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Volume 47, 1914
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Otago Institute.

First Meeting: 5th May, 1914.
Dr. J. Malcolm, Vice-President, in the chair.

New Member.—Mr. C. E. Clarke.

Address.—“The Geology of Tahiti,” by Dr. P. Marshall, F.G.S.

Special Public Meeting: 20th May, 1914.
Mr. G. M. Thomson, M.P., in the chair.

Professor W. M. Davis, of Harvard University, delivered an address, illustrated with fine diagrams, on “The Origin of the Coral Reefs of Fiji.”

Special Public Meeting: 23rd May, 1914.
Mr. G. M. Thomson, M.P., in the chair.

An address on “The Fisheries of Canada and New Zealand: a Contrast” was given by Professor E. E. Prince, Commissioner of Fisheries, Canada.

Second Meeting: 2nd June, 1914.
Mr. R. Gilkson, Vice-President, in the chair.

New Members.—Messrs. L.D. Coombs, A.R.I.B.A.; W. J. Kerr J. L. Salmond; S. Solomon, K.C.; and Professor R. Jack, D.Sc.

Address.—“The Agricultural Development of the West Indies,” by Mr. D. Tannock.

The paper dealt with the work that the Imperial Department of Agricultural Development is doing in the islands by means of its botanic station, its agricultural school, its travelling inspectors, and its experimental plots in the country districts. The second part of the paper was concerned more particularly with the island of Dominica and its industries.

Third Meeting: 7th July, 1914.
Dr. J. Malcolm, Vice-President, in the chair.

Exhibits.—Fine metal castings of biological and botanical specimens, by Mr. C. E. Clarke.

Papers.—1. “Oligochaetae on the Kermadec Islands,” by Dr. W. B. Benham, F.R.S.

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2. “Note on the Littoral Polychaetae of the Kermadec Islands,” by Dr. W. B. Benham, F.R.S.

3. “Dunedin Weather,” by Mr. D. Tannock.

An interesting comparison of the local records, especially those for 1913, with the records from the other chief centres of the Dominion.

4. “How a Muscle works,” by Dr. J. Malcolm.

A short address, illustrated by demonstrations with a frog's muscle, explaining simple and compound muscular movements.

5. “The Three Species of Rat found in New Zealand,” by Dr. W. B. Benham, F.R.S.

Fourth Meeting: 4th August, 1914.
The President, Mr. F. W. Payne, in the chair.

New Members.—Professor F. W. Dunlop, M.A., Ph.D., and Mr. W. A. Thomson.

Address.—The President delivered his presidential address, entitled “Natural Sources of Power.”

Papers.—1. “Notes on a Pure-white Form of Anas superciliosa,” by Mr. D. L. Poppelwell.

2. “Notes of a Botanical Visit to Herekopere Island,” by Mr. D. L. Poppelwell.

3. “Notes on the Plant Covering of the Garvie Mountains,” by Mr. D. L. Poppelwell.

Fifth Meeting: 1st September, 1914.
The President, Mr. F. W. Payne, in the chair.

Address.—“The Shakespeare-Bacon Controversy,” by Mr. T. W. Whitson.

An interesting account of the whole history of the controversy, and a very able exposition of the futility of the Baconian claims.

Sixth Meeting: 6th October, 1914.
The President, Mr. F. W. Payne, in the chair.

Papers and Addresses.–1. “The Food Value of New Zealand Carrageen,” by Dr. J. Malcolm.

2. “Description of New Species of Lepidoptera,” by Mr. A. Philpott; communicated by Dr. W. B. Benham, F.R.S.

3. “The Malay States and the Tin-mining Industry,” by Mr. F. W. Payne.

4. “The Smelting of Tin,” by Professor D. B. Waters.

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Seventh Meeting: 1st December, 1914.
Mr. R. Gilkison, Vice-President, in the chair.

Papers.—1. “A Remarkable Case of Bifurcation in Lumbricus rubellus,” by Dr. W. B. Benham, F.R.S.

2. “On Lumbricillus macquariensis,” by Dr. W. B. Benham, F.R.S.

3. “Notes on some New Zealand Polychaetes,” by Dr. W. B. Benham, F.R.S.

4. “Cainozoic Fossils from near Oamaru,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc., F.G.S.

5. “The Geology of Tahiti,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc., F.G.S.

6. “Ambrym Island and its Recent Eruptions,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc., F.G.S.

7. “Graptolites from Golden Ridge, near Collingwood,” by Dr. T. S. Hall; communicated by Dr. P. Marshall.

Annual Report.—The annual report and the balance-sheet for 1914 were read and adopted.

Abstract of Annual Report.

During the year the Council has met nine times for the transaction of the business of the Institute.

The Council supported the Manawatu Philosophical Society and the New Zealand Forest and Bird Protection Society in their endeavours to induce the Government to adopt and pass a private Bill having for its object the extension of the boundaries of Tongariro National Park. The attention of all local Members of Parliament was drawn to the proposal, and their co-operation in the matter sought. As a result, presumably, of the efforts of this and kindred societies the Government has, by an Order in Council, we understand, enlarged the park to the desired extent.

