Art. XXVII.—The Nomenclature of the Birds of New Zealand: being an Abstract of Mathews and Iredale's “Reference List.”
[Read before the Otago Institute, 7th October, 1913.]
An important paper on the names of our birds was published in the Ibis for April and July of this year, by Messrs. G. M. Mathews and Tom Iredale, under the title of “A Reference List of the Birds of New Zealand,” which deserves to be summarized for the use of our naturalists to whom that journal may be difficult of access.
The authors have been able to examine a large series of almost all the species enumerated by Buller in the Supplement to his “Birds of New Zealand,” which contains a complete list of all the birds, native and visiting, which have been recorded as occurring in our islands or seas. At the same time they have been in a position to examine critically the literature in a way that was impossible to the early workers in this country. Further, in many cases the original specimens, or “types,” have been compared with the descriptions given by the zoologists by whom the specimens were named; and it appears, in short, that no trouble has been spared to make this new list as correct and complete as possible.
In the case of each species and subspecies, only sufficient synonymy has been given as will enable one to identify it with the bird described or listed by Buller, where the full synonymy will be found.
It will be seen from List I appended at the end of this article (p. 194) that a good number of the generic names have been altered: names familiar to us in New Zealand have had to give way to others. The reasons for these changes are, firstly, that the authors hold very rigidly to the law of priority; secondly, they take as the starting-point for valid names the tenth edition of Linné's “Systema Naturae,” published in 1758, instead of the twelfth edition, of 1766, which until recently has been the foundation of the binomial system of nomenclature usually followed. Again, some of the work of our early ornithologists in New Zealand was “little more than guesswork,” especially in regard to the sea-birds, for much of the literature was difficult of access here.
The authors adopt the trinomial system, and this is the first instance of its application in New Zealand to any group of animals, except that Iredale has used it in his “List of the Birds of the Kermadec Islands.”*
It will be seen from a few examples that this is a very useful innovation, in that it indicates at once the close affinity between the different forms or subspecies of one and the same species which inhabit the different islands that constitute the New Zealand area. Systematic work in all groups nowadays is more and more closely correlated with geographical distribution than it used to be; and, as classification is the expression of genetic relationships, the utility to the evolutionist of this trinomial system becomes manifest. Thus, the tui, Prosthemadera novae-zealandiae, as we have hitherto called it, occurs on both the North and South Islands (as well as Stewart Island) and on the Auckland Islands. Under the new scheme each of these local forms or subspecies receives its own distinctive name—the South Island tui, since it was the first to be described, is Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae; that on the North Island is P. novaeseelandiae phoebe; and the Auckland Island form is P. novaeseelandiae kwini.†
The authors, I may mention, pay very special attention to the exact spelling of the generic and specific names: in whatever form they were originally spelt, apart from evident lapsae calami, the rules of nomenclature demand that that form must be retained. Thus Sparrman wrote “novaezelandiae”; Gmelin used the form “novaeseelandiae”; while Quoy and Gaimard preferred “novae-zealandiae.” Some years ago our naturalists attempted to adopt some uniform spelling for this word, but the law of priority does not allow this uniformity.
As with the tui, so with the bell-bird, of which four subspecies are now recognized; and the same means are employed for distinguishing the local forms of kiwis, kingfishers, fantails, and other birds of the North and South Islands. In most cases the distinction was either not made formerly, or the two or more forms were regarded as so many distinct species. These are now recognizable as merely subspecies of one and the same species, and their relationship is thus better appreciated. This comes out very strikingly in the case of our shags, as may be seen by examining List II appended (pp. 195–202), in which the breeding-place of each subspecies is given.
[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 45, 1913, p. 78.
[Footnote] † The choice of the names for these two subspecies is perhaps not as suitable as would have been the case had they been bestowed by a naturalist in this country; but, after all, names are only labels, and need not have any meaning.
The use of the third name also allows the affinity to be expressed between the form of a bird occurring in New Zealand and that on which the species was founded. For instance, our black-backed gull is now termed Larus dominicanus antipodus, for the “type-locality,” or locality at which the type or first example of the species was recorded or breeds, is South America; and it becomes useful—and, indeed, desirable—to emphasize its affinity with the American species, and at the same time to indicate that the bird breeds in New Zealand, and differs in some slight details, perhaps, from the type. So with our crested grebe: the type-locality of Podiceps cristatus is Sweden, while our form differs in certain respects from it, but is not worthy of a separate specific name, and the facts are indicated by the addition to the specific name of a third or subspecific title, “australis.” The penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was originally described from the Falkland Islands, whilst our bird breeds on the Macquaries, and is termed Pygoscelis papua taeniata, or, in short. P. n. taeniata. And this is the case with many of our sea-birds.
Amongst the few changes in specific names, reference may be made to the ugly subspecific name “matook” which has been added to Demiegretta sacra; while the royal albatross from Campbell Island is no longer Diomedea regia, but D. epomophora epomophora. Our familiar Circus gouldi becomes C. approximans drummondi, and the Caspian tern is now Hydroprogne tschegrava oliveri.
Throughout the “Reference List” the authors give the breeding-place within our area, and when necessary the breeding-place of the type, as in the case of the sea-birds. There is still a good deal of confusion as to some of the sea-birds that have been recorded from our seas, which the authors have been unable fully to set at rest owing to the absence of the specimens on which the record was founded, some of these being in museums of the Dominion, and thus inaccessible to the authors in England. This is true, too, of several of the visiting Charadriidae.
