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Volume 45, 1912
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Art. XXXVI.—Some Localities for Fossils at Oamaru.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 3rd December, 1912.]

The district of Oamaru has attracted attention ever since geological observations have been made in New Zealand. Mantell,* probably the first qualified geologist to visit the South Island, gave a general description of the district in 1850. In this description he names several fossils that were found in the Ototara limestone, one of the most important strata that occur in the district.

More recently McKay, whilst engaged in the geological survey of New Zealand, paid several visits to the region, and the results that he obtained are embodied in the reports of the Geological Survey, a list of which will be found at the end of this paper. So important was Oamaru considered by Captain Hutton that he established the district as the typical locality of his Oamaru system, then considered by him to be the equivalent of the Lower Miocene of Europe. At the same time he classed the upper strata at Oamaru in a distinct system, called by him the Pareora system, and considered equivalent to the Upper Miocene. In 1885 he still held in general to this division, but he then correlated the Oamaru system with the Oligocene.

[Footnote] * Q.J.G.S., vol. 6, 1850, pp. 319 et seq.

[Footnote] † “Geology of Otago and Southland,” p. 46. Dunedin, 1875.

[Footnote] ‡ Q.J.G.S., vol. 41, p. 194.

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Hector* included the lower rocks of Hutton's Oamaru system in his Cretaceo-tertiary division. Some of the higher strata he placed in the Upper Eocene, and a few of the highest in the Lower Miocene.

Park has lately placed the whole of the Oamaru beds in the Miocene.

Marshall, Speight, and Cotton have lately stated that the Oamaru rocks represent a portion of a conformable series extending in age from the early Cretaceous to the late Miocene. This view has also been put forward by Marshall in the “Regional Geology”§ and in the “Geology of New Zealand.”

This general statement of the various opinions that have been expressed in regard to the age of the Oamaru rocks shows that despite their generally fossiliferous nature and the clear character of their stratigraphy it is still possible to interpret the facts in terms that are widely different, if not, indeed, wholly opposed to one another. It is evident that in such a district, where there are few or no difficulties in interpreting the stratigraphy in the field, actual observations may be relied on for definitely determining the true relations of the strata. There has, however, been a tendency to neglect the clear and per se unmistakable field evidence, as it has been held that the fossil remains found in the various members of the series of rocks in the district are of such a nature as to indicate that different geological periods are represented by them. Such opinions have caused some observers to break up the series into integral portions, and to endeavour to find structures in the field that might support the conclusions that were derived from palaeontological work. It is not the intention of the present authors to quote and discuss the statements that have been made in regard to the evidence offered by field-work in favour of stratigraphical breaks in the rock-series. Some reference has already been made to this aspect of the subject in the paper by Marshall, Speight, and Cotton on the younger rock-series of New Zealand. It need only be remarked here that those who have split up the series into different geological periods show few points of agreement among themselves.

It is believed by the present authors that the difficulties which have presented themselves from the palaeontological standpoint have resulted from a failure to recognize the full significance and effect of a relatively, rapid movement of depression during the deposition of the sediments. The succession of the material from conglomerate through sands, green-sands to limestone shows that the effect of depression in deepening the water was far more important than the effect of deposition in shallowing it. The natural result of this was to cause a great overlap of the upper strata over the lower, a rapid lateral change in the nature of the strata, and a complete change of biological station at various points along a single vertical line. The effects of such important influences as these must be clearly sorted out before any reliance can be placed upon conclusions derived from the collection of fossils.

Finally, the collections of fossils have been most incomplete, and in some cases it appears that identifications have been most unsatisfactory. The failure to identify fossils with accuracy could only be expected, for hitherto the nomenclature and synonymy have been most perplexing.

[Footnote] * “Handbook of New Zealand Geology,” pp. 51–59.

[Footnote] † “Geology of New Zealand,” p. 113. Whitcombe and Tombs, Chiistchnroh N Z., 1911.

