Art. XIV.—Notes on the Plant Covering of the Garvie Mountains, with a List of Species.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 4th August, 1914.]
The Garvie Mountains are those which lie on the north side of the Mataura River, and stretch from the East Dome in a north-easterly direction for a distance of about twenty-five miles, where they join the Carrick Range. They have a width of about fifteen miles, and drain to the Waikaia River on the south-east, to the Mataura River on the south-west, and to the Nevis Valley on the north-west.
So far as I am aware, nothing has been published concerning the plant covering of this range except some mention of species by Dr. Cockayne from specimens sent him by me. The botany of these mountains is of considerable importance from a phytogeographical point of view, owing to the area mentioned forming the connecting-link between the wet mountains of the west and the drier east of Otago. Furthermore, this area lies as far inland as is possible in Otago, it being practically equidistant from the east, west, and south coasts—namely, between seventy-five and eighty miles.
History Of Botanical Investigation.
I first visited the East Dome about five years ago, in March, spending a couple of days there, collecting a number of living plants and taking some notes of the vegetation.
In February, 1910, I spent two days in the vicinity of the Remarkable Gap, reaching the mountain-tops and noting the plant-growth, upon which occasion I also collected a large number of living plants, many of which I sent to Dr. Cockayne, F.R.S., to whom I also supplied notes of the plant associations. During the Christmas holidays of 1910 I again visited these mountains, accompanied by Messrs. G. Biggar and J. Speden, of Gore, and W. A. Thomson and O. Davies, of Dunedin. This visit was from the Nevis Valley and we went right over Mount Tennyson, down the Nokomai Valley and the Mataura River, to East Dome, where we further investigated the plant formations. In all, about four days were occupied in this way, and the information obtained was communicated to Dr. Cockayne and others.
Lastly, during the Christmas holidays of 1913, in company with Messrs. Biggar, Speden, and Thomson above mentioned, I spent about ten days inspecting the forest in the Upper Waikaia and the mountain flora of the heights in the vicinity, adding considerably to the list of plants previously noted and to my knowledge of the various plant associations, which I now propose to describe. In these investigations I was considerably helped by my companions, all of whom are enthusiastic and skilful collectors, and to whom I am much indebted for assistance given. I would here also like to record my indebtedness to Dr. Cockayne and Mr. D. Petrie for kindly assistance given in identifying doubtful specimens and for useful advice regarding the compilation of these notes.
The Garvie Mountains consist of an elevated range running to a height in places of over 6,000 ft. Most of the range is over 4,000 ft. high, the principal peaks being East Dome (4,350 ft.), The Steeple (4,796 ft.), Mount Tennyson (5,014ft.), Mount Cameron (5,959ft.), The Gap (5,925ft.), and Rocky Mount (6,086 ft.). The rocks are mostly schistose, and on the tops are weathered in many places into strange and grotesque forms. Here and there huge shafts or pillars stand up against the sky-line, while in other places great areas of smooth flat-topped rocks give shelter to an interesting and varied plant-life.
Near the Remarkable Gap some five or six lakes have been formed at a height of over 4,000 ft. The principal lakes are Blue Lake and Gow's Lake. From these natural reservoirs rocky and in some cases almost precipitous torrents dash down to the lower valleys. Most of the ridges are rounded on the tops, and many of them are covered with extensive peat bogs, dotted over with numerous lagoons. These bogs are difficult to travel over, but rich in flora. The ascent of the mountains is for the most part comparatively easy, and a good deal of it could be accomplished on horseback. Many of the tops, however, can only be negotiated by strenuous climbing on foot.
The rounded tops of many of these mountains result in the water-content of the soil at the upper levels being generally greater than might be expected. The average rainfall is not very great, nor do I think the number of rainy days excessive, the area being, in fact, just on the border of the dry district of Central Otago. The elevated nature of the country means that it is frequently snowing here when rain is falling in the lower valleys.* The flattened ridges swept by the westerly gales result in a greater degree of snow-drift than would be found on rougher ground. The heads of the gullies and lee slopes of the ridges where these drifts accumulate become great reservoirs, from which melting snow-water percolates through the soil and keeps it moist. In many places these snow-streams become blocked, and, spreading out, produce large areas of peat bog, the sour, wet soil in parts being too sodden for any but the scantiest vegetation. On the other hand, during the summer months the rocky areas are subject to drying winds and extreme insolation, especially those with a northerly aspect. Strong south-west winds also leave their mark upon the vegetation, the exposed heights being covered with a complete mantle of various cushion plants, particulars of which are noted later.
Numerous deep gorges result in a lessened light, and provide suitable situations for shade-loving species. The lower altitudes, of course, have less snow and more rainfall, the latter soon running off and leaving dry hillsides and a consequently reduced list of species. In the lower gullies beech forest prevails, some of the trees being very tall, especially on the mountain-slopes, where the sun strikes less directly. Both sheep and cattle graze plentifully on these mountains in the summer months, and these have naturally somewhat affected the plant associations, but not yet to such a marked extent as to be very important. Fire, on the other hand, has materially changed the association in some cases, but in others there is a tendency for the burnt spots to reclothe themselves with their lost covering.
[Footnote] * The average annual recorded rainfall at Lumsden for the last seven years is only 33.01 in., and the number of rainy days 172.
The Plant Associations.
In dealing with these it will be necessary to make the distinctions of (1) forest, (2) subalpine scrub, (3) steppe, (4) alpine meadow, (5) rocks and cliffs, (6) bogs and swamps.
The principal forests are those in the head of the Waikaia Valley, in Gow's Creek, and on East Dome. These will be treated separately.
Waikaia Valley Forest.
This is a beech forest, but contains perhaps a larger admixture of other species than is usual in such forests. The beeches noted by me consist of Nothofagus Menziesii and N. Solanderi at the lower levels, the height above sea-level being about 700 ft. On the higher ground near at hand Nothofagus fusca is also growing. The latter species is in places of great height, many trees measuring over 40 metres and some probably over 45 metres tall, the lowest branches being perhaps 20 metres from the base. The trees vary from 1 to 1.5 metres in diameter, and have fine straight boles, although covered in some instances with mosses and lichens. The physiognomy of the forest is sombre, as is usual, although the lighter green colour and more open branches of N. fusca at once mark out where it is dominant. On the bank of the Waikaia River in this locality a somewhat mixed association of shrubs was noted, consisting of Olearia nummularifolia, Carmichaelia robusta, C. subulata, Veronica salicifolia, Olearia aborescens, Senecio elaeagnifolius, Gaultheria erecta, Pittosporum Buchanani, Nothopanax Edgerleyi, N. Colensoi, Fuchsia excorticata, Phylocladus alpinus, Gaya Lyallii, Coprosma crassifolia, Olearia ilicifolia, and Podocarpus Hallii. The creepers Muehlenbeckia complexa and Rubus australis are also fairly common; while the parasites Elytranthe Colensoi, E. tetrapetala, and E. flavida are abundant on the beech-trees, and light up the dark forest with blazes of red and orange. Curiously enough, E. Colensoi and E. tetrapetala were only noted on Nothofagus Menziesii, although a close lookout was kept on the other beeches for them.
The plants of the ground layer consist of Astelia nervosa, Poa Colensoi, Helichrysum bellidioides, Rumex flexuosus, Acaena sanguisorbae, A. pilosa, Senecio bellidioides, Lagenophora pettolata, Hydrocotyle novae-zealandiae, Raoulia glabra, Uncinia riparia, Cardamine heterophylla, Ranunculus lappaceus, Chrysobactron Hookeri, Juncus planifolius, Viola Lyallii, Microlaena avenacea, and the ferns Blecknum penna marina, Polystichum vestitum, Asplenium flaccidum, A. Hookerianum, A. flabellifolium, and Hymenophyllum multifidum. Close to the river Lycopodium Billardieri was also noted, epiphytic on Nothofagus Menziesii. Farther up, as we approach the denser forest, the following make their appearance: Rubus australis, R. sub-pauperatus, Carpodetus serratus, Coriaria thymifolia, Coprosma areolata, Corokia cotoneaster, Suttonia divaricata, Coriaria angustissima, Wahlen-bergia saxicola, and Uncinia rubra, with Juncus effusus and J. plani-folious in the damp places. In open spots I also noted Nertera setulosa, Blechnum capense, Helichrysum filicaule, Geranium microphyllum, Pleridium esculentum, Epilobium pubens, and Hypolepis tenuifolium. On the edge of the forest the following are found: Muehlernbeckia australis, Drimys colorata, Dracophyllum longifolium, and Griselinia littoralis. Here and there under the beech-trees are patches of Histiopteris incisa, Nertera dichondraefolia, with the orchids Pterostylis australis, P. Banksii, Corysanthes
triloba, and Chiloglottis cornuta. A few specimens of Elaeocarpus Hookerianus and Blechnum fluviatile are also seen. In more or less open spots, where old mine-workings once existed, the association consists of Ranunculus hirtus, Erectites prenanthoides, Gnaphalium luteo-album, Epilobium alsinoides, E. rotundifolium, Lagenophora petiolata, Celmisia longifolia, Blechnum penna marina, Gaultheria depressa, Geranium microphyllum, Poa Colensoi, Gunnera mixta, and Leptospermum scoparium, with patches of Raulia glabra and the moss Racromitrium lanuginosum. Scattered throughout this association the following introduced species were noted: Holcus lanatus. Prunella vulgaris, Cnicus lanceolatus, Veronica serpylifolia, V. arvensis, Tri-folium repens, and the common Cryptostemma calendulaceum. In ponds the following association is common: Callitriche verna, Cladium Vauthiera, and Potamogeton Cheesemanii.
