Art. XX.—Descriptions of New Native Phanerogams.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 8th December, 1915]
1. Aciphylla trifoliolata sp. nov.
Folia numerosa 20–24 cm. longa lineari-cuneata trifoliolata, foliolis 10–12 cm. longis. Scapi folis ± duplo longiores; inflorescentia foeminea oblonga ± 16 cm. longa, bracteis subangustatis ± 4 cm. longis apice trifoliolatis umbellas amplectentibus ac paene celantibus.
Leaves numerous, 20–24 cm. long, linear-cuneate in outline, trifoliolate (rarely unifoliolate or with 2 pairs of pinnae); leaflets 10–12 cm. long, narrow (6–9 mm. in greatest width), rigid and coriaceous, acuminate, pungent-pointed, striate, midrib prominent channelled yellow, edges yellow and finely crenulate, petiole long narrow, sheaths as long as the petiole or shorter, narrow, membranous, smooth, not striate, expanded towards the base, with 2 short weak linear-subulate lateral spines at the top.
Scapes twice as long as the leaves, deeply grooved, ± 6 mm. in diameter; male inflorescence ± 23 cm. long, narrow lanceolate, bracts numerous with obcuneate rather narrow membranous sheaths ending in a long terminal leaflet (10 cm. long in the lowermost bract), flanked by 2 short weak subulate acicular spines; umbels small, several, distantly seated on a stout peduncle 9 cm. long below but shortening towards the top of the inflorescence, involucral bracts conspicuous, broadly linear-subulate, 3 cm long
or less; female inflorescence ± 16 cm. long, oblong, bracts broader and shorter than in the males, with broader more rigid and more uniform terminal leaflets; umbels small, as long as the sheaths or less, and almost concealed by them.
Hab.—Rocky spurs, on Mount Lyell, western Nelson.
This plant was given me by its discoverer, Mr. William Townson, some years ago. As there seems to be little chance of further specimens being procured at an early date, its description and publication need not be further delayed. It is, I consider, a well-marked species, allied to A. Lyallii Hk. f., but by no means closely.
2. Celmisia lanigera sp. nov.
Folia 15–20 cm. longa 4 cm. lata anguste lanceolata ad apicem acutum gradatim attenuata, a marginibus integris ± recurva, supra. lanata vel villosa leviter plicata nervis parallelibus percursa, infra candida.
Scapi complures 25–30 cm. alti moderate graciles lanati, bracteis numerosis elongatis linearibus lanatis.
Capitula ± 4 cm. in diam., involucri bracteis anguste linearibus dense lanatis.
Achenia linearia costata glaberrima.
Leaves densely tufted, 6–8 in. long, 1 ½ in. broad a little below the middle, narrow lanceolate, uniformly narrowed to the acute tip, not or scarcely subcordate at the base, little coriaceous, more or less recurved at the entire margins; upper surface woolly or densely villous with creamy-white hairs, longitudinally furrowed but not deeply, veins parallel; below everywhere clothed with appressed white silky tomentum, midrib little conspicuous.
Scapes several, 10–12 in. high, moderately slender, densely cottony or woolly; bracts numerous, woolly, linear, lowermost 3 ½ -4 in. long, diminishing upwards.
Heads ± 1 ½ in. across; involucral bracts numerous, thin, narrow linear, woolly on the back and sides; rays numerous, narrow.
Achenes linear, strongly ribbed, glabrous.
Hab.—Garvie Mountains (very common); D. L. Poppelwell! Takitimu Mountains; J. Crosby Smith!
This appears to be a well-marked species, of which I have seen only three or four rather indifferent specimens. In general look it recalls C. coriacea Hk. f., but it is readily distinguished from it by the smaller narrower woolly or villous leaves, the slender scapes, and the glabrous achenes. It was, I believe, first collected by Mr. Crosby Smith.
3. Gentiana Astoni sp. nov.
Perennis; caules plures v. complures graciles ± ramosi glabri 8–30 cm. longi.
