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Volume 48, 1915
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Art. XXIV.—The Species of the Genus Pinus now growing in New Zealand, with some Notes on their Introduction and Growth.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th August, 1907.*]

No genus of trees is more easily recognized than Pinus, but it is not so easy to identify the species, especially in the case of trees without cones.

Here, for convenience, the species are divided into the following classes: (1) Those with two leaves in a sheath; (2) those with three leaves in a sheath; (3) those with five leaves in a sheath. The above characters are fairly uniform in the different species, and are of considerable service for purposes of identification.

(1.) Trees Usually with Two Leaves in A Sheath.

Pinus austriaca Link.

This was probably first introduced in 1866. Potts, in the “New Zealand Country Journal,” vol. 3, p. 38, reports a plant 6 in. high growing at Governor's Bay in that year, and in a paper read before the Wellington Philosophical Institute on the 22nd July, 1871, he states that a tree growing in Wellington had reached the height of 8 ft. 9 in. A tree of this species planted at Greendale in 1877 is now 43 ft. high. Mr. Potts reports on P. austriaca as one of the best to withstand salt breezes when planted by the sea. It is also a good drought-resister.

Pinus Banksiana Lambert.

This is a distinct and hardy pine. Plants at Greendale raised from seed in 1904 are 11 ft. high, and produce cones.

Pinus bruttia Tenore.

By some botanists this is considered to be only a geographical form of P. halepensis, but trees here 12 ft. high, while showing a relationship to that species, are distinct in habit, and the cones are distinctly different.

Pinus contorta Dougl.

This was introduced about 1880 in three forms, and two of these are so distinct that I prefer to follow those botanists who separate them into the two species P. contorta and P. Murrayana.

Lemmon, in “West American Cone-bearers,” says of P. Murrayana, “Until recently confounded with P. contorta, but clearly distinct.” G. B. Sudworth, United States Government Dendrologist, however, in a quite recent letter to me puts his view of the matter thus. “The stable botanical characteristics of the different forms of this tree, as now constituted under Pinus contorta, do not differ sufficiently, in my judgment, to justify a separation into distinct species, notwithstanding the fact that the crown-habit and even the size of the cones of individual trees appear to indicate

[Footnote] * Since the paper was read in 1907 it has been brought up to date by the inclusion of later measurements, &c.

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specific distinctions. One very remarkable fact is that our Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (P. Murrayana) is a distinctly narrow-crowned tree, while the Pacific Slope form of it is distinctly a broad-crowned tree, there being no other essential differences.”

Here in New Zealand we have another very marked difference in the two trees, as under the same conditions the coastal or broad-top tree grows everywhere much faster than the mountain or spire-shaped tree.

Two trees measured here, and fairly representing the best growth of each, give the following result: P. contorta, 49 ft, and P. Murrayana, 32 ft. In the plantations here there are probably fifty trees of each of the same age, so that the difference in the rate of growth is not accidental.

Pinus densiflora S. & Z.

A tree planted under this name in 1890 is now 18 ft. high. A common forest-tree in Japan, this tree has not proved successful here.

Pinus edulis Engelm.

This New Mexican pine is represented in my collection by several trees, some of which are now 12 ft. high, and bear cones. The seeds are edible.

Pinus halepensis Mill.

This was early introduced into New Zealand, as trees were growing in 1868 both at Governor's Bay, Canterbury, and at the Hutt, Wellington, and were then nearly 4 ft. high. A tree of this species was 36 ft. 6 in. in height in 1885 at Governor's Bay.

Pinus laricio Poir.

This tree is grown successfully in many places in New Zealand. A tree planted at Greendale in 1877 is now 62 ft. high, and of a fine form.

Pinus leucodermis Antoine.

The white bark is the chief feature which distinguishes this pine from P. austriaca. By some it is considered only a variety of that pine. A tree raised from seed in 1904, presented to me by Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S., is now 6 ft. 6 in. high.

Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frem.

This western American pine was cultivated in Duncan's nursery (Christ-church) many years ago, but I do not know whether there are any living examples in New Zealand at the present time. This should properly not come in this class, with two leaves in a sheath, since it has merely one and not two. In habit it is a low round-headed tree 8 ft. to 45 ft. high. Its usual habitat is very dry stations of a desert character.

Pinus montana Mill.

This was early introduced in one or other of its forms, and large bushes of this species are growing in the Christchurch Botanical Gardens.