[Footnote] ‡ Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 43, 1911, p. 393.

[Footnote] § “Regional Geology,” 1911, band 7, i, pp. 22–23. Carl Winter, Heidelberg.

[Footnote] ∥ Geology of New Zealand,” p. 188. Government Printer, 1912

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It is only now that the labours of Mr. H. Suter, to whom the authors are most deeply indebted, are rendering complete identification possible.

An attempt has been made by the authors to collect as fully as possible from some definite horizon in the district, with the object of finding out exactly what species are associated together in the more fossiliferous beds. The results so far obtained are somewhat surprising, and they show at least that previous collecting has been far from complete, and that generalizations based upon them are far from convincing.

Collections have been made from four different localities. One of these—the banks of the Awamoa Stream (fig. 1)—is very well known, and has yielded fossils to several collectors. A second locality—the road-cutting near Pukeuri—has had collections made from it previously, but they have been far from exhaustive. The other two localities have not previously been described: we have called them respectively Target Gully and Ardgowan (fig. 1).

Awamoa Beds.

All who have collected from these are generally agreed that the horizon is distinctly younger Tertiary. They were placed in the Lower Miocene by Hector, in the Pareora or Miocene by Hutton, and in the Miocene by Park. There is thus a very substantial agreement as to the age of these beds.

Hutton, in the “Geology of Otago” (p. 59), gives a list of fossils which he found in the Awamoa beds, which he places in his Pareora system, of Miocene age. McKay, in the “Reports of Geological Explorations, 1876–77,” states, on page 48, that a considerable collection of fossils was made from these beds, but he does not give the names of these fossils. In the Reports for 1883–84, on page 64, he states that the Awamoa beds, of Miocene age, succeed the Upper Eocene quite comformably; but again he gives no list of fossils from the Awamoa beds.

Park, in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 37, p. 512, states that the Awamoa beds belong to the same formation as the greensands on which they rest at the rifle butts, as there is in that place a complete conformity between them. These greensands are his equivalents of the Upper Eocene of McKay. Park classes both beds in the Miocene.

The beds are lithologically somewhat sandy blue clays, often containing a little glauconite. They are well exposed in the bed of the creek, between

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Fig. a.

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a quarter and half a mile from the beach. The strata are dipping about 3 degrees to the east. Their actual stratigraphical position is not clear in the stream itself, or on its banks, but it is generally admitted that at the rifle butts, a mile and a half distant, they rest conformably on the green-sands which Park probably rightly correlates with the Hutchinson Quarry beds—that is, the Upper Eocene of McKay. These greensands rest conformably on the limestone, though Park differs slightly from the last opinion, and maintains that the beds in reality lie between two limestones, the upper of which is not represented in this section, but, if present, would overlie the Awamoa beds. We have failed to see any evidence of this in the district. A collection of fossils was made with considerable care from the Awamoa beds during several days, but it does not pretend to be exhaustive at present. Nearly all the identifications have been made by Mr. H. Suter.