Folia in paribus oppositis disposita, linearia vel sursum vix dilatata, acuta vel subacuta flaccida integerrima glabra 1 ½–2 cm. longa.
Flores pauci vel complures, caulini in foliorum supremorum axillis solitarii, terminales plerumque bini, albi, 1 ½–2 cm. longi, pedunculati, pedunculis follis ⅓ brevioribus valde gracilibus glaberrimis. Calyx obconicus peralte in lobos 5 lineari-subulatos sectus; corolla calycem excedens in lobos 5 oblongo-lanceolatos subacutos apiculatos subalte secta; stamina ac pistillum corolla ½ breviora.
A slender erect or spreading perennial. Root usually slender, but occasionally (in much-branched specimens) as much as 6 mm. in diameter.
Stems several or numerous, slender, sparingly or much branched, glabrous, 8–20 cm. and occasionally even 30 cm. long.
Leaves in opposite pairs, almost connate at the base, linear or somewhat dilated towards the tips, acute or subacute, rather flaccid, entire, glabrous, more or less recurved at the margins, nerveless (midrib obscure), 1 ½–2 cm. long, 1–2 ½ mm. in greatest width.
Flowers few or several; the cauline solitary in the axils of the uppermost leaves, the terminal usually in pairs, white, 1 ½ cm. long, pedunculate; the peduncles ¾ the length of the leaves, glabrous, slender; calyx obconic, cut for ⅘ its length into 5 rather long linear-subulate thin glabrous lobes; corolla white, longer than the calyx, deeply divided into 5 oblong lanceolate subacute apiculate prominently nerved segments; stamens and pistil half as long as the corolla.
Hab.—Limestone ridges, bare or covered with manuka scrub, near the sources of the Ure River, Marlborough; B C Aston!
On open ridges, Mr. Aston writes, the stems are erect and stunted; in the scrub they are elongated, and more or less entangled. One specimen rooted in a rock-crevice had a remarkably stout root, giving off a tuft of matted branches that hung down the slope for some 15 in.
4. Myosotis (Exarrhena) eximia sp. nov.
Planta M. amabili (Cheesm.) subsimilis; differt caulibus tenuioribus erectis, folis anguste elliptico-spathulatis acutis vel subacutis pilis candidis brevibus subrigidis sparsis arcte appressis vestitis, floribus majoribus paucioribus late infundibuliformibus, corollae tubo latiore ac calycis lobis breviore.
Perennial, tufted or spreading by slender prostrate more or less rooting branches into patches 2–3 ft. in diameter, everywhere clothed with rather stiff sparse closely appressed white hairs; flowering-stems 1–6 from each branch (commonly 1–3), erect or decumbent at the base, usually simple but sometimes divided at the topmost cauline leaf, slender, leafy for half their length, 5–9 in. high.
Radical leaves numerous, narrow, elliptic-spathulate, acute or subacute, more or less apiculate, ± 2 in long, nearly ½ in. in greatest width, the blade about as long as the narrow slightly flattened and basally dilated petiole, the lower surface less closely pilose, midrib little conspicuous. Cauline leaves more or less distant or almost overlapping, shorter and narrower, acute, the upper sessile, the lower with progressively longer petioles.
Racemes long-peduncled, not branched, of 10 flowers or fewer; flowers large and showy, white with a yellow eye, ⅝ its long and equally broad, shortly pedicelled; calyx narrow turbinate, cut for ⅔ its length into narrow linear-subulate lobes; corolla broadly funnel-shaped, cut ⅓ the way down into 5 rounded subacute lobes, the tube wide and shorter than the calyx; stamens inserted just above the narrow rather distant scales, exserted, slightly shorter than the corolla-lobes, the free filaments twice as long as the anthers, their lower half adnate to the corolla-tube. Mature nutlets not seen; in immature state pale and winged.
Hab — Limestone bluffs and talus slopes of Mount Aorangi (Mangaohane Station), Ruahine Range, 3,900 ft.
This charming species was collected by Mr. Aston at the close of last December. He remarks that in favourable stations it forms continuous
patches several feet across, adorned by masses of lovely flowers. It is not closely related to M. amabilis, but that is the only northern species with which it might be confounded.
