Art. XXI.—Notes on New Zealand Floristic Botany, including Descriptions of New Species, &c. (No. 1).
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 27th October, 1915.]
1. Acaena novae-zelandiae T. Kirk var. pallida T. Kirk
This variety is dismissed by Cheeseman (Manual, p. 131) with the brief words, “Mr. Kirk distinguishes a var. pallida, with paler foliage and the spines often greenish.” Kirk himself (“Students' Flora,” p. 134) gives more details, stating that it “differs widely from the type in appearance,” but he does not emphasize sufficiently the distinctions of this exceedingly striking plant, which some perhaps may prefer to recognize as a valid species.
The plant in question grows abundantly on the dunes at Lyall Bay, Wellington, where it forms broad mats on the sand, a square metre or more in area, or straggles over the bushes of Coprosma acerosa. It is almost a true sand-binding plant in behaviour, its stems greatly lengthening when buried. But, even without any sand-advance to speak of, they frequently attain a length of more than 1 m. The older portions of the stem are strongly woody, and extremely stout, often reaching a diameter of more than 10 mm. Even towards the extremity, where, perfectly straight, the stem, unrooted, creeps over the sand with a length of about 50 cm., its diameter is 2–3 mm. The older part of the stem is covered with a fairly thick, cracked, dark-brown bark, tinged with red, while the youngest part is green and strongly hirsute. The leaves are much larger than those of any other variety of A. novae-zelandiae, and may measure as much as 11 cm in length, but about 7–5 cm. is quite a common size. The leaflets are considerably larger than those of A. novae-zelandiae in general (2.1 cm. by 10 mm for the uppermost pair), and differ likewise in their much paler, distinctly glossy yellowish-green, wrinkled upper surface, far paler less glaucous under surface, and thicker substance. The peduncles are extremely stout, stiff, and upright, and frequently measure 15 cm. in length, or twice as much as is common in any other variety of the species. The heads, with the spines, are commonly more than 4 cm. in diameter. The spines are bright pinkish-purple in colour, and never dark purple; but it is extremely i are to see them of a green colour, as described by Kirk and Cheeseman, though they are often quite pale near the base. The plant does not owe its distinctive characters to its special environment, for when growing upon a clay bank it can be recognized at once from neighbouring plants of more widely spread forms of A. novae-zelandiae.
2. Acaena Sanguisorbae Vahl. var. viridior Cockayne var. nov.
Folia supra viridia, nunquam nonnihil olivacei-fuscentia; calycis-lobi aculeique pallide virides.
North and South Islands: Probably fairly common. I have already had specimens from Wellington, the neighbourhood of the Marlborough Sounds, Taranaki and Banks Peninsula.
This variety is easily distinguished from the extremely common var. pusilla Bitter by its larger bright-green leaves, which have never brown basal leaflets, and the pale but clear green calyx-segments and spines, whereas the small basal leaflets of the var. pusilla are more or less deeply stained with brown, and the spines are pale and stained here and there with light-red. It might be thought that the differences in the colour of the leaves was due to the effect of light, but the two varieties grow side by side with their characters unchanged.
Bitter makes his var. pusilla a subspecies of A. Sanguisorbae equivalent in rank to his subspecies novae-zelandiae (= A. novae-zelandiae T. Kirk), but it seems to me simpler to treat the last as an aggregate species and to reduce all Bitter's other New Zealand endemic subspecies of A. Sanguisorbae to the rank of varieties, though this step must eventually lead to the establishment of subvarieties.