Emarginula striata Q. & G. Ancilla bicolorata Gray.
Trochus tiaratus Q. & G. Hemiconus trailli Hutton.
Gerithidea n. sp. Marginella harrisi Cossmen = M. ovata Harris.
Turritella rosea Q. & G. " conica Harris.
" carlottae Watson. Drittia fusiformis Hutton.
" concava Hutton. " sp.
Struthiolaria cincta Hutton. Turris altus Harris.
Calyptraea maculata Q. & G. Daphnella n. sp.
" alia Hutton. " n. sp.
Crepidula crepidula L. Terebra tristis Deshayes.
" costata Sowerby. Dentalium mantelli Hutton.
" gregaria Sowerby. " giganteum Hutton.
Natica zelandica Q. & G. Nucula hartvigiana Phil.
Polinices huttoni Ihering. Malletia australis Q. & G.
" ovatus var. imperforatus Suter. Placunanomia incisura Hutton.
" suturalis Hutton. Arca decussata Sowerby.
Ampullina undulata Hutton. " (Cucullaria) australis Hutton.
" drewi Murdoch. Glycimeris globosa Hutton.
Cypraea n. sp. Pseudamusium huttoni Park.
Cymatium cfr. minimus Hutton. Cucullaea alta Sowerby.
Phalium achatinum pyrum Lam. " var. B Sowerby.
Epitonium browni Zittel. Corbula kaiparaensis Suter.
Vexillum linctum Hutton. Lima colorata Hutton.
Siphonalia dilatata Q. & G. Venericardia australis Lam.
" costata Hutton. " cfr. inaequalis Phil
Cominella huttoni Kobelt. Ostraea sp.
Murex octogonus Q. & G. Crassatellites obesus A. Ad.
Typhis maccoyi T.-Woods = T. hebetatus Hutton. " trailli Hutton.
Galeodea muricata Hector. " attenuatus Hutton.
Lapparia corrugata Hutton. Limopsis aurita Brocchi.
Ancilla pseudaustralis Tate. Macrocallista assimilis Hutton.
" multistriata Sowerby.

Hutton, in the “Geology of Otago,” 1875, and in the Trans. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., mentions fifty-seven species, almost the same number as in this list, but only twenty-two are identical, even when allowance is made for synonyms. It is probable that his Awamoa list included specimens from other localities near Oamaru, for he states that the formation extends

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along the east side of the low hills that extend behind Oamaru as far north as the Waitaki Valley. Park (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 37, p. 512) names twenty-eight species, but of these, even allowing for synonyms, only ten occur in our list.

It is remarkable that neither Hutton nor Park mention Cucullaea, for we found it in considerable numbers, and it is always conspicuous. We found that the following were the most abundant: Lima colorata, Cucullaea alta, Marginella harrisi, Venericardia inaequalis, Malletia australis, and Turritella, rosea.

Target Gully. (Fig. 1.)

This shell-bed is situated half a mile along a small gully that extends north from Eden Street directly after it crosses the bridge (fig. 2). Hutchinson's Quarry is at the entrance of this gully. The order of succession is—Target Gully shell-bed, Hutchinson's Quarry beds, calcareous tuffs. Though no continuous section is exposed, the field relations are clear, and we have no doubt that the three beds are conformable. It appears that the Target Gully beds have escaped notice hitherto, for we can find no reference to them by McKay or Hutton, and Park states that there is nothing in the neighbourhood of the Hutchinson's Quarry beds to indicate their age.

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Fig. 2.—Hutchinson's quarry, Oamaru. (Scale: 4 in. = half a mile.) 1. Calcareous tuffs. 2, 3, 4. Volcanic breccias. 5. Greensands, Hutchinson's Quarry beds. 6. Target Gully shell-beds.

The bed from which our collection has been made is about half-way up the east side of the gully, about 50 ft. above sea-level. One hundred yards distant the calcareous tuffs crop out, about 25 ft. lower. The bed is mainly composed of drifted shells, of which many are broken. They are contained in grey sand, weathering orange from the oxidation of the iron contained in the glauconite, which occurs in the sand in some quantity. The shell-bed is 4 ft. thick, and is 8 ft. long in the exposed portion. From this limited exposure sixty-nine species of Mollusca have been identified at present. There are, in addition, several small species that we have not been able to identify, and we hope to give a more complete list next year.