5. Veronica evenosa sp. nov.
Frutex 15–24 dcm. altus glaberrimus, ramis primariis paucis longis late diffusis in ramulos complures graciles ad apicem foliatos subdivisis.
Folia anguste elliptica 1 ½–3 cm. longa 1 cm. lata, subpatentia imbricata integerrima glabra, acuta vel subacuta, tenuia evenoss sessilia nec potiolata nec punctulata, ramulos basi amplectentia, haud connata, subtus evidenter carinata.
Racemi 2 (raro 3) in axillis foliorum supremorum dispositi foliis duplo longiores, rhachis gracilis sparse pubescens a parte inferiore unda.
Flores parvi (5 mm. longi) albi; calyx 4-partitus, lobis oblongis tenuibus ad margines scariosis ac ciliatis; corollae tubus calyce duplo longior, limbo in lobos 4 rotundatos secto; antheris ac stylo exsertis; ovario glabro.
Capsula haud visa.
A tall (5–8 ft.) glabrous shrub with stout widely-spreading main branches, towards their tops freely subdivided into slender twigs leafy only at the tips.
Twigs blackish-brown, slender, terete, ringed with the wars of fallen leaves.
Leaves subpatent, imbricating, narrow elliptic, ⅝–1 ⅓ in. long, ⅜ in. broad at the middle, sessile not connate but completely clasping the younger twigs, glabrous, acute or subacute, thin, veinless, entire, slightly recurved at the edges when dried, dull green above, below yellowish-brown (when dried), midrib grooved above, obviously keeled below, keel reddish-brown slightly excurrent at the tip.
Racemes 2 (rarely 3) in the axils of the uppermost leaves, twice as long as the leaves, dense-flowered; rachis slender, dark brown, sparsely pubescent, the lower third naked; bracts narrow ovate or almost linear, about as long as the short pedicels.
Flowers small, white; calyx 4-partite, the lobes oblong, thin, ciliate along the scarious margins; tube of the corolla rather wide, twice as long as the calyx, the limb cut into 4 broadly rounded lobes a little shorter than the tube; anthers and style exserted; ovary glabrous.
Ripe capsules not seen.
Hab—Upper edge of forest belt on Mount Holdsworth, Tararua Range, about 2,800 ft.
The present specis appears to have been confounded with V. laevis (Benth.) In that latter the leaves are shorter, distinctly petiolate, coriaceous and punctulate below; there is always a conspicuous gap between them where they spring from the twigs. It is also a much lower and more compactly growing shrub. I have not seen Buchanan's specimens of V. laevis from the Tararuas, but it may be suspected that they belong here.
6. Veronica imbricata sp. nov.
Frutex habitu compactus a vertice rotundatus 40–60 cm. altus ad 40 cm. in diam.
Rami juniores teretes vel obscure tetragoni rigidi erecti sursum ± subdivisi, foliis brevibus imbricantibus dense vestiti.
Folia decussata appressa vel subpatentia, 1 ½ mm. longa 2 ½ mm. lata coriacea crassa, a latere inferiore (exteriore) convexa a latere superiore (interiore) concava, basi ad ⅓ connata perobscure carinata, supra subacute rotundata, a marginibus delicate ciliata.
Flores haud visa.
Capsulae in capitulis brevibus densis terminalibus dispositae ca. 1 cm. longis, bracteae foliis similes sed tenuiores; calyx capsula ± ⅓ brevior in lobos 4 ciliatos coriaceos sulcatos oblongos obtusos apice rotundatos ± inaequales divisus, duobus exterioribus majoribus; capsulae sessiles glabrae obtusae late ellipticae 3 mm. longae.
A round-headed compact erect shrub, 18–24 in. high, and as much as 18 in. across near the top.
Stems moderately stout, freely branched above, older branches terete closely and uniformly ringed by the scars of fallen leaves, younger terete or obscurely tetragonous, stiff, erect, very closely clothed by the short appressed or subpatent imbricating leaves.
