Art. XI.—Preliminary List of Mollusca from Dredgings taken off the Northern Coasts of New Zealand.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 27th October, 1915.]
Rather more than a year ago my father and I received from Captain Bollons samples of some dredgings he had taken—(A), 15′ S of the Big King, Three Kings Group, 98 fathoms; (B) 6′ E. of the North Cape, 73 fathoms; (C) 6 ½′ E., 5′ N. of the North Cape.
When we came to clean and examine the material, that from the Big King proved to be very rich in Foraminifera and in the smaller and minute Mollusca, there being none of the large forms in it. The other two—(B) and (C)—were not nearly so rich in Mollusca, but very rich in Foraminifera. So far as I know at present, there is only one mollusc new to New Zealand in either of them, but I have not yet had time to thoroughly work out the whole of the material.
On the other hand, the Big King dredging has yielded far more material, in which are several interesting forms. Two of the genera (Discohelix Dunker and Styliola Lesueur) are new to the New Zealand fauna. Another one (Columbarium von Martens) has only once before been recorded as occurring in New Zealand, a single specimen having been found by the “Terra Nova” Expedition in 1911. Then there are four other species which have not previously been recorded as occurring, in New Zealand—viz, Atlanta lesueuri, Limacina inflata, Brookula sp.? and Liotella incerta, notes on which will be found at the end of the list.
About the middle of this year Dr. J. Allan Thomson suggested that a list of the species in these dredgings would be of interest. Unfortunately, only a small number of the species are in this list, as owing to lack of time the majority of the bivalves have not been examined (it will be noted that only four or five are included), and there are also a considerable number of species that are very difficult to name, as they do not seem in to be described and figured by Mr. Suter in his valuable “Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca,” 1914.
Following Dr. Thomson's advice, the list itself is arranged in alphabetical order for easier reference, but the notes are in systematic order. The last note refers to a new species of Typhis, of which I have found two specimens—one, chosen as holotype, from a dredging off the Poor Knights Islands, and the other from a dredging off the Hen and Chickens Group, both dredgings taken by Captain Bollons.
In the table which follows, the asterisk before a species shows there is a note upon it A = 15′ S. of Big King, 98 fathoms; B = 6′ E of the North, Cape, 73 fathoms; C 6 ½′ E, 5′ N. of the North Cape, 75 fathoms.
|Anomia furcata Suter||x|
|*Atlanta lesueuri (d'Orbigny). Plate XII, Fig. 7||x||x|
|*Brookula sp.? Plate XII, Fig. 4||x|
|Cadulus spretus Tate and May||x||x||x|
|Calyptraea scutum Lesson.||x|
|— telemus (Linné)||x||x|
|— trispinosa (Lesueur)||x|
|— tasmanica (Pilsbry).||x|
|— clypidellaeformis Suter||x||x|
|*Columbarium suteri E. A. Smith. Plate XII, Fig. 8||x|
|Cominella nassoides (Reeve)||x|
|Cylichnella pygmaea (A. Adams)||x|
|— aculeata Webster||x|
|— huttoni T. W. Kirk.||x|
|— arenarium SuterX|
|— ecostatum T. W. Kirk.||x|
|*Discohelixhedleyi n. sp. Plate XII, Fig. 6||x|
|*— meridionalis Hedley||x|
|Divaricella cumingi (Adams and Angas)||x|
|Drillia leavis (Hutton)||x|
|Epitonium zelebori (Dunker)||x|
|Lima lima (Linné)||x|
|*Limacina inflata d'Orbigny. Plate XII, Fig. 1||x||x||x|
|*Liotella incerta (Tenison-Woods) Plate XII, Fig. 5||x|
|*— rotula Suter.||x||x||x|
|*— micra (Tenison-Woods)||x|
|Malletia australis (Quoy and Gaimard)||x|
|— pygmaea Sowerby||x|
|— hebescens Murdoch and Suter||x|
|— plicatula Suter.||x|
|*Monilea semireticulata (Suter)||x|
|Natica zelandica Quoy and Gaimard||x|
|Neojanacus perplexus Suter||x|
|Philine umbilicata Murdoch and Suter||x||x|
|Philobrya costata (Bernard)||x|
|Protocardia pulchella (Gray).||x|
|Pyramidella pulchra (Brazier)||x|
|*— exserta Suter||x|
|*— fumata Suter||x|
|*Scissurella regia n sp. Plate XII, Fig. 3||x||x|
|*Siphonalia nodosa (Martyn)||x|
|*Styliola subulata Quoy. Plate XII, Fig. 2||x|
|— cookiana Suter.||x|
|— biplicata Suter||x|
|— murdochi Suter||x||x|
|— tenuilirata Suter||x|
|— decapitata Suter.||x||x|
|Turbonilla zelandica (Hutton)||x|
|Turris augusta (Murdoch and Suter)||x|
|Turritella difficilis Suter||x|
|*Typhispauperis n. sp Plate XII, Fig. 9||Poor Knights.|
|— n sp. Plate XII, Fig 9a||Hen and Chickens.|
Limacina inflata d'Orbingy. Plate XII, Fig. 1, 1a.