Trochus tiartus Q. & G. Crepidula crepidula L.
Turritella carlottae Watson. " unguiformis Lam.
" concava Hutton. " costata Sowerby.
" rosea Q. & G. " incurva Zittel.
Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn. Siphonalia nodosa Martyn.
Calyptraea maculata Q. & G. " dilatata Q. & G.
" alta Hutton. " costata Hutton.
" sp. Cominella maculata Martyn.
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Cominella lurida Phil. Limopsis zitteli Ihering.
Murex octogonus Q. & G. Glycimeris laticostata Q. & G.
Trophon cfr. plebeius Hutton. " globosa Hutton.
" paivae Crosse. " sp.
Typhis maccoyi T.-Woods. Modiolus australis Gray.
Alectrion socialis Hutton. Pecten burnetti Hutton.
Latirus brevirostris Hutton. Pseudamusium huttoni Park.
Fulguraria arabica Martyn. Lima' colorata Hutton.
Lapparia corrugata Hutton. Ostraea angasi Sowerby.
Ancilla pseudaustralis Tate. " nelsoniana Zittel.
" bicolorata Gray. Crassatellites obesus A. Ad.
Marginella harrisi Cossman. " trailli Hutton.
Drillia fusiformis Hutton. " attenuatus Hutton.
" sp. Venericardia difficilis Deshayes.
Genota robusta Hutton. " cfr. patagonica Ihering.
Terebra tristis Deshayes. Diplodonta globularis Lam.
Cylichnella striata Hutton. Tellina glabrella Deshayes.
" enysi Hutton. Zenatia acinaces Q. & G.
Dentalium mantelli Hutton. Dosinia magna Hutton.
" conicum Hutton. Macrocallista multistriata Sowerby.
Nucula hartvigiana Phil. Chione meridionalis Sowerby.
Malletia australis Q. & G. " crebra Hutton.
Placunanomia incisura Hutton. " yatei Gray.
Anomia huttoni Suter. Psammobia lineolata Gray.
Area decussata Sowerby. Corbula pumila Hutton.
" australis Hutton. Panopaea sp.
" n. sp. Cucullaea alta Sowerby.


No systematic collection appears to have been made from the locality near Ardgowan (fig. 1). It possibly corresponds with a locality mentioned by McKay in Geological Reports, 1881, p. 122, “Index of Fossiliferous Localities,” No. 175.

Stratigraphically, there is no definite rock-succession exposed in the immediate neighbourhood of the shell-beds. At the Devil's Bridge, one mile distant, it is evident that the dip of the beds there would carry them not far below the Ardgowan exposure. The equivalents of the Hutchinson's Quarry beds and the calcareous tuffs also outcrop about one mile to the east in a manner that supports this conclusion. Lithologically the shells and shell-fragments are embedded in a loose grey sand with some glauconite; in fact, the beds are almost exactly similar to the Target Gully beds, and they appear-to belong to the same horizon.

The following species of Mollusca were obtained there:—

Trochus tiaratus Q. & G. Natica zelandica Q. & G.
Turritella rosea Q. & G. Polinices suturalis Hutton.
" cavershamensis Harris. Cymatium cfr. minimus Hutton.
Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton. Epitonium browni Hutton.
Calyptraea maculata Q. & G. Surcula fusiformis Hutton.
" inflata Hutton. Turris altus Harris.
Crepidula crepidula L. Fusinus spiralis A. Ad.
" costata Sowerby. Latirus brevirostris Hutton.
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Siphonalia dilatata Q. & G. Nucula hartvigiana Phil.
Murex octogonus Q. & G. Malletia australis Q. & G.
Terebra, tristis Deshayes. Placunanomia incisura Hutton.
Alectrion socialis Hutton. Glycimeris globosa Hutton.
" sp. Pecten zelandiae Gray.
Typhis maccoyi T.-Woods. Pseudamusium huttoni Park.
Trophon paivae Crosse. Lima colorata Hutton.
Fulguraria arabica Martyn. Crassatellites obesus A. Ad.
" gracilis Swainson. " trailli Hutton.
Lapparia corrugata Hutton. " attenuatus Hutton.
Mitra enysi Hutton. Venericardia australis Lam.
Ancilla pseudaustralis Tate. " difficilis Deshayes.
" bicolorata Gray. Diplodonta globularis Lam.
Hemiconus trailli Hutton. Limopsis zitteli Ihering.
Drillia sp. Zenatia acinaces Q. & G.
Mangilia sinclairi E. A. Smith. Dosinia magna Hutton.
Cylichnella striata Hutton. Macrocallista assimilis Hutton.
Dentalium giganteum Hutton. Corbula pumila Hutton.
" mantelli Hutton. Panopaea orbita Hutton.