There is an interesting historical note in regard to Sparrman, whose name appears after several of our species. It appears that he was a salaried assistant of Forster's on Cook's second voyage; his collection must, therefore, have been made under Forster's supervision, and probably after the latter had selected what he wished for his own work. But Sparrman, unfortunately, mixed up the localities of several of the birds described by him: thus he attributes to some of them “Cape of Good Hope”—e.g., the rifleman and South Island thrush. It therefore became important to fix the localities of these types, and the authors do so by reference to “what is absolutely known from Forster's descriptions and from George Forster's drawings.” But the retention of Sparrman's names leads in some instances, as I point out below, to alterations in familiar names which are to be regretted.
Perhaps to most people the changes in the generic names will be most noticed, and there is nothing that annoys naturalists, more especially amateur naturalists, to whom the professional owes so much for his knowledge of animals of all groups—nothing annoys them more than alterations in the names to which they have been accustomed for years, and it is distinctly disheartening to young naturalists; but in most cases these changes are unavoidable. Rules have been formulated for the proper method of naming animals, and it is not from “pure cussedness” that alterations are made. For instance, if in digging into the literature it is found that a bird has at some previous date been given a name other than that by which
it has been customary to call it, then by the law of priority that latter name must give way to the earlier-bestowed name; or, on the other hand, if a name in general use for a given bird turns out on investigation to have been given at an earlier date to a bird of quite a different character, then some later name must be substituted for the former bird. This is well illustrated by our woodhens (Maori hens, or wekas): the generic name Ocydromus, by which the birds have been hitherto known to us, is found to be “untenable, being preoccupied”—that is, Iredale by an exhaustive examination of the literature has discovered that at some previous date this name had been used for quite another bird; hence it becomes “untenable” for our woodhens, or, indeed, for any other animal whatsoever (“Novitates Zoologicae,” vol. 18, 1911, p. 22). The name next later in date to this is found to be Gallirallus, which had fallen into oblivion, and now has to be revived. The authors go fully into the difficulties of determining the exact names of the species of our woodhens. The result of their analysis is that “Gallirallus australis ranges throughout the North, South. and Stewart Islands, but in slightly differentiated subspecific forms.”
The stitch-bird is no longer Pogonornis; that name is preoccupied as appears to have been noted by Richmond in 1908, and is replaced by Notiomystis.
I do not know on what grounds Notornis is regarded as incorrect for the species hochstetteri. According to the International Committee, the name is to be retained for the extinct form, Notornis mantelli, and though Meyer long ago showed that the living species of the South Island is worthy of distinct specific recognition no such important differences were mentioned as to indicate that there is a generic difference between the two. But according to our authors “Notornis” must disappear, and be replaced by a new name, “Mantellornis.” They say, “Mathews has gone fully into the matter of the generic and specific names of this bird” (as he has of other birds) in his work “Birds of Australia,” 1911, 1912; and in this “Reference List” these reasons are not given in full, or only in a few instances. As the “Birds of Australia” is not accessible to me, it is impossible for me to give Mathews's reasons for this particular change.
The little rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris) receives as much as two pages and a half of discussion on its generic and specific names; and amidst much confusion the fact is brought out that Sparrman gave as the locality “Cape of Good Hope” to the specimens collected by Forster at Dusky Sound. Fortunately, he did not add to the confusion by using a specific name that would perpetuate this error.
In most instances, however, the matter, having been treated previously either by Mathews or by Iredale in earlier papers, is not dealt with in detail in this article.
It will be seen from the lists appended (pp. 194–202) that in several instances a single genus has been broken up into two or more genera: thus some of the species which have been attributed to the genus Oestrelata are now placed in the genus Pterodroma, others in Cookilaria, both of which were founded as long ago as 1856, but which seem to have been overlooked by our naturalists in New Zealand.
The genus Phalacrocorax is broken up into five genera, one of which must retain Linné's name; three others have been established for something like fifty years, and one is formed now by the authors.
The genus Prion is found to be “indeterminable”—it is insufficiently characterized by its author, Lacepede; and some of the species formerly
included in it are ranged under Pachyptila, more than one hundred years-old; others to Pseudoprion and Heteroprion, of later dates.
Our warblers, hitherto placed in the genus Pseudogerygone, are found by careful comparison with members of that genus to differ sufficiently from it to warrant the formation of two new genera—Maorigerygone and Hapolorhynchus.
It is, of course, impossible for me to give the reasons for these various changes, or to. discuss their correctness or otherwise. These authors have had. opportunities denied to us in our isolation. We must accept their conclusions as well founded—at any rate, in most instances—till some other ornithologist in Europe shows reasons against them.
But there are one or two cases at least in which it seems to me that the alterations are open to criticism. For example, the New Zealand crows-belong to a genus confined to the main islands of New Zealand, of which only two species are known. In the “Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum,” vol. 3, written in 1877 by Bowdler Sharpe, we find that two generic names are given as having been bestowed on these crows—Glaucopis Gmelin, 1788, and Callaeas Forster, 1844. Sharpe retains the earlier name, and we have always known our crows as Glaucopis. Now Mathews and Iredale date Callaeas as 1788 (how is it that Sharpe did not know this?); but even if this be so—and I have no reason to doubt the correctness of this statement—yet the general zoologist, who is not obsessed by the desire for change for the sake of adhering slavishly to the law of priority, cannot refrain from asking, What benefit to ornithological literature results from ringing the changes on these two names? Glaucopis has been in use, apparently unchallenged, for 125 years; and even if Callaeas was invented in the same year as Glaucopis, what harm can possibly arise by leaving Callaeas in its long sleep, buried away in some presumably un-get-at-able publication, for, as I have noted, Sharpe seems to have overlooked its earlier date? What advantage to any zoologist is attained by thus sub stituting the name Callaeas for the well-known Glaucopis? The genus is endemic, and confined to this country; it is quite isolated; and the name Gluacopis has the authority of the British Museum catalogue. It seems a needless alteration.