It is to be regretted that the efforts made by the Institute last year to secure the restoration of the protection accorded to the fur seal in New Zealand waters have not borne fruit, as the present Government still adheres to its policy of licensing sealers to pursue their calling among the southern islands. If such a policy is persisted in, the extinction of the fur seal in these waters will, it is to be feared, be a matter of only a very few years.

During the year the Council, on behalf of the Institute, contributed the sum of £60 towards the sum required to purchase for the Museum the specimens placed there on deposit some years ago by the late Mr. Hamilton. The result has been a valuable addition to the collection of moa remains, for which the Otago University Museum has so long been noteworthy. A donation of £15 was also made to the Augustus Hamilton Memorial Fund, and one of three guineas to the Alfred Russell Wallace Memorial Fund.

During the year the New Zealand Institute has remitted to the incorporated societies for their consideration a proposal that each society should hereafter contribute 2s. 6d. per member to the funds of the Institute. Your Council, believing that the statutory grant received by the Institute is quite inadequate to enable it to carry on its work successfully, has agreed to the proposed levy being made for at least one year.

Meetings.—Seven ordinary and two special meetings of the Institute have been held during the year. At the ordinary meetings there have been read or received fifteen papers embodying the results of original research.

Of more general interest to members were the following addresses: “Natural Sources of Power” (presidential address), by Mr. F. W. Payne; “The Geology of Tahiti,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc.; “The Agricultural Development of the West Indies,” by Mr. D. Tannock; “How a Muscle works,” by Professor J. Malcolm, M.D.; and “The Shakespeare-Bacon Controversy,” by Mr. T. W. Whitson, the last-named a paper of exceptional merit.

Taking advantage of the presence in Dunedin of two distinguished visiting scientists (Professor W. M. Davis, of Harvard University, and Professor E. E. Prince, Commissioner of Fisheries, Canada), your Council arranged for two special public meetings in the Y.M.C.A. Hall, Professor Davis speaking on “The Origin of the Coral Reefs of Fiji,” on the 20th May, and Professor Prince on “The Fisheries of Canada and New

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Zealand a Contrast,” on the 23rd May. These two meetings were very successful, both our own members and the general public attending them in satisfactory numbers.

The Institute has been called upon at its meetings during the past year to place on record its deep regret at the death of three of its former Presidents—Dr. J. H. Scott, Dr. John Shand, C.M.G., and Mr. J. C. Thomson. Dr. Scott, who was President as far back as 1885, had for over twenty years taken an active part in the work of the Institute, and had contributed to the Transactions original work of great value.

Technological Branch.—The year 1914 has been productive of good and useful work. A full course of seven ordinary meetings was held, at which valuable and interesting lectures were delivered.

Astronomical Branch.—Five ordinary meetings of the branch have been held during the season, when numerous important papers were read and discussed.

Presentations to the library have been made by Mr. E. B. M. Walmsley (books and magazines), and Mr. J. W. Milnes (“Observer's Atlas of the Heavens”).

An arrangement has been made with the Wellington Philosophical Society (Astronomical Branch) for the exchange of papers read at the two societies. As a result, two papers have been forwarded from Dunedin to Wellington, and one, on “Variable Stars,” has been received. It is hoped that this plan will be found of benefit to both societies.

During the year a transit instrument, as previously promised, was kindly handed over to the society by Mr. J. Blair Mason. The instrument has been repaired by Mr. Bremner, and is now erected, and will be oriented by Professor Park.

Membership.—During the year eight new members have been elected, three of whom entered through the Technological and one through the Astronomical Branch. On the other hand, twenty-seven members have either resigned or been struck off the membership list owing chiefly to removals from Dunedin, and six members (Dr. J. H. Scott, Dr. John Shand, and Messrs. John Blair, James Nichol, J. C. Thomson, and J. F. Woodhouse) have been removed by death. The membership roll, therefore, has suffered a net decrease of twenty-five, and now stands at 201.

Librarian's Report.—During the session twelve new works have been purchased, and six are on order with our agent. Of these, nine are technical works in zoology, botany, evolution, heredity, and so forth; three are geological; three on natural history in the popular sense, and are suitable for general readers who may be interested in the history of prehistoric or primitive man.

The Institute has also commenced to subscribe to a botanical periodical, “The New Phytologist,” and is arranging to obtain the earlier volumes.

A number of works added are due to the generosity of certain gentlemen. Mr. E. B. M. Walmsley presented seven astronomical books, most of which are suitable for general reading, and two periodicals of a technical nature. Mr. J. W. Milnes presented a valuable atlas to the heavens. To Mr. F. H. Statham we are indebted for a large series of the back numbers of the Journal of the Institute of Civil Engineers, which should be useful to members of the Technological Branch. Owing to lack of accommodation, these are at present stored in the basement.