Park* appears to have been the first to collect from the beds at Pukeuri. He gives a list of eighteen fossils, and states that their nature is such as to indicate that the beds are lower than the Oamaru stone, but that the actual stratigraphic relations are obscured by drift. We find that less than a mile along the main road in the Waitaki Valley the limestone is dipping in such a manner as to carry it below the Pukeuri beds. The sandy, slightly glauconitic, character of the beds, as well as their fossil-contents, in our opinion support the conclusion that the beds exposed in the Pukeuri cutting are above the limestone.

We found the following fossils at Pukeuri:—

Trochus tiaratus Q. & G. Drillia sp.
Turritella rosea Q. & G. Cylichnella striata Hutton.
" carlottae Watson. Dentalium opacum Sowerby.
Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton. Nucula hartvigiana Phil.
Calyptraea maculata Q. & G. Malletia australis Q. & G.
Natica zelandica Q. & G. Placunanomia incisura Hutton.
Polinices ovatus Hutton. Cucullaea alta Sowerby.
Cymatium cfr. minimus Hutton. Limopsis aurita Brocchi.
Vexillum linctum Hutton. Pecten fischeri Zittel.
Siphonalia dilatata Q. & G. Pseudamusium huttoni Park.
Cominella huttoni Kobelt. Lima colorata Hutton.
Alectrion socialis Hutton. Crassatellites obesus A. Ad.
Hemiconus trailli Hutton. " trailli Hutton.
Turris altus Harris Venericardia difficilis Deshayes.
Fulguraria arabica Martyn. " australis Lam.
Marginella harrisi Cossman. Macrocallista assimilis Hutton.
" dubia Hutton. Chione meridionalis Sowerby.
Surcula fusiformis Hutton. Corbula pumila Hutton.

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 37, p. 519.

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Devil's Bridge.

Park appears to be the only geologist who has collected in this locality. The reading of the stratigraphy as given by him is wholly different from that observed by the authors. At the lower end of the small gorge the greensands are clearly lying on the limestone, and the greensands are succeeded by brown and yellow sands, in which we found the following fossils:—

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Fig. 3—Devil's Bridge, Oamaru. (Scale: 5in. = half a mile.)

Trochus tiaratus Q. & G. Malletia australis Q. & G.
Turritella rosea Q. & G. Pecten beethami Hutton.
Calyptraea maculata Q. & G. Pseudamusium huttoni Park.
Natica zelandica Q. & G. Crassatellites obesus A. Ad.
Cymatium cfr. minimus Hutton. " trailli Hutton.
Crepidula costata Sowerby. Venericardia difficilis Deshayes.
Siphonalia nodosa Martyn. " australis Lam.
Fulguraria gracilis Swainson. Limopsis' ausrita Lam.
Ancilla bicolorata Gray. Lima colorata Hutton.
Alectrion socialis Button. Macrocallista assimilis Hutton.
Dentalium mantelli Hutton. Zenatia acinaces Q. & G.
Nucula hartvigiana Phil.
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Fossils are not so plentiful here as in the other localities mentioned, but the collection is probably far from complete.

It will probably be evident from the statements made that in the opinion of the authors, based on stratigraphical evidence, all the fossiliferous beds referred to above actually belong to the same horizon, or, at any rate, that they are separated by quite small thicknesses of sediment. This conclusion is borne out by the identifications of the fossils. At the same time, attention must be drawn to certain differences between the fossils found in the different localities. It is noticeable that species that are extremely common in one locality may be rare or even absent from the others. Thus, Venericardia is abundant everywhere except at the Devil's Bridge, where it is quite unusual; Terebra tristis is abundant at the Target Gully; Cucullaea we did not find at the Devil's Bridge, but it occurs at each of the other localities; Malletia australis is fairly common in every locality; Crassatellites trailli, Drillia fusiformis, and Dentalium mantelli were found in each place, as well as Lima colorata, but the last is far more abundant at Awamoa than elsewhere; Turritella is abundant on every collecting-ground, but the species show considerable differences.