“Structural and Systematic Conchology,” Tryon, vol. 2, p. 94, pl. xlii, Fig. 22.
This species is new to our New Zealand fauna; it is rather plentiful in the Big King dredging, and scarcer in (B) and (C).
Styliola subulata Quoy. Plate XII, Fig. 2.
“Structural and Systematic Conchology,” Tryon, vol. 2, p. 91, pl. xlii, Fig. 6.
This genus has not apparently previously been recorded as occurring in New Zealand. It is certainly rather rare, as I do not remember seeing it in any other dredging.
Scissurella, regia n. sp. Plate XII, Fig. 3, 3a, 3b, 3c.
Shell small turbinate. Whorls 3, slightly angled, upper surface lightly convex, under-surface more convex, last whorl large. Protoconch of 2 whorls, minute, smooth, dull Sculpture: 2 fine sharp raised spiral keels, near together on the angle of the whorls. Fine flexuous riblets on both the surfaces, but on the under-surface they are crossed by fine spiral lirae, which, are more distinct round the umbilicus. Umbilicus small, open. Aperture obscurely triangular. Anal slit between the keels on the outer lip, long and more contracted at the edge of the lip than at its upper end. Operculum unknown. Colour white.
Material.—The holotype in my collection. Paratypes: Two perfect, five imperfect, in the Dominion Museum; one perfect in the Australian Museum, Sydney; one perfect in Mr. Suter's collection; six perfect and thirteen imperfect ones in my collection.
Remarks.—Mr. C. Hedley, of Sydney, considers this is a good species, not hitherto described; he says, “It is more finely sculptured than one I described from this coast, Scissurella australis” (Mem Austral. Mus., vol. 4, 1903, p. 329, Fig. 63) Later on he suggested that it might be S. mantelli Woodward (vide “Manual New Zealand Mollusca,” 1914, p. 88, pl. vi, Fig. 10), but it does not at all resemble that species, being more depressed and quite differently sculptured. It slightly resembles S. crispata, but is quite distinct from it, while it is very much more nearly allied to S. australis Hedley, the general shape of the shells, especially the spires, being very similar. It seems to be rather a rare form, occurring only in quantity in the Big King dredging, with a single specimen in (B).
Brookula sp.? Plate XII, Fig. 4.
Mr. Hedley classed this specimen as belonging to this genus, but owing to lack of time it has not yet been specifically identified. (See Trans N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 444, for generic name).
Monilea semireticulata (Suter).
Cf. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 439.
Liotia polypleura Hedley, and Liotia rotula Suter.
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 442.
Liotella incerta (Tenison-Woods). Plate XII, Fig. 5.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1876, Fig. 5, p. 148. For Liotella see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 442.
Lissospira corulum (Hutton).
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 443.
Lissospira micra (Tenison-Woods).
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 444.
Cocculina compressa Suter.
Man. N.Z. Mollusca, p. 174, pl. 34, figs. 14, 14A, 1914.
The specimens from (B) are rather variable, being mostly wider and shorter than the type, but one small one agrees fairly well with it. I am almost inclined to think them worthy of being ranked as a variety. It may be possible to settle this point next year, as I have specimens from other localities which could be compared with each other and with the type, which is in my collection. The single example from (C) is true to type, though considerably smaller.