Again, the huia belongs to a genus with a single species, confined to New Zealand (North Island). Hitherto we have called it Heteralocha acutirostris, and though Sharpe, in his catalogue, clearly recognized that Gould's name of Neomorpha (1837) precedes that of Cabanis (1851), yet he retains the later name, Heteralocha. Neomorpha Gould appears to have been discarded because a genus of cuckoo had already been named Neomorphus by Gluger in 1827. It is therefore not clear why these authors have resuscitated Gould's name.
Another unfortunate change is that in the specific name of our South Island thrush, hitherto known as Turnagra crassirostris. It appears that the name bestowed on the original specimens by Sparrman was T. capensis, owing to a mistake in his labels, so that he attributed the bird to the Cape of Good Hope. It is only as a result of the investigations of these authors that it has been found possible to identify these names of Sparrman's with those of Forster. Here again one feels inclined to grumble at the strict application of the law of priority, for the genus is confined to New Zealand, has only the two species, and no sort of conceivable convenience arises from this change, while all kinds of misconceptions and inconveniences may arise in the minds of readers of ornithological works when such a geo-
graphical term is found to belong to a bird living half the circumference of the globe away from the Gape. No sort of inconvenience would result were this name capensis ignored. One feels a deep regret that these authors have done their work, so conscientiously and thoroughly.
We must, of course, fully recognize the importance of adhering to the rules of nomenclature, but in cases such as these three birds surely some advantage to the naturalists (especially in New Zealand) is sacrificed to a strict adherence to the law of priority, and no corresponding advantage, it seems to me, is gained by the ornithologist. These sticklers for priority ignore the fact that the various books dealing with natural history generally, works on general zoology and on geographical distribution and other cognate subjects, in which these birds (and the same applies, of course, to other groups of animals) are referred to in illustration of habit, or structure, or habitat, or adaptation, &c., become puzzling- or meaningless to later generations of readers when well-established names are thus altered by specialists who have been able to delve a little deeper into the pamphlets of the past. Some of us general zoologists who have to keep abreast of several groups in the interests of our students feel that some sort of statute of limitation is needed, and welcome some controlling influence such as is being evolved by the International Commission on Nomenclature.
This leads on to another matter. Since the publication of the “Refer ence List” there has appeared in the Zoologischer Anzeiger, for the 26th September, 1913, a report by an International Committee of Ornithologists recommending a list of generic names of birds as “valid and to be accepted” by all ornithologists. In this list I notice two names which Mathews and Iredale had proposed to alter—viz., Phalacrocorax, with type P. carbo, Linné; Himantopus, with type H. himantopus, Linné. This being the case, we must in obedience to this Commission on Nomenclature retain these two generic names in spite of the investigations of Mathews and Iredale, who suggest that in place of them should be substituted Carbo and Hypsibates respectively. In the list appended I have followed the committee's ruling.
International committees have been set up by the Commission for the consideration of lists of names in the various classes of the animal kingdom which naturalists deem it desirable or advantageous should be retained in spite of the rule of priority. It is quite possible that the committee would, if the matter were referred to them, decide in favour of retaining Glaucopis and Heteralocha.*
Again and again the authors emphasize the need of a careful study of a good series of specimens, with well-authenticated localities, before it is possible to decide finally on the distinction of certain of the subspecies, such as the warblers, hawks, kakapos, nestors, shags, &c. It is, however, to be feared that this desideratum will be difficult to attain, for, since every land-bird is now protected by Order in Council, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain anything like a good series for careful investigation. The specimens in the private collections up and down the country are not always, it is to be feared, properly “localized”: many of the localities are only preserved in the memory of their possessors.
I append three lists—I. A list of changes in generic names. II. A complete list of the birds which are constantly to be found within the New Zealand area, most of which are known to breed therein. III. A list of occasional visitors.
[Footnote] * I have submitted these names to the consideration of the committee. 7—Trans.
List I.—In this list I have arranged in alphabatical order on the left side the names as they appear in the “Index Faunae Novae-Zealandiae,” and on the right side of the page are the new names as proposed in the “Reference List,” with the names of their authors and dates.
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|“Index Faunae Novae-Zealandiae.”||“Reference List.”|
|Acanthidositta||Acanthisitta Lafresnaye, 1842.|
|Ardetta||Ixobrychus Billberg, 1828.|
|Certhiparus (part)||Finschia Hutton, 1903.|
|Chalcococcyx||Lamprococcyx Cabanis, 1862.|
|Diomedea sp. (mollymawks)||Thalassarche Reichenbach, 1852.|
|Gallinago||Coenocorypha Gray, 1855.|
|Glaucopis||Callaeas Forster, 1788.|
|Halcyon||Sauropatis Cabanis and Heine, 1860.|
|Heteralochay||Neomorpha Gould, 1857.|
|Himantopus*||Hypsibates Nitzsch, 1827.|
|Larus (part: smaller species)||Bruchigavia Bonaparte, 1857.|
|Mahua(laps. cal.)||Mohoua Lesson, 1837.|
|Megalestris||Catharacta, Brunnich, 1764.|
|Merganser||Promergus Mathews and Iredale, 1913.|
|Miro (part)||Nesomiro Mathews and Iredale, 1813.|
|Ninox||Spiloglaux Kaup, 1848.|
|Notornis||Mantellornis Mathews, 1911.|
|Ochthodromus(obscurus)||Pluviorhynchus Bonaparte, 1856.|
|"(bicinctus)||Cirrepidesmus Bonaparte, 1856.|
|Ocydromus||Gallirallus Lafresnaye, 1841.|
|Oestrelata (part)||Pterodroma Bonaparte, 1856.|
|"||Cookilaria Bonaparte, 1856.|
|Ossifraga||Macronectes Richmond, 1906.|
|Petroeca||Myiomoira Reichenbach, 1850.|
|Phalacrocorax (part)†||Carbo Lacepède, 1799.|
|"||Hypoleucus Reichenbach, 1852.|
|"||Stictocarbo Bonaparte, 1855.|
|"||Microcarbo Bonaparte, 1856.|
|"||Mesocarbo Mathews and Iredale, 1913.|
|Podiceps(rufopectus)||Poliocephalus Selby, 1840.|
|Pogonornis||Notiomystis Richmond, 1908.|
|Prion||“Prion of Lacepède is indeterminable.”|
|" (part)||Pachyptila Illiger, 1811.|
|"||Pseudoprion Coues, 1866.|
|"||Heteroprion Mathews, 1912.|
|Porzana(tabuensis)||Porzanoidea Mathews, 1912.|
|Pseudogerygone (part)||Maorigerygone Mathews and Iredale, 1913.|
|"||Hopolorhynchus Reichenow, 1908.|
|Puffinus(gavia)||Reinholdia Mathews, 1912.|
|Sphenoeacus||Bowdleria Rothschild, 1896.|
|Sterna (nereis)||Sternula Boie, 1822.|
|Stringops||Strigops Gray, 1845.|
In List II, of the purely native birds, I have arranged the birds in the order they have in the “Index Faunae Novae-Zealandiae,” for that is a work that every naturalist in New Zealand ought to have by him; at any rate, it is one that he is more likely to have than Buller's large and expensive work. The authors of the “Reference List” follow the arrangement in
[Footnote] * See p. 193.
