Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 47, 1914
This text is also available in PDF
(5 MB) Opens in new window
– 550 –

Lamellibranchia.

Pronucula kermadecensis n. sp. Fig. 45.

Description of Type Specimen.—Shell small, very inequilateral, obliquely ovate, beaks at about the posterior fourth, directed backwards. Anterior end sloping, rounded in front, posterior end shortly rounded. Escutcheon indistinctly marked. Hinge with a triangular resilium directed forwards, a series of hinge-teeth on either side of the resilium, 8 anterior and 3 posterior, decreasing in size towards the apex. Adductor-scars scarcely impressed,

– 551 –

nearly equal, pallial line indistinct. Sculpture: There are regularly spaced low concentric riblets, variable in size, the larger ones being nearer the margin, crossed by fine close radiating striae. Colour yellowish-white.

Diameter—Dorso-ventral, 1.4 mm.; ant.-post., 1.8 mm.

Variations from Type.—Dead shells are white; epidermis on live shells thin, pale olive.

Habitat.—Live shells collected at Sunday Island by R. S. Bell.

Placunanomia zelandica (Gray).

Anomia zelandica Gray in Dieff. N.Z., 260, 1843.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 71, 1910 (P. ione).

Habitat.—Dead shells frequently washed up on the beaches, Sunday Island.

Distribution.—New Zealand, Australia.

Arca foliata Forskal.

Arca foliata Forskal, Descr. Anim., p. xxxi, 1775.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 71, 1910.

Habitat.—Dead shells found on the beaches, Sunday Island.

Fossil.—In coarse volcanic gravel cemented by calcite, Titi Knob, Sunday Island; and in hard sandy tuffs of submarine origin, Deyrell Islet. (A. decussata Oliver, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 43, 527.)

Distribution.—Australia, Indo-Pacific region.

Area reticulata Gmelin.

Arca reticulata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, 3311, 1790.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 71, 1910 (A. domingensis).

Habitat.—Living specimens found attached to the underside of stones in rock-pools, Sunday Island and Meyer Island.

Distribution.—New Zealand, Tasmania, Australia, Japan, Atlantic coasts, Funafuti, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island.

Philobrya costata (Bernhard).

Hochstetteria costata Bernhard, Bull. d. Nat. Mus., ii, 1896.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 71, 1910.

Habitat.—Single valves common in dredgings in 10 m. to 30 m. off Sunday Island. Colour varying from dark pink to white.

Distribution.—New Zealand.

Philobrya meleagrina (Bernhard).

Hochstetteria meleagrina Bernhard, Bull. d. Nat. Mus., ii, 1896.

Habitat.—Extremely abundant living among the densely growing alga Pterocladia capillacea on rocks about and below low-water mark, Sunday Island.

Distribution.—New Zealand.

Mytilus canaliculus Martyn.

Mytilus canaliculus Martyn, Univ. Conch., ii, fig. 78, 1784.

Recorded, Suter, Man. N.Z. Moll., 864, 1913.

Distribution.—New Zealand, Tasmania.

– 552 –

Modiolus auriculatus Krauss.

Modiolus auriculatus Krauss, Sudafrik. Moll., 20, 1848.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 71, 1910.

Habitat.—Living in rock-pools and crevices of rocks at low-water mark (not common), Sunday Island.

Distribution.—Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, Australia, Indian Ocean.

Lithophaga straminea (Dunker).

Lithodomus straminea Dunker, Reeve, Conch. Icon., x, fig. 11, 1858.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 71, 1910.

Habitat.—Dead shells found on the beaches, Sunday Island.

Distribution.—Australia, Indp-Pacific region.

Septifer bilocularis (Linné).

Mytilus bilocularis Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. x, 705, 1758.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 72, 1910.

Habitat.—Living among the alga Corallina officinalis in rock-pools between tide-marks, Sunday Island.

Distribution.—Australia, Indo-Pacific region.

Musculus impacta (Hermann).

Mytilus impactus Hermann, Naturforscher, xvii, pl. 3, figs. 5–8, 178, 1782.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 72, 1910 (Modiolaria).

Habitat.—Dead shells found on the beaches, Sunday Island.

Distribution.—New Zealand, Australia.

Pinclada vulgaris (Schum.).

Perlamater vulgaris Schumacher, Essai, 108, 1817.

Recorded, Suter, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 38, 316, 1906 (Meleagrina radiata).

Habitat.—Small live specimens found in rock-pools between tide-marks, Sunday Island.

Distribution.—Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, Indo-Pacific region.

Melina nucleus (Lamarck).

Perna nucleus Lam., Anim. s. Vert., vii, 78, 1836.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 72, 1910.

Habitat.—Living in crevices of rocks between tide-marks, Sunday Island.

Distribution.—Indo-Pacific region.

Malleus legumen Reeve.

Malleus legumen Reeve, Conch. Icon., xi, pl. 1, fig. 2, 1858.

Specimens from the Kermadec Islands are in Mr. Suters collection.

Distribution.—Australia, Malaya.

Julia exquisita Gould.

Julia exquisita Gould, Pro. Bost. Soc. N.H., viii, 284, 1862.

Recorded, Iredale, Pro. Mal. Soc., ix, 72, 1910.

Habitat.—Single valves of this beautiful little shell occurred rarely in dredgings in 10 m. to 30 m. on gravelly bottom near Sunday Island.