At a greater altitude Nothofagus fusca becomes more plentiful, and a few specimens of N. cliffortioides put in appearance. Podocarpus Hallii is fairly plentiful, and here and there specimens of Nothopanax simplex and Coprosma foetidissima are found, especially in the damper places. On the decaying logs and among the humus of the forest floor there is a wealth of the orchids Caledenia bifolia, Gastrodia Cunninghamii, and Adenochilus gracilis. The following ferns are also found: Polypodium australe, P. diversifolium, Asplenium bulbiferum, Hymenophyllum multifidum, H. Tunbridgense, Blechnum capense, and B. membranacea. On dry banks Arthropodium candidum, Lycopodium volubile, and L. ramulosum are sparingly found. Dotted along the tracks patches of Helichrysum bellidioides, Urtica incisa, and Oxalis magellanica are common. At 1,400 ft. altitude Pratia angulata makes its appearance, while the principal floor-covering is Histiopteris incisa and Hypolepis tenuifolia. Carpodetus serratus at this elevation becomes more abundant and of larger dimensions. As we emerged from the forest my notes record Senecio Lyallii in full bloom on the bank of a creek, and the stones covered with Raoulia lutescens.
The associations of this forest are practically the same as that of the Waikaia forest.
East Dome Forest.
The forest here is not of great dimensions. It commences at an elevation of about 700 ft. above sea-level, and skirts the base of East Dome. The beech-trees are similar to those in Waikaia Valley, but variation in the form and particularly in the size of the leaf is perhaps more marked. On the margin of the forest the following mixed association is found: Podocarpus totara, P. Hallii, Cordyline australis, Discaria toumatou, Dracophyllium longifolium, Carpodetus serratus, Pittosporum tenuifolium, Griselinia littorahs, Drimys colorata, Corokia cotoneaster, Olearia virgata, Suttonia divaricata, Fuchsia excorticata, Sophora microphylla, Leptospermum scoparium, Coprosma linariifolia, C. crassifolia, Olearia avicenniaefolia, Aristotelia racemosa, A. Colensoi, Podocarpus spicata, Pseudopanax crassifolium, Notho-panax simplex, Gaya Lyallii, and Nothopanax Edgerleyi. The following creepers are fairly common: Rubus australis, R. subpauperatus, Calystegia tuguriorum (abundant), Muehlenbeckia australis, Parsonsia heterophylla, P. capsularis, and Clematis indivisa.
Among the smaller plants along the edge of the forest and in open parts the following are typical: Hypolepis tenuifolia, Potentilla anserinoides, Asplenium bulbiferum, Polystichum vestitum, Pteridium esculentum, Acaena
sanguisorbae, A. novae-zelandiae, A. pilosa, Juncus effusus, Lagenophora petiolata, Geranium microphyllum, Epilobium (several species), Oxalis corniculata, Mentha Cunninghamii, Acaena microphylla, Blechnum capense, Geranium sessiliflorum, Pratia angulata, Coriaria ruscifolia, Phormium tenax, Blechnum fluviatile, Blechnum penna marina, Polypodium diversifolium, Astelia nervosa, Carex lucida, Gastrodia Cunninghamii, Olearia arborescens, Polypodium australe, Pteridium esculentum, Astelia montana, Hydrocotyle novae-zelandiae, and Senecio Haastii. Of parasites I noted Elytranthe flavida on Nothofagus fusca and N. Solanderi, and Loranthus micranthus. On a rocky face near the river I also saw Veronica salicifolia, Cyclophorus serpens, Helichrysum glomeratum, Asplenium flabellifolium, Prasophyllum Colensoi, Wahlenbergia saxicola, Anisotome Haastii, Senecio bellidioides, and Celmisia petiolata.
In an address delivered in Gore some years ago I drew attention to the way in which Leptospermum scoparium thickets formed a nursery for young Nothofagus seedlings, which ultimately destroyed their hosts and took their places. When speaking, I had the East Dome in my mind. Here this succession is also marked, as young Nothofagus fusca seedlings are plentiful where the Leptospermum is dominant, but where the beech once outgrows its shelter the latter is destroyed by it. This process is plainly evidenced here, where the young beech forest is full of dead Leptospermum scoparium of full growth.
Here we have a succession similar to that mentioned by Dr. C. B. Crampton in his “Vegetation of Caithness, considered in Relation to its Geology.”* In that paper he states (at page 98), in regard to Calluna vulgaris and Betula alba, “The heather forms a nursery for the seedling birch, but the latter on maturing into trees exterminate the heather beneath them.”
(2.) Subalpine Scrub.
Upper Waikaia Valley.
The subalpine scrub is curiously distributed on the Garvies. In the Upper Waikaia Valley there is hardly any subalpine scrub properly so called, the formation beyond the bush-line being a loose collection of shrubs, fairly open and with none of that characteristic interwoven closeness of high-altitude shrubberies. The dominant plant in this formation appears to be Phyllocladus alpinus, which is plentiful and in full bloom in December. Olearia virgata is also abundant with O. nummularifolia, Veronica Traversii, Olearia Hectori, Aristotelia fruticosa, Aciphylla squarrosa, Dracophyllum longifolium, Pentachondra pumila, Styphelia Fraseri, Anisotome Haastii, Scleranthus biflorus, Fuchsia Colensoi, Senecio elaeagnifolius (not plentiful), and Angelica Gingidium. I also noted one large specimen of Senecio cassinioides, in full bloom, its brilliant yellow colour making it conspicuous at a distance of nearly a mile.
On the spur leading to the Titan rocks, at a height of 2,700 ft., there is a large quantity of Veronica buxifolia associated with V. propinqua, Cassinia Vauvilliersii, Gaultheria depressa, Senecio revolutus, Gaultheria rupestris, Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium, while the ground plants are Helichrysum bellidioides, Chrysobactron Hookeri, and Acaena pilosa. Apparently a good deal of this ground has been burnt at one time. The Veronica buxifolia is only about 6 dcm. high, although in patches where the fire has missed
[Footnote] * Published under the auspices of the Committee for the Survey and Study of British Vegetation.
the plants are from 1 to 1.5 metres high. Farther up on the same spur the association varies between Veronica-Cassinia and Cassinia-Veronica, those different genera being dominant in turn, the carpet association being much as before mentioned.
The physiognomy of the subalpine scrub near the beech forest here is marked by an uneven surface with great brownish-green patches in parts and a light-grey colour over considerable areas when seen at a distance. Upon closer acquaintance these colours are explained by the presence of Dacrydium Bidwillii, the rounded tops and bright colour of which easily give it first place in physiognomic importance. In other parts Veronica buxifolia in bloom accounts for the lighter shades. The associations which show the different colours above mentioned might be termed the “Dacrydium” and “Veronica” associations respectively. They consist of the same species, but the relative abundance of the different dominant species completely accounts for the changed appearance. The general association is as follows: Veronica buxifolia (abundant), V. propingua, Dracophyllum longifolium, Cassinia Vauvilliersii, Dacrydium Bidwillii (dominant over considerable areas), Caladenia bifolia, Blechnum penna marina, Styphelia Fraseri, Gaultheria perplexa, Euphrasia zealandica, Oreo-stylidium subulatum, Pimelea prostrata, Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium, Wahlenbergia gracilis, and Gaultheria depressa. Near a creek Senecio Lyallii showed in yellow patches, with occasional specimens of Veronica Traversii (?).* In places also the following species appeared: Aristotelia fruticosa, Forstera Colensoi, and Senecio revolutus, with occasional specimens of Danthonia Raoulii and Poa Colensoi, until the scrub gave place to tussock meadow.