[Footnote] † But see p. 193.
the Supplement to Buller's Birds, which is the latest and most complete list of the birds, native and visiting, that have been recorded in our area.*
In those cases where the species is not mentioned in the Index, but is in the Supplement, the word “(Suppl.)” is placed after the name.
Birds which are not to be found in either work, but which have either been unearthed from the literature by Mathews and Iredale or have been described since the publication of the Supplement, are enclosed in square brackets, thus: [ ].
A few new subspecific names are. bestowed by the authors of the “Reference List”; these are indicated in the left-hand column by three asterisks, thus: * * *.
In the right-hand column I have given the names of the orders and families as adopted by recent ornithologists, which differ in some cases from those given in the Index. Comparison also with the Supplement is rendered easy.
The full name of the species and subspecies is followed by the name of the author of the latter. Almost every one of the species has been transferred by this time to some genus other than the one in which the author placed it, and according to the rules of nomenclature the author's name should be enclosed in brackets. These have been omitted. Then follows the breeding-place of the subspecies: if it breeds in both the North and South Islands no locality is mentioned; if it breeds only on one of the outlying islands these are mentioned; but in a few instances the breeding-place is unknown, or only doubtfully is it at the locality mentioned, when the question mark (?) is added, thus: “Breeds? Snares Islands.”
Any notes at the foot of the lists are either verbally taken or epitomized from the statements of Mathews and Iredale, unless initialled “W. B. B.”
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|Names as given in the “Index Faunae Novae-Zealandiae” or in the Supplement to Buller's Birds.||Names as given in the “Reference List” of Mathews and Iredale.|
|Glaucopis cinerea||Callaeas cinerea Gmelin. South Island.|
|G. wilsoni||C. wilsoni Bonaparte. North Island.|
|Heteralocha acutirostris||Neomorpha acutirostris Gould. North Island.|
|Creadion carunculatus||Creadion carunculatus Gmelin.|
|Turnagra crassirostris||Turnagra capensis Sparrman. South Island.|
|T. tanagra||T. tanagra Sohlegel. North Island.|
|Sphenoeacus punctatus||Bowdleria punctata vealeae Kemp. North Island.|
|S. fulvus||B. punctata punctata Quoy and Gaimard. South Island.|
|S. caudatus (Suppl.)||B. punctata caudata Buller. Snares Islands.|
|S. rufescens||B. rufescens Buller. Chatham Islands.|
[Footnote] * By the New Zealand area is to be understood the two main islands (with Stewart Island), Chatham Islands to the east, and to the south the Snares, Auckland Islands, Campbell Islands, Antipodes Islands, Bounty Island, and Macquarie Islands. I have excluded the Kermadeo Islands.
