Art. XII.—Some New Species of New Zealand Flowering-plants.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd December, 1913.]
Urtica linearifolia (Hook. f.) Cockayne sp. nov.
This is U. incisa Poir. var. linearifolia Hook. f. in the “Flora Novae-Zelandiae,” i, 225. The differences between U. incisa and U. linearifolia are succinctly stated by Cheeseman in the “Manual of the New Zealand Flora,” p. 636. In addition, it may be pointed out that U. linearifolia is a far taller plant than any form of U. incisa; indeed, in places it is a semi-liane.
Pittosporum divaricatum Cockayne sp. nov.
Frutex ± 1.5 m. altus, dense divaricato-ramosus, ramis rigidis, saepe valde crassis, intertextis, flexuosis. Folia polymorpha: folia in statu
plantae juvenili, oblonga, obovata, lineari-lanceolata vel lanceolata, ad 16 mm. longa sed saepissime minora, inaequaliter pinnatifida, lobata vel dentata, segmentis magnitudine saepe dissimilibus integerrimis vel lobatis vel dentatis; folia in statu plantae adulto lineari-obovata, oblonga vel ovata, ± 6 mm. longa, crassa, coriacea, glabra, atro-viridia, integerrima, crenata, dentata vel lobata, obtusa. Flores parvi, solitarii, terminales ad apicem ramulorum perabreviatorum; sepala ovata vel ovato-oblonga, 1.75–2 mm. longa, 3-nervosa, pallide viridiá, caduca, leve ciliata; petala lineari-spathulata, apice recurvata, 5 mm. longa, atro-purpurea. fere nigra; ovarium nonnihil hirsutum; capsula subglobosa, circ. 7 mm. diam., rugosa, apice mucronata; semina 2–5.
North Island: Growing in subalpine Nothofagus forest, subalpine scrub, and shrub steppe on the volcanic plateau. South Island: Common in montane and subalpine scrubs, and to a lesser degree in subalpine forests throughout the Island, irrespective of rainfall.
P. divaricatum as defined above was, in the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” p. 20, included by Hooker along with another quite distinct plant, common on the dividing range of the North Island, in the conception of the aggregate species P. rigidum. In their descriptions of this latter both Kirk and Cheeseman have followed Hooker. In 1899 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 31, p. 363) I called attention to the fact that a specimen of P. rigidum, collected by Mr. D. Petrie on Mount Hikurangi, differed, so far as its leaves were concerned, from the common South Island shrub, but closely resembled the figure of P. rigidum, pl. x, in vol. i of the “Flora Novae-Zelandiae.” I also suggested that probably the common South Island plant was a distinct species. When on the Tararua Mountains in 1906, in company with Professor Easterfield, Mr. B. C. Aston, and some others, plenty of P. rigidum of the “Flora Novae-Zelandiae” was encountered, but so different was it in appearance from the South Island shrub that at first I thought we had found something “new.” Further study of the two plants led me to give the MS. name of P. divaricatum to the common South Island form, but until recently I had not sufficient material on which to base a diagnosis.
I am, then, excluding P. divaricatum from the conception of P. rigidum, so that this latter species, for those who agree with me, will include only the broad-leaved shrub of the North Island dividing range, the volcanic plateau, and the mountains of western Nelson.
P. rigidum as thus limited differs from P. divaricatum in the following important particulars:—
1. The branches are not rigid, divaricating, and interlaced, but slender, more or less erect, and branch at a comparatively narrow angle.
2. The leaves are oblong or obovate, and may reach more than 2.5 cm. in length and 1 cm. in breadth.
3. A leaf may be occasionally more or less deeply toothed, but such semijuvenile leaves are an exception, and never abundantly mixed with the adult, as is not infrequently the case in full-grown shrubs of P. divaricatum. Indeed, in a moist forest the actual juvenile form of the latter may be maintained, whereas under identical conditions P. rigidum remains purely an adult.
4. Young leaves and young stems of adult P. rigidum are densely covered on both surfaces with almost a tomentum of ferruginous hairs, whereas such a covering is quite absent in the young leaves, &c., of P. divaricatum.
5. The flowers appear to be axillary, and not on reduced branchlets as in the case of P. divaricatum.
Carmichaelia paludosa Cockayne sp. nov.