The scrub here is much more closely interwoven than in any of the other places examined. It forms a close association on the edge of the beech forest, and is very hard to negotiate. The chief species consist of Veronica Traversii (?),* which is plentiful, Olearia avicenniaefolia, O. nummu-larifolia, Coriaria ruscifolia, Cassinia Vauvilliersii, Dracophyllum longifolium, Phormium tenax, P. Cookianum, Leptospermum scoparium, Pittosporum tenuifolium, Nothopanax Colensoi, Clematis indivisa, Veronica buxifolia, Astelia montana, and Senecio Haastii. Of these, the Dracophyllum, pittosporum, and Veronica are dominant.
Under this heading I am including those portions of the elevated parts which are covered with tussock meadow. It is impossible to draw a hard-and-fast line between “steppe” and “alpine meadow,” although the abundance or not of Celmisia makes in these regions a fair test of what constitutes alpine meadow. The land under this head lies between the altitudes of 1,000 ft. and 3,500 ft., although there is necessarily a good deal of overlapping between the different zones, especially as regards Danthonia Raoulii, D. flavescens, and D. crassiuscula.
The plant associations of these steppes beginning at about 1,000 ft. altitude on the east side of the Garvies has Leptospermum scoparium as its dominant plant. Frequently this is found as a pure formation where it is closed, but where it is open a mixed association is found. This consists
[Footnote] * Perhaps a form of V. monticola.
of Acaena sanguisorbae, A. microphylla (both plentiful), Festuca rubra, Coriaria thymifolia, Poa australis, Celmisia longifolia, Ranunculus lappaceus, Wahlenbergia saxicola, Geranium sessiliflorum var. glabrum, Chrysobactron Hookeri, Blechnum penna marina, Plantago Browni, Acaena pilosa, Uncinia rubra, Oxalis corniculata, Drapetes Dieffenbachii, Lagenophora petiolata, Gnaphalium Traversii, G. paludosum, and Styphelia Fraseri. At 2,200 ft. the first patch of Veronica buxifolia is met. The plants are stunted in form, and associated with Pratia angulata and Phormium Cookianum, the latter, however, being a rare plant in this locality. Here and there patches of Herpolirion novae-zealandiae and Gentiana corymbifera are also added to the general association.
At about 2,700 ft. a further patch of shrubby plants was also met with, but I have dealt with the association under the heading of subalpine scrub. Danthonia Raoulii is plentiful everywhere, and in soft places Oreobolus pectinatus cushions are common, with Colobanthus acicularis, Celmisia glandulosa, and patches of Raoulia glabra. In portions of the meadow seedling plants of Celmisia coriacea without any adults were noted, but as this ridge forms part of Mr. G. Pinckney's Glenary Run, and is the road leading to the station, no doubt the general association is affected some-what by the traffic of sheep affecting not only the plants themselves, but also by the carrying of seed in the wool, &c. From a height of about 3,000 ft. the tussock association changes, Danthonia Raoulii gradually giving way to D. crassiuscula. There is also a tendency for many of the alpine-meadow plants to sparingly put in an appearance. Of these, I noted in “steppe” formations Celmisia densiflora, Senecio revolutus, Anisotome aromaticum, Ourisia caespitosa, Geum parviflorum, Senecio Lyallii, Celmisia coriacea, Cardamine heterophylla, and Forstera Colensoi. There are also a few other plants near the limit of the beech forest, such as Aristotelia fruticosa, Clematis marata, Chrysobactron Hookeri, Lycopodium fastigiatum, Pimelea Gnidia, P. prostrata, and Polystichum, vestitum, together with Poa Colensoi, Agropyron scabrum, and Aciphylla Colensoi. At the head of a gully in which the beech forest creeps up to over 3,000 ft. there is a patch of several acres covered with Senecio revolutus. It is seldom one sees much bloom on this species, but this season (1913–14) must have been an exceptional one, as the area referred to, and also several similar patches on other parts, were such a blaze of yellow with the bloom of this plant at the time of our visit as to completely dominate the physiognomy of the mountain-side, the brilliant colour being visible for miles. The “steppe” continues to nearly 4,000 ft., when it gradually breaks into “alpine meadow,” although the latter, of course, still contains much of the steppe association.
On the lower parts of the northern side of Mount Tennyson there is also a formation which would come under the heading of “steppe.” The tussock grasses here consist almost exclusively of Danthonia flavescens and Poa Colensoi, with its variety Poa intermedium. Growing among these some Agropyron scabrum is found. A good deal of this face of the mountain had apparently been burnt about twelve months prior to our visit, and this possibly affected the association. The Nevis Valley was about 2,600 ft. above sea-level at the point where we commenced our ascent of the mountain, and consequently much of the usual lowland steppe association was missing. The commonest plants outside those mentioned were Aciphylla Colensoi, which was very abundant, although the plants were apparently just getting over the effects of the fire, and were consequently small. In
the damper places Ranunculus lappaceus, R. Poppelwellii (sp. nov. Petrie), and Geum parviflorum were tolerably plentiful.
On the other “steppe” situations of the Garvie Mountains the association is much the same as that described in speaking of the eastern slopes.
(4.) Alpine Meadow.
Under this heading most of the meadow above 3,500 ft. may be described, although, of course, specialization under “rocks and cliffs” and “bogs and swamps” will be necessary as regards a good deal of it. Over a large part of the meadow Danthonia flavescens is found, and also D. crassiuscula. The presence of either of these “tussocks” is evidence of relative dryness. The places where these are missing are almost invariably either damp or very wind-swept. Perhaps more time was spent by me on the portions around the Remarkable Gap than elsewhere, near which I camped for several days at an elevation of about 4,200 ft. Most of this country consists of rolling tussock ridges which contain immense bogs, and the tops are covered with great patches of schistose rocks, many of which are weatherworn into wonderful forms, and all of which give shelter to an interesting plant association. A little below the “Boggy Saddle,” on the southern face of the Titans, there is a great field of Celmisia coriacea, the leaves being rather narrow and almost bronze in colour. This form is characteristic of the locality, although here and there plants with white tomentum are seen. The other plants in the association are Senecio revolutus, S. Lyallii, Danthonia crassiuscula, Poa Colensoi, and Carpha alpina. A considerable area has been burnt, but the above plants seemed at the time of our visit to be taking complete possession. Another form of Celmisia is also common both here and farther up the ridge. This has tolerably stiff leaves, but the tomentum on the upper side is loose and woolly, and varies in colour from a pure white to a bright bronze. Possibly this is a form of Celmisia verbascifolia, but the common form of that plant is also plentiful. Other plants in this locality are Senecio bellidioides and Claytonia australasica, the latter in great patches. As the saddle is approached the ground becomes wetter, and the following are added: Phyllachne Colensoi, Drosera Arcturi, Carpha alpina, Oreobolus pectinatus, Drapetes Dieffenbachri, Anisotome sp. (?), Dacrydium Bidwillii, Dracophyllum uniflorum, Pentachondra pumila, Suttonia nummularia, and Coprosma repens. At about 4,500 ft. there is an immense field of Celmisia among the tussocks. This is sufficient to completely dominate the association, giving a greyish-white appearance to the whole hillside. The principal species are C. coriacea, C. verbascifolia, and C. petiolata. Growing among these we discovered several forms which suggest possible hybridism between some of these larger forms and C. longifolia. These intermediate forms partook of the nature of the larger plants, but had narrow leaves, in some cases not more than 1.5 cm. in width and from 25 to 30 cm. in length. Celmira Lyallii is also a very common plant, and in places forms great patches many acres in extent. Dotted throughout this association, especially where the ground is damper, are numerous specimens of an Aciphylla, about 6 in. high, peculiarly marked with transverse lines. This is the plant referred to A. Traillii by Cheeseman, but is, I think, distinct from the latter, which probably does not occur on the mainland. Celmisia longifolia var. alpina is also plentiful in the damp ground with Plantago triandra, Unicinia pauciflora, and Carex pterocarpa (?).