During the past year fifty-one volumes have been bound, most of which are periodicals and other serials.

Balance-sheet.—The balance-sheet, presented by the Treasurer (Mr. R. N. Vanes), showed a credit of £30 6s. 10d. The gross receipts totalled £859, including subscriptions amounting to £175, deposits at call amounting to £533 10s.

Election of Officers for 1915.—President—Mr. R. Gilkison; Vice-Presidents—Dr. P. Marshall and Dr. W. B. Benham; Hon. Secretary—Mr. E. J. Parr; Hon. Treasurer—Mr. R. N. Vanes; Hon. Auditor—Mr. H. Brasch; Hon. Librarian—Dr. Benham; Council—Dr. R. V. Fulton, Dr. J. K. H. Inglis, Dr. R. Jack, Dr. J. Malcolm, Messrs. H. Brasch, G. M. Thomson, and Professor J. Park.

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Technological Branch.
First Meeting: 19th May, 1914.
Mr. E. E. Stark in the chair.

Address.—“The Law of Building and Engineering Contracts,” by Mr. H. Brasch.

The legal powers of local bodies, corporations, and joint-stock companies in regard to entering into contracts for erecting buildings were set forth very fully. The legal status and powers of architects were also ably summarized.

Second Meeting: 16th June, 1914.
Professor D. B. Waters in the chair.

Paper.—“Sand Movements and Banks at the Entrance to the Otago Harbour,” by Mr. J. B. Mason.

An interesting record of all the changes that have taken place in the configuration of the harbour-entrance since 1844, and a description of the means employed to control or prevent such changes; well illustrated by charts and lantern-slides.

Third Meeting: 21st July, 1914.
Mr. E. E. Stark in the chair.

Paper.—“The Generation and Utilization of Electric Energy from Waipori,” by Mr. E. E. Stark.

A full description of the Waipori power-generating apparatus, transmission-line, sub-stations, stand-by plant, and distributing system, with an analysis of the cost of the enterprise. Illustrated by a large number of slides.

Fourth Meeting: 18th August, 1914.
Mr. E. E. Stark in the chair.

Paper.—“The Evolution of Domestic Architecture,” by Mr. B. B. Hooper, A.R.I.B.A.

Fifth Meeting: 15th September, 1914.
Mr. E. E. Stark in the chair.

Papers.—1. “Oils and Oil-testing,” by Professor D. B. Waters. 2. “Indicator Diagrams and Steam Efficiencies,” by Mr. R. McLintock.

Sixth Meeting: 20th October, 1914.
Professor J. Park in the chair.

Paper.—“Friction and Lubrication,” by Mr. E. E. Stark.

Seventh Meeting: 17th November, 1914.
Professor J. Park in the chair.

Paper.—“Waterworks,” by Mr. W. D. R. McCurdie.

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Eighth Meeting: 15th December, 1914.
Professor J. Park in the chair.

The annual report was read and adopted, and the following office-bearers for 1915 were elected: Chairman—Mr. J. B. Mason; Vice-Chairmen—Professors J. Park and D. B. Waters; Hon. Secretary—Mr. H. Brasch; Committee—Messrs. G. W. Davies, B. B. Hooper, W. D. R. McCurdie, R. McLintock, G. Simpson, and R. N. Vanes.

Astronomical Branch.
First Meeting: 26th May, 1914.
Mr. R. Gilkison in the chair.

Address.—“Ball's Theory of the Ice Age,” by Mr. R. Gilkison.

Second Meeting: 23rd June, 1914.
Mr. R. Gilkison in the chair.

Address.—“The Characteristics of certain Familiar Stars,” by the Rev. D. Dutton, F.G.S., F.R.A.S.

Third Meeting: 28th July, 1914.
Mr. R. Gilkison in the chair.

Address.—“The Elimination of Errors in Astronomical Observations,” by Dr. P. D. Cameron.

Fourth Meeting: 25th August, 1914.
Mr. R. Gilkison in the chair.

Address.—“The Glacial Period,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc., F.G.S.

Fifth Meeting: 22nd September, 1914.
Mr. R. Gilkison in the chair.

Papers.—1. “On the Deflection of the Plumb-line due to the Spheroidal Form of the Earth,” by Mr. W. T. Neill.

2. “Recent Astronomy,” by the Rev. P. W. Fairclough, F.R.A.S.

Sixth Meeting: 27th October, 1914.
Mr. R. Gilkison in the chair.

Paper.—“Southern Variable Stars,” by Mr. Westland (by arrangement with the Wellington Philosophical Society, Astronomical Branch).

The annual report was read and adopted, and the following officers for 1915 were elected: Chairman—Mr. R. Gilkison; Vice-Chairmen—Professors J. Park and D. J. Richards, and Rev. D. Dutton, F.R.A.S.; Hon. Secretary—Mr. J. Bremner; Committee—Dr. P. D. Cameron, Messrs. H. Brasch, J. W. Milnes, W. T. Neill, and S. W. Wilson.