Frutex erectus, afoliatus, multiramosus, fastigiatus, circ. 1.2 m. altus Ramuli stricti, filiformi, flavido-virides, striati. Racemi vel fasciculi, 2–6-flori floribus minutis breviter pedicellatis. Calyx campanulatus, sparse pilosus, dentibus ciliatis brevissime dentatus. Legumen ellipticum, 9 mm. longum, valide compressum, rostratum rostro stricto 5 mm. longo; semina 2–3, nigro-maculosa.
South Island: Westland—Abundant in lowland swamps. L. C.
Possibly a plant collected many years ago by Mr. D. Petrie in the Clinton Valley, south-west Otago, should be referred to this species.
C. paludosa is evidently closely related to C. corymbosa Col., but it appears to differ in its erect, fastigiate, non-drooping habit, somewhat pilose calyx, and larger 2–4-seeded pod. The long straight beak is very characteristic. Colenso describes the beak in C. corymbosa as short. By some both species will be included as varieties in the aggregate C. flagelliformis.
Gentiana serotina Cockayne sp. nov.
Herba biennis(?) circ. 15 cm. alta. Caulis gracilis, simplex, teres, strictus, purpurascens, 2-striatus. Folia radicalia rosulata, pauca, spathulata, ± 2 cm. longa, apice obtusa; folia caulina in paribus oppositis remotis disposita, sessilia, basi connata, anguste triangularia, ± 1.5 cm. longa, apice acuta, margine integerrima fusco-purpurea. Flores 3–5, circ. 15 mm: diam., in umbellis dispositi vel terminales solitariique; calyx ± 8 mm. longus, lobis 4 subulatis acuminatis ½–⅔-partitus; corolla calycis 2½-plo longiora, alba, alte secta lobis obovatis obtusis sed apice brevissime mucronata.
South Island: Canterbury—Growing in tussock steppe of upper part of the Canterbury Plain and the Malvern Hills. L. C.
This well-marked species perhaps comes nearest to G. patula, but is at once separated by its much more slender habit, smaller flowers, narrow acute cauline leaves and acuminate calyx-lobes, which more resemble those of G. corymbifera Kirk. Also it only flowers in April or the end of March, whereas G. patula blossoms throughout the summer.
Ourisia Crosbyi Cockayne sp. nov.
Herba perennis, gracillima, pubescens, 12–20 cm. alta. Rhizoma longa, 1–1.5 mm. diam., internodiis 1–2 cm. longis. Folia radicalia, pilis brevissimis pubescentia; lamina oblonga vel raro ovata, circ. 3 cm. longa, tenuis, apice obtusa vel subacuta, margine serrata, subtus venis haud reticulatis; petiolus angustissimus, ad 4 cm. longus. Pedunculi gracillimi; bractae paribus oppositis, foliis simules sed minores, sessiles vel breve petiolatae. Flores 3–4, circ. 10mm. diam.; pedicelli circ. 2–3 mm. longi, gracillimi; calycis-lobi usque ad basin 5-partiti lobis linearia, corollae tubum excedentes; corolla alba, in faucem lutea, tubis brevis; capsula non visi.
South Island: Southland—On floor of subalpine scrub, Longwood Range. Stewart Island—In forest, Mount Anglem. Named in honour of Mr. J. Crosby Smith, F.L.S.
This species is somewhat closely related to O. Colensoi Hook. f., but it differs greatly in its very slender habit and its thin, long-petioled, oblong, serrate not crenate leaves, which on the under-surface do not show the reticulating venation so marked in O. Colensoi.
Wahlenbergia Matthewsii Cockayne sp. nov.
Herba glabra, perennis, circ. 24 cm. alta. Caules simplices vel pauci ramosi, teretes, obscure striati, purpurascentes, 12–18 cm. longi. Folia
numerosa, conferta, linearia, ± 3.5 cm. longa, 3 mm. lata, pallide viridia aliquanto crassa, coriacea, glabra, sessilia, apice acuta vel subacuta, apicem versus remote dentata. Pedunculi terminales, circ. 10 mm. longi, graciles, erecti, 2–4-ramosi; bractae paucae, breves; calycis-lobi corollam-tubum aequantes, subulati, acuti, circ. 5 mm. longi; corollae-lobi circ. 10 mm. longi, pallide lilacini, ovati, apice acuti; capsula obconica, circ. 6 mm. longa.
