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Volume 48, 1915
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of the
New Zealand Institute,

Thirteenth Annual Meeting.

Wellington, 28Th January, 1916.

The annual meeting of the Board of Governors was held in the Dominion Museum Library on Friday, the 28th January, 1916, at 10 a.m.

Present. Hon Mr Russell, Minister of Internal Affairs, Mr. D. Petrie, President (in the chair); Mr Charles A. Ewen Mr. A. H. Turnbull, Di J Allan Thomson, Mr B C Aston, Professor T. H. Easter field, Professor H B Kirk, Professor H W. Segar, Dr Hilgendorf. Mr A M Wright, Professor Marshall, Mr. G. M. Thomson, Mr H Hill, Dr L Cockayne, Mr J W Povnton, and Dr Hatherly.

Changes in the Representation — The Secretary announced that the only changes in the representation were: Mr B. C Aston replaced Professor von Zedlitz as a Government representative; Dr Hilgendorf and Mr A M Wright replaced Dr C. C Farr and Mr. R. Speight for the Canterbury Philosophical Institute; Mr J. W. Poynton replaced Mr K Wilson for the Manawatu Philosophical Society.

President's Address—The President then read his annual address. (See p 530).

The Minister of Internal Affairs (Hon. Mr. Russell), by invitation of the Chairman, then addressed the meeting, and promised to meet the Board again later in the day. A hearty vote of thanks was unanimously accorded the Minister for his interesting and comprehensive address.

The Annual Reports of the Incorporated Societies for their last financial years were received, and ordered to he on the table. Dr. Hatherly explained why the Wanganui Philosophical Society's report had not been received.

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Hon. Treasurer's Statements.—The statement of assets and liabilities of the Institute at the 31st December, 1915, and the statement of receipts and expenditure for the year ending 31st December, 1915, supported by the Public Trustee's certificates of the state of the Carter Bequest, the Hutton Memorial Fund, and the Hector Memorial Fund at the 31st December, 1915, all duly audited and signed by the Auditor-General, were, on the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Dr. Marshall, adopted.

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year Ending 31st December, 1915

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Receipts £ s d Expenditure £ s d
Balance at credit in Bank of New Zealand 494 18 3 Governors traveling expenses 32 14 8
Government grant 500 0 0 Fire-insurance premium 5 0 0
Transactions sold locally 1 14 0 Secretary's salary 50 0 0
“Maori Art sold. 8 8 0 Compiling card index 10 0 0
Bulletins sold 0 4 0 Bank charge 0 10 0
Public Trustee, Hutton Mcmorial Fund 15 0 0 Award to Mr Oliver, Hutton Memorial Fund 15 0 0
Authors reprints 8 4 5 Hon Editor, petty cash 3 0 0
Wesley and Son, London publications sold 11 10 4 Postage on Transactions 20 3 8
Postage refunded by societies 17 5 9 Secretary, petty cash 10 0 0
Hector Memorial Award 45 0 0 Hector Award to Mr Elsdon Best 45 0 0
Balance at Bank of New Zealand £17 7 2 Deposited in Post Office Savings-bank 500 0 0
Less unpresented cheque 25 0 0 Government Printer, Vol. 46 418 7 3
7 12 10
£1, 109 17 7 £1, 109 17 7
£ s d
Balance at credit of Institute in Post Office Savings-bank 300 0 0
Balance at Bank of New Zealand £17 7 2
Less unpresented cheque 25 0 0
7 12 10
Credit balance £492 7 2

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Statement of Liabilities and Assets at 31St December, 1915
Liabilities Assets
£ s d £ s d
Dec 31 To Balance due Government Printer 624 11 10
West Newman Account 1 1 0
Unpresented cheque 25 0 0
By Balance in Post Office Savings-bank 500 0 0
Accrued interest thereon at 3 per cent 10 0 0
Transactions, &c, sold—proceeds to come 12 1 5
Petty cash in hands of Secretary 5 18 9
Balance in Bank of New Zealand 17 7 2
650 12 10 545 7 4
Debit balance 105 5 6
£650 12 10 £650 12 10

The Institute has a large stock of Transactions on hand, valued as an asset at £750. The only other property possessed by the Institute is a very valuable scientific library.

