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Volume 48, 1915
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Art. XXV.—On an Exhibit of Acorns and Leaves of Oaks grown by the Author at Greendale, Canterbury, New Zealand.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th July, 1915.]

The collection contained the acorns of thirty species, and the leaves of sixty-three species or varieties, all of which are grown by the author. The species were as follows:—

Quercus acuta Thunb.

The leaves are more suggestive of a laurel than an oak. It is quite hardy at Greendale. Planted, 1893. Height, 5 ft. A native of Japan.

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Quercus aegilops L. (the Valonia Oak).

The peculiar cups are said to yield a greater percentage of tanning-matter than any other known plant According to Mr. Maiden, this oak was introduced to Australia by Mr. George Cunnack, tanner, Castlemaine, Victoria. Under the name of “Valonia” considerable quantities are imported into New Zealand from Greece. Only small trees are known to me.

Quercus agrifolia Née (the Coast Live Oak).

This is a common tree on the low country of California, and is growing well in Canterbury. Trees at Greendale have borne acorns. At best, only a small tree. Planted, 1892. Height, 11 ft.

Quercus alba L. (the White Oak).

Approaches the nearest of any of the American oaks to the common English oak in the value of its timber, but the tree in cultivation has not been a success either here or in England. The autumn foliage is very fine, and distinct in colour. Planted, 1892. Height, 10 ft

Quercus ambigua Kit.

This is by some botanists considered a hybrid oak. Plants here do not answer to Louden's description of this species or variety, so my specimens may be wrongly named.

Quercus aquatica Walt. (the Water Oak).

A tree at Greendale on ordinary soil, without the aid of excess of water, is making fair progress. Almost evergreen, with leaves of an unusual shape. A native of eastern North America.

Quercus Banisteri Michx. (the Bear Oak).

This is a remarkable little tree, with distinct foliage It has flowered but not yet borne acorns at Greendale. Planted, 1893. Height, 11 ft

Quercus bicolor Willd. (the Swamp White Oak).

This is said to be a large and valuable tree in America Here the trees grow moderately well, with large leaves, downy on the underside Planted, 1892. Height, 16 ft

Quercus castaneaefolia C. A. Mey.

A native of Asia Minor. It is quite a promising tree to grow in New Zealand. Here it grows better than any of the chestnut-leaved trees from America Planted, 1900 Height, 13 ft

Quercus Cerris L.

The Turkey oak was early introduced, and there are large trees in Canterbury. In England the tree is said to grow faster than the native oak It is a valuable tree, but here of slower growth than the common oak. Planted, 1880 Height, 46 ft.

Quercus chrysolepis Liebm. (the Maul Oak).

This is one of the most successful in growth here of the west American oaks. Trees growing at Greendale have for several years borne acorns. Although not a large tree, in California the wood is considered of superior quality.

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Quercus cinerea Michx.

The upland willow oak was early introduced to New Zealand, and trees have borne acorns for many years in Canterbury.

Quercus coccinea Wangenh. (the Scarlet Oak).

This is a valuable tree, furnishing the “quercitrin,” so highly valued as a yellow dye and a tanning-material. In recent years largely planted in New Zealand for its fine autumn foliage.

Quercus cuspidata Thunb.

This is a very desirable evergreen tree from Japan. It has flowered here several years, but not yet borne fruit. In Japan the acorns are considered good to eat. Planted, 1893.

Quercus dentata Thunb.

This has probably the finest foliage of any oak. Although not so large as those of Q. macrocarpa, the leaves resist the wind much better, and are retained on the tree until the spring growth commences.

Quercus dilatata Lindl.

A tree of this species in the Botanical Gardens, Christchurch, is now 57 ft. high and 6 ft. in girth. Trees raised at Greendale from acorns received from Darjeeling in 1904 are 10 ft. to 12 ft. high, and have successfully withstood the winters.

Quercus dumosa Nutt. (the Scrub Oak).

This has very small holly-like leaves, which are probably the smallest leaves of any oak. Trees only 8 ft. high have borne acorns at Greendale. A native of California.

Quercus esculus L. (the Italian Oak).

This is said to be a handsome tree; only small plants are growing here. The “Index Kewensis” considers it synonymous with Q. Cerris.

Quercus falcata Michx.

An American tree, there called the “Spanish oak.” The wood is not much valued, but the bark is reputed to be of great value for tanning. The tree is growing well at Greendale.

Quercus Garrayana Dougl. (the Oregon Oak).

This is a native of California. It is making very slow progress here.

Quercus glauca Thunb.

A beautiful evergreen tree from Japan, not hardy in England. It was damaged by frost at Greendale a few years ago.

Quercus Ilex L. (the Evergreen Oak).

This evergreen oak was early introduced, and is growing well throughout New Zealand; there are large trees at Riccarton, the Three Kings College, Auckland, and many other places.


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Quercus imbricaria Michx.

The shingle oak of the Americans is a deciduous tree with laurel-like leaves. It grows well at Greendale; it is a most desirable tree. Planted, 1901. Height, 19 ft. 6 in.

Quercus incana Roxb.

This is a very distinct and beautiful oak, but not perfectly hardy here. In severe winters the late growth is destroyed by frost. Trees introduced in 1905 are now 7 ft. high. It is a native of Himalayan India.

Quercus infectoria Oliv.

The gall-nut oak of the Mediterranean region. Hundreds of tons of these galls are imported into England annually for use in manufactures. There is much that is interesting about these galls on the oaks of Asia and Europe. Why should the punctures of the different species of insects each produce a different-shaped gall? Who can tell?