South Island: Marlborough—Clarence Valley, near the coast. Named in honour of the late Mr. H. J. Matthews, the discoverer of the plant.
W. Matthewsii is related to W. vincaeflora Dene. (= W. gracilis A.D.C.), but is amply distinct in the numerous, close-set, linear leaves, invariable in form, the purplish erect, simple or sparingly branching stems given off closely together from a woody rootstock, and the large pale-lilac flowers.
Celmisia angustifolia Cockayne sp. nov.
Suffrutex C. discolori Hook. f. peraffinis sed foliis linearibus differt.
Folia linearia vel angustissime lineari-spathulata, sessilia, numerosa, ± 3 cm. longa, 5 mm. lata, integerrima vel remote brevissime dentata, obtusa vel subacuta, coriacea, supra glabra viscida, subtus dense tomentosa pilis adpressis sericeis albis. Scapus gracilis, viscosus, ± 10 cm. longus; bracteae remotae, lineari-subulatae Capitulum 2–3 cm. diam.; involucri bractae lineares, acutae, glanduloso-pubescentes, viscidae, apice recurvatae; radii ligulae angustae, albae, circ. 1.5 cm. longae, obtusae; achenia sericea.
South Island: Canterbury—In fellfield or steppe from the lower subalpine to the alpine belts on mountains drained by the River Waimakariri, but not where the rainfall is excessive. L. C.
This rather critical species was included by Cheeseman in C. discolor Hook. f., an aggregate species containing a most diverse set of plants. This the description clearly shows—e.g., “Leaves very variable in size and shape. 1–2½ in. long, ¼–½ in. wide, oblong-spathulate to linear, obtuse or acute. entire or serrulate, very coriaceous to almost membranous, viscid, glabrous or hoary above”; “broad or narrow at the base, sometimes almost petiolate.” (Manual, p. 304.)
A study, however, of the “species” in the field shows that certain forms are constant over considerable areas, and that the prevailing form of one locality is quite absent in others There are, in fact, various groups of individuals with constant and distinct characters which, in time, will undoubtedly receive distinct names, either specific or varietal; and this does not apply to C. discolor merely, but to C. incana, C. longifolia, and other aggregate species.
C. angustifolia, as here defined, is an exceedingly common plant in the drier mountains drained by the River Waimakariri, where, so far as I know, there are no transitions to the forms of C. discolor with oblong-spathulate leaves, so common farther to the south. Such variation as does occur is solely environmental and exhibited for the most part in reduction in size of the aereal organs.
The only doubt I feel in publishing the species is not whether it is well to split up the aggregate C. discolor either into species or varieties, but whether Erigeron novae-zealandiae Buch. is not the same plant. The resemblance between the two was pointed out to me by Mr. D. Petrie; consequently I have carefully compared Buchanan's drawing and description with my specimens of the Waimakariri plant, and have come to the conclusion that the two are not the same. If, however, plants matching
C. angustifolia are found in the mountains near Collingwood, the habitat of Buchanan's species, the name would be C. novae-zealandiae (Buch.), and C. angustifolia be a synonym.
B. L. Robinson, of Harvard University, in Proc. Am. Acad., xl, 1913, has changed the name Celmisia to Elcismia and applied this latter to all the species considered valid in Cheeseman's Manual. The reason for this change, according to Robinson, is that Celmisia Cass. in Dict. Sc. Nat., vii, 356 (1817), is distinct from Celmisia Cass. in Dict. Sc. Nat., xxxvii, 259 (1825), and that the New Zealand species fall into the latter, while into the former go Celmisia tabularis, syn. Arnica tabularis Thunb. and Cel. tomentosa, syn. Conyza tomentosa Burm. f. According to the “Index Kewensis,” fasc. i, p. 476, Celmisia Cass. (1817)= Alciop D.C. (1836), which includes the two species referred by Robinson to Celmisia, while Celmisia Cass. (1825) is the genus as known in Australasia. The above facts seem to strongly support Robinson's change of name. All the same, it would be a matter for deep regret if a name so universally recognized as Celmisia had to be abandoned. It seems to me that New Zealand botanists would do well to wait until the next Botanical Congress, so as to see if Celmisia cannot be placed in the list of nomina conservanda.