On a patch where the tussocks had been burnt an almost pure association of Gelmisia coriacea was in possession, with a patch of Aciphylla Colensoi. On a dry open patch on the summit of a ridge I noted the following:
Celmisia linearis, Veronica uniflora, Brachycome Sinclairii, Cotula dioica, Veronica Thomsoni, V. ciliolata, and Hectorella caespitosa.
Near the Blue Lake there is a great quantity of Aciphylla Monroi in full bloom (29th December), with Ranunculus gracilipes, R. foliosa, and R. novae-zealandiae, including a form of the latter with 8 to 10 petals. The ground here is also carpeted in places with Geum leiospermum, while Geum parviflorum, G. uniflorum, and G. pusilum are also common.
Looking at the mountain-side near the Blue Lake, the association is dominated by Celmisia verbascifolia, which is so plentiful among the tussocks of Danthonia crassiuscula as to strongly mark the physiognomy. Other Celmisias are also common, the principal being C. coriacea, C. densiflora, and C. subalpina (plentiful). At this point the Danthonia crassiuscula begins to thin out, and its place is taken by Poa Colensoi, P. intermedia, and a form of the former which has very stiff leaves with pungent points and which Mr. Petrie distinguishes as var. pungens. Agropyron scabrum and Festuca rubra are also common, while Danthonia pilosa is fairly abundant.
Here and there patches of Ourisia caespitosa are also seen with Senecio revolutus, Aciphylla Monroi, A. Colensoi (rare), Acaena microphylla, Polystichum cystostegia, Cardamine depressa, Cotula pyrethrifolia, Brachycome Sinclairii, Senecio bellidioides (?), Gentiana corymbifera, Veronica uniflora, Lycopodium fastigiatum, Dracophyllum prostratum, D. politum, Phyllachne Colensoi, Raoulia grandifiora, Lycopodium Selago, Celmisia laricifolia, Oreobolus pectinatus, and Gnaphalium Traversii.
At the time of our visit in December, 1913, snow-patches were plentiful at 4,300 ft. in this locality. The association near the melting snow consisted chiefly of Caltha novae-zealandiae, which was abundant and in full bloom in several places almost under the snow, the flowers completely starring the ground, and being in many cases over 2 in. in diameter. Celmisia subalpina (?), crushed and damaged by the weight of the slipping snowdrift, was nevertheless putting forth buds, and in a week or two would be in full bloom.
At 4,700 ft. Senecio bellidioides (?) was to be seen in close round patches from 16 cm. to 36 cm. in diameter. This form has an almost glabrous small leaf, and may be a “new” species. On the sunny faces at this elevation there are only occasional tussocks of low stature, and the principal plants are Aciphylla Monroi (dominant), Craspedia unifiora var. with woolly leaves, Gaimardia ciliata, Racromitrium, lanuginosum, Veronica pulvinaris, Hymenanthera dentata var. alpina, Veronica Buchanani, V. ciliolata, Aciphylla Kirkii, Leucogenes grandiceps, and Hectorella caespitosa. The top of the mountain above the Remarkable Gap, at about 6,000 ft., consists of a flattish meadow exposed to the south-west winds. It contains a remarkable association of close-growing wind-swept plants, in which I noted the following: Aciphylla simplex, whose round brownish cushions, from 18 cm. to 50 cm. in diameter, were dotted everywhere, and predominated, contrasting strongly with the grey schistose rocks; Myosotis pulvinaris, Phyllachne Colensoi, P. clavigera, Raoulia Parkii, Donatia novae-zealandiae, Dracophyllum prostratum, Veronica Thomsoni, Haastia Sinclairii, Abrotanella inconspicua, Celmisia viscosa, Aciphylla Monroi, Veronica lycopodioides, Viola Cunninghamii, Celmisia laricifolia, and Ourisia glandulosa, with a Celmisia which may have been a small form of C. discolor or an undescribed species.
On Mount Tennyson, at a height of about 4,350 ft., an open association is found, the principal plants being Celmisia Lyallii, C. longifolia var. alpina,
Claytonia australasica, Gentiana corymbifera, Epilobium chloraefolium, Aciphylla Kirkii, Geum leiospermum, Celmisia prorepens, C. argentea, Angelicum decipiens, and the small Aciphylla like A. Traillii, mentioned above as being probably new. In damper situations Phyllachne cushions are also plentiful. There is also an extensive area of Veronica lycopodioides, the plants being stunted in form and only about 30 cm. to 35 cm. high. Growing among these Veronicas are numerous specimens of V. propinqua, Celmisia petiolata, C. subalpina, C. discolor, C. Lyallii, and here and there patches of C. coriacea. In the wetter places Aciphylla pinnatifida is common. At 4,500 ft. great patches of Celmisia viscosa and C. Lyallii are found, together with Veronica buxifolia and V. Buchanani, and a form of whipcord Veronica which may be “new,” but which was not in bloom at the time of our visit. In the damp and boggy places I noted Pentachondra pumila, Drosera Arcturi, Chrysobactron Hookeri, Celmisia Sinclairii, and Ranunculus lappaceus; while on drier ground Brachycome Sinclairii, Epilobium chloraefolium, Senecio revolutus, S. southlandica, Helichrysum bellidioides, Leucogenes grandiceps, and Dracophyllum prostratum are growing in abundance.
The association of the summit of Mount Tennyson is generally similar to that described above, except that the Veronicas mentioned are not growing at the higher levels. In a damp rocky situation near the summit the following association was, however, noted: Ranunculus lappaceus (abundant), Ourisia sessilifolia, O. glandulosa, Celmisia laricifolia, C. argentea, C. petiolata, C. discolor, and a Veronica which was either V. Muelleri or an undescribed species. On the south-west slopes the principal association is Poa caespitosa, P. Colensoi, and Chrysobactron Hookeri, with an occasional patch of Celmisia coriacea. On the damper hillside lower still there is an abundance of Veronica buxifolia and Dracophyllum prostratum, with Senecio Lyallii plentiful on the creek-banks.
On the East Dome, after emerging from the subalpine scrub, the principal vegetation consists of low Pteridium esculentum, Coriaria ruscifolia, Gaultheria antipoda, and G. rupestris, scattered through which are numerous specimens of Gentiana Grisebachii, Celmisia Sinclairii, C. petiolata, Lycopodium fastigiatum, Veronica buxifolia, V. Traversii (?), Coprosma crassifolia, Olearia nummularifolia, Brachycome Sinclairii, and Veronica propinqua. Farther up the following appear: Celmisia verbascifolia, C. coriacea, Poa caespitosa, C. colensoi, Danthonia crassiuscula, Veronica Buchanani, Pimelea sericeo-villosa (?), with Phormium Cookianum and in rocky situations Anisotome Haastii and Senecio Haastii, the latter being particularly abundant, and having exceptionally large leaves, in one case noted the measurement being 27 cm. by 21 cm. without the petiole. The above association continues up the mountain, and may be taken to be typical.
(5.) Rooks and Cuffs.
Much of this range of mountains consists of great patches of wind-swept rocks and precipitous cliffs, and as these situations have their peculiar plant-growths, some care was taken in noting their principal associations.
At an elevation of 2,000 ft. on the ridge leading from Glenary Station there is a rocky patch subject to much wind, the plant association being as follows: Festuca rubra, Blechnum penna marina, Senecio bellidioides, Leptospermum scoparium, Rubus australis, Hypolepis tenuifolia, Coriaria angustissima, Ranunculus lappaceus, Wahlenbergia saxicola, Lagenophora petiolata, Acaena microphylla, Chrysobactron Hookeri, Poa australis, Holcus
lanatus, Senecio Haastii, Olearia arborescens, Griselinia littoralis, Blechnum capense, Cyclophorus serpens, Coprosma brunnea, Senecio bellidioides, Nothopanax Edgerleyi, Styphelia Fraseri, Anisotome Haastii, Polystichum vestitum, Asplenium flabellifolium, Geranium microphyllum, Pimelea prostrata, Raoulia glabra, Pteridium esculentum, Aciphylla Colensoi, Lycopodium Billardieri, Gaultheria antipoda var. erecta, Polypodium diversifolium, Coprosma crassifolia, Asplenium bulbiferum, and A. Richardii. Many of these are in sheltered crevices of the rocks, but in exposed places the foliage is clipped close and the plants are stunted in form.