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Carter Bequest.—Statement of Receipts and Expeenditure for The Year Ending 31st December, 1915.
Receipts £ s d. Expenditure. £ s. d.
Balance brought forward 3,582 5 1 Public Trust Office, commission, 2½ per cent, on 13s. 1d. 0 0 4
New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company (Limited)—Interest, 1st October, 1914, to 1st October, 1915 0 9 11 Petty expenses—Postages 0 1 0
Dividend (preference), 30th June, 1914, to 30th June, 1915 0 3 2 Balance 3,744 0 5
Public Trust Office, interest, 31st December, 1914, to 31st December, 1915 161 3 7
£3,744 1 9 £3,744 1 9

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Hutton Memorial Fund.—Statement of Receipts and Expenditure to 31st December, 1915.
Receipts £ s d Expenditure. £ s d.
Balance brought forward 722 15 9 New Zealand Institute Account: Grant to W. R. B. Oliver for 1914–15 15 0 0
Public Trust Office, interest, 31st December, 1914, to 31st December, 1915, at 4½ per cent 31 18 9 Public Trust Office, postages 0 1 0
Balance 739 13 6
£754 14 6 £ 754 14 6

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Hector Memorial Fund—Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for Year Ending 31st December, 1915.
Receipts £ s d Expenditure. £ s. d
Balance brought forward 1,084 8 6 New Zealand Institute Account: Elsdon Best, Hector Prize for 1914 45 0 0
Public Trust Office, interest. 31st December, 1914, to 31st December, 1915 at 4 ½ per cent 47 2 6 Public Trust Office, postages 0 1 0
Balance 1,086 10 0
£1,131 11 0 £1, 131 11 0

A financial discussion followed, in which the propriety of asking for a contribution from each incorporated society was considered. On the motion of Dr J Allan Thomson, seconded by Dr L. Cockayne, it was resolved. That for every copy of the Transactions received by incorporated societies a contribution of 2s 6d. towards the cost of printing shall be made during the current year by such society.

Hutton Memorial Grants for Research.—A report from Mr. W. R. B. Oliver on the results of his research for the past year was received.

On the motion of Mr. G. M. Thomson, seconded by Professor P Marshall, it was resolved, That the sum of £25 be voted to the Portobello Marine Fish-hatchery for the purpose of prosecuting research on the distribution of native marine food fishes.

Standing Committee's Report.—The President moved the adoption of the Standing Committee's report—Carried.

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Report of the Standing Committee

Five meetings of the Standing Committee have been held during the past year, the attendance being as follows. Mr. Petrie, 2; Dr. Cockayne, 5; Professor Easterfield, 2; Mr C. A. Ewen, 3; Mr Hill, 1, Professor Kirk, 2, Dr J Allan Thomson, 5; Mr. G. M. Thomson, 2; Professor von Zedlitz, 1.

Hector Memorial Award.—The presentation of the medal to Professor P. Marshall, of Otago University, took place on the 4th October, 1915, at a meeting of the Otago Institute, Mr. G. M. Thomson, a former President of the Otago Institute, making the presentation.

Hector Memorial Fund Research Grant.—Of the two grants to research workers made at the last meeting, only that to Mr Oliver was availed of. A progress report from him has been received. Dr Cotton, having received a grant from another body, has surrendered the grant made to him by the Institute, for which he has been thanked by the Standing Committee.