Pinus mugho Poir.

Some consider this only a variety of the last species. At Greendale P. mugho grows much faster than P. montana.

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Pinus muricata D. Don.

This was planted in 1870 by Potts in Governor's Bay, and he reports that the tree had reached 35 ft. in height in 1885. Trees planted at Green-dale in 1876 are now 51 ft. high. Pinus muricata cannot be recommended as a timber-tree, but makes a valuable shelter-tree.

Pinus Parrayana Engelm.

This pine, a native of California, is a short-trunked low tree 15 ft. to 30 ft. high in its natural habitat. Cone-bearing trees are to be seen in both the Ashburton and Tinwald Domains. I am placing this pine here because it has sometimes two leaves in a sheath, although four is a commoner number, and even three is not unknown.

Pinus pinaster Sol.

This was probably the first pine successfully introduced into New Zealand, as very old trees may be seen growing wild in the scrub in North Auckland, and seeds of it were sent Home at a very early date as a new pine, and named by Loddiges Pinus nova-zelandica. It is one of the best for seaside planting. The variety Hamiltoni, growing here, is about 12 ft high.

Pinus pinea L.

Trees of this species were growing in Auckland, Wellington, and Canterbury in 1868, and Potts that year reported a tree in Governor's Bay to be 3 ft. 6 in. high, and when measured again in 1885 the tree was 33 ft high.

Pinus pyreniaca Lap.

Raised from seed in 1904, this is now 12 ft high, and is a distinct pine.

Pinus resinosa Sol.

Introduced about 1880, this has not generally succeeded, although the late Mr. Threlkeld spoke highly of its success at Flaxton, Canterbury.

Pinus sylvestris L.

Seed of this and several other pines was imported by the General Government and distributed by the Geological Survey Department about 1864. The tree at first gave good promise of success, until attacked by an aphis, when most of the trees became sickly and stunted in growth, only a very few surviving the attack and growing into fair specimen trees.

Pinus Thunbergii Parl.

This is a Japanese tree which gives some promise of success in New Zealand. Trees planted at Greendale in 1890 are now 21 ft high, and bearing cones.

Pinus virginiana Mill

Trees of this species have grown well at Greendale, and are bearing cones.

(2) Trees having usually Three Leaves in each Sheath.

Pinus australis INichx

This has the longest leaves of all the pines growing at Greendale, being longer than P. longifolia Roxburgh. Trees planted in 1889 are only 15 ft. high, but, being almost destitute of side branches, they have a very singular appearance for pine-trees.

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Pinus Benthamiana Hartw.

This was introduced as early as 1865. It is generally considered a form of P. ponderosa, which was introduced the same year.

Pinus Bungeana Zucc.

Was first planted at Greendale in 1903. It is a native of China. Plants are of a lively green, and of slow growth, but are quite healthy.

Pinus canariensis C. Sm.

Was introduced as early as 1865, and was growing at the Hutt, Wellington, and Governor's Bay, Canterbury. A tree at the latter place measured, in 1885, 43 ft. in height. There is a tree of this species near the Museum, Christchurch, 9 ft. 9 in. in girth and 76 ft. high. During the severe winter of 1889 all the examples of this species at Greendale were damaged by the frost to the extent of losing all the previous summer's growth, but they have since quite recovered. This pine grows much better near the coast than at Greendale.

Pinus Coulteri D. Don.

This has the largest cones of all the pines; the leaves also are long and stout. P. Coulteri is generally adapted for conditions here, and trees of the second generation have commenced to bear cones. Trees planted in 1877 are now upwards of 60 ft. high.

Pinus Gerardiana Wall.

This is a healthy but slow-growing tree here. In India its seeds are valued as an article of food. Plants at Greendale are 7 ft. 6 in. high.

Pinus Jeffreyi A. Murr.

By some this is considered only one of the many varieties of P. ponderosa, but the habit of the tree in New Zealand makes it distinct. enough for all forestry purposes, and it is easily recognized by any ordinary observer. The cones and seeds are larger and of a different shape from those of P. ponderosa; the leaves are also of a different shade. The bark, too, is of a different shade, and is divided into smaller checks than that species.

Seed of this tree was early distributed in New Zealand, and trees 50 ft. or 60 ft. high are not uncommon. A tree on Mr. Albert Adams's farm at Sheffield measures 7 ft. 6 in. in girth.

Pinus khasya Royle.