In many places the rock association is the result of the shelter from wind afforded by the overhanging rocks, while no doubt the windy mountain-tops where many of the rocks are found prove to be too severe a habitat for the plants less equipped to stand xerophytic conditions, and the associations are therefore specially selected ones. This is illustrated at the Titan rocks, at 4,100 ft., where the association is Anisotome intermedium, Forstera sedifolia, Claytonia australasica, Aciphylla Monroi, Polystichum cystostegia, P. vestitum, Leucogenes grandiceps, Helichrysum bellidioides, Acaena novae-zelandiae, A. sanguisorbae, Poa Colensoi, and Celmisia ramulosa. All of these plants possess more or less adaptation to xerophytic conditions. In rocky places, at an elevation of about 4,700 ft., there is a change, and the following plants were added: Celmisia prorepens C. discolor (?), C. viscosa, C. sessiliflora, C. argentea, and Raoulia grandiflora. A marked instance was noted of the manner in which Celmisia prorepens recovers from the effect of snow. Last season was a severe one, and much snow fell on these mountains The drifts in the rocky situations now under notice were very deep, and the “slipping” of the mass of melting snow in many places apparently ground off the tops of the plants, leaving nothing but the rootstock. Celmisia prorepens grows in great patches several metres in diameter on the sloping sheltered sides of rocky situations, and was one of the chief sufferers. A strong new growth of leaves had sprung up on every plant with such formal precision that many large patches looked like so-many gardener's lined-out beds, the plants being quite regular in symmetrical rows about 6 in. apart. Buds were forming, and in a short time the whole patch would apparently be in full flower. On the cliff-faces and rocky plateaux near Blue Lake Celmisia ramulosa is tolerably plentiful, and associated with it are Cardamine fastigiata, Celmisia discolor (?), Senecio revolutus, Lycopodium Selago, Hectorella caespitosa, Anisotome Haastii, Veronica uniflora, V. Thomsoni, V. ciliolata, Drapetes Dieffenbachii, Ourisia glandulosa, and O. caespitosa.
On rocky ridges at an elevation of about 5,000 ft. the following are the common plants: Cardamine depressa, Asperula perpusila, Aciphylla simplex, Celmisia discolor (?), C. densiflora, C. viscosa (abundant), C. Lyallii (in groups), Taraxacum magellanicum, Raoulia Parkii, Senecio revolutus, and Danthonia crassiuscula. At 5,300 ft. great patches of Celmisia viscosa and C. Hectori appear, and Aciphylla simplex becomes very plentiful, and here and there are patches of Ourisia glandulosa. The following plants are also fairly plentiful: Raoulia Buchanani, Dracophyllum prostratum, Senecio bellidioides (?)., Myosotis pulvinaris, Phyllachne Colensoi, Veronica uniflora, V. Thomsoni, and F. dasyphylla.
On the north side of the Remarkable Gap is the nearest approach to a shingle-slip in this locality. The loose schist is covered with snow all the winter, and the moving mass as the snow melts carries the shingle slowly with it. The principal plants are Celmisia coriacea, C. subalpina, C. Hectori, C. sessiliflora, Senecio bellidioides (?), Angelica decipiens, Aciphylla Monroi,
with occasional A. Kirkii. On the rock-faces and in the clefts near the top Ranunculus Buchanani, R. pachyrrhizus, Veronica Petriei, and V. pinguifolia are seen.
An association worth noting is that of an exposed hilltop near Gow's Lake. The cushion form is of a most marked order, no plant protruding a fraction beyond its neighbours, although the association is a mixed one. A close examination was made of a patch 1.3 metres square, and no less than twenty-four species were noted, the list being as follows: Aciphylla Kirkii, Cotula pectinata, Veronica uniflora, V. lycopodioides, Ranunculus novae-zealandiae, R. lappaceus, Taraxacum magellanicum, Claytonia australasica, Viola Cunninghamii, Phyllachne Colensoi, Colobanthus Billardieri, Raoulia Parkii, Celmisia argentea, C. linearis, C. subalpina, C. Lyallii, C. laricifolia, Abrotanella inconspicua, Drapetes Dieffenbachii, Myosotis sp., Gnaphalium paludosum, Craspedia uniflora, Brachycome Sinclairii, and Epilobium sp. The surrounding plants were principally Celmisia Lyallii.
The Nokomai Gorge, lying to the west of Mount Tennyson, at an elevation of 1,000 ft., is bounded by cliffs of possibly 300 ft. in height in places, succeeded by steep mountain-slopes above them. Over these rocks Muehlenbeckia complexa hangs in green masses, with here and there Corokia cotoneaster and Nothofagus trees, apparently clinging to the bare rock. Among the smaller plants the following are fairly plentiful: Senecio Haastii, Anisotome Haastii, Celimsia petiolata, C. petiolata var. membranacea, Polystichum vestitum, Blechnum fluviatile, Aciphylla squarrosa, Veronica salicifolia, V. Traversii (?), Poa caespitosa, Wahlenbergia saxicola, Coriaria ruscifolia, Danthonia flavescens, Senecio bellidioides, Hypolepis tenuifolia, Chrysobactron Hookeri, Ranunculus lappaceus, Coprosma crassifolia, Carmichaelia subulata, Acaena pilosa, Clematis indivisa, Rubus australis, Olearia virgata, and Arundo conspicua.
Here and there are patches of Pteridium esculentum and Acaena sanguisorbae, while near the stream Muehlenbeckia axillaris grows commonly among the tussocks, with Oxalis corniculata, Rumex flexuosus, and Gnaphalium Traversii. At a lower elevation in the valley there is a considerable increase in Corokia cotoneaster, which climbs up the rocky faces, giving a grey appearance to the landscape. Farther down still, Griselinia littoralis and Carpodetus serratus make their appearance among the rock-covering, along with Aciphylla squarrosa, Celmisia discolor, and Blechnum penna marina.
(6.) Bogs and Swamps.
I have mentioned earlier in this paper that extensive bogs and swamps exist on the Garvie Mountains. It is in these wet peaty places that much of the most interesting flora is found. It is hard, of course, to define the point at which a swamp ends and a bog commences, and consequently many of the typical bog-plants are found in the much drier swamps, and in some cases even on the alpine meadow adjoining. Notwithstanding this fact, the water-content of the ground is the chief factor in the distribution of the wet-ground vegetation. A typical bog association is that in the peaty ground near the hut at Blue Lake. Round the drier edge of the bog there is a belt of Celmisia longifolia var. alpina, this being dotted over with the round hard cushion of Gaimardia setacea and Phyllachne Colensoi, the latter about 40 cm. in diameter and bright green in colour. Surrounding the bog there is almost invariably a meadow association of Danthonia crassiuscula. Gentiana corymbifera and G. bellidioides are usually dotted about, while Gnaphalium Traversii and G. paludosum are common. Irregular
cushions of Oreobolus pectinatus of varying size up to 1 metre in diameter are plentiful, and through these a small swamp-grass grows. Drapetes Lyallii is common. On the drier patches Ranunculus gracilipes paints the surface yellow with its bright blossoms. In very wet places Sphagnum moss abounds, and in situations like these great irregular patches show the rosettes of Aciphylla pinnatifida. This species differs from all other members of the genus in its habit of sending out underground stolons and springing from these. It thus increases rapidly by vegetative process. Patches from 1 to 2 metres in diameter will frequently be found, all connected underground, although the surface rosettes are well apart. In the wetter parts the bogs are almost black in colour, but here and there the dark ground is starred with the dwarf rosettes of Gnaphalium paludosum and covered with small patches of Carpha alpina. Celmisia glandulosa in a stunted form is also common, and where a Danthonia island appears Celmisia coriacea, or C. Lyallii, or both, will be found. Luzula campestris in one or other of its forms, Juncus planifolius, and Viola Cunninghamii are also plentiful, as also are Drosera Arcturi and the xerophytic moss Racomitrium lanuginosum.
In some places the drier edges of the bogs are dotted with small plants of Brachycome Sinclarii, Epilobium rotundifolium, and Cotula pectinata. In the drier part of the bog—which may be called swamp—the association is confined to Celmisia longifolia var. alpina, Carpha alpina, Brachycome Sinclairii, Ranunculus gracilipes, Gentiana corymbifera, Gnaphalium Traversii, Oreobolus pectinatus, Plantago lanigera var. Petriei, and a small form of Craspedia uniflora. Frequently this latter plant covers many square metres.