Publications—Volume 47 of the “Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute” was issued on the 12th July, 1915, and on the 16th three copies were received, and one was laid on the table of the Legislative Council on the 21st July, and one on the table of the House of Representatives on the 20th July, 1915. On the 2nd August the Government Printer delivered 223 volumes, and they continued to arrive in small lots, and were parcelled up and addressed until enough had been received to fill the New Zealand demands, which was not until the 20th August, when they were posted to members. An alteration in the manner of binding the Transactions has been introduced with vol 47, at the suggestion of the Secretary, who pointed out that a binding in what is known as quarter-bound boards, instead of the previous limp covers, could be obtained at very little additional expense. It is hoped that the innovation will meet with general approval.

Finances of the Institute —In view of the many demands made on the Government on account of the war, after interviewing the Hon the Minister of Internal Affairs on the matter of an additional vote it was decided not to proceed further at present with the motion passed at the last annual meeting. The Government Printer is willing to allow a portion of the debt for printing the publications to stand over, providing the greater portion be paid. The Standing Committee is of opinion that in view of the financial position of the Institute a levy on the incorporated societies should be made in the coming year. The motion regarding handing over the Institute library to the Board of Science and Art has been referred to that body by the Hon the Minister of Internal Affairs. Other motions passed at last annual meeting involving increased expenditure by the Government were also allowed to stand over in the meantime.

Decisions [ unclear: ] of the Standing Committee —(1) The storage of illustration blocks having been brought up by the Government Printer, the difficulty was disposed of by Dr Thomson offering to store them in the Museum, an offer which was thankfully accepted.

(2.) It has been decided to circulaize [ unclear: ] all public libraries in New Zealand to ascertain whether they would accept partial sets of Transactions as a donation from the Institute.

(3) The following have been placed on the list of those to whom the Transactions are yearly sent free :—

Southland Museum, Invercargill

Royal Scottish Geographical Society, Synod Hall, Castle Terrace. Edinburgh.

National Academy of Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U S.

Other applicants for the exchange or the gift of isolated volumes have been also dealt with on their merits by this Committee.

(4) The Standing Committee have accepted a suggestion by the Publication Committee of allowing a Government Department to contribute the entire cost of preparing the figures for a paper which was submitted by a Government officer, who desired to publish the illustrations subsequently in a Government report.

Annual Reports and Balance-sheets of the following societies have been received :—

Auckland Institute, to 18th February 1915

Manawatu Philosophical Society, to 21st October, 1915

Otago Institute, to 30th November, 1915

Nelson Institute, to 31st December, 1915

Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, to 23rd November, 1915

Wellington Philosophical Society, to 30th September 1915

Canterbury Philosophical Institute, to 31st October, 1915

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The report and balance-sheet of the Wanganui Philosophical Society has not yet been received.

Memorial to the late Mr. Hamilton.—The Hamilton Memorial Committee reports that the fund collected for the memorial to the late Mr. Augustus Hamilton, amounting at present to £122 2s. 10d., is deposited in the Post Office Savings-bank. Arrangements are now in progress for the erection of a suitable monolith over the grave at Russell, Bay of Islands.

Stock of Transactions.—The Parliamentary Librarian having intimated that he can no longer store the immense stock of Transactions, some 15,000 volumes, the Standing Committee decided to circularize all public libraries in New Zealand asking if they would be willing to accept, as a donation, partial sets of those volumes of which the Institute possesses such a large supply. The Parliamentary Librarian has kindly consented to help in the clerical work of issuing the circulars, of which as many as four to five hundred may be needed. The only conditions it is at present contemplated to impose on the recipients are that the freight charges shall be paid by the receiving body, and that the volumes shall become the property of that body and not be disposed of According to the decision of the Standing Committee, inquiries were made, and as a result eighty replies have been received, seventy of them accepting and ten refusing the conditional offer of the Standing Committee. It is now for the annual meeting to decide what further steps shall be taken in the matter.

29th January, 1916

D. Petrie, President.

Hamilton Memorial Fund.—Professor Easterfield explained why it had been found necessary to depart from the original intended form of the memorial.