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|Petroica toitoi||Myiomoira toitoi Lesson. North Island.|
|P. macrocephala||M. macrocephala macrocephala Gmelin. South Island.|
|[P. dieffenbachii Gray, 1843]||M. macrocephala dieffenbachii Gray. Chatham Islands.|
|Miro albifrons||Miro australis australis Sparrman. South Island.|
|M. bulleri (Suppl.)||Miro australis bulleri Buller. South Island; alpine.|
|M. australia (Suppl.)||M. australis longipes Lesson. North Island.|
|M. traversi||Nesomiro traversi traversi Buller. Chatham Islands.|
|M. dannefordi||N. traversi dannefaerdi Rothschild. Snares Islands.|
|Pseudogerygone igata||Maorigerygone igata igata Quoy and Gaimard. South Island.|
|P. sylvestris (Suppl.)||M. igata sylvestris Potts. South Island; alpine.|
|P. flaviventris||M. igata flaviventris Gray. North Island.|
|[P. macleani Grant, 1907]||M. igata macleani Grant. North Island mountains.|
|P. albofrontata||Hapolorhynchus albofrontata Gray. Chatham Is-lands.|
|Rhipidura flabellifera||Rhipidura flabellifera flabellifera Gmelin. South Island.|
|* * *||R. flabellifera kempi subsp. nov. North Island.|
|[R. flabellifera penitus Bangs, 1911]||R. flabellifera penitus Bangs. Chatham Islands.|
|R. fuliginosa||R. fuliginosa Sparrman. South Island.|
|Certhiparus albicilus||Certhiparus albicillus Lesson. North Island.|
|C. Jnovae-zealandiae||Finschia novaeseelandiae Gmelin. South Island.|
|Mahua ochrocephala||Mohoua ochrocephala Gmelin. South Island.|
|Pogonornis cincta||Notiomystis cincta Du Bus. North Island.|
|Anthornis melanura||Anthornis melanura melanura Sparrman. South Island.|
|[Philedon dumerilii Lesson, 1830]||A. melanura dumerilii Lesson (Voy. “Coquille”). North Island.|
|[Anthornis incoronata Bangs, 1911]||A. melanura incoronata Bangs. Auckland Islands.|
|A. melanocephala||A. melanura melanocephala Gray. Chatham Islands.|
|Prosthemadera novae - zealandiae (part)||Prosthemadera novaeselandiae novaeseelandiae Gmelin. South Island.|
|[P. novae-zealandiae phoebe Kemp, 1912]||P. novaeseelandiae phoebe. Kemp. North Island.|
|[P. novae-zealandiae kwini Kemp, 1912]||P. novaeseelandiae kwini Kemp. Auckland Islands.|
|Zosterops coerulescens||Zosterops lateralis tasmanica Mathews.|
|Anthus novae-zealandiae (part)||Anthus novaeselandiae novaeseelandiae Gmelin. South Island.|
|"||Anthus novaeseelandiae reischeki Lorenz-Liburnau. North Island.|
|A. aucklandicus||A. novaeseelandiae aucklandicus Gray. Auckland Islands.|
|[A. novae-zealandiae chathamensis Lor.-Lib., 1902]||A. novaeseelandiae chathamensis Lorenz-Liburnau. Chatham Islands.|
|A. steindachneri||A. novaeseelandiae steindachneri Reischek. Anti-podes Islands.|
[Footnote] * See Hutton, Ibis, 1903, p. 31, whom the authors follow.
|Acanthidositta chloris||Acanthisitta chloris chloris Sparrnan. South Island.|
|* * *||A. chloris granti subsp. nov. North Island.|
|Xenicus longipes||Xenicus longipes longipes Gmelin. South Island.|
|X. stokesi (Suppl.)||X. longipes stokesii Gray. North Island.|
|X. gilviventris||X. gilviventris Pelzeln. South Island; alpine.|
|Traversia lyalli||Traversia lyalli Rothschild. Stephen Island. Extinct.|
|Halcyon vagans (part)||Sauropatis sanctus vagans Lesson. North Island.|
|"||S. sanctus forsteri subsp. nov. South Island.|
|Chalcoccyx lucidus||Lamprococcyx lucidus Gmelin. “Winter quarters still unknown.”*|
|Urodynamis taitensis||Urodynamis taitensis Sparrman.|
|Ninox novae-zealandiae (part)||Spiloglaux novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae Gmelin. South Island.|
|[N. venatica Peale, 1848]||S. novaeseelandiae venatica Peale. North Island.|
|Sceloglaux albifacies||Sceloglaux albifacies albifacies Gray. South Island.|
|S. rufifacies (Suppl.)||S. albifacies rufifacies Buller. North Island.|
|Nestor notabilis||Nestor notabilis Gould. South Island.|
|N. meridionalis = N. esslingi (Suppl.)||N. meridionalis meridionilis Gmelin. South Is-land.|
|[N. septentrionalis Lorenz, 1896]||N. meridionalis septentrionalis Lorenz. North Island.|
|Cyanorhamphus, unicolor||Cyanorhamphus unicolor Lear. Antipodes Island.|
|C. novae-zealandiae||C. novaezelandiae novaezelandiae? Sparrman,|
|[Platycercus hochstetteri Reischek, 1889]||C. novaezelandiae hochstetteri Reischek. Antipodes Island.|
|Cyanorhamphus aucklandicus||C. novaezelandiae aucklandicus Reichenow. Auckland Islands.|
|C. erythrotis||C. novaezelandiae erythrotis Wagler. Macquarie Island.|
|C. auriceps||C. auriceps auriceps Kuhl. South Island.|
|* * *||C. auriceps macleani subsp. nov. North. Island|
|C. forbesi||C. auriceps forbesi Rothschild. Chatham Islands.|
|C. malherbi||C. malherbi Souancé. South of South Island.|
[Footnote] * Mathews: “Austral Avian Record,” vol. 1. 1912, p. 15.
|Stringops habroptilus||Strigops habroptilus habroptilus Gray. South Island.|
|* * *||S. habroptilus innominatus subsp. nov.*|
|* * *||S. habroptilus parsonsi subsp. nov.†|
|Nesierax novae-zealandiae||Nesierax novaeseelandiae Gmelin. “Quail-hawk.”|
|N. australis||N. pottsi sp. nov. “Bush-hawk.”‡|
|Circus gouldi||Circus approximans drummondi subsp. nov.|
|Ooturnix novae-zealandiae||Coturnix novae-zealandiae Quoy and Gaimard. Extinct.|
|Hemiphaga novae-zealandiae||Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae Gmelin.|
|H. chathamensis||H. novaeseelandiae chathamensis Rothschild. Chatham Islands.|
|Hypotaenidia philippensis||Hypotaenidia philippensis assimilis Gray.|
|H. macquariensis||H. philippensis macquariensis Hutton. Maoquarie Island.|
|H. muelleri||Rallus muelleri Rothschild.|
|Nesolimans dieffendachii||Nesolimnas dieffendichii Gray.|
|Cabalus modestus||Cobalus modestus Hutton.|
|Ocydromus australis = O, earli Gray||Gallirallus australis australis Sparrman. South Island.|
[Footnote] * Buller (Birds N.Z., 1873, p. 23, footnote) states that the only specimen of the kakapo from the North Island is very small. The authors of the “Reference List” write: “We are adopting the extreme course, and naming the race. Inasmuch as the kakapo is flightless, there is every reason to suggest that the birds inhabiting the two Islands should constitute recognizable races.”