3. Celmisia Monroi Hook. f.
Celmisia Monroi was first described by Sir Joseph Hooker in the Hand-book, p. 133, from specimens collected by Monro on the Upton Downs, Awatere, by Haast near Mount Cook (Hopkins River) and elsewhere in the Alps of Canterbury; and by W T L. Travers in some part of the latter. There was no “type” for the species, since it was not only described from a number of individuals, but also the Awatere specimens possessed glabrous achenes, while in those collected by Haast they were hispidulous The species under consideration has been imperfectly understood by most authors, &c, and, according to Cheeseman, confounded with small forms of C. coriacea Hook f, a not surprising mistake T Kirk, in the “Students' Flora,” p. 288, enlarged Hooker's conception of the species by including plants from the neighbourhood of Whangarei and the Bay of Islands (Auckland) Cheeseman, in the Manual, p. 313, reduced the compass of the species to that proposed by Hooker, and placed the Whangarei plant under C. Adamsii T. Kirk as var rugulosa Cheesem. Recently (Trans N Z Inst., vol. 44 (1912), p. 182) Petrie has removed the Mount Cook plant from the species, describing it as C. Boweana, thus limiting C Monroi to the plant of the Awatere.
C. Monroi in its restricted significance, and as examined in the light of fairly abundant material from different stations, does not altogether match the description in the Manual The leaves are not infrequently much longer (21 m) than therein described, and broader (1 ½ m), though about 1 ¾ m in perhaps the average breadth. The leaf-sheaths are not always short, but may be of great length—e.g., a lamina 10 ½ m long may possess a sheath 9 m long The texture of the leaf is frequently thinner than has hitherto been described, and more or less flaccid leaves are not unknown.
Possibly there are two distinct races represented amongst my material. The first possesses leaves varying from linear-lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, and the second, of which I have only one specimen, is a quite different-looking plant with rather short (9 m long) linear or almost linear rigid leaves, ¼–⅜ m. broad, furnished with a short not densely woolly sheath.
The “race” of C. Monioi with the more or less lanceolate leaves is evidently closely related to C. coiiacea, and some taxonomists may prefer to reduce it to a variety of that aggregate species: but it can be distinguished by its narrower, thinner, and sometimes far shorter leaves, with the lamina never rounded at the base but tapering gradually into the
sheath, which may be of considerable length; the pure-white (not faintly tinged with yellow), rather denser but thinner tomentum of the under-surface of the leaf; and the distinctly smaller flower-head and shorter rays. The suggested race having the linear rigid leaves could not be confused with C. coriacea.
So far as has been observed, C. Monroi in its restricted significance is confined to rock, either limestone or greywacke; nor does it appear to extend beyond the North-eastern Botanical District.* The vertical distribution is from sea-level to 600 m or probably higher.
4. Epilobium rubro-marginatum Cockayne sp. nov.
Herba perennis, pumila, caulibus gracilibus, procumbentibus, plerumque simplicibus, densissime foliosis, ad internodia inferioria radicantibus, basin versus lignosis, pallide viridibus vel apicem versus rubris, obscure bifariam albo-puberulis. Folia parva, brevipetiolata, oblonga, ovato-oblonga vel raro anguste oblonga, cum petiolo circ. 9 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, subdisticha, imbricata, glaberrima nisi petioli margine sparsim albo-puberula, subcarnosa, rigida, margine manifeste rubro tincta, remote obscureque dentata, basi vaginata, subtus nervo medio paullo prominente. Capsula erecta, stricta, glaberrima circ. 2–6 mm. longa vel breviora, pedunculis brevissimis.
South Island: Westland and Canterbury — On consolidated stony debris at from 1,000 m to 1,500 m. and upwards on mountains in the neighbourhood of Arthur's Pass and the Otira Gorge. L. C.
The species is to be recognized by its almost unbranched, far-extending, densely leafy, obscurely bifariously pubescent stems, which are strongly woody near the base, and in the oldest woody throughout, and which root only at the nodes of the lower third; the small petiolate, stiff, rather fleshy, obscurely dentate, glabrous except on the margin of the petiole, oblong obtuse leaves which are for the most part distichous in arrangement through being turned towards the light, and their distinct red or purplish-red margin; the small white flowers with acute lanceolate calyx-segments; and the very short glabrous capsule with extremely short peduncle, which lengthens very little as the fruit ripens.