Hector Award for 1916.—Professor Segar proposed, and Mr. G. M. Thomson seconded, That the action of the Standing Committee in supplying information to the Hector Award Committee be confirmed.— Carried.

The President then opened the recommendation of the Committee of Award received from Professor Carslaw in a sealed envelope, and announced that the Committee had selected Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S. The recommendation was adopted.

Publication Committee's Report.—The report of the Committee was adopted, as follows :—

Report of the Publication Committee.

The Publication Committee begs to submit the following report for the year :—

Sixty-four papers were sent in for the consideration of the Committee, and, of these, fifty-eight were published in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” vol 47, the others being withdrawn or declined. Of those finally accepted many were much condensed at the request of the Committee, and the number of illustrations accompanying them was very greatly reduced. In a few cases the preparation of the papers and the arrangement of the figures for publication gave far more than the usual amount of work and trouble.

Volume 47 of the Transactions was issued on the 12th July, 1915, being some-what later than usual owing to the cause just mentioned. It contains 704 pages, 12 plates, and a large number of text figures.

Bulletin No. 1, Part IV, on New Zealand Coleoptera, by Major T. Broun, was published on the 17th February, and contains 79 pages of text. A further instalment of MS. on the same subject had been received early in the year, and at the last annual meeting of the Board of Governors was referred to the Publication Committee for inquiry as to cost of publication, &c. An estimate has been received from the Printer, but owing to the state of the finances of the Institute the question of publication is held over for decision at the annual meeting.

Two lots of MS by Mr H. N. Dixon for the continuation of Bulletin No. 3, on New Zealand Bryology, have been received, and estimates of the cost of publication obtained for consideration at the annual meeting. The MSS. by Major Broun and Mr. Dixon are in safe keeping with the Government Printer.

At the last annual meeting the Committee was authorized to make arrangements for the publication of Dr. Mortensen's proposed report on the New Zealand Echinodermata, but Dr. Mortensen only recently reached Copenhagen, and no report has yet been received from him.

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The estimates obtained by the Secretary from London firms of the cost of producing coloured illustrations have been considered by the Committee, which recommends that the question be held over till the finances of the Institute are in a better condition.

Towards the end of the year the Hon Editor resigned owing to the pressure of other work. Arrangements have been made for papers intended for the next volume of the Transactions to be sent to the Secretary pending the appointment of an Hon. Editor at the annual meeting.

For the Committee

Chas Chilton,

Retiring Hon Editor

It was proposed by Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Mr. Poynton, That a sum of £50 be voted out of the Hutton Memorial Fund towards the publication of the researches of Major Broun on New Zealand Coleoptera.—Carried.

On the motion of Dr. J. Allan Thomson, seconded by Dr. Hilgendorf, it was resolved. That the Publication Committee be directed to insert a notice in the Transactions stating the privileges of members in relation to the libraries of the Institute and of the incorporated societies.

Report of the Library Committee —The report of the Committee was adopted, as follows :—

Report of Library Committee

The [ unclear: ] rearrangement of the library, forecasted in the report of last year, has been completed, and it is now possible to trace easily the publications of any given society or institution. Your Committee feels that the facilities offered by the library are not understood by the majority of members outside Wellington, and recommends that a notice should be inserted annually in the Transactions stating the privileges of members and the conditions under which books may be lent through the post. The Librarian is always willing to answer queries from individual members as to whether or not any given book is in the library.

Although a large number of valuable journals are received annually in exchange for the Transactions, the number of societies with whom exchanges are effected bears a very small proportion to the number of societies which publish papers likely to be of interest to scientific workers in New Zealand, while the absence of many societies of the first importance from the exchange list is a matter of surprise and regret. This has a double aspect, for it means also that the Transactions are not available to, and are therefore not read by, the majority of scientific workers outside New Zealand. For instance, only seventeen universities and colleges outside New Zealand appear in the list of free copies, while in 1914 only seventeen copies were sold outside the Dominion. Your Committee has therefore drawn up a list of over eight hundred societies and institutions with which exchanges might be effected, and recommends that proposals to two hundred of these should be made during the current year.