[Footnote] † An extremely large form lives in the mountains of the north-west of the South Island, and they name it; but, as the authors note, Reischek maintains that of the large series of birds collected by him at Dusky Sound (at the south-west of the South Island) those living at the heights were larger and lighter than those at or near the sea-level.
[Footnote] ‡ It may be noted that they adopt the view that there are two species of hawks; and, though they are unable to settle the question finally, they name the smaller form N. pottsi, which agrees precisely in colour with the larger. At the same time they express some doubt as to whether the small size is specific. It was necessary to choose a new name, for they found that australis o iHombron and Jacquinot is not synonymous with australis of Gmelin.
|O. greyi (Suppl.)||G. australis greyi Buller. North Island.|
|[O. scotti Grant, 1905]||G. australis scotti Grant. Stewart Island.|
|O. hectori||G. hectori Hutton. South Island.*|
|O. brachypterus||G. brachypterus Lafresnaye. South-west coast of South Island.|
|Porzana affinis||Porzana pusilla affinis Gray.|
|P. tabuensis||Porzanoidae plumbea plumbea Gray.|
|Porphyrio melanonotus||Porphyrio melanonotus stanleyi Rowley.|
|P. chathamensis||P. melanonotus chathamesis Sharpe. Chatham Islands.|
|Notornis hochstetteri||Mantellornis hochstetteri Meyer.|
|Herodias timoriensis||Herodias alba maoriana subsp. nov.|
|Notophoyx novae-hollandiae||Notophoyx novaehollandiae Latham.|
|Demiegretta sacra||Demiegretta sacra matook Vieillot.|
|Ardetta pusilla||Ixobrychus minutus novaezelandiae Potts.|
|Botaurus poeciloptilus||Botaurus poeciloptilus melanotus Gray.|
|Haematopus longirostris||Haematopus ostralegus finschi Martens.|
|H. unicolor||H. niger unicolor Forster.|
|Ochthodromus obscurus||Pluviorhynchus obscurus Gmelin.|
|O. bicinctus||Cirrepidesmus bicinctus Jardine and Selby.|
|Thinornis novae-zealandiae||Thinornis novaeseelandiae Gmelin.|
|T. rossi||Juvenile stage of preceding.†|
|Anarhyncus frontalis||Anarhyncus frontalis Quoy and Gaimard.|
|Himantopus picatus‡||Himantapus leucocephalus alba Ellman.|
|H. melas||H. novaezealandiae Gould.|
|Limosa novae-zealandiae||Limosa lapponica baueri Naumann.|
|Gallinago aucklandica||Coenocorypha aucklandica aucklandica Gray. Auckland Islands.|
|G. huegeli||G. aucklandica huegeli Tristram. snares Islands.|
|G. pusilla||G. aucklandica pusilla Buller. Chatham Islands.|
|[G. tristrami Rothschild, 1894]||G. aucklandica tristrami Rothschild. Antipodes Islands.|
[Footnote] * “The common South Island woodhen must for the present bear the name of G. hectori.” “It is obvious that we have not reached the truth as to the distribution and forms of the woodhen,” owing to “the few specimens we have been able to examine.”
[Footnote] † The authors suggest that the locality “Auckland Islands” in original description should read “Auckland.”
[Footnote] ‡ The authors place it in Witzsch's genus Hypsibates, with type H. himantopus Linne. According to my reading of the Report of International Committee, the name Himantopus must remain.—W. B. B.
|Hydroprogne caspia||Hydroprogne tschegrava oliveri subsp. nov.|
|Sterna albistriata||S. albistriata albistriata Gray.|
|S. vittata||S. vittata bollonsi subsp. nov.|
|S. frontalis||S. striata striata Gmelin.|
|S. bethunei (Suppl.)||S. striata bethunei Buller. Auckland Islands.|
|S. nereis||Sternula nereis davisae subsp. nov.|
|Larus bulleri||Bruchigavia melanorhyncha Buller.|
|L. scopulinus||B. novaehollandiae scopulinus Forster.|
|L. domincanus||Larus dominicanus antipodus Bruch.|
|Megalestris antarctica||Catharacta lonnbergi lonnbergi Mathews.|
|Sula serrator||Sula bassana serrator Gray.|
|Phalacrocorat carbo*||Phalacrocorax carbo steadi subsp. nov.†|
|P. varius||Hypoleucus varius varius Gmelin.|
|P. chalconotus||H. chalconotus Gray. Stewart Island.|
|P. campbelli||H. campbelli campbelli Filhol. Campbell Islands.|
|P. colensoi||H. campbelli colensoi Buller. Auckland Islands.|
|P. stewarti||H. campbelli stewarts Grant. Stewart Island.|
|P. ranfurlyi||H. campbelli ranfurlyi Grant. Bounty Islands|
|P. carunculatus||H. carunculatus carunculatus Gmelin. North of the South Island.|
|P. onslowi||H. carunculatus onslowi Forbes. Chatham Islands.|
|P. traversi||H. carunculatus traversi Rothschild. Auckland Islands, Macquarie Island.|
|P. sulcirostris||Mesocarbo ater purpuragula Peale.|
|P. melanoleucus = P. brevirostris||Microcarbo melanoleucos brevirostris Gould.|
|P. punctatus||Stictocarbo punctatus Sparrman.|
|P. featherstoni||S. featherstoni Buller. Chatham Islands.|
|Oceanites oceanicus||Oceanites oceanicus exasperatus Mathews. Cape Adare.|
|Garrodia nereis||Garrodia nereis nereis Gould.|
|Pelagodroma marina||Pelagodroma marina maoriana Mathews. Chatham Islands, Auckland Islands.|
|Cymodroma melanogaster||Fregetta tropica melanogaster Gould.|
|Pussinus gavia (Suppl.)||Reinholdia reinholdi reinhold Mathews.|
|[P. reinholdi huttoni Mathews, 1912]||R. reinholdi huttoni Mathews. Snares Islands.|
|P. bulleri||Puffinus bulleri Salvin. Breeds? loc.|
|P. gavia Forster||P. assimilis gavia Forster.|
|[P. assimilis kempi Mathews, 1912]||P. assimilis kempi Mathews. Chatham Islands.|
[Footnote] * Note extract above from the report of the International Committee on Birdnames. The name Phalacrocorax is to be retained for this species. The authors would replace it by Carbo Lacepede, 1799.—W. B. B.