Quercus Kellogii Newb. (the California Black Oak).

This is the Californian representative of the American red oaks, and is growing well in Canterbury. Planted, 1896. Height, 22 ft.

Quercus laevigata Blume.

A distinct oak from Japan with the habit of a shrub. Plants here have produced flowers, but no acorns. Planted, 1895.

Quercus lamellosa Sm.

This evergreen oak from the Himalayas bears large acorns m very singular-shaped cups. Only small plants are growing here.

Quercus Libani Oliv.

The Lebanon oak has distinct and pretty leaves; it is quite hardy here, and trees have several times borne acorns. Planted, 1905. Height, 11 ft.

Quercus lineata Blume.

Small trees growing here have large evergreen leaves of a beautiful shape. A native of the Himalayas and Java

Quercus lobata Née (the Valley Oak).

This is decribed as the most beautiful oak in California. Several trees here are making fair progress, and are now from 8 ft. to 10 ft. high.

Quercus Lucombeana Sw.

This is supposed to be a hybrid oak raised m England. Two small trees raised here from imported acorns are uniform in appearance, and are growing well.

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. (the Burr Oak).

This has the largest leaves of any oak growing at Greendale; the acorns are also large, and enclosed in mossy cups. Planted, 1903. Height, 13 ft. A native of eastern North America

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Quercus macrophylla Née.

This has fine leaves, but not so large as those of Q. macrocarpa. The tree, too, does not grow at all well here. Planted, 1903. Height, 7 ft. The “Index Kewensis” considers the species synonymous with Q. magnoliaefolia Née. It is a native of Mexico.

Quercus Merbeckii Durhamel.

This, a native of Algeria, is a fine oak. It grows well in New Zealand, and is almost evergreen. Large trees are growing in the Hutt Valley, Wellington.

Quercus mexicana Humb. & Bonpl.

A beautiful evergreen tree, which grows rapidly in Canterbury.

Quercus Michauxii Nutt. (the Basket Oak).

Considered by some to be only a variety of Q. bicolor, but it is held distinct in the “Index Kewensis.” Small trees at Greendale are quite distinct.

Quercus Mühlenbergii Englm. (the Yellow Chestnut Oak).

One of the American chestnut-leaved oaks, which make a fine autumn display. The trees grow satisfactorily here. The “Index Kewensis” considers it synonymous with Q. prinus L.

Quercus nigra L. (Black Jack).

A small tree, almost evergreen, with leaves of a distinct and unusual shape.

Quercus obtusiloba Michx. (the Post Oak).

A small plant of this oak promises well. A native of eastern North America

Quercus palustrus Du Roi (the Pin Oak).

The wood of this oak is not considered of much value, but the autumn foliage is very fine. It has been planted in considerable numbers in New Zealand. A native of eastern North America.

Quercus paniculata and Q. pulverulenta Hort. ex C. Koch.

These, which are growing here from imported acorns, are probably only varieties of Q. robur.

Quercus phellos L. (the Willow Oak).

This is one of the most distinct of all the oaks, with narrow willow-like leaves and twiggy branches. A tree here is healthy, and promises to make a good tree. Planted, 1900. Height, 10 ft. It is a native of eastern North America.

Quercus phillyraeoides Gray.

A native of Japan. It is a very distinct and elegant shrub; when not in fruit most difficult to recognize as an oak.

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Quercus prinus L. (the Chestnut Oak).

This requires some shelter; it then grows well in New Zealand. In America this is a valuable tree. Planted, 1895. Height, 16 ft.

Quercus purpurea Lodd. var. elegans.

This tree has very large leaves of the shape of Q. robur, and in autumn makes a grand display. A hybrid oak. Planted, 1904. Height, 13 ft.

Quercus robur L. var. pedunculata (the Common Oak).

This grows well in New Zealand, and already some fine specimens may be seen. A tree planted here in 1869 is now 59 ft. high, with a spread of branches equalling the height, and the bole at 4 ft. from the ground measures 76 in. in girth.

Quercus rubra L. (the Red Oak).

This grows freely in New Zealand, and is being planted in considerable numbers on account of its fine autumn tints. Planted, 1895. Height, 21 ft. It is a native of eastern North America

Quercus serrata Thunb.

This was at first introduced as Q. dentata, an oak it very little resembles. Q. serrata grows well in New Zealand. Planted, 1895. Height, 16 ft.

Quercus sideroxyla Humb. & Bonpl.

This is a native of Mexico, and is a distinct oak both in leaf and fruit. A small tree is growing here

Quercus suber L. (the Cork Oak).

This is growing successfully in New Zealand, particularly near the sea, and was early introduced. Planted at Greendale, 1895. Height, 12 ft.

Quercus tinctoria Bartr. (the Black Oak).

One of the black oaks of America. A small tree growing here has large leaves, which fade to a dark red.

Quercus toza Gillet.

An oak growing here under this name is probably Q. Merbeckii Durhamel. Planted, 1895. Height, 24 ft.

Quercus variabilis Blume.

This possesses leaves of the same shape as Q. serrata, but distinguished from it by the dense down on the underside of the leaf Planted, 1910

Quercus vibrayana Franchet.

This grows naturally on the mountains of Formosa, and is said to be there a valuable tree. Small plants of this oak are growing at Greendale.

Quercus virens Art. (the Live Oak).

A hardy evergreen oak from America, with very dark acorns. It grows well in New Zealand. Planted, 1894 Height, 22 ft.

Quercus Wislizeni A. DC.

A native of the mountains of California. Trees here are bearing acorns of a long narrow shape. It is quite hardy. Planted, 1900. Height, 17 ft.