This species belongs to the series of plants included by Cheeseman in his conception of E. confertifolium Hook. f. (Manual, pp. 175–76). But this species was founded by Hooker on Lord Auckland and Campbell Island specimens, which, unlike any of their mainland congeners, have invariably bright-pink flowers. An examination of the subantarctic plant in 1903 convinced me that it should be kept distinct from its allies of New Zealand proper. Cheeseman adopted this view in 1909 (Subant. Islands of N Z, vol. 2, p. 406), and he thus distinguishes E. confertifolium in its restricted sense: “Its distinguishing characters, in the limited sense in which I now understand it, are the creeping and rooting often densely matted stems, the young branches alone rising from the ground; the densely crowded pale-green and almost fleshy leaves, which are almost sessile, obovate or obovate-oblong, entire or remotely and obscurely denticulate, the lower
[Footnote] *This includes the north-eastern portion of the South Island, excepting the wet area in the vicinity of the Marlborough Sounds. It is bounded on the west by a line denoting the average limit reached by the western rainfall, and on the south by the River Waiau, a quite artificial boundary. The area thus defined includes the greater part of Marlborough and the drier portion of Nelson.
ones more or less distichously placed, the upper spirally arranged; the few almost sessile flowers, placed at the tips of the branchlets, and apparently always of a bright-pink colour; and the strict and erect perfectly glabrous capsules, the peduncles of which only slightly elongate after the flowering period.”
If the name E. confertifolium be confined to the subantarctic plant, then obviously a new name is demanded for those mainland plants referred to that species. But there is already the var. tasmanicum of E. confertifolium to meet the case. This variety—or, according to Haussknecht, distinct species—was founded by the last-named taxonomist on a plant collected by Gunn in Tasmania, and another plant collected by T. Kirk near Lake Harris, Otago. An excellent figure of his species is supplied by Haussknecht (“Monographie der Gattung Epilobium” (1884), taf. 20, Fig. 84). By the aid of this figure, Haussknecht's description of his species (l.c., p. 296), and an examination of a type specimen in Kirk's herbarium the differences between E. tasmanicum and E rubro-marginatum can be ascertained Thus E. tasmanicum is an altogether smaller, more compact plant, with much shorter, more slender, and far less woody stems, which are altogether glabrous, and its leaves are ovate or oblong-ovate and more conspicuously toothed, and the midrib hardly keeled.
Besides the three closely allied plants dealt with above, there are various closely related forms, so that it is difficult to draw strict lines of demarcation. This doubtless arises in part from the fact that, as in the case of many high-mountain plants, both material in sufficient abundance and detailed field observations are lacking, while a full series of specimens is not to be seen in cultivation. Possibly the best course to take would be to once more unite all the species of the confertifolium group into an aggregate. If that were done, then there would be vars. tasmanicum and rubro-marginatum, while a varietal name—e.g., “vera,” “subantarcticum” or “puniceum”—would have to be found for the “type” Also, most likely, other varieties would have to be constituted But, so far as my own knowledge goes, I am not in a position to make further advance.
5. Helichrysum dimorphum Cockayne.
In the description of this species (Trans. N.Z Inst, vol. 47, (1915), p. 117), the height of the liane is given as 6–8 m This is a slip of the pen, 6–8 being taken from my note-book and referring to feet The true height, then, should be 1.8–2.4 m Of course, any reader who notes that the plant is described as climbing through river-terrace scrub could hardly fall to correct the error for himself, since scrub 8 m high would be scrub no longer, but forest
6. Helichrysum Fowerakeri Cockayne sp nov.
Suffrutex parvus, ramis baso prostratis radicantibus, deinde erectis, junioribus partibus dense albo-lanatis, gracillimis, pauciramosis, ± 8 cm. longis. Folia obovato-spathulata, utrinque albo-tomentosa pilis sericeis, margine integerrima, apice obtusa nonnumquam subacuta, mucro parvo ornata Capitula terminalia circ. 10 mm diametro solitaria vel pedunculis corymboso-ramosis, pedunculi circ 6.2 cm. longi, numerosis bracteis linearis acutis tomentosis praediti; involucri-bractae circ 5-seriatae lineari-spathulatae 3–6 mm. longae unguibus scariosis parce sericeis et laminis albis patentibus circ 3 mm. longis. Receptaculum subconicum. Flores numerosi; achenium glabrum.