On what is known as Boggy Saddle there is a patch of dwarf Dacrydium Bidwillii, associated with Dracophyllum uniflorum, Pentachondra pumila, Pimelea prostrata, Styphelia pumila, Dracophyllum prostratum, and Suttonia nummularia. In some places Euphrasia Dyeri and E. zealandica are common, and the margins of bog-pools are brightened with the pretty blue flowers of Utricularia monanthos. Veronicas are sparingly found along the margins of the swamps, the following having been noted: V. lycopodioides and V. buxifolia, including the var. prostrata. A peculiar form of Veronica like V. loganioides is also plentiful, but it may be only a juvenile form of V. lycopodioides, although it has kept its open-leaved form in cultivation in my garden for about four years. The swamp and bog associations on Mount Tennyson do not differ materially from those above described, which are typical of these mountains.
The investigation of the flora of these mountains has so far resulted in the listing of no less than 360 species, spread over 151 genera and sixty orders.
Several new or comparatively rare species and forms have been found, such as,—
Ranunculus Poppelwellii n.s. Petrie. Closely related to R. Berggreni, but, according to Petrie, quite distinct.
— novae-zealandiae Petrie. Reported from only two localities in Cheeseman's Manual.
Aciphylla sp. Near to A. Traillii, but considered distinct by Cockayne.
— Petrie. Discovered here by me about the same time as it was found by Mr. Crosby Smith on Princess Range.
Anisotome sp. Probably an undescribed species; related to A. aromatica. Celmisia subalpina Cockayne. Related to C. Haastii.
VeronicaMuelleri Buch., or an allied species. The flowers were nearly an inch in diameter. V. Muelleri has hitherto been reported only from Mount Aspiring.
——Armstrongii T. Kirk, or an allied species. Petrie considered it his var. gracilior of V. Hectori, but now thinks it distinct.
——lycopodioides Hook. f. With persistent juvenile form. Probably V. cassinioides of H. J. Matthews.
Geum uniflorum Buch. The most easterly habitat so far reported in Otago.
Several forms of Celmisia which have not yet been satisfactorily placed, including one whose leaves turn a dark reddish-purple in winter-time. The mountain-tops are covered with a great variety of xerophytic cushion plants, wind being the dominant factor in determining the association.
On the whole, the Garvie Mountains possess a rich flora, and further investigation will probably disclose many new forms and species.
List Of Indigenous Species Noted.
HymenophyllumTurnbridgense Smith. Waikaia forest; rare.
——multifidum (Forst. f.) Sw. Forest; not uncommon.
Alsophila Colensoi Hook. f. Forest; rare.
Polystichumvestitum (Forst. f.) Presl. Not uncommon.
——cystostegia (Hook.) J. B. Armstrong. Not uncommon on rocks.
Aspleniumbulbiferum Forst. f. Not uncommon in forest.
——flaccidum Forst. f. Not uncommon in forest.
——flabellifolium Cav. Rocks, East Dome; forest; rare.
——Hookerianum Col. Waikaia forest.
——Richardii Hook f. Forest, and in clefts of rocks.
Blechnumpenna marina (Poir.) Kuhn. Common; forest and steppe.
——capense (L.) Schlecht. Common; forest and steppe.
——fluviatile (R. Br.) Lowe. Not uncommon; forest.
——membranaceum Mett. Forest; rare.
Hypolepis tenuifolia (Forst. f.) Bernh. Common in forest.
Histiopteris incisa (Thbg.) J. Sm. In open forest.
Pteridium esculentum (Forst. f.) Cockayne. Open heath; not common.
PolypodiumBillardieri (Willd.) C. Chr. Tree-trunks and logs in forest.
——diversifolium Willd. Tree-trunks; not plentiful.
Cyclophorus serpens (Forst. f.) C. Chr. Rocky situations, in Waikaia forest and East Dome.
Gleichenia Cunninghamii Hew. In beech forest; rare.
Leptopteris hymenophylloides (A. Rich.) Pr. Beech forest; rare.
Ophioglossum coriaceum A. Cunn. Dry hillside.
LycopodiumSelago L. Rocky plateaux, above 4,000 ft.
——Billardieri Spring. Beech forest; epiphytic.
——fastigiatum R. Br. Dry heath.
——scariosum Forst. f. Waikaia; open forest.
——volubile Forst. f. Waikaia; open forest.
PodocarpusHallii T. Kirk. Beech forest; not common.
——spicatus R. Br. East Dome forest.
——totara D. Don. Beech forest, East Dome; rare.
Dacrydium Bidwillii Hook, f. Subalpine scrub and boggy saddle.
Phyllocladus alpinus Hook. f. Common in alpine scrub.
Potamogeton Cheesemanii A. Benn. Pools; not common.
Mirolaena avenacea (Raoul) Hook. f. Common in forests.
Hierochloeredolens (Forst. f.) R. Br. Common in forests.
——Fraseri Hook. f. Not common; in meadow.
DanthoniaCunninghamii Hook. f. Steppe above 2,000 ft.
——Raoulii Steud. Common below 3,500 ft.
——flavescens Hook. f. Steppe; not uncommon.
——crassiuscula T. Kirk. Abundant above 3,500 ft.
——pilosa R. Br. Fairly common in meadow.
——semiannularis R. Br. Fairly common in meadow.
Arundo conspicua Forst. f. East Dome, near river.
Poacaespitosa Forst. f. Abundant in lower steppe.
——imbecilla Forst. f. Not common.
——Colensoi Hook. f. Common in meadow.
————var.pungens Petrie. Common at high elevations.
————var. intermedia Cheesem. Common in meadows.
Festuca rubra L. Lower steppe; common.
Agropyron scabrum (R. Br.) Beauv. Throughout meadows.
Scirpius aucklandicus (Hook. f.) Boeck. Swamps.
Carpha alpina R. Br. Common in swamps.
Schoenus pauciflorus Hook. f. Common in swamps
Cladium Vauthiera C. B. Clarke. Swampy, wet places, Waikaia Valley.
Gahnia procera Forst. Wet places.
Oreobolus pectinatus Hook. f. Common in bogs and swamps.
Unciniacompacta R. Br.
——Sinclairii Boott. Common in forest.
——riparia R. Br. Common in forest.
——rubra Boott. In forest and in meadows.
——filiformis Boott. In forest; not uncommon.
Carexsecta Boott. Lowland swamps.
——acicularis Boott. Boggy places.
——ternaria Forst. f. Damp lowland swamps.
——pterocarpa (?) Petrie. Alpine bogs.
——dissita Sol. Forest.
——lucida Boott. Swampy places.
Hypolaena lateriflora Benth. Mountain swamps.
Gaimardiaciliata Hook. f. Alpine bogs.
——setacea Hook. Alpine bogs.
Juncuseffusus L. Damp places.
——planifolius R. Br. Damp places.
——pauciflorus R. Br. Alpine swamps.
Luzulacampestris D.C. Several varieties. Common in meadows.
——pumila Hook. f. Common in meadows.
Enargea parviflora Kunth. Wakaia Valley forest; not plentiful.
Cordyline australis (Forst. f.) Hook. East Dome.
Astelialinearis Hook. f. Alpine bog meadow, Blue Lake.
——nervosa Banks & Sol. Common in forest.
——montana (Kirk) Cockayne. Alpine meadow; plentiful
Phormiumtenax Forst. East Dome.
——Cookianum Le Jolis. East Dome and (rare) in Waikaia Valley.
Chrysobactron Hookeri Col. Common in damp situation.
Herpolirion novae-zealandiae Hook. f. Damp patches in meadows
Arthropodium candidum Raoul. Not uncommon, Waikaia forest.
Libertia ixioides Spreng. East Dome.
Thelymitralongifolia, Forst. Common in open torest.
——uniflora Hook. f. Common in open forest.
Microtis unifolia (Forst. f.) Rchl. Common in steppe meadow.
PrasophyllumColensoi Hook. f. Common in steppe meadow.
——Banksii R. Br. Not common; in damp forest.
——australis Hook, f. Not common; in damp forest.
Caladenia bifolia Hook. f. Abundant in Waikaia Valley forest.
Chiloglottis cornuta Hook. f. In forest; not plentiful.
Corysanthesrotundifolia Hook. f. Common in forest.
——triloba Hook. f. Common in forest.
Gastrodia Cunninghamii Hook. f., Fairly common in forest.
Adenochilus gracilis Hook. f. Fairly common in forest.
Nothofagusfusca Oerst. Abundant in upper forest.
——Menziesii Oerst. Abundant throughout.
——Solanderi Oerst. Abundant in upper forest.
——cliffortioides Oerst. Abundant in upper forest.
Urtica incisa Poir. In beech forest; common.
ElytrantheColensoi Engl. Common; epiphytic on Nothofagus Menziesii.