Celmisia Hookeri Cockayne nom. nov.
This is C. verbascifolia as defined by Cheeseman in the “Manual of the New Zealand Flora,” p. 309, that author being in grave doubt as to whether the material he was dealing with really represented C. verbascifolia Hook. f. Nothing needs adding to Cheeseman's admirable description.
C. Hookeri, so far as is known, is confined to north-east Otago, where the climate is comparatively dry. On the other hand, C. verbascifolia Hook. f. was based on specimens collected by Lyall near Milford Sound and Preservation Inlet, where the rainfall is excessive. As defined by its author, it is evidently a quite different plant to C. Hookeri, being smaller in all its parts and with heads only 5 cm. diameter, as opposed to those of C. Hookeri, which are more than 8 cm. diameter.
I think there is little doubt that C. Brownii Chapm., a widespread plant in the south-west of Otago, is identical with C. verbascifolia Hook. f. Kirk was the first to identify the north-east Otago plant as C. verbascifolia, and it is curious that in his “Students' Flora” the original habitat is not cited.
X Celmisia Christensenii Cockayne nov. typ. hybrid. (C. spectabilis Hook. f. X C. Traversii Hook. f.)
Folia vaginam includens±16 cm. longa, 3 cm. lata, flexibilia; lamina oblonga, basi subcuneata vel in petiolum brevem sensim attenuata,± 10 cm. longa, supra viridis irregulariter sulcata glabra nisi nervi medii baso, subtus tomentis pallide fuscis mollibus aliquanto laxis circ. 1 mm. altis vestita, nervo medio breve carinato purpureo sed pilis occulto, margine integerrima pilosa pilis sordide albis sed basin versus fuscis; petiolus brevis, carnosus, circ. 10 mm. latus, tenue canaliculatus, basi in vaginam purpurascentem laxe sericeo-tomentosam 4.5 cm. longam 18 mm. latam dilatatus. Scapus duplo folia excedens, rigidus, crassus, pilis sericeis albis adpressis vestitus; bractae circ. 6, lineares, spathulatae vel vix subulatae, supra virides pilosae pilis sericeis albis sed subtus apiceque pallide fusco-tomentosae. Capitula circ. 4 cm. diam.; involucri bractae lineares, pilis albis pilosae sed apice brunneo-scariosae vel pilis pallido-fuscis vestitae; ligulae 4-nervae, albae, c rc. 2.4 cm. longae.
South Island: Fairly common on Mount Charon, near Hanmer. Named in honour of Mr. C. E. Christensen, who is adding so greatly to the knowledge of the botany of Hanmer and its vicinity.
The plant here dealt with is almost certainly a hybrid between C. spectabilis Hook. f. and C. Traversii Hook. f. It strongly resembles C. mollis Cockayne, as may be seen by comparing the above description with that of the latter in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 31, pp. 423–24. But C. mollis is undoubtedly a hybrid between C. spectabilis Hook. f. and C. petiolata Hook. f., the latter a species closely allied to C. Traversii.
X C. Christensenii is at once distinguished from C. spectabilis by the softer slightly rust-coloured tomentum, the purple midrib and petiole, and matted rather dirty-white hairs somewhat rusty-coloured at their bases, which form a fringe round the margin of the leaf.
X Celmisia Morrisonii Cockayne nov. typ. hybrid. (C. coriacea Hook f. X C. Traversii Hook f.)
Folia vaginam includens 21 cm. longa, subflaccida; lamina oblonga circ. 12 cm. longa, 3.5 cm. lata, subcoriacea, supra pallide viridis sed pilo-rum tenuissimorum pellicula tenue ex parte occulta, subtus tomentosa pilis sericeis albis adpressis dilute flavido tinctis, inaequaliter sulcata. margine remote dentata mucronibus brevissimis purpureis et indistincte marginata pilis albis sericeis intextis, apice obtusa vel subacuta, nervo medio basi 10 mm. lato carinato et purpureo sed tomento occulto; petiolus carnosus, 2 cm. longus, 1.4 cm. latus, tomentosus, in vaginam 4 cm. longam 2—5 cm. latam lanuginosam lana alba dilatatus. Scapus vix duplo folia excedens, rigidus, crassus, purpureus, pilis albis sericeis adpressis vestitus; bractae numerosae, lineares vel lineari-spathulatae, ad 7.5 mm. longae, ut foliis tomentosae. Capitulum 6 cm. diam.; involucri bractae lineares, ut scapo pilosae, apice scariosae brunneae; ligulae albae, 3 cm. longae apice obtusae vel 3-dentatae.