J Allan Thomson.

Hon Libiarian

Dr. J Allan Thomson moved, Dr. Cockayne seconded, and it was unanimously resolved. That a set of the publications as complete as possible be presented to the University of Louvain.

The Secretary explained the difficulty which had arisen with regard to the storage of the large excess of the back numbers of the Transactions, and detailed the steps taken by the Standing Committee in circularizing libraries. A letter from the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs, dated the 26th November, 1915, was read dealing with the same subject.

On the motion of Dr. J. Allan Thomson it was resolved, That the Standing Committee be authorized to dispose of the stock of Transactions for those years in which the number is in excess of 200 by gift to suitable institutions or by sale at reduced terms.

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Professor Easterfield moved, Mr. Ewen seconded, and it was resolved, That a statement be printed on the back of the forthcoming volume of the Transactions intimating that certain volumes of the Transactions are available to members at 2s. each, inclusive of postage.

On the motion of Dr. J. Allan Thomson it was resolved, That the Standing Committee be authorized to increase the exchange list.

On the motion of Mr. J. W. Poynton, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, it was resolved. That the storage of the excess volumes of Transactions be dealt with by the Standing Committee as they find necessary.

On the motion of Mr. G. M. Thomson, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, it was resolved, That the Minister of Internal Affairs be asked to obtain, if possible, a grant to enable the Board of Governors of the Institute to distribute spare volumes of Transactions to public libraries, secondary and technical schools of the Dominion, branches of the Teachers' Institute, &c; also to suitably bind and forward the set of Transactions voted by the Institute to the University of Louvain.

Correspondence.—Letters were read and received from the Under-Secretary of the Internal Affairs Department relating to the Nobel Peace Prize (11/1/16), Kidnappers Reserve (21/9/15), Science and Art Board (12/3/15), from the Secretary of the Marine Department (24/3/15) re Catalogue of Fishes, from Dr J. Allan Thomson regarding a paper by Mr. S S. Buckman; and from the Wellington Philosophical Society regarding the date for sending in papers for publication (7/10/15). It was decided to refer Dr Thomson's application to the Publication Committee, and to take no action in regard to the Wellington Philosophical Society's application.

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature.—It was decided to lefer the matter of compiling the annual catalogue for the New Zealand Regional Bureau to the Standing Committee to take such action as they deem suitable.

Election of Officers —On the motion of the President, Professor Benham was unanimously elected President of the New Zealand Institute for the ensuing year. The following officers were also elected: Hon. Treasurer— Mr C. A. Ewen, Hon Editor—Dr L. Cockayne; Joint Hon. Editor— Dr C. A. Cotton (subject to his acceptance), Hon. Librarian—Dr. J Allan Thomson; Hon. Secretary—Mr. B. C Aston; Publication Committee—The Hon Editors, Professors Easterfield and Kirk, Dr. J Allan Thomson, and Mr. Aston; Library Committee—Dr. Cotton, Dr. Cockayne, and the Hon. Librarian were re-elected; Hector Award Committee for 1917 (subject Zoology)—Professors Haswell, of Sydney, and Baldwin Spencer, of Melbourne.

Travelling-expenses.—Mr C. A. Ewen moved, and Professor Easter-field seconded, That the travelling-expenses of this meeting be reimbursed by the Institute —Carried.

Election of Honorary Member.—Professor Jean Massart, of the University of Brussels, was elected.

Date and Place of next Annual Meeting.—On the motion of Professor Segar, seconded by Professor P. Marshall, Tuesday, 30th January, 1917. at Wellington, were fixed as the date and place of the next annual meeting.

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Vote of Thanks.—On the motion of Mr. G. M. Thomson, seconded by Professor Kirk, it was resolved. That the Board pass a very hearty vote of thanks to Dr Chilton for his valuable services as Hon Editor during the past six years.

Government Grants.—The Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs attended the meeting again at the close, when Mr. G. M. Thomson's motion regarding a request for a grant was read to him. The Hon. Mr. Russell again addressed the meeting, and promised to giant the application for funds to distribute the excess of Transactions and to bind a set of the Institute's publications in half-calf for the University of Lovain; and also to donate to that university any scientific Government publications which were available. He further promised to recommend to Cabinet the authorization of an additional grant to the Institute of £250, to be specially spent in furthering one or more branches of research not hitherto provided fon from the Institute's funds; the Minister to be informed of those subjects on which the vote is to be spent, the only proviso being that the subject should have as practical an object as possible. A vote of thanks to the Minister for his attendance and offer was unanimously carried.

A vote of thanks to the President and officers concluded the business Confirmed 29th January, 1916.

D Petrie, President.

Presidential Address

The following is the presidential address delivered at the annual meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute, at Wellington, on the 28th January, 1916, by Mr D Petrie, M A. Ph D :—.

Gentlemen of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute,—We meet again with the cloud of war hanging over the Empire Our own land has had its share of suffering and sorrow, but the daring and heroism of its sons have already created a glorious tradition that can never be forgotten or sullied by the dwellers in these Islands Our isolation and the protection of the British War Fleet allow us to go about our usual affairs with little distraction other than the anxiety which the passing weeks bring along.

The 47th volume of the Transactions of the Institute was accordingly issued in July last The volume is considerably larger than those of recent years, extending to over 700 pages exclusive of plates Among its varied contents is the usual large number of important contributions to local natural history, geology, and cognate subjects The original papers in the various branches of zoological research are specially numerous and valuable, and several of them. it may be noted with satisfaction, are by young and promising workers.

For a good many years past the annual volume of Transactions has been issued in flimsy paper covers At the suggestion of om Secretary I authorized the binding of the last-issued volume in stiff paper boards with a back of thin binding-cloth. This will prove a great convenience to those who do not care to bind the book and have frequent occasion to consult it, and the increased cost is practically met by the saving in packing the books for transmission by post, as an ordinary paper cover is now sufficient to ensure safe carriage.

It is obvious that the increased size of the volume means increased outlay in printing and postage The Printer's bill alone exceeds by more than £70 the statutory grant of £500, which is all we can reckon on to cover the cost of publications and the Board's management For two years a supplementary grant of £250 was voted by Parliament, but this and to our scanty funds was not renewed last session. The Board is consequently faced with a considerable deficiency on the year's operations and I fear will be compelled to resort to a levy on the funds of the incorporated societies Should Parliament decline to pass a supplementary vote hereafter, a result which all interested in scientific inquiry must deplore

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this levy will no doubt become a permanent feature in the Board's finance. As to the amount of the levy, it is imperative that it be kept as low as possible, for the incorporated societies have numerous unavoidable obligations which their income from subscriptions does little more than meet.

Until our financial position is greatly improved, retrenchment in our outlay is unavoidable. I am of opinion that the bulk of the Transactions (and, by consequence, the amount of the Printer's bill) could be very considerably reduced without any serious impairment of the value of their contents. Is it really needful to print year by year the whole of the matter included in the Appendix? Or is there any great urgency about the publication of lists of new plant-habitats, accounts of the fauna or flora of single counties or other limited districts, and many of the papers on Maori culture, customs, and folk-lore submitted for publication? Such articles might well be passed over until the Board is once more in a position to print them without “outrunning the constable.” It seems to me, further, that papers on abstruse mathematical subjects might be altogether excluded from our Transactions, in the interests of their writers if for no better reason, for such papers are simply buried in our publications, and would far more fitly see the light of day in some of the special journals devoted to this branch of inquiry. The Publication Committee, by sternly refusing to accept for publication diffuse and verbose papers unless condensed to their satisfaction, could do much to ease our periodical financial difficulties.

Owing to our limited funds, only one bulletin has been issued during the year. The manuscript material for two additional bulletins has been held over. One of these is a long and valuable paper by Major T. Broun on new New Zealand Coleoptera. Major Broun is naturally greatly disappointed at the delay in publication, and I trust that the Board will authorize its publication as a bulletin early in the present year. Other means of publication are indeed available, but it is most desirable that the paper should be published here, as it is merely a continuation of other papers we have published already. Prolonged delay in dealing with this paper may result in loss of priority for the new genera and species described, in which case its learned and enthusiastic author would be deprived of the well-merited and sole reward of his months and months of continuous labour and research.

It is now more than two years since the Science and Art Act was placed on the statute-book, but the special Board set up under its provisions has not yet come to the birth. The arrangements for a possible transfer of the library of the Institute, authorized at the Board's last meeting, are consequently in abeyance. It is understood that a meeting will be held immediately.

In the course of the year the Institute's library has been rearranged, so that the publications of any given society or institution can now be easily traced The books and papers have been stamped on the outside of the cover, and can thus be readily distinguished from the other works located in the Dominion Museum library-room It is a pity that the Institute's stamp has not been placed here and there in the body of the books, as they are mostly in thin paper covers, this can, however, be done hereafter without difficulty. The Honorary Librarian and the other gentlemen who assisted him in carrying out these improvements deserve the cordial thanks of the Board My predecessor in the President's chair argued in favour of a division of our library among the four University centres of the Dominion To this proposal I am very decidedly opposed, but there is no need for recording the reasons for my view, as the project seems unlikely to meet with general support.

I may use the present opportunity to point out a conspicuous and most regrettable defect in the museums of this Dominion I refer to their failure to provide any worthy collection of the native and introduced plants that grow within its borders The only fairly complete herbaria in the country are the property of some two or three private persons; no museum contains anything at all comparable with these It is high time that steps were taken to remedy this anomaly. The Dominion Museum at least should be provided as soon as may be possible with a full and varied collection of the native and naturalized plants of our Islands Such a collection should not be confined to flowering-plants and ferns, but should cover the whole of the flora It would be a signal service to biological science if the Director of the Dominion Museum could take this branch of museum service in hand, and make the institution over which he presides more and more a centre of light and leading for all who are prosecuting plant studies Photographs of specimen plants and trees, and of selected spots of wild nature showing the plant societies that adorn our mountain valleys and slopes and other stations of interest, should also be got together and placed on exhibition The late Mr. H. J Matthews in the course of his wanderings about New Zealand accumulated a large and splendid collection of photographs of the kind here referred to, and it is a matter

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for sincere regret that his fine series of photographs was not secured for the Dominion Museum.

Some small sums of public money have been expended on special botanical surveys, and reports of these have been published, but so far as I am aware the botanical material collected has not been used to enrich any public museum. In any further research of this kind that may be undertaken, it might easily be arranged that as full collections as possible of the plants observed should be made with a view to their permanent preservation in the Dominion Museum. If photographs could also be secured, so much the better. I would suggest further that the help of survey parties employed in the Government service should be enlisted in this good cause. Many of the gentlemen who direct such parties are interested in native plants, and could with little trouble collect and dry numbers of specimens not easy to procure in flower and fruit by other agencies The Inspector and local officers of our forest and scenic reserves, and the Superintendents of the State nurseries, could also give valuable help in getting together a worthy natural collection of native and naturalized plants.

Early in the past year the two volumes of “Illustrations of the New Zealand Flora.' edited by Mr T F Cheeseman and Dr W. Botting Hemsley, issued from the press some little time before, became available for reference by those interested in botanical research. This fine work is in all respects worthy of the reputation of its distinguished editors I was a member of the deputation from a conference of School Inspectors that waited on the late Mr. Seddon to urge him to authorize the preparation of a new Flora of New Zealand, the work to be accompanied by a volume of illustrative drawings With his usual public spirit and regard for the interests of country settlers, he promised favourable consideration of the deputation's request, and expressed his desire that the drawings should be such as would enable miners and country dwellers generally to gain, if they so desired, a knowledge of the common plants growing in their neighbourhood The suggestion offered by the deputation was that there should be a drawing of one species of each of our genera of flowering-plants and ferns, and one for each section of the larger genera in which well-marked sections are recognized This design was evidently known to the late Mr. T. Kirk, to whom the production of the new flora was entrusted, though he did not live to complete more than half the task The preface to the “Students' Flora of New Zealand.” as Mr Kirk's work was entitled, shows that it was the intention of the Education Department, which was charged with the production of the book to include in the series of plates many previously published drawings of native plants, no doubt on a reduced scale Arrangements were even made with Messrs Reeve and Co, of London, by payment of a small royalty, to utilize many of the numerous plates of native plants contained in the classical works on the floras of New Zealand and Tasmania by the late Sir J D Hooker. I consider it most regrettable that the Education Department should have consented to the abandonment of the plan roughly sketched out in the above-mentioned preface, no doubt with the late Mr Seddon's approval What was wanted to foster a popular interest in botanical inquiry was a set of plant drawings somewhat on the lines of Bentham's Illustrations of the British Flora. A work of some such kind would, no doubt, have aroused among intelligent country residents a growing interest in the local vegetation, and opened up for them a pleasant recreation, it would have made the path of all beginners in plant studies easy and sure, and would have helped to bung to the front many who are now turned away from such pursuits by the unfamiliar technical language in which accurate botanical descriptions must be set forth. For botanists outside our Dominion who wish to gain a more extended acquaintance with the New Zealand flora than S [ unclear: ] Joseph Hooker's works made available, the new volumes of illustrations are entirely suitable, but residents in the Dominion will find the books costly and unwieldy and deficient in figures of a great many of the most common and most widely diffused native plants. As it seems to me, a great opportunity for stimulating popular interest in plant studies, and for enriching the non-selfish life interests of the coming generation, has been turned to poor account The excellent list of illustrations of New Zealand plants previously published is a valuable feature of the new volumes.

An important scientific publication of the year is the atlas of plates in illustration of the recently published “Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca” by Mr Hemy Suter This work contains a very large number of figures of Recent shells, in general beautifully executed, and is well fitted to stimulate closer and more general study of this department of zoology Together with the author's Manual this atlas will enable any one drawn to the subject to get abreast of the present state of our knowledge of the molluscous fauna, and entice beginners in its study to go forward under highly favourable conditions The book, it may be

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noted, is reasonably cheap, is of convenient size, and contains a very ample representative series of figures. The Government Printer can be warmly congratulated on the production of this fine work.

Two years hence the New Zealand Institute will have reached its fiftieth year of activity. The New Zealand Institute Act was passed in 1867, the “Abstracts of Rules and Statutes” was gazetted on the 9th March, and the inaugural meeting was held on the 4th August, 1868. It may be desirable to hold some formal celebration of the semi-centenary of the Institute's foundation.

An important event in the development of science and its practical applications within our Dominion is the recent generous bequest of a very large sum for these purposes by the late Mr. Cawthron, of Nelson. When the Cawthron Institute has commenced its activities we may look for very considerable benefits to many of our prominent industries, and to a growing number of scientific workers who may there be trained for research without submitting to the shackles that university degrees too often impose on the courses of study and the training of students at our universities.

A month or two ago the Honorary Editor of the Transactions (Dr. Charles Chilton) communicated to me his desire to be relieved of this onerous office, owing to a sudden enlargement of his other work. For his gratuitous and laborious services as Editor for some years past Dr. Chilton deserves the warmest thanks of this Board. It would be in several ways convenient if the new Editor were resident in Wellington. The filling of the position will come before you in the course of this meeting.

Our experienced Secretary (Mr. B. C. Aston) has been appointed a member of the Board as