabellately divided leaves, which are not nearly so coriaceous as those of A. Dobsoni, and in the much larger and more massive inflorescence. Its discovery shows that there is still much to be done on the higher mountains of the southern portion of the South Island.
2. Raoulia Cheesemanii Beauverd in Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva, vol. 4 (1912), p. 55, sp. nov.
“Herba pusilla, fruticulosa, ramosissima, procumbens. Ramuli breves (4–10 mm.), erecti, cinereo-incani, dense foliati, monocephali. Folia regulariter denseque disticha imbricata, 2 mm. longa, subelliptico-lineari, recurva apice mucronulata, limbo crassiusculo sericeo-cinereo, valde plicato, sub lente anastomoso-nervoso; petiolo obsolete cauli adpresso, 3–5 nervio. Capitula minima, 5 mm. longa, terminalia, sessilia, cylindracea, post anthesin radiata. Involucri squamae 3–4.5 mm. longae, squarrosae obtusae vel emarginatae albido-lutescentes, apice atro-fuscae; extus sericeae vel glabratae; intus glaberrimae. Flosculi hermaphrodite femineique subaequilongi (3–3.5 mm. longi), quam pappi setae breviores. Antherae 1.5 mm. longae. Styli flosculi hermaphroditi femineique aequilongi. Achaenia fl. ♀̌ puberula, fl. ♀ glabra, aequilonga, 1 mm.”
Hab. South Island: Marlborough, Awatere River; J. H. Macmahon!
The above species has been described by M. Beauverd, the well-known keeper of the Boissier herbarium, in a valuable paper on the genus
Raoulia printed in the “Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Geneva” (vol. 4, 1912, pp. 41–55), and which contains much new matter of importance respecting the classification of the species. The type of R. Cheese-manii was collected by Mr. J. H. Macmahon in the Awatere Valley, and was forwarded by myself to M. Beauverd under the name of R. Monroi. But M. Beauverd considers that it is specifically distinct in the regularly distichous arrangement of the cauline leaves, which in the true R. Monroi are not distichous but are arranged in several ranks. He also remarks that the leaves are smaller and not so spathulate as in R. Monroi, that the venation is different, and the flower-heads narrower and more cylindrical. The distribution of the two forms will require to be worked out anew in the light of M. Beauverd's views; but judging from the specimens in my herbarium it seems that R. Cheeseman is the more plentiful of the two, ranging from Marlborough to the south of Otago, and from sea-level to 2,500 ft. altitude. Of the plant which M. Beauverd considers to be typical R. Monroi I have no specimens from levels below 2,000 ft. It should be remarked that the drawing of R. Monroi in the “Illustrations of the New Zealand Flora” (t. 102), now in the press, is for the most part based on specimens of R. Cheesemanii.
3. Veronica Townsoni Cheesem. sp. nov.
Ad V. macrocarpam proxime accedit, sed differt foliis angustioribus et maxime coriaceis, calycis lobis acutis; corollae tubo multo breviore; capsula quam calycem vix 2-plo excedente.
Frutex 1–2 metralis, ramis rigidis. Folia subsessilia aut brevipetiolata, 5–7 cm. longa, 6–7 mm. lata, lineari-lanceolata, acuta, rigida, coriacea, supra plana, subtus cum costis eminentibus. Racemi 6–10 cm. longi, attenuati, acuminati, laxiflores. Flores 5 mm. diam.; calycis segmenti oblongo-lanceolati vel oblongo-ovati, acuti vel subacuti. Corollae tubus brevis, calyce vix longior. Capsula 4–7 mm. longa, ovata, quam calycem vix 2-plo excedente.
Hab. South Island: Rocky hills between the Little Wanganui and Mokihinui Rivers, north of Westport; and on limestone rocks by Fox's River, near Brighton; W. Townson!