South Island: Marlborough—In soil on rock, Inland Kaikoura Mountains, at about 1,000 m. altitude; C E. Foweraker and L. C.
This plant is related, on the one hand, to H. bellidioides Hook. f., from which it differs in its more erect habit, softer leaves tomentose on both surfaces, much smaller flower-heads, and at times branched flowering-stems; and, on the other hand, to H. Sinclairii Hook. f., which it resembles greatly in the leaves and somewhat in habit, but has a very different inflorescence and flower-heads.
Only one plant was observed, so it is possibly extremely rare. Its resemblance to the above two species hints at a hybrid origin.
7. Lagenophora pinnatifida Hook. f.
There appear to be two well-marked varieties of this species, which can be distinguished at a glance by differences in the texture and degree of hairiness of the leaf, the extent of indentation of its margin, and the relative size of the flower-heads. The following are diagnoses of these two undescribed varieties, which together make up the aggregate species Lagenophora pinnatifida:–
(a.) Lagenophora pinnatifida Hook. f. var. hirsutissima Cockayne var. nov.
Folia pilis albis hirsutis densissime utrinque obtecta, grosse crenatodentata; capitula circ. 12 mm. diametro.
North Island: Hawke's Bay—Upper part of Wairoa River; T. Kirk! South Island. Fairly common in eastern Nothofagus forest, especially of montane belt from Nelson to Otago; Cheeseman, L. C., and others.
The leaves are most thickly covered with soft white hairs, so that the surface is concealed; the margin is deeply and coarsely crenate-dentate; and the heads are about 12 mm. diameter, and borne on straight scapes about 10 cm long.
The northern plant described below looked so different from that of the south when, in company with Mr. H. Carse, I first saw it in its habitat that I considered it a distinct species. For this reason, looking upon it, in error probably, as the type of L. pinnatifida Hook. f., in my “Vegetation of New Zealand” I have given the MS. name L. sylvestris to the plant of the South Island. However, it seems best, in view of the close affinity of the two races, to treat them as varieties of an aggregate rather than as distinct species.
(b.) Lagenophora pinnatifida Hook. f. var. tenuifolia Cockayne var. nov.
Planta a varietate hirsuta differt foliis tenuoribus, aliquando subintegerrimis pilis brevioribus haud dense obtectis, capitulis minoribus.
North Island: Auckland—Tauroa, Mongonui County; H. Carse! L. C.
This variety is separated from var. hirsutissima by its thinner, sometimes almost entire leaves, which are never very deeply cut, their surfaces much less densely covered with shorter hairs, and the smaller flower-heads. In some specimens the leaves are considerably broader than any I have seen of var. hirsutissima.
8. Ourisia calycina Colenso.
In 1889 Colenso described a species of Ourisia collected on “highlands on River Waimakariri, near Bealey, South Island” (which probably means Arthur's Pass), “by a visitor and sent to Napier” (Trans N.Z. Inst, vol. 21, pp. 97–98). The description clearly shows that the plant in question was
identical with one which is extremely common on Arthur's Pass, and in Westland generally from Mount Alexander to, at any rate, the neighbour-hood of the Franz Josef Glacier. This plant was included by Cheeseman (Manual, p. 549) in his conception of O macrocarpa Hook. f., while in the herbarium of T. Kirk it is also so designated. But the plant on which O. macrocarpa was founded by Hooker was collected by Lyall at Chalky Bay, and, according to the original description in the “Flora Novae Zelandiae,” p. 198, the leaves are cordate at the base. In his description of the same specimens in the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” p. 218, Hooker, strange to say, makes no reference to these cordate leaves, so that without hesitation all New Zealand botanists who visited Arthur's Pass referred the large Ourisia of that locality to O. macrocarpa, and thus it came to be looked upon as typical. In 1912 I visited the Clinton Saddle, and, to my surprise, found that the large Ourisia of that locality differed in certain particulars from the Arthur's Pass plant, and answered perfectly to Hooker's description of O. macrocarpa in the “Flora Novae-Zelandiae”
The chief differences between the two plants are as follows:—
Leaf-lamina: O. macrocarpa—Frequently rotund with cordate base; in small specimens broadly ovate with cordate, subcordate, or occasionally rounded but never cuneate base O calycina (i.e, Arthur's Pass, &c., plant)—Ovate or ovate-oblong, with more or less cuneate base, and never orbicular with cordate base.