——tetrapetala Engl. Common; epiphytic on Nothofagus Menziesii.
——flavida Engl. Common; epiphytic on various beeches.
Loranthus micranthus Hook. f. East Dome forest.
Rumex flexuosus Sol. Not uncommon; lowland.
Muehlenbeckiaaustralis (Forst. f.) Meissn. East Dome forest.
——complexa (A. Cunn.) Meissn. Common on border of forest.
——axillaris Walp. Nokomai Valley; not uncommon.
Claytonia australasica Hook. f. Common in alpine meadow above 3,500 ft.
Colobanthusacicularis Hook. f. Plentiful in bogs.
——Billardieri Fenzl. Not uncommon.
Hectorella caespitosa Hook, f. Common on rocky places.
Clematisindivisa Willd. In forests; not plentiful.
——marata Armstr. Alpine scrub; rare.
Ranunculusgracilipes Hook. f. Abundant in swampy ground.
——hirtus Banks & Sol. Not uncommon in forest.
——rivularis Banks & Sol. Damp places; common.
——lappaceus Sm. Common throughout.
——multiscapus Cockayne. Not uncommon.
——novae-zealandiae Petrie. Blue lake, 4,000 ft.; common.
——novae-zealandiae var. with 10 petals. Blue lake, 4,000 ft.; common.
——Buchanani Hook. f. Damp rocks above 5,000 ft.
——pachyrrhizus Hook. f. Damp rocks above 5,000 ft.
——Poppelwellii Petrie n.s. Mount Tennyson; swampy places.
——foliosus T. Kirk. Not common.
——tenuicaulis Cheesem. Not common.
Caltha novae-zealandiae Hook. f. Abundant near snow above 4,000 ft.
Drimys colorata Raoul. Comparatively rare in open forest.
Cardamineheterophylla (Forst. f.) Schultz. Abundant.
——depressa Hook. f. Abundant above 3,500 ft.
——fastigiata Hook, f. Rocky places above 4,500 ft.; rare.
Drosera Arcturi Hook. f. Common in alpine swamps.
Carpodetus serratus Forst. Not uncommon in forests.
Pittosporum, tenuifolium Banks & Sol. Tolerably common in forest.
Rubusaustralis Forst. f. Common.
——subpauperatus Cockayne. Common.
Geumparviflorum Smith. Abundant above 3,500 ft.
——uniflorum Buch. Abundant at Blue Lake, 4,200 ft.
——leiospermum Petrie. Very abundant, but local above 4,000 ft.
——pusillum Petrie. Rare; near Blue Lake.
Potentilla anserina var. anserinoides (Raoul) T. Kirk. East Dome.
Acaenasanguisorbae Vahl. Common throughout.
———— var.pilosa T. Kirk. Common throughout.
——novae-zealandiae T. Kirk. Common throughout.
——miorophylla Hook. f. Common throughout.
——fissistipula Bitter. Above 4,000 ft.; rare.
Geraniummicrophyllum Hook, f. Common throughout.
——sessiliflorum Cav. var. glabrum R. Kunth. Common in steppe.
Oxalismagellanica Forst. Abundant above 4,000 ft.
——corniculata L. Common up to 3,500 ft.
Callitriche verna L. In wet ditches, Waikaia Valley.
Coriariaruscifolia L. Common in subalpine scrub.
——thymifolia Humb. & Bonpl. Common on creek-banks.
——angustissima Hook. f. Not uncommon.
Sophora microphylla J. Mull. Rare in Waikaia Valley; more common East Dome.
Carmichaelia robusta T. Kirk. Common.
——Carmichaelia robusta T. Kirk. Common on creek-banks.
Aristoteliaracemosa (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. Forest; not plentiful.
——fruticosa Hook. f. Subalpine scrub; rare.
Elaeocarpus Hookerianus Raoul. Waikaia Valley forest; rare.
Discaria toumatou Raoul. Dry places; common.
Gaya Lyallii J. E. Baker. Damp gullies; abundant.
ViolaCunninghamii Hook, f. Common up to 6,000 ft.
——filicaulis Hook. f. Not uncommon.
——Lyallii Hook. f. In Waikaia Valley forest; rare.
Melicytus lanceolatus Hook. f. East Dome; not common.
Hymenanthera dentata (R. Br.) var. alpina T. Kirk. Alpine meadow; rare
Pimeleaprostrata Willd. (one or more of its varieties). Very common above 2;000 ft.
——Gnidia Willd. Rare; one plant only, 3,500 ft.
——sericeo-villosa Hook. f. Not uncommon. (Perhaps this should be P. Lyallii Hook. f. var.)
——Drapetes Dieffenbachii Hook. f. Alpine bogs; common.
DrapetesLyallii Hook. f. Alpine bogs; common.
Leptospermum scoparium Forst. Abundant in lowland situations.
Myrtus pedunculata Hook. f East Dome; not common.
Epilobiumtasmanicum Haussk. (by this is meant the species hitherto referred to E. confertifolia). Meadow, common
——alsinoides A. Cunn. Forest.
——pubens A. Rich. Damp forest; common.
——pictum Petrie. Dry situations; common.
Epilobiuminsulare Haussk. Not uncommon.
——rotundifolium Forst. f. Alpine bogs.
Fuchsiaexcorticata L. f. Common in forest.
——Colensoi Hook. f. Forest; rare.
Halorrhagisdepressa Walp. Not uncommon in alpine meadow.
——uniflora T. Kirk. Not uncommon in alpine meadow.
Myriophyllum elatinoides Gaud. Pools; not uncommon.
Gunneraprorepens Hook. f. Swamps.
——mixta T. Kirk. On damp banks, &c.
Nothopanaxsimplex Forst. f. Forests throughout.
——Edgerleyi Hook. f. Forests throughout.
——Colensoi (Hook. f.) Seem. Forests throughout.
Pseudopanax crassifolium (Sol.) C. Koch. Forest; not abundant.
Hydrocotylenovae-zealandiae D.C. Abundant in damp places.
——asiatica L. Abundant in damp places.
Apium filiforme (A. Rich.) Hook. Rare; open forest.
Oreomyrrhis andicola Endl. Swampy places; common.
AciphyllaColensoi Hook. f. Fairly abundant, but local.
——squarrosa Forst. Lowland-meadow association.
——Lyallii Hook, f. Mount Tennyson; not common.
——Monroi Hook. f. Abundant above 4,000 ft.
——simplex Petrie. Abundant in rocky places above 5,000 ft.
——Kirkii Buch. Not uncommon above 4,000 ft.
——pinnatifida Petrie. Abundant in swamps above 4,000 ft.
——pinnatifida sp. (probably undescribed species); referred in Cheeseman to A. Traillii. Abundant in wet places.
Angelicadecipiens Hook. f. Not uncommon at high altitudes.
——Gingidium Hook. f. Lowland; protected banks.
AnisotomeHaastii F. Muell. Common on damp rocks.
——aromatica Hook. f. Common in swampy places above 4,000 ft.
——brevistylis Hook. f. Rocks above 4,000 ft.
——pilifera Hook, f. Not common.
——pilifera sp. Probably new; related to A. aromatica. Boggy Saddle.
Griselinia littoralis Raoul. Common in forest.
Corokia cotoneaster Raoul. Abundant, Nokomai Valley.
Gaultheriaantipoda Forst. f. var. erecta Cheesem. Plentiful.
——depressa Hook. f. Plentiful.
——perplexa Kirk. Not common; subalpine scrub.
——rupestris R. Br. Comparatively rare; Mount Tennyson.
Pentachondra pumila (Forst.) R. Br. Common; alpine boggy situation.
Stypheliapumila Hook. f. Alpine meadow; not plentiful.
——Fraseri (A. Cunn.) F. Muell. Common throughout.
Dracophyllumlongifolium (Forst. f.) R. Br. Not uncommon.
——Urvilleanum var. montanum (?) A. Rich. Subalpine scrub.
——uniflorum Hook. f. Rare.
——prostratum T. Kirk. Common in bogs.
——politum (Cheesm.) Cockayne. Common in bogs.
Rapanea Urvillei (A.D.C.) Mez. Forest; rare.
Suttoniadivaricata (A. Cunn.) Hook. f. Beech forest; rare.
——nummularia Hook. f. Dry peaty places, 4,000 ft.
GentianaGrisebachii Hook. f. Not uncommon; East Dome.
——corymbifera T. Kirk. Common; alpine meadow.