South Island: Mount Miromiro, near Hanmer. C. E. Christensen! Named in honour of Mr. W. G. Morrison, who is industriously collecting the high-mountain plants in the neighbourhood of Hanmer.
The more open tomentum, which is not parchment-like, and the flexible leaves with purple midribs, at once separate X C. Morrisonii from C. coriacea Hook. f., which it resembles in the silvery pellicle of the upper leaf-surface and to a considerable degree in the scape and flower-head. The relationship to C. Traversii Hook. f. is more obscure, but it is visible in the purple midrib and petiole, the shape of the leaf and its texture, and in the faint brown tinge of the tomentum.
The purple colour in C. Traversii is evidently a distinct unit character. Hybrids between C. coriacea and C. spectabilis are without a trace of purple.
Regarding the hybrid forms of Celmisia on the Hanmer mountains, Mr. Christensen sends me the following interesting particulars: “The peculiar part about the hybrid forms of Celmisia at Hanmer is that X C Christensenii only grows where C. Traversii and C. spectabilis grow near one another; while X C. Morrisonii only grows where C. coriacea and C. Traversii are very plentiful—namely, on Mounts Charon and Miromiro. I have not met with it on Mount Captain. There is one gully on Miromiro occupied almost exclusively by X C. Morrisonii. Further, C. Traversii does not occur on Mount Perceval, so that the hybrids on that mountain must all be between C. coriacea and C. spectabilis.” Specimens of this
latter cross were sent to me by Mr. Christensen, but I await more material before drawing up a diagnosis.
Since writing the above I have been informed that specimens of what is here called X C. Morrisonii were some time ago received by Kew from Mr. H. H. Travers, he having in his turn got them from Mr. McEvoy, who had, however, been made acquainted with the plant by Mr. Christensen. Later on, Mr. Travers heard from Kew that the plant would be named C. insignis. I am under the impression that this is merely a nomen nudum, and, as I do not know who is the authority for the name, I am not substituting insignis for Morrisonii, as I would otherwise have done. The hybrid has been known to me since 1899, when I found one plant in the vicinity of Jack's Pass.
Helichrysum (?) dimorphum Cockayne sp. nov.
Frutex scandens circ. 6–8 m. altus. Caulis circ. 2 cm. diam., flexilis, primo non-ramosus denique dense ramosus; ramuli ultimi valde gracillimi, foliis parvis imbricatis adpressis obsiti. Folia in planta juvenili et etiam in planta adulti in umbra crescenta, subpatentes, elliptica vel ovato-oblonga, circ. 3.5–5 mm. longa, 2 mm. lata, brevissime petiolata petiolo 1 mm. lato, coriacea, supra glabra et conspicue nervosa, subtus tomentosa pilis sericeis albidis, margine incrassata glaberrima, apice acuta apiculo brevissimo ornata; folia in planta adulti arcte adpressa, imbricata, squamiformia, lineari-lanceolata, obtusa, 3 mm. longa, 1 mm. lata, supra concava, pilosa pilis albidis sericeis, subtus convexa, glabra. Capitula terminalia, parva, subcylindrica, 9 mm. longa, 3.5 mm. diam. vel minora; involucri squamae multiseriatae, exterioribus oblongis vel obovatis, pilosis, marginibus scariosis apicibus brunneis, interioribus lineari-oblongis, scariosis, obtusis; flosculi circ. 18, omnes hermaphroditi (?); pappi setae numerosae, graciles; achenium glabrum.
South Island: Canterbury—Climbing through and over river-terrace scrub on the banks of the River Poulter, near the Mount White Bridge, and at Puffer's Creek, Waimakariri River basin. L. C.