Whilst the general affinities of the fossils of each locality from which collections have been made are quite pronounced, there are, on the other hand, considerable differences between the collections. These differences are certainly in part due to the incomplete nature of the collections, but they must also, in part at least, be due to the different conditions that existed during the deposition of the deposits. Such differences are certainly indicated by the nature of the sediments. At Target Gully and at Ardgowan the deposits are formed of shells and shell-fragments that drifted along the sea-floor, mixed with a small quantity of glauconite. At Awamoa the fine character of the sediment shows that there was practically no current-action. At Pukeuri and at the Devil's Bridge the stratification of the sands is quite regular: there can have been little current-action, and yet the water was comparatively shallow.

The greatest importance of our lists of fossils is seen when comparison is made with those that have been quoted by other authors. Such comparison is, however, rather difficult, because the veil of synonymy can only be partly lifted at the present time—that is, until Mr. Suter's revised list of the New Zealand Mollusca is published, and also his catalogue of Tertiary fossils.

If comparison is made with the lists published in 1886 by Hutton, it will be found that about seventy of the species found by us are mentioned. Of these, about sixty are said to be restricted to his Pareora (Upper Miocene) system, and two only to his Oamaru (Oligocene) system, and fifteen are common to both. This result loses much of its force in suggesting an actual distinction between his systems when it is recalled that he lists 184 Pareora species that do not occur in his Oamaru system, and only thirty-three Oamaru species that do not occur in his Pareora system, and that the latter species occur largely in the limestone rocks, which, having been deposited in much deeper water, necessarily contain fossils that are decidedly different from the species contained in the shallower-water sandstones.

Park's zonal fossils of his Waihao beds—the lowest division of his Miocene—are two in number, Lapparia parki and Pleurotoma hamiltom. The former is now stated by Suter to be synonymous with L. corrugata, which occurs in nearly all the localities from which we have collected. He afterwards states that L. corrugata does not occur outside of his Awatere

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system, of older Pliocene age. Such “zonal” fossils are obviously of no importance, for the other species is at the present time represented by a single specimen only.

Of Park's list of twenty-three Waihao species, as many as sixteen species occur in the lists that we have given. In the middle division of his Miocene there are twenty-four species of Mollusca given as most distinctive: thirteen of these are given in our lists. Finally, twenty-nine are given as most abundant in the upper division of his Miocone, and some twenty-three of these were recognized by us. This list of twenty-nine represents in all but two the species that he found at Awamoa, so the percentage of them, that would be expected to be found in our lists would necessarily be high.

It appears, then, that the horizon from which we have collected—viz., that immediately above the Hutchinson's Quarry greensands—corresponds palaeontologically almost equally with any of his three Miocene horizons. Finally, Park gives a list of ten species which he says never occur above the Ototara-Waitaki stone. Of these, all except one species are in our lists. In each of our localities the beds lie above the limestone, of which we believe that there is but one horizon. At the Devil's Bridge the fossil horizon obviously rests above the limestone, in that locality called by Park the Waitaki or Upper limestone. The same position cannot be questioned for the Ardgowan beds, and in our opinion the beds at Awamoa, Pukeuri, and Target Gully obviously have the same position.