[Footnote] † “Carbo carbo steadi [that is, Phalacrocorax carbo steadi (W. B. B.)] is easily separated from the typical C. c. carbo by the scant white neck-feathers of the summer plumage, as well as by size”; and the average measurements are given.
|P. carneipes||P. carneipes carbonarius Mathews.|
|P. griseus||P. griseus griseus Gmelin.|
|Majaqueus aequinoctialis||Procellaria aequinoctialis steadi Mathews. Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands.|
|M. parkinsoni||P. parkinsoni Gray.|
|Oestrelata macroptera||Pterodroma macroptera gouldi Hutton.|
|O. lessoni||P. lessoni leucocephala Forster. Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands.|
|O. gularis||P. inexpectata inexpectata Forster.|
|O. cooki||Cookilaria cookii cookii Gray.|
|O. axillaris||C. cookii axillaris Salvin. Chatham Islands.|
|Ossifraga gigantea (part)||Macronectes giganteus albus Potts. Breeds?|
|"||M. giganteus wilsoni Mathews.? Macquarie Island.|
|Daption capensis||Daption capense Linne? Snares Islands.|
|Prion vittatus||Pachyptila vittatus vittatus Gmelin.|
|P. banksi||Heteroprion desolatus alter Mathews. Aucklalnd Islands.|
|[Heteroprion desolatus macquariensis, Mathews, 1912]||H. desolatus macquariensis Mathews. Matquarie Island.|
|Prion desolatus Gm. = P. turtur Buller||Psedoprion turtur huttoni Mathews. Chatham Islands.|
|P. ariel Gould = P. brevirostris Buller|
|[Pseudoprion turtur crassirostris Mathews, 1912]||P. turtur crassirostris Mathews. Bounty Islands.|
|Pelecanoides urinatrix = P. exsul||Pelecanoides urinatrix urinatrix Gmelin.|
|Diomedea regia (part)||Diomedea epomophora epomophora Lesson. Campbell Islands.|
|"||D. epomophora maccormicki Mathews. Enderby Island.|
|D. melanophrys||Thalassarche melanophris impavida Mathews. Campbell Islands.|
|D. bulleri||T. bulleri Rothschild. Snares Islands.|
|Thalassogeron salvini||Thalassogeron cautus salvini Rothschild. Bounty Islands.|
|T. culminatus||T. chrysostoma mathewsi Rothschild. Campbell Islands.|
|T. chloiorhynchus||T. chlororhynchus bassi Mathews.|
|Phoebetria fuliginosa||Phoetria palpebrata huttoni Mathews. Subantarctic islands.|
|Aptenodytes patagonica||Aptenodytes patagonica halli Matthews. Macquarie Island.|
|Pygoscelis papua||Pygoscelis papua taeniata Mathews. Macquarie Island.|
|Catarrhactes chrysocome||Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome Forster. Anti. podes Islands.|
|C. pachyrhynchus||E. chrysocome pachyrhynchus Gray. Snares Islands.|
|C. sclateri||E. chrysocome sclateri Buller. Auckland Islands.|
|[Eudyptes filholi Hutton, 1878]||E. chrysocome filholi Hutton. Campbell Islands.|
|Catarrhactes schlegeli||E. schlegeli Finsch. Macquarie Island.|
|Megadyptes antipodum||Megadyptes antipodes Hombron and Jacquinot. South Island.|
|Eudyptula minor||Eudyptula minor minor Forster. South Island.|
|E. albosignata||E. minor albosignata Finsch. Banks Peninsula.|
|[E. minor iredalei Mathews, 1911]||E. minor iredalei Mathews. Chatham Islands.|
|Podiceps cristatus||Podiceps cristatus australis Gould.|
|P. rufipectus||Poliocephalus rufopectus Gray.|
|Casarca variegata||Casarca variegata Gmelin.|
|Anas superciliosa||Anas superciliosa superciliosa Gmelin.|
|Nettion gibberifrons||“Unable to satisfy ourselves of the occurrence either in Australia or New Zealand.”|
|Elasmonetta chlorotis||Elasmonetta chlorotis Gray.|
|Nesonetta aucklandica||Nesonetta aucklandica Gray. Auckland Islands.|
|Spatula rhynchotis||Spatula rhynchotis variegata Gould.|
|Fuligula novae-zealandiae||Fuligula novaeseelandiae Gmelin.|
|Hymenolaemus malacorhynchus||Hymenolaimus malacorhynohos Gmelin.|
|Merganser australis||Promergus australis Hombron and Jacquinot. Auckland Islands.|
|Apteryx australis||Apteryx australis australis Shaw and Nodder-South Island.|
|A. lawryi (Suppl.)||A. australis Iawryi Rothschild. Stewart Island.|
|A. mantelli||A. australis mantelli Bartlett. North Island.|
|A. oweni||A. owenii owenii Gould.? Both Islands.|
|A. occidentalis||A. owenii occidentalis Rothschild. West Coast ranges, South Island.|
|A. haasti||A. haastii Potts. West Coast ranges, South Island.|
List III.—Many of the birds included in the Index and the Supplement are not native to the country; they do not breed within the New Zealand area; they are occasional visitors, stragglers from neighbouring lands. In the Index no notification is given that many of these are not in the same category as our truly native forms; and though Hutton does give a list of wanderers, on page 37, yet he includes in the body of his list many of those enumerated below.