Distribution.—Queensland, Hawaii, Indian Ocean.

– 553 –

Spondylus raoulensis n. sp. Fig. 49.

Description of Type Specimen.—Right valve attached to rock, irregular, very deep at apex. Hinge-line straight, sides expanding at first gradually then suddenly, forming a nearly circular outline. Planes of hinge area and margin at right angles, contour of margin viewed laterally convex. Hinge area triangular, slightly concave, sides sinuous. Hinge-teeth projecting, with a deep cartilage-pit between them. Sculpture: Hinge area smooth, surface in contact with rock rough and irregular, otherwise with indistinct radiating ribs and concentric growth-lines. Colour pink; purplish on the angles of the hinge area; apex and hinge area mostly white.

Diameter—Dorso-ventral, 63 mm.; ant.-post., 54 mm. Hinge area—Base, 30 mm.; height, 27 mm.

Left valve (of another specimen) irregular, shallow. Cartilage - pit narrow, triangular, formed by two raised ridges on hinge-plate converging at apex. Hinge-teeth high, rounded, their dorsal face overhanging a marginal groove. Sculpture: There are 12 prominent but irregular radiating ridges, of which 6 high ones alternate with 6 lower ones. The interspaces with close, wavy, lamellated, radiating ribs, slightly irregular in size Colour pink, darker on the ridges and ears.

Diameter—Dorso-ventral, 73 mm.; ant.-post., 72 mm.

Variations from Type.—Large shells are massive and heavy. The angle of the planes of hinge area and margin increase with age. The colour varies, some shells being entirely purplish, others with much yellowish diffused with pink, but the ears and angles of the hinge area are usually purplish. Large right valve: Diameter—dorso-ventral, 125 mm.; ant.-post., 98 mm. Angle of planes of hinge area and margins, 135°. The hinge area varies in outline, and the apex points either forward or backward. Young specimens have spines on the ridges; these are probably worn off the types, which are beach specimens.

Habitat.—Single valves, often of large size, commonly washed up on the beaches, Sunday Island. A fragment of pumicestone with a small live shell attached was dredged in 25 m. off Sunday Island by R. S. Bell.

Fossil.—Common in hard sandy tuffs of submarine origin, Deyrell Islet. (S. ostreoides Oliver, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 43, 527.)

Spondylus ostreoides E. A. Smith.

Spondylus ostreoides E. A. Smith, “Challenger” Rep., xiii, pt. 35, 326, 1885.

Recorded, E. A. Smith, l.c.

Habitat.—Two single valves dredged in 950 m. south of Sunday Island (“Challenger” Expedition).

Cyclopecten kermadecensis (E. A. Smith).

Pecten kermadecensis E. A. Smith, “Challenger” Rep., xiii, pt. 35, 302, 1885.

Recorded, E. A. Smith, l.c.

Habitat.—Two valves dredged in 1,100 m. north of Sunday Island on hard ground (“Challenger” Expedition).

Pecten medius Lamarck.

Pecten medius Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vi, 163, 1819.

Habitat.—Dredged alive in 30 m. off Meyer Island (W. S. Bell).

Distribution.—New Zealand, Tasmania, Australia.

– 554 –

Chlamys cellularis n. sp. Fig. 46.

Description of Type Specimen.—Left valve triangularly orbicular, flatly rounded. Anterior ear one-third the length of the shell, triangular, its outer edge sinuous, a shallow groove and sinus at its inner margin. Posterior ear narrowly triangular. Disc with the dorsal margins sharply descending, very slightly concave; rounded and descending somewhat along the anterior, basal, and posterior margins, which are slightly crenulate. Resilifer obliquely triangular. The epidermis usually persists, especially in the interstices between the ribs, as a cellular covering, giving the shell a characteristic honeycomb appearance. Sculpture: Anterior ear with 6 radiating ribs, the 3 outer ones broad and flattened, the 3 inner ones about half the width of the outer. Posterior ear with small radiating ribs. Disc with 15 principal radiating ribs, the 2 central ones are smaller than the others. The upper surface of the ribs divided by 2 grooves into 3 riblets, of which the central one is largest. In the interstices are 2 riblets in the angles at the bases of the principal ribs, leaving a wide and deep channel in the centre, and grooves the width of the riblets between them and the principal ribs. The surface of the shell presents a microscopically reticulated appearance, apparently due to the growth of the epidermal covering. The marginal portion of the riblets has a series of projecting shelly scales. Interior prominently grooved. Colour white, diffused with pink, chiefly on the ribs, and as 3 concentric broad bands on the upper portion of the disc. Base of ears with pink blotches.

Diameter—Ant.-post., 18.5 mm.; dorso-ventral, 20.2 mm.

Variations from Type.—Right valve with the anterior ear oblong, obliquely truncated, a deep byssal sinus below; posterior ear narrowly triangular. The colour is variable. The irregular pink markings are present on all the specimens seen, and are arranged in more or less defined concentric bands. The ground-colour on one shell is lemon-yellow.

Habitat.—The only specimens obtained were single valves found on the beaches at Sunday Island.

Fossil.—A valve apparently referable to this species was found on Deyrell Islet in hard sandy tuffs of submarine origin. (Pecten kermadecensis Oliver, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 43, 527, 1911.)