A branching shrub, 3–6 ft. high or more, branchlets stout, rigid, glabrous, ringed with the scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves sessile or very shortly petiolate. spreading, 2–3 in. long, ¼–⅓ in. broad, linear-lanceolate, acute, very thick and coriaceous, rigid when dry, glabrous, flat and smooth above, midrib elevated beneath, veins obscure. Racemes usually longer than the leaves, 3–6 in. long, lax-flowered, often attenuated towards the tip, glabrate or nearly so. Flowers about ¼ in. diameter. Calyx 4-partite, segments oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acute or subacute, margins ciliolate. Corolla-tube short and broad, hardly exceeding the calyx; limb 4-lobed; lobes oblong, obtuse. Capsule ⅕–¼ in. long, ovate, acute, compressed, about twice as long as the calyx.
This is one of the many discoveries made by my friend Mr. W. Townson while exploring the vegetation of the south-western portion of the Nelson Provincial District. At the time of the publication of the Manual I was only acquainted with fruiting specimens, and consequently referred it, as var. crassifolia, to the closely allied V. macrocarpa. But since then Mr. Townson has furnished me with good flowering specimens, which prove that it is a perfectly distinct species, distinguished from all the forms of V. macrocarpa by the smaller and narrower much more coriaceous and
rigid leaves, by the acute calyx-segments, by the very short and broad corolla-tube, which is hardly longer than the calyx, whereas in V. macrocarpa it is quite twice the length, and by the capsule not being more than twice the length of the calyx-segments. As the name crassifolia is preoccupied by a European species, I have attached the name of its zealous discoverer to the plant.
It is worth mention that on the under-surface of the leaves, just within the margin, there is a row of small pits, or “domatia,” somewhat similar to those which exist on the under-side of the various species of Coprosma, where, however, they are found in the axils formed by the junction of the main veins with the midrib. These pits appear to be inhabited by small Acari, as in Coprosma.
4. Caladenia exigua Cheesem. sp. nov.
C. minoi Hook. f. affinis, sed differt caule minore et graciliore, sepalis et petalis acuminatis, labelli lobo intermedio margine 1-glanduloso.
Erectus, gracillimus, 8–15 cm. altus. Caulis strictus, tenuis, glanduloso-pilosus, basi unifoliatus. Folium parvum, anguste lineare, 2–6 cm. longum, 1 mm. latum, parce pilosum. Flores 1 aut raro 2, sepalo intermedio erecto, anguste lanceolato, acuminato, lateralibus petalisque similibus, patentibus vel deflexis; labello lato, 3-lobo, disco glandulis 2-serjatia stipitatis ornato; lobo intermedio margine 1-glanduloso.
Hab.—North Island: Leptospermum scrub near Kaitaia, Mongonui County; R. H. Matthews and H. B. Matthews!
Stems shorter and more slender and wiry than in C. minor, 2–5 in. high, sparingly glandular-pilose. Leaf solitary from the base of the stem, small, very narrow linear, ¾–2 ½ in. long, broad, very sparingly pilose or almost glabrate. Flowers seldom more than one; sepals and petals subequal, all narrow-lanceolate and acuminate, upper sepal erect, the rest spreading or deflexed. Lip broad, 3-lobed; disc with two continuous rows of bright-yellow stipitate glands as in C. minor; intermediate lobe with only one marginal stipitate gland on each side; lateral lobes with transverse purplish bands.
Since I published this in the Manual as var. exigua of C. minor I have been supplied by Mr. H. B. Matthews with an extensive series of both fresh and dried specimens of the various Caladeniae found near Kaitaia. Mr. Matthews has always contended for the specific distinctness of C. exigua, and his specimens prove that the differences are constant, and are also accompanied by a difference in the flowering season, C. exigua flowering at Kaitaia from the 10th September to the 25th September, while C. minor blooms during October and the early part of November. I accept C. exigua, therefore, as differing from C. minor in its much smaller size and more slender habit; in the smaller flowers; in the sepals and petals being narrow-lanceolate and acuminate, instead of linear and obtuse as in C. minor; and in the middle lobe of the lip having only one stipitate gland on each side, whereas C. minor has several.