Petiole: O. macrocarpa—Rarely more than 4 mm. broad, and frequently less, more than twice as long as the lamina, almost glabrous. O. calycina—11 mm. broad or more, hardly as long as the lamina, margined with close white hairs which extend to base of lamina on margin
Crenations: O. macrocarpa—Large, 5 mm at base, rounded, continued to leaf-sinus at base of leaf. O calycina—Much smaller, 2 mm. at base, obtuse or almost subacute, wanting on marginal portion of lamina.
Bracts: O macrocarpa—Small, the largest about 3 cm long by 1.5 cm broad, the uppermost in many-leaved whoils. O calycina—Large, frequently 5 cm. long by 2.5 cm. broad, the uppermost in whorls of 2 to 4 leaves
Peduncle: O macrocarpa—Comparatively slender, only about 3 mm. diameter O. calycina—Comparatively stout, 5 mm diameter or more
Calyx-lobes O macrocarpa—6 mm long, entire, obtuse, thick, veins not evident O calycina—1.9 cm. long, crenate-dentate above, subacute, thin, 3-vemed and reticulating above
The above clear distinctions show that we are concerned with two distinct plants, which, as they extend virtually unchanged over wide areas, are true-breeding races. Some may prefer to consider them distinct species, while others will group them together, on account of their close relationship, as an aggregate species under the name of O macrocarpa Possibly, from the phytogeographical standpoint this course should be adopted Therefore I propose the name O macrocarpa Hook f var. calycina (Colenso) comb. nov. for the Westland plant which equals O. calycina Col, and for the plant of south-west Otago O macrocarpa var cordata var nov The latter equals the species O macrocarpa of Hooker in the “Flora Novae-Zelandiae,” vol. 1, p. 198, so no further description is needed here Perhaps a more searching comparison of the flowers of the two varieties may reveal other constant differences, but those cited above are ample to show the distinctness of the two plants.
In the MS. of my “Vegetation of New Zealand” the Arthur's Pass plant is treated as a distinct species, under the name O. insignis, I having failed to notice that Colenso had already given it a name.
9. Podocarpus nivalis Hook. var. erectus Cockayne var. nov.
Frutex erectus, ± 1.8 m altus, 1.2–1.5 m. diametro, haud prostratus, foliis usque ad 2.5 cm. longis.
South Island: Canterbury—Debris-field on Mount Sugarloaf, Cass, in fall sunshine, at altitude of 900 m. and upwards. C. E. Foweraker and L. C.
A number of specimens of this shrub were observed growing side by side under exactly the same climatic and edaphic conditions as the ordinary variety of P. nivalis, which was everywhere prostrate. For further particulars see paper by Cockayne and Foweraker in this volume (p. 166).
10. Samolus repens (Forst. f.) Pers. var. strictus Cockayne var. nov.
Caules erecti, ± 20 cm. alti, stricti; folia ± imbricata, linearia vel lineari-lanceolata, acuta.
Kermadec Islands; W. R. B. Oliver. Poor Knights Islands; L. C. Norfolk Island; R. M. Laing.
This well-marked variety differs from S. repens var. procumbens R. Knuth, so common on the New Zealand coast generally, in its tall, erect, crowded, straight, unbranched stems, and more or less imbricating much narrower and generally longer leaves. The varietal name was first applied to this plant by me in 1906 (Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. 38, p. 356), but without any description.