It is desirable that our list of birds be purged of these occasional visitors. I have excluded from this list the birds which occur on the Kermadec Islands, for on the evidence of most of the groups of the animal kingdom these islands lie outside the New Zealand area, though in the case of the birds many of our natives do occur there; and Iredale has recently published a list of the birds of the Kermadecs (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 45, 1913, p. 78).
In this list I have again followed the arrangement of the Index, and have added after the modern names of the birds the number of occurrences in New Zealand which have been recorded, and which have been verified by the authors of the list so far as possible. It will be seen on what slender justification many—indeed, most—of them have been included in lists of New Zealand birds.
|Index or Supplement.||“Reference List”|
|Graucalus melanops||Coracina robusta robusta Latham. Three occurrences.|
|Acanthochaera carunculata||Coleia carunculata Latham. Twice.|
|Petrochelidon nigricans||Hylochelidon nigricans nigricans Vieillot. Few occurrences.|
|Cuculus saturatus (Suppl.)||Cuculus optatus Gould. Once.|
|Eurystomus australis||Eurystomus orientalis pacificus Latham. Few.|
|Chaetura caudacuta||Chaetura caudacuta caudacuta Latham. Once.|
|Micropus pacificus||Apus pacificus Latham. Once.|
|Cerchneis cenchroides||Cenchneis cenchroides cenchroides Vigors and Horsfield. Twice.|
|Rallus featherstoni Buller (Essay Ornith. N.Z., 1865)||Crex crex Linné. Once.|
|Fulica australis?||Fulica tasmanica Grant. Once.|
|Platalea regia||Platalea regia regia Gould. Thrice.|
|Plegadis falconellus||Plegadis falconellus Linné. Once.|
|Ardea cinerea||Ardea cinerea rectirostris Gould. Once.|
|Nycticorax caledonicus||Nycticorax caledonicus australasiae Vieillot. Few occurrences.|
|Arenaria interpres||Morinella interpres oahuensis Bloxham. Irregular visitor.|
|Lobivanellus lobatus||Lobibyx novaehollandiae Stephens. Once.|
|Charadrius dominicus||Pluvilus dominicus fulvua Gould. Irregular visitor.|
|Aegialitis ruficapilla||Leucopolius ruficapillus ruficapillus Temminck. Once.|
|Recurvirostra novaehollandiae||Recurvirostra novaehollandiae novaehollandiae Vieillot. Few occurrences.|
|Limosa hudsonica||Limosa limosa haemastica Linné. Once.|
|Numenius cyanopus||Numenius cyanopus Vieillot. Few occurrences.|
|Mesoscolopax minutus||Mesoscolopax minutus Gould. Once.|
|Heteraclitis incanus||Heteroscelus incanus Gmelin. A pair.|
|Glottis nebularis||Glottis nebularis Gunner. Once.|
|Anchylochilus subarquatus (Suppl.)||Erolia ferruginea Brunnioh. Few.|
|Limonites ruficollis||Pisobia minuta ruficollis Pallas.? Once. “The record requires investigation.”|
|Heteropyga acuminata||Heteropyga maculata acuminata Horsfield. Irregular visitor.|
|Tringa canutus||Canutus canutus Linné. Occasional visitor.|
|Gallinago australis||Gallinago hardwickii J. E. Gray. Once.|
|Crymophilus fulicarius||Phalaropus fulicarius Linné. Once.|
|Stiltia isabella||Stiltia isabella Vieillot. Once.|
|Hydrochelidon leucoptera||Hydrochelidon leucoptera grisea Horsfield. Once.|
|Stercorarius crepidatus||Stercorarius parasiticus Linné. Accidental visitor.|
|Megalestris maccormicki (Suppl.)||Catharacta maccormicki maccormicki Saunders. Once. Breeds on Victoria Land.|
|Sula sula||Sula leucogaster plotus Forster. Twice.|
|Plotus novae-hollandiae||Plotus novaehollandiae novaehollandiae Gould. Once.|
|Fregata aquila||Fregata aquila palmerstoni Gould. Thrice.|
|F. ariel||F. ariel ariel Gould. Once.|
|Pelecanus conspicillatus||Pelecanus conspicillatus conspicillatus Temminck. Once.|
|[Thalassidroma lineata Peale, 1848]||Pealea lineata Peale. Twice.|
|Puffinus tenuirostris||Puffinus tenuirostris brevicauda Gould. “It is very doubtful whether this has occurred in New Zealand waters.”|
|Priofinus cinerea||Priofinus cinerea Gmelin. Scarce; straggler.|
|Priocella glacialoides||Priocella antarctica Stephens. Scarce; straggler.|
|Thalassoeca antarctica||Thalassoica antarctica Gmelin.? Once.|
|Halobaena coerulea||Halobaena coerulea Gmelin. Twice.|
|Dendrocygna eytoni||Dendrocygna eytoni munna Mathews. Few occurrences.|
|Nettion castaneum||Nettion castaneum Eyton. Few.|
|Nyroca australis||Nyroca australis Few.|