The actual age of these beds is very difficult to state. Until Mr. Suter's revision of the Mollusca appears we are not able to say how many of the species are Recent, but we are able to assert that it is not less than 40 per cent., and that it may be as much as 50 per cent. Our lists include seven species—Trochus tiaratus, Ampullina undulata, Phalium achatinum pyrum, Murex octogonus, Trophon plebeius, Trophon paivae, and Tellina glabrella—which have never been found below Pliocene rocks previously, and six of these species are Recent. There are some eight new species that we hope that Mr. Suter will describe in the future. One genus—Cypraea—has not previously been known to have representatives in New Zealand, though Mr. Suter now states in MSS. that Hutton's Volvaria ficoides should be placed in that genus.

A comparison between these beds and those of the Mount Brown, horizon of the Lower Waipara described by Speight* is interesting. In the Waipara beds Mactra, Glycimeris, and Natica are extremely common, but Limopsis is absent and Cucullaea is most unusual. However, in this locality the most fossiliferous beds appear to be about 1,000 ft. above the limestone, and therefore the fossils in all probability represent a higher horizon than the one from which we have collected.


[The abbreviations used are: T.N.Z.I. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute; Rep. G.S., Reports of the Geological Survey of New Zealand; Q. J.G.S., Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society.]

1850. Mantell, G. A. “On the Geology of New Zealand.” Q.J.G.S., vol. 6, p. 324.

1869. Traill, C. “Tertiary Series of Oamaru and Moeraki.” T.N.Z.I., vol. 2, p. 166.

[Footnote] * Trans N.Z. Inst., vol. 44, p. 221.

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1870. Hector, J. “Catalogue of Colonial Museum,” pp. 178, 179, and 189. 1873. Hutton, F. W. “Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca and Echinodermata of New Zealand.” 1875. Hutton, F. W. “Report on the Geology of Otago.” Mills, Dick, and Co., Dunedin. 1877. McKay, A. “Oamaru and Waitaki Districts.” Rep. G.S., 1876–77, pp. 41–66. 1882. McKay, A., “Geology of the Waitaki Valley and Parts of Vincent and Lake Counties.” Rep. G.S., pp. 56–92. 1882. Hector, J. “Index to Fossiliferous Localities in New Zealand.” Rep. G.S., pp. 118–28.

1882. McKay, A. “On the Younger Deposits of the Wharekauri Basin and the Lower Waitaki.” Rep. G.S., pp. 98–106.

1884. “On the North-eastern District of Otago.” Rep. G.S., 1883–84, pp. 45–66.

1885. Hutton, F. W. “Sketch of the Geology of New Zealand.” Q. J.G.S., vol. 41, pp. 191–220.

1886. Hutton, F. W. “The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru Systems of New Zealand.” Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, series 2, vol. 1, pp. 205–37.

1886. Hector, J. “Outline of New Zealand Geology.” 1886. Hutton, F. W. “Geology of the Country between Oamaru and Moeraki.” T.N.Z.I., vol. 19, pp. 415–30.

1887. McKay, A. “On the Younger Secondary and Tertiary Formations of Eastern Otago—Moeraki to Waikouaiti.” Rep. G.S., pp. 1–23.

1887. Hutton, F. W. “On the Greensands of the Waihao Forks.” T.N.Z.I., vol. 20, pp. 264–67.

1900. Hutton, F. W. “The Geological History of New Zealand.” T.N.Z.I., vol. 32, pp. 159–83.

1904. Park, J. “On the Marine Tertiaries of Otago and Canterbury.” T.N.Z.I., vol. 37, pp. 489–551.

1910. Marshall, P.; Speight, R., and Cotton, C. “The Younger Rock-series of New Zealand.” T.N.Z.I., vol. 43, pp. 378–407.

1911. Park, J. “Geology of New Zealand.” Whitcombe and Tombs, Christchurch, N.Z.

1911. Marshall, P. “Regional Geology.” Band 7, i, pp. 22, 23. Carl Winter, Heidelberg.

1911. Speight, R. “A Preliminary Account of the Lower Waipara Gorge.” T.N.Z.I., vol. 44, p. 227.

1912. Marshall, P. “Geology of New Zealand,” p. 188. Government Printer.