Leaves in opposite decussately arranged pairs, 1 ½ mm. long, 2 ½ mm. wide, rather thick, coriaceous, convex and shallowly ribbed on the outer (lower) side, concave on the inner (upper) side, connate for about ⅓ their length, subacutely rounded at the tips, very obscurely keeled, delicately ciliate at the edges (except in age), marked by a shallow groove along the base on the outer (lower) side.
Flowers not seen.
Capsules glabrous obtuse, broadly elliptic, 3 mm long, sessile, forming small compact pale-brown terminal heads about 1 cm. long, bracts similar to the leaves, but thinner; calyx about ⅓ shorter than the capsule, deeply divided into 4 ciliate coriaceous grooved oblong obtusely rounded unequal lobes, the two outer lobes larger.
Hab.—Mount Cleughearn and Mount Burns, Fiord County, at 2,500–4,000 ft.; J. Crosby Smith! Eyre Mountains, Lake County; D L. Poppelwell!
This plant appears to have been in cultivation for a number of years, but its wild habitat was till recently unknown. Its nearest relative is probably V. Hectori Hk. f.
7. Euphrasia Crosby-Smithii sp. nov.
Annua? Caules erecti parce ramosi ± 12 mm alti graciles teretes sparse glanduloso-pubescentes.
Folia pauca ad 3 mm. longa lanceolate-elliptica in lobos 3–5 subamplos margine revolutos secta.
Calyx 3–4 mm. longus anguste campanulatus delicate glanduloso-pubescens, in lobos 4 breves triangulares apicibus recurvatos sectus; corolla brevis alba basi expansa (tubo calycem vix excedente), labio superiore brevi arcuato late emarginato, inferiore in lobos 3 longiores truncatos secto.
Capsula subacuta spice ciliata calyce brevior; matura haud visa.
Annual? Stems erect, sparingly branched, ± 12 mm. long, very slender, terete, sparsely glandular-pubescent, usually giving off 2 short branches from the lowermost axils and flowers from the others.
Leaves few, in rather distant opposite pairs, 3 mm long or less, lanceolate-elliptic in general outline, almost glabrous obtuse or subacute, cut into 3–5 rather large lobes that are recurved at the edges.
Flowers few, on slender sparsely glandular-pubescent peduncles, in fruit about twice as long as the leaves; calyx 3–4 mm. long, narrow campanulate, more or less glandular-pubescent, cut at the top into 4 short triangular obtuse or subacute lobes with their edges recurved at the tips; corolla rather short, white, tube expanded at the base scarcely longer than the calyx, upper lips short arched broadly emarginate, lower out into 3 rather long trunacte lobes.
Capsule subacute ciliate at the top; fully ripe not seen.
Hab.—Wet alpine meadow on Mount Cleughearn, Fiord County, about 5,000 ft., J. Crosby Smith!
Some five or six specimens of this dwarf plant were collected three or four years ago by Mr. Crosby Smith, who kindly communicated them to me. As he expected to revisit the locality where it was found, I put off publishing the species in hopes that a fuller series of specimens might be secured. At the time of this second visit the spot where it was first seen was covered with snow, and no additional material could be collected. In these circumstances it is advisable to publish a description without waiting for additional specimens.
8. Carex filamentosa sp. nov.
Folia 10–20 cm. longa filiformia glabra, supra concava infra rotundata, stolonibus vaginis aphyllis brevibus acutis striatis fulvis vestitis.
Culmi filiformes 4–10 cm. longi teretes, spiculis 3 (raro 4) dense confertis (ima raro subdistante) ovatis paucifloris ± 7 mm. longis; suprema mascula gracillima breviter pedicellata; duabus inferioribus foemineis plerumque 2–3 flores masculos apice praebentibus, brevissime pedicellatis; bracteis filiformibus foliosis valde elongatis, basi in vaginam longam laxam apice truncatam expansis.
Glumae ovatae pallidae subhyalinae haud emarginatae, valide carinatae, sensim in mucronem brevem ± scabridum attenuatae.