Rissoa suteri Hedley.
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 449.
Rissoa fumata Suter.
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 450.
Rissoa exserta Suter.
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 453.
Trans N.Z Inst., vol. 47, p. 461.
There seems to be some confusion in the use of the generic names Omalaxis Deshayes and Discohelix Dunker. In this paper I follow Mr. C. Hedley's use of Discohelix.
Discohelix meridionalis Hedley.
One broken specimen from (C), which unfortunately broke still more while under examination, but as it is the first record of it from New Zealand I shall preserve it till a better specimen is obtained. It in undoubtedly very rare. (Mem. Austral. Mus., vol. 4, 1903, p. 351, Fig. 74).
Discohelix hedleyi n. sp. Plate XII, Fig. 6, 6a, 6b.
Shell small, solid, rotate, both upper and under surface slightly concave; sides slightly concave on each side of the central keel. Colour white. Whorls almost square in section, with a keel projecting at the upper and lower corners, and another midway between them. Sutures
only lightly marked. Sculpture, Fine flexuous growth-lines. Aperture full size of the whorl. Animal unknown. Operculum unknown.
Material.—The holotype in my collection. One paratype in the Dominion Museum; one paratype in the Australian Museum.
Remarks.—The holotype is a younger but more nearly perfect specimen than the paratype in the Dominion Museum; unfortunately, the other paratype is even more imperfect. There are two Recent species known from the American coast, in deep water—Discohelix nobilis Verrill and D. lamellifera Dall—which were only mentioned in the Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Philadelphia, 1890, vol. 3, page 331, but I could not find them figured. The fossil D retifera Dall is slightly similar in general shape, but has no keels. There seems to be also a Mediterranean species, but I could not find a figure of it.
Atlanta lesueuri (d'Orbigny). Plate. XII, fig., 7.
Described in “The Zoology of the Bonite” (pl. xx, Fig. 8); also recorded in the “Challenger” Rep., Zool (vol. 23, 1888, p. 40 . Mr. Hedley kindly identified this species, giving the references, and adding that it was an interesting record for New Zealand. The genus had been previously known to occur in New Zealand, but it had not been possible to identify the species. (Man. N.Z. Mollusca, p. 352, 1914.)
Columbarium suteri E. A. Smith. Plate XII, Fig. 8. Fam. Fusinae.
A single example of this species was obtained by the “Terra Nova” Expedition, 1910, at Station 134, near the North Cape, New Zealand, and was described by Mr. E. A. Smith in “The British Antarctic (‘Terra Nova’) Expedition,” 1910 (vol. 2, Moll. No. iv, 87, pl. 1, Fig. 30). The type is in the British Museum. As this volume is not readily accessible, I append Mr. E. A. Smith's account of it. The specimen figured on Plate XII, Fig. 8, was found in the dredging off the Big King, and is in my collection: it is about the same size as the type.
“Shell slenderly fusiform, with angular coronate whorls, dirty-whitish, with pale-brown spots between the short spines which adorn the middle of the whorls; periostracum pale-straw-coloured, deciduous; the 2 apical whorls large, smooth, obtuse at the top, the rest sloping above the middle, which is prominently carinate, the keel being produced into short spines or acute tubercles, 10 on the last whorl. Below the keel the volutions are contracted to the suture, which is oblique; above the carina, on the last and penultimate whorls, there are 3 fine spiral threads, and below it, on the last whorl, there are 3 rather coarser threads, below which the rest of the slender rostrum is covered with oblique, very much finer threads. The keel has 1 or 2 spiral striae upon it, and the whole surface exhibits fine but distinct striae or lines of growth aperture somewhat triangular above, produced below into a very slender straight canal; outer lip thin, angled at the keel, faintly or shallowly sinuated above it columella covered with a thin glossy callus, which extends from the tip of the canal to the outer lip above.
“Length, 17 mm.; diameter, 6 mm. Aperture, with canal, 11 mm.
“Length, 17 mm.; diameter, 6 mm. Aperture, with canal, 11 mm.
“The unique specimen, judging from the protoconch, is merely the young stage of a shell which attains larger dimensions. It consists only
of 6 whorls, but its characters are so striking that I have not hesitated to found a new species upon it.