Trees of this species planted at Greendale in 1900 only lived through a few winters, not being sufficiently hardy to withstand the frosts of a severe season.

Pinus longifolia Roxb.

This was most likely introduced with other pines by the General Government about 1864, when seeds were distributed by the Geological Survey Department. Plants of this species are in the earliest lists of trees that I have been able to discover, and were growing at several places in 1866, and mentioned by Messrs. Potts, Pharazyn, Ludlam, and Mason as small

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plants at that time. While young the trees are beautiful, but when older are rather open and rugged-looking. The largest trees I have noticed of this species are growing in the Wellington Botanical Gardens.

Pinus luchneulis.

This is a recently introduced pine from the mountains of Formosa. It is of doubtful hardiness. Small plants have passed through two winters with but slight injury.

Pinus mitis Michx.

This tree is more variable in its leaves than most pines, having sometimes two leaves and at others three. Both cones and leaves are small, and the growth is slow. Trees planted in 1881 are only 25 ft high.

Pinus patula Schrede & Deppe.

A tree supposed to be this species, planted in 1877, grew to a large size before it died, about ten years ago. Trees planted later are growing fast, and are extremely ornamental. It is a native of Mexico.

Pinus ponderosa Dougl.

Small plants were mentioned as growing at Governor's Bay in 1866, and these had reached the height of 37 ft. in 1885. It is also mentioned by Mr. Ludlam. At least four fairly distinct pines have been introduced to Canterbury under this name. Pinus ponderosa gives promise of being a profitable timber-tree in New Zealand.

Pinus radiata D. Don.

This is better known in New Zealand as P. insignis. This pine was planted as early as 1866 at Governor's Bay by Potts, and also by Mr. Gillies the same year. The specimens were then about 1 ft. in height, and when measured in 1885 were 67 ft. high. Trees planted at Greendale in 1873 have reached 128 ft. in height, and are still growing vigorously. No other species of pine—or, indeed, tree of any other genus—yet planted in New Zealand can compare in rate of growth with this pine.

Pinus rigida Mill.

This is a slow-growing pine of a distinct shade of green. It has one peculiar feature for a pine-tree, in that the stumps of trees which have been felled will sprout again. Some years ago, thinning a plantation, trees of this species that had been felled and were lying on the ground showed the above habit, for they were found to have sent forth sprouts along the trunk, as broad-leaved trees occasionally do.

Pinus Sabiniana Dougl.

This grows well in Canterbury, but the trees have a great tendency to divide into several leaders. The cones are large, second only to those of P. Coulteri, while the seeds are larger than in that species. It was early introduced, being mentioned in 1866. At Governor's Bay in 1885 it had reached 34 ft. in height. Trees planted at Greendale in 1881 are now 58 ft. high.

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Pinus scopulorum Lemmon.

By many authorities this is considered a variety of P. ponderosa, but trees growing here more resemble some forms of P. Jeffreyi. The rate of growth is much slower than in P. ponderosa.

Pinus taeda L.

This grows well in New Zealand. It is said to have been introduced by the late Mr. Rolleston while Superintendent of the Canterbury Province, but I know of no trees planted so early. Trees here are 20 ft. high.

Pinus teocote Cham. & Schlecht.

Small plants of this Mexican pine are growing at Greendale, and will probably prove to be hardy.

Pinus tuberculata Gord.

This is a fast-growing pine in New Zealand, and also remarkable for retaining its cones on the tree unopened for many years, while occasionally cones may be seen almost entirely enveloped in the trunk of the tree. Trees here planted in 1880 have still all their cones on them, not a seed having been released, and cones twenty years old when broken open give forth seed that readily germinates. Introduced about 1869.

Pinus yunnanensis Franchet.

This species was discovered in western China by the Abbé Delavay, and first described in 1899. Through the kindness of Professor C. Sargent, of the Arnold Arboretum, seeds were sent to me in 1909, and a goodly number of plants were raised. These have been planted in many places in New Zealand, and everywhere are making good growth. Trees planted at Broad-wood, Hokianga, are now bearing cones. This new pine is one of the most beautiful, if not the most beautiful, yet introduced, and will be very much admired for its rapid growth and fine form when better known.

(3) Trees whose Leaves are usually Five in A Sheath

Pinus aristata Engelm.

This is one of the American alpine pines; it is of very distinct appearance while young. Trees here are 4 ft. high, and growing slowly but quite successfully.