H. dimorphum is not only one of the rarest species in the flora, only two plants being known so far, but, what is more important, it is a remarkable addition to the lianes of New Zealand.
It can be recognized at a glance by its scrambling habit, slender branch-lets with very small, adpressed, scale-like leaves, something after the manner of Helichrysum microphyllum, its semi-patent, flat leaves of the reversion-shoots which are glabrous above with the anastomosing raised veins clearly evident, tomentose beneath and with thickened glabrous margins. The heads are very small, long and narrow, and their involucral scales in several series, the outer being much smaller than the inner; the florets are about 18 in number, and are perhaps homogamous; the achene is glabrous. The main stem is stout below, unbranched and flexible. When the tops of the shrubs are gained the plant branches abundantly, forming dense masses of the slender cupressoid twigs.
I am not at all sure as to the genus of the plant, as my material was scanty so far as flower-heads were concerned. However, the main reason for publication is to call attention to this remarkable plant in the hope that some one may be induced to visit the locality where the species is growing and collect more material, or to look for other examples in river-terrace scrub of the Waimakariri or its tributaries.
Cotula Dendyi Cockayne sp. nov.
C. atratae affinis sed robustiora capitulis majoribus, flosculis luteis vel fulvis et involucri bracteis flosculis aequilongis vel excedentibus.
South Island: Common on subalpine and alpine shingle-slips of the drier mountains where there is a steppe climate.
Although this species is extremely close to C. atrata Hook. f., it may be at once recognized by the colour of the florets, which are never black, but vary from quite pale yellow to brown, and the involucral bracts equalling or rather longer than the florets. The plant frequently grows in company with C. atrata. It is quite possible that the brown-flowered form is a hybrid between the yellow form and the black C. atrata.
Senecio southlandicus Cockayne sp. nov.
Herba perennis S. lagopo affinis. Folia radicalia suberecta, rosulata lamina ovato-oblonga, oblonga vel fere rotundata, obtusa, 6–11 cm. longa, membranacea vel subcoriacea, supra aliquando setosa sed plerumque glabra, subtus saepe purpurascens, glabrescentia vel sparse tomentosa pilis sericeis, basi rotundata vel cordata vel truncata; petiolus nonnumquam strictus, 2–12 cm. longus valde glanduloso-pilosus. Scapus 12–30 cm. altus, ramosus, pilosus pilis sericeis adpressis. Capitula saepe 9, 3–4 cm. diam.; involucri bracteae pilosae, apice ferruginosae; radii ligulae 16 mm. longae, patentes, luteae; achenia lineares, glabra.
South Island: Otago—Common in tussock steppe and in the shade of Leptospermum scoparium in the neighbourhood of Balclutha, Gore, Tapanui, &c.; but the actual distribution cannot be defined. It has not been noted in North Otago or Canterbury. D. L. Poppelwell ! L. C.
The plant here described is, in part, the S. bellidioides of Petrie's list of Otago plants.* Also by Kirk and Cheeseman it was similarly placed. But from S. bellidioides it differs in its usually much larger size; in the absence of bristles in the greater number of its individual plants, or, if bristles are present, they occur in extremely small numbers; in the purplish under-surface of the leaf, the much-branched scapes, and the numerous heads. From S. lagopus Raoul the thin leaves without bristles and the non-glandular scape at once separate it.
The species is, indeed, far more distinct from S. bellidioides and S. lagopus than are these from one another. The classification of the whole series, including those already mentioned, together with S. saxifragoides Hook. f. and S. Haastii Hook. f., is in a most unsatisfactory position. Specimens are constantly coming to me from various correspondents which it is impossible to place with any degree of satisfaction. There are undoubtedly a number of well-marked forms, which demand, at the least, varietal names. Even one fixed character may serve quite well as a specific mark. This is illustrated in the case of S. saxifragoides and S. lagopus (the type from Akaroa), where the presence of numerous bristles, or their absence, on the upper surface of the leaf is the sole distinguishing character, so that, so far as large plants of the two are concerned, if this character were not present, no one could consider them in any degree different.
I must record my thanks to Mr. D. L. Poppelwell, of Gore, who most kindly sent me abundant living material of S. southlandicus and extremely valuable ecological notes regarding its sun and shade forms.
[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 28, 1896, p. 564.