11. Veronica Biggarii Cockayne sp. nov.
Frutex parvus, decumbens, floribundus, ramulis gracilibus, dense foliosis, pauciramosis, strictis, 20 - 24 cm. longis. Folia subdisticha, obovata, obovato-oblonga vel oblonga, subsessilia, glaberrima, coriacea, glauca, saepe purpureo tincta, 1.2–1.8 cm. longa 6–8 mm. lata, margine integerrima, apice rotundata, obtusa vel interdum subacuta. Racemi 6–10, in axillis foliorum dispositi circ 2.5 cm. infra ramuli apicem, circ. 3 cm. longi, pedunculis subrigidis, 2cm longis. Flores parvi, albi. Calycis-lobi ovati, obtusi, minutissime ciliati, corollae-tubo breviores, 1 mm. longi. Corollaetubus 1.5 mm. longus, fauce glaber; lobi 4, dorsalis et laterales fere aequantes, obovati, obtusi circ. 3 mm. longi et 2 mm. lati Capsula ovoidea [ unclear: ] compressa, acuta 4 mm. longa, minutissime sparsimque pubescens.
South Island: Otago—On subalpine rocks, Eyre Mountains, at 1,200 m. altitude; D. L. Poppelwell! Named in honour of Mr. G. Biggar, of Gore, who has accompanied Mr. Poppelwell on many botanical excursions and rendered material assistance.
This distinct species, which does not seem closely related to any other, is at once recognized by its decumbent or prostrate habit; spreading, rather stiff, densely leafy branches; small glaucous, glabrous, almost sessile, oblong, ovate or oblong-ovate leaves with from rounded to subacute apices; numerous short, rather dense racemes; small white flowers with short calyx-segments and corolla-tube, and small slightly pilose capsules. The description is drawn up from a cultivated plant almost past flowering, so some allowance must be made for inaccuracies; nor can anything be said as to differences between individual plants.
12. Veronica Poppelwellii Cockayne sp. nov.
Frutex parvus ramulis ultimis densis, erectis, cum foliis tetragonis, circ. 3–4 cm. longis, vix 2 mm. diametro, pilosis pilis albis ad foliorum connexum. Folia arcte quadrifariam imbricata, paribus oppositis basi connatis, latissime triangularia, 11-nervosa medio nervo breve carinato, 1 mm. longa, 2.25 mm. lata, crassa, coriacea, apice subacuta vel obtusa, margine pilis albis brevibus ciliata, supra concava, infra convexa Flores ± 15, in densas spicas circ. 1.2 cm. longas ad apices ramulorum dispositi; bracteolae foliis similes sed 2 mm. longae. Calyx usque ad basin 4-fid; lobi corollae-tubum aequantes, interdum inaequales, obovati, obtusi, 2 mm. longi, coriacei, ciliati. Corollae-tubus vix 2 mm longus; lobi 4, dorsalis et laterales fere aequantes, obovati, obtusi, 2 mm. longi, lobus anterior angustior. Capsulam maturam non visi.
South Island. Otago—Mount Tennyson, Garvie Mountains; fairly plentiful. D. L. Poppelwell!
Mr. Poppelwell informs me that this species is the V. Hectori Hook f. var. gracilior Petrie of Poppelwell's list of Garvie Mountain plants in Trans. N. Z. Inst, vol. 47 (1915), p. 140. It is at once to be recognized by its small stature, short slender tetragonous branchlets, small leaves marked with parallel nerves, dense 15-flowered spikes 1.2 cm or more long, leaf-like coriaceous, bracteoles, small ciliated obovate obtuse calyx-segments, and short corolla-tube. It does not seeem at all close to any other species of the section to which it belongs.
The species is named in honour of my friend Mr. D. L. Poppelwell, who is doing so much to throw light upon the flora near Lake Wakatipu, and the arrangement of the vegetation.
13. (a.) Veronica salicifolia Forst. f. var. Atkinsonii Cockayne var. nov.
Ab omnibus varietatibus specei discrimiianda foliis pallide viridibus, oblongis, ovato-oblongis raro lanceolatis, breve sed manifeste petiolatis, prope apicem ± abrupte breve angustatis sed haud attenuatis, crassis, racemis densifloris cylindricis, obtusis, floribus albis parvis; bracteolis et calycis-lobis brevissimis, corollae-lobis obovatis, apice rotundatis.