Pinus Armandi Franchet.

This comes from western China. Seeds were received from Professor C. Sargent in 1909, and plants raised from them are now 3 ft. 6 in. high. It appears to be related to the Korean pine (P. koraiensis S. & Z.) in leaf and cones, two of which I received from Kew, though distinct, reminding one of that species.

Pinus cembra L.

This European mountain-pine grows slowly here. At Greendale the Siberian form grows much better than the Swiss form.

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Pinus excelsa Wall.

This was introduced by Potts in 1868. Trees measured in 1885 were 27 ft. high. At Greendale P. excelsa grows faster than P. strobus or P. Lambertiana, and is the most promising of the pines having five leaves in a sheath.

Pinus flexilis James.

This was introduced about 1903 by the Hon. R. H. Rhodes. Two trees of this species given to me at the time are now each 8 ft. high.

Pinus koraiensis S. & Z.

Small plants of this pine introduced in 1906 are growing here, and appear quite hardy.

Pinus Lambertiana Dougl

This comes from western America, and grows there to a larger size than any pine in any other part of the world. Some of the oldest and largest trees at Greendale have died, probably through drought. Trees planted here in 1881 are now 23 ft. high, but give no promise of becoming the giants they are in California.

Pinus Mastersiana Hayata.

Small trees of this rare species have been raised from seed sent from Formosa two years ago.

Pinus Montezumae Lamb.

For plants of this species. I am indebted to Mr Shaw, of the Arnold Arboretum, who spent two years in Mexico studying the pines of that country, and sent me seeds of this and other pines in 1911. Trees growing here are very distinct in appearance, and give promise of successful growth.

Pinus monticola Dougl.

Trees of this species growing at Greendale are 8 ft. high, and appear to be capable of growing successfully under local conditions.

Pinus peuce Grisebach

This Macedonia pine was raised from seed sent to me by Dr. Augustine Henry, who in his turn received the seed from King Ferdinand of Bulgaria in 1908. The young plants look healthy and promising.

Pinus rudis Endl

This is considered by Mr. Shaw a variety of P. Montezumae. Plants raised here from seeds sent by Mr. Shaw can be distinguished, while young, from that species by a different shade of green; otherwise in length of leaf and habit they are the same.

Pinus strobus L.

This was early introduced, as it was growing at Governor's Bay, Canterbury, in 1866, and was reported in 1868 from the Hutt, Wellington P. strobus is considered a valuable forest-tree in the eastern States of America, but does not seem suitable for general planting here, although trees at Greendale have reached a height of 48 ft.

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Pinus Torreyana Parry.

This is quite unlike any other five-leaved pine, the leaves being long and much stouter, reminding one of some forms of P. Jeffreyi or P. Coulteri, but the tree has a more open head. The species was introduced here in 1870, and has grown rapidly. The largest tree in the Christchurch Botanic Gardens is 90 ft. high, and there is a large one also in the public gardens, Timaru. These heights are much greater than the floras give, but the tree is unlike any other in its appearance, so that there can be no doubt as to its identity.

In addition to the pines cited above, plants have been raised here of pines under the following numbers—1370, 1378, 1390, and 1396—from seeds collected by Mr E. H. Wilson in western China, and kindly sent to me by Professor Sargent, of the Arnold Arboretum.

Articles on the introduction and growth of pines will be found in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” as follows:—Vol. 1 (1869): Here Mr. Ludlam mentions seventeen species as growing in his pinetum; no heights are given. Vol. 4 (1872), p. 368, in a paper read before the Wellington Institute, Mr. Pharazyn gives the height of seven species of pines growing in 1871. In vol. 12 (1880), p. 357, there is a list of trees given that were planted in 1866, and their height; the list contains eight species. In vol. 29 (1897) a list of twenty-six species growing at Taita, Hutt, is given, with their height in 1896.

In the “New Zealand Country Journal,” vol. 3, p. 37, will be found a list of the pines growing at Ohinitahi, Governor's Bay. The list contains twenty-one species of pines, the date of planting, their rate of growth, and much other valuable information. In discussing some peculiarities of Pinus tuberculata, Potts incidentally mentions that his plants were raised from seeds imported by the New Zealand Government and distributed through the Geological Survey Department.

In an appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1877, an account is given of a number of plantations in New Zealand, mostly of eucalypts, but twelve species of pines are mentioned as having been observed growing in them.