“In general form it considerably resembles C. spinicincta Martens, from east Australia, but it differs considerably in the details of its ornamentation.
“The genus Columbarium, which, as far as at present known, consists of a very few species, has not hitherto been recorded from New Zealand. I have associated with this species the name of Mr. Henry Suter, as a mark of appreciation of the immense industry displayed in the production of his ‘Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca,’ published in 1913. Although it may be necessary to revise the nomenclature in a considerable number of instances, and occasionally to correct the synonymy, there can be no doubt that this will always remain a standard, or even the standard, work on New Zealand Mollusca. To have produced such a volume, of 1,120 pages, without the advantage of consulting such complete libraries and collections as we have in this country reflects the greatest credit upon the author.”
Siphonalia nodosa (Martyn).
Trans N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 464.
Typhis pauperis n. sp. Plate XII, Fig. 9, 9a.
Shell muriciform, small; body-whorl more than half the length of the shell. Apex bluntly acuminate. Protoconch of 2 whorls, the first transparent, the second opaque and tinged with brown, slightly tilted to the right, smooth. Whorls 4, rapidly increasing in size, convex, sharply angled, bearing tubular spines directed slightly backwards and upwards; of these, there are 4 on the last whorl, and 4 smaller, slightly ragged varices terminating in single spines on the angle, which are recurved towards the preceding whorls. Suture well marked. Aperture roundly ovate, lips raised and free. Canal slightly longer than the aperture, closed, and lightly curved to the right. On the left there are the remains of 3 former canals. Umbilical fissure very narrow. Operculum unknown. Colour creamy white, with a faint purplish tinge on the angle of the shoulder, which is lightly polished. Height, 8 mm.; breadth, 5 mm.; aperture, 2 mm.; canal, almost 2 mm.
Material.—The holotype, from the Poor Knights Islands, 58–60 fathoms; and one paratype from near the Hen and Chickens Islands, Hauraki Gulf, 25–30 fathoms. The paratype, which is a younger shell with a more narrowly ovate aperture, is in the Dominion Museum, Wellington.
Remarks.—The only certain previous record of a Recent species of Typhis is Mr. Suter's, of a specifically indeterminable species from the Great Barrier Island, 110 fathoms. There is, however, a fossil species in the Mount Harris beds, T. hebetatus Hutton = T. McCoyi Tenison-Woods, for which we Suter, “Revision of Tertiary Mollusca of New Zealand” (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No 3, p. 28), which possesses 5 to 6 spines on each varix, and is thus quite distinct from T. pauperis. Of foreign Recent species, T. yatesi. Crosse, from South Australia, apparently comes nearest, but this is a stouter and more subquadrangular species.
In conclusion, I wish to thank Dr. J. A. Thomson for his generous help in the preparation of this paper, and Mr. J. McDonald for pre-
paring the accompanying plate; also Mr. C. Hedley, of Sydney, who kindly identified some of the specimens. At the same time I should like to acknowledge my deep indebtedness to Mr. H. Suter for his great kindness at other times, and for the immense help his book is to New Zealand shell-lovers.
Explanation Of Plate XII.
(All figures greatly enlarged, except figs. 8, 9, and 9a)
Fig. 1. Limacina inflata d'Orbigny.
Fig. 1a." "
Fig. 2. Styliola subulata Quoy
Fig. 2a." "(larger specimen)
Fig. 3. Scissurella regia n. sp. (type).
Fig. 3a." " (paratype) In H. Suter's collection.
Fig. 3b. " ""
Fig. 3c." "(portion of sculpture on type).
Fig. 4. Brookula sp.?
Fig. 5. Liotella incerta (Tenison-Woods).
Fig. 6. Discohelix hedleyi n. sp. (type).
Fig. 6a." "(paratype). In Dommion Museum.
Fig. 6b." "" In Australian Museum.
Fig. 7. Atlanta lesueuri (d'Orbigny).
Fig. 8. Columbarium suteri E. A. Smith. Enlarged 1 ½ diameters.
Fig. 9. Typhis pauperis n. sp. (type). Enlarged 2 diameters.
Fig. 9a." "(paratype). Enlarged 2 diameters.