——lineata T. Kirk. Above 4,000 ft.; rare.
——bellidioides Hook. f. Damp peat; common.
Parsonsiaheterophylla A. Cunn. East Dome; common.
——capsularis R. Br. East Dome; common.
Calystegia tuguriorum (Forst. f.) R. Br. East Dome; abundant.
Myosotismacrantha Hook. f. Rare.
——pulvinaris Hook. f. Not uncommon in rocky places.
Mentha Cunninghamii Benth. Common in meadow.
Scleranthus biflorus Hook. f. Not uncommon in mead ws.
Veronica,salicifolia Forst. f. Creek-banks; common.
——buxifolia Benth. Abundant in meadows.
———— var. odora. T. Kirk. Abundant in meadows.
———— var. prostratum Cockayne. In boggy places above 4,000 ft.
——Traversii (?) Hook. f. Subalpine scrub. (This may be a form of V. monticola.)
——monticola Armst. Subalpine scrub; rare.
——lycopodioides Hook. f. Common above 4,000 ft.
——propinqua Cheesem. From 2,500 ft.; common in subalpine-scrub association.
——epacridea Hook. f. Above 4,000 ft.; rare.
——Buckanani Hook, f. Rocky situations; not common.
——Petriei T. Kirk. Rocky situations; rare.
——Thomsoni Cheesem. Common; rocky meadow.
——pulvinaris Benth. & Hook. Common; rocky meadow.
——ciliolata Benth. & Hook. Common; rocky meadow.
——uniflora T. Kirk. Common; rocky meadow.
——dasyphylla T. Kirk. Rocky meadow; rare.
——Muelleri (?) Buch. or n. sp. Mount Tennyson; not common.
——Muelleri sp. (a var. related to V. lycopodioides, but remaining more or less persistent in juvenile form); perhaps V. cassinioides Matthews (?). Swampy place, Blue Lake.
——Armstrongii T. Kirk. Mount Tennyson; abundant.
——Hectori Hook. f. var. gracilior Petrie. Mount Tennyson; fairly plentiful.
——pinguifolia Hook. f. Rocky situation, “Gap.”
Ourisiaglandulosa Hook. f. Common in moist places and swamps.
——sessilifolia Hook. f. Alpine meadow, Mount Tennyson.
——caespitosa Hook. f. Common; alpine meadow, above 4,000 ft.
Euphrasiazealandica Wettst. Wet places on creek-bank at 4,000 ft.
——Dyeri Wettst. Wet places on creek-bank at 4,000 ft.
Utricularia monanthos Hook. f. Margins of bog-pools, Blue Lake.
PlantagoBrownii Rapin. Damp places; not uncommon.
——triandra Berggr. Boggy places; common.
——lanigera Hook. f. var. Petriei Cheesem. Boggy places; common.
Coprosmarotundifolia A. Cunn. Forest; not plentiful.
——areolata Cheesem. Forest; not plentiful.
——parviflora Hook. f. Creek-banks.
——cuneata Hook. f Alpine meadow; rocky places.
——crassifolia Col. Margins of forest.
——repens Hook. f. Alpine meadow; rare.
——foetidissima Forst. Forest; not plentiful.
Nerteradichondraefolia Hook. f. Forest; rare.
——depressa Banks & Sol. Forest; common.
——setulosa Hook. f. Damp forest, Waikaia Valley.
Galium umbrosum Sol. Meadows throughout.
Asperula perpusilla Hook. f. Meadows throughout.
Pratia angulata (Forst. f.) Hook. f. Meadows; not uncommon.
Wahlenbergiasaxicola (R. Br.) A. D.C. Abundant throughout.
——gracilis (Forst. f.) A. D.C. Not plentiful.
Phyllachneclavigera (Hook. f.) Muell. Common in mountain bogs.
——Colensoi (Hook. f.) Berggr. Common in mountain bogs.
Donatia novae-zealandiae Hook. f. Common in mountain bogs.
Oreostylidium subulatum (Hook, f.) Berggr. Boggy places; common.
Forsterasedifolia L. f. Fairly common above 3,500 ft.
——Bidwillii Hook, f. Fairly common above 3,500 ft.
Lagenophorapumila (Forst. f.) Cheesem. Abundant in meadows.
——petiolata Hook. f. Abundant in meadows.
Brachycome Sinclairii Hook. f. Common from 3,000 ft. upwards.
Oleariavirgata Hook. f. Subalpine scrub, Waikaia Valley.
——ilicifolia Hook. f. Subalpine scrub, Waikaia Valley.
——arborescens (Forst. f.) Cockayne and Laing. Common on creek-banks.
——nummularifolia Hook. f. Subalpine scrub, East Dome and Waikaia Valley.
——avicenniaefolia Hook. f. East Dome; not common.
——odorata Petrie. Waikaia Valley; not uncommon.
——Hectori Hook. f. Waikaia Valley; not uncommon.
CelmisiaSinclairii Hook. f. East Dome.
——longifolia Cass. Common.
———— var. Blue Lake; meadow.
———— var. alpina T. Kirk. Blue Lake; bog meadow.
——linearis J. B. Armstr. Near Blue Lake; not common.
——sessiliflora Hook. f. Common above 4,000 ft.
——argentea T. Kirk. Near Gow's Lake, 4,500 ft.
——ramulosa Hook. f. Abundant on rock-faces above 4,000 ft.
——densiflora Hook. f. Not uncommon; alpine meadow.
——discolor Hook. f. Mount Tennyson.
——subalpina Cockayne. Common above 4,000 ft.
——incana Hook. f. Not common.
——intermedia (Petrie) T. Kirk. Not common; 4,500 ft.
——petiolata Hook. f. Common on alpine meadow.
———— var. membranacea T. Kirk. Common on alpine meadow.
——verbascifolia Hook. f. Common on alpine meadow.
——coriacea Hook. f. Common above 3,500 ft.
——Lyallii Hook. f. Abundant above 3,500 ft.
——viscosa Hook. f. Abundant from 5,000 ft. upwards.
——laricifolia Hook. f. Alpine meadow; not uncommon.
——glandulosa Hook. f. Moist places; common.
——Petriei Cheesem. (?). Alpine meadow (perhaps a hybrid).
——lanceolata Cockayne. Alpine meadow.
——lanceolata var. intermediate between coriacea and Lyallii. Alpine meadow.
——prorepens Petrie. Rocky situations; abundant.
——Hectori Hook. f. Abundant above 5,000 ft.
Gnaphaliumluteo-album L. Common.
——collinum Lab. Common.
——trinerve Forst. f. Not common.
——Traversii Hook. f. Boggy places; abundant.
——paludosum Petrie. Boggy places; abundant.
Raouliaaustralis Hook. f. Common.
——lutescens Beauv. Common, gravelly places.
——glabra Hook. f. Abundant.
——Parkii Buch. Common above 4,500 ft.
——grandiflora Hook. f. Common above 4,500 ft.
——Buchanani Hook. f. Rare; near Gow's Lake.
Helichrysumbellidioides (Forst.) Willd. Common.
——filicaule Hook. f. Common in meadows.
——glomeratum Benth. & Hook. East Dome; rare.
Leucogenes grandiceps (Hook. f.) Beauv. Common on rocks above 4,000 ft.
Abrotanella inconspicua Hook. f. Swampy places.
Cassinia Vauvilliersii Hook. f. Common up to 2,700 ft.
—— var. rubra T. Kirk. Common up to 2,700 ft.
Craspedia uniflora Forst. f. Common in alpine damp places.
—— var. with woolly leaves. Common in alpine dry meadow.
CotulaGoyeni Petrie. Alpine meadow.
——pectinata Hook. f. Abundant, alpine meadow.
——pyrethrifolia Hook. f. Not uncommon.
——dioica Hook. f. Not uncommon.
Erechtitesprenanthoides (A. Rich.) D.C. Forest; plentiful.
——scaberula Hook. f. Forest, plentiful; not common.
Seneciosouthlandica Cockayne. Common.
——Lyallii Hook. f. Creek-banks; common.
——elaeagnifolius Hook. f. Waikaia Valley; subalpine scrub.
——cassinioides Hook. f. Waikaia Valley; subalpine scrub.
——Haastii Hook. f. Abundant, East Dome.
——revolutus T. Kirk. Abundant above 3,500 ft.
Taraxacum magellanicum Comm. Common.
Microseris Forsteri Hook. f. Not uncommon in steppe.
Crepis novae-zealandiae Hook. f. Alpine dry meadow.