North and South Islands. Wellington—Vicinity of Cook Strait. Marlborough—From the Sounds to the mouth of the River Awatere. L. C.
Either a much-branched shrub attaining at times a height of 2 m. or of spreading habit when growing as a rock-plant, and sometimes almost prostrate. The leaves are rather pale green, fairly thick, distinctly petiolate with a short broad concavo-convex pale horny petiole 2–2.5 mm. long, more or less oblong, but occasionally lanceolate, 4–8 cm. long by 1.5–2 cm. or even more broad, narrowed near the apex to a short triangular point with an obtuse or subacute apex but not tapering. The racemes are 2–4 near the ends of the branchlets, dense-flowered, cylindrical, short-peduncled, frequently obtuse, 3–8 cm. long, and the peduncle 8 mm to 2.5 cm. long. The rhachis is rather stiff, extremely pale green and finely pubescent. The flowers are very numerous, white or very rarely stained with lilac, and sweet-scented, the pedicels are slender, very pale green, minutely pubescent, and almost the length of the calyx; the bracteoles are linear, obtuse, and equalling or rather shorter than the pedicels; the calyx is 4-partite for about three-quarters of its length, about 3 mm. long, very pale green, slightly pubescent, and the segments are ovate or oblong, obtuse or subacute, and possess scaiious margins, the corolla-tube
is funnel- or sometimes barrel-shaped, 3.5 mm. long, and slightly pubescent at entrance to throat; the lobes are not wide-spreading, concave, especially the posterior one, which with the lateral are broadly ovate or obovate, 2.5 mm. long, and rounded at the apex, while the anterior lobe is much shorter and narrower.
The above plant has puzzled me greatly for a number of years. Probably' the decumbent form of coastal cliffs is the plant collected by Colenso at Cook Strait and referred by Hooker to V. macroura Hook. f. This position I took up in 1907 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 39, p. 361), but considered that it should be separated as a variety. Later on it became obvious that there were no constant differences between the tall shrub, so common in and near Wellington City, and the coastal plant. But both were so different from any form of V. salicifolia with which I was acquainted, and also from V. macroura proper, that they seemed specifically distinct from either, and so I gave the Wellington plant the MS. name of V. Atkinsonii, after my friend Mr. Esmond Atkinson, of the Biological Branch of the New Zealand Department of Agriculture. Later, visiting the Marlborough Sounds, to my surprise there appeared to be no forms in that area of V. salicifolia, but V. Atkinsonii was abundant. The question at once arose, could this latter be the “type” of V. salicifolia, since it can hardly have escaped the notice of the botanists of Cook's second voyage, and from their material V. salicifolia was described. But V. salicifolia, in one of its well-known forms, would also be collected by the same expedition at Dusky Sound. It seems possible, then, that V. salicifolia Forst. f. is a mixture of V. Atkinsonii, V. salicifolia var. Dusky Sound, and perhaps V. amabilis Cheesem. var. blanda of the same locality. Most probably, however, judging from the original description, which is as follows, the Dusky Sound V. salicifolia is the type: “V. salicifolia, racemis lateralibus nutantibus, caule fruticosa, foliis longo-lanceolatis integerrimis.” Nutans and longo-lanceolatus match the Dusky Sound plant, but not that of the Marlborough Sounds. On the contrary, integerrimus is not correct, for the leaves of both plants are usually slightly toothed.
Although the Wellington plant is nearly always much as described above, specimens are encountered with longer narrower leaves, with longer more tapering racemes, and with flowers suffused with lilac and less closely placed. Such specimens come much too close to the variety of V. salicifolia next described to allow. V. Atkinsonii to stand as a species, so it is here dealt with as a well-marked variety of the complicated aggregate V. salicifolia.
V. salicifolia var. Atkinsonii is essentially a rock-plant. This rupestral habit is clearly shown by the rapidity with which rock-cuttings in Wellington City are seized upon by the plant. Such physiological behaviour is a most important character of the race, marking it clearly from var. paludosa and var. communis, although the latter is also rupestral, but to a much lesser degree.
(b.) Veronica salicifolia Forst. f. var. communis Cockayne var. nov.
Folia viridia, lanceolata, apicem versus attenuata acuta vel acuminata, subsessilia, membranacea, ± 7.5–9.5 cm. longi. Racemi graciles, attenuati, ± 12 cm. longi, pedunculis ± 3.5 cm. longis; flores albi-lilacino tincti; pedicelli 3 mm. longi; calycis-lobi lanceolati, acuti; corollae-lobi ovati, subacuti.
This is the ordinary form of V. salicifolia throughout the South Island, where it occurs as a tall or medium-sized much-branched shrub from sealevel
level to the subalpme belt and from the coast-line to the interior. It probably occurs in the North Island also, but I have no exact information as to its distribution. Its distinguishing characters, subject, however, to considerable individual differences, are: The bright-green but frequently tinged yellowish, willow-like, lanceolate, [ unclear: ] hin leaves, which towards the apex are narrowed and taper to a fine point, the long slender tapering racemes with peduncles much longer than those of the var. Atkinsonii; the lilactinged flowers with comparatively long slender pedicels, acute calyx-segments which are wide apart and expose the ovary, and corolla rather larger in all its parts than that of the var. Atkinsonii, and with ovate sub-acute segments.
The form of the West Coast Sounds. If it be a distinct form, has much broader leaves than that of the drier parts of the South Island.
(c.) Veronica salicifolia Forst. f. var paludosa Cockayne var nov.
Folia lmeari-lanceolata, longe paulatimque apiculata, circ. 6.5–11 cm. longa, 6 mm. to 1.2 cm. lata; racemi cum pedunculis ± 15 cm. longi; rhachis, pedicelli, et bracteoli dense pubescentes; calycis-lobi acuti vel sub-apiculati.
South Island: Westland—In lowland swamps
I have been in the habit of referring this plant to V. gracillima Cheesem, but a type specimen of the latter in T. Kiik's herbarium shows the former to be quite distinct. Its quite narrow leaves with long-drawn-out acuminate apex separate it at a glance from the var. communis. Probably there are other good distinctions, but my material is too far advanced for an examination of the flower. In general appearance var paludosa greatly resembles the common veronica of the subalpme scrub of Mount Egmont, but this latter, which I propose before long to describe as var. egmontiana, has a different capsule, which brings it somewhat near to V. macrocarpa.
14. × Veronica Simmonsii Cockayne nov. typ. hyb. (V. salicifolia Forst. f. var. Atkinsonii Cockayne × V. angustifolia A. Rich. var.).
Frutex densus, erectus, multiramosus, circ 1.8 m altus. Folia linean-lanceolata, subpetiolata, utrinque glabra nisi petiolo minutissima pubes-centia, circ 6.4 cm. longa, 8 mm lata, margine integerrima, apice acuta, costa infra paullo carinata Racemi 2–4, m axillis foliorum superiorum dispositi, circ 7 cm. longi, 1.8 cm. diametro, rhachibus pedicellisque pubes-centibus; pedicelli 2 mm longi; bracteoli lineares, pubescentes, 1 mm. longi. Flores 4.5 mm. diametro, albi. Calyx parvus 2 mm. longus, profunde 4-partitus lobis oblongis obtusis ciliatis Corollae-tubi anguste infundibuliformes, 3 mm. longi, lobi late oblongi, obtusi.
South Island: Marlborough—French Pass and Pelorus Valley; L. C. It seems to me far safer to treat this plant as a hybrid than as a new species or a variety of V. angustifolia, since it was found only when in company with the latter and V. salicifolia var Atkinsonii, but when these are growing separately × V. Simmonsii is absent, as I have had frequent opportunity to observe. The plant is named after Mr. G. T. Simmons, assistant lighthouse-keeper, French Pass.
The hybrid is distinguished at once from V. angustifolia by its much broader and longer leaves and dense-flowered racemes, while from V. salicifolia var. Atkinsonii it is readily separated by its much narrower leaves and more slender shorter racemes.