Utriculi glumas aequantes turgidi elliptici altero latere ± concavi obscure nervati vix stipitati, in rostrum breve sublatum obscure bidentatum contracti. Styli rami 3.
Densely tufted, sending off numerous very slender stolons.
Leaves 10–20 cm. long, excessively narrow, glabrous, concave above, rounded below (midrib little prominent), finely serrate towards the tips, green or with a reddish tinge, young shoots clothed with short acute striate brownish sheathing scales.
Culms filiform, 4–10 cm. long, terete, smooth, more or less striate.
Spikelets 3 (rarely 4), closely crowded or the lowermost somewhat distant, pale ovate ± 7 mm. long; uppermost male very slender shortly pedicellate, the two lower female usually with 2–3 male flowers at the top very shortly pedicellate; bracts filiform, leaf-like, long, expanded below into a loose grooved sheath, truncated at the top and with broad scarious borders.
Glumes ovate, pale, membranous, subhyaline, not emarginate, strongly keeled, gradually narrowed into a short more or less scabrid mucro.
Utricles about as long as the glumes, turgid, elliptic, scarcely stipitate, somewhat concave on one side, with 2 prominent lateral nerves and obscure intermediate ones, narrowed into a short rather broad smooth obscurely bidentate beak.
Style branches 3.
Hab.—Table Hill, Stewart Island; W. J. Murdoch! High lands [ unclear: ] at Port, Pegasus; T. Kirk! High lands at head of Paterson Inlet; H. Guthrie-Smith!
Mr. Guthrie-Smith sent me a live plant of this species some years ago. It has grown well, and has supplied some of the material used in preparing this description. Mr. Kirk's specimens were sent me under the MS. name of C. australis. This name he afterwards used to designate a small state of C. litorosa Bailey, from the coast of Stewart Island. The late Mr. C. B. Clarke referred Mr. Kirk's Port Pegasus plant to C. uncifolia Cheesm., but I am unable to acquiesce in this reference.
9. Koeleria Cheesemanii (Hackel) Petrie comb. nov.
A full description of this grass, under the name of Trisetum Cheeseman Hackel, appears in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 35 (1902), p. 381. In his “Manual of the New Zealand Flora” (p. 882) Mr. Cheeseman does not allude to the obvious likeness of this Trisetum to Koeleria, which Hackel has noted (loc. cit.). In an elaborate note to his specific character the latter pointed out that “his species is a very distinct once, like indeed in habit and in the character (indole) of the panicle and spikelets to Trisetum subspicatum Beauv., yet by its very shortly bidentate flowering-glumes, that show a very short mucro or awn from between the teeth or from a little below them, it is so divergent not only from Trisetum subspicatum, but even from all the genuine Trisetums, that it may preferably be annexed to Koeleria. In truth,” he adds, “between this genus and Trisetum no certain limits are found, and it was for this reason that the celebrated Desvaux was led to reduce Koeleria to a section of Trisetum.” The passage above cited is given in Latin, which I have translated.
It is hard to understand how Hackel could have penned this note, seeing that in his well-known work on “The True Grasses” the genera Trisetum and Koeleria are maintained, and are not even placed in immediate juxtaposition.
My opinion that T. Cheesemanii is a true Koeleria is not founded on the statement of Hackel quoted above, but has arisen from the study of the specimens of this grass collected in a number of widely scattered localities in the South Island. In Trisetum the awns on the flowering (fertile) glumes are never terminal, nor are they wanting. In T. Cheesemann things are very different. On the same panicle one finds spikelets with short sub-dorsal awnlets (mucros) on the flowering-glumes which are shortly bidentate at the tip, or the awnlets may be terminal between the short teeth, or the glumes may have acuminate or acute tips with no trace of awnlets. Indeed, two of these conditions may often be found on a single spikelet. In view of these facts, there can, it seems to me, be no question that Hackel's species must be transferred to Koeleria. The only alternative is the reduction of Koeleria to a section of Trisetum, a course which no modern authority on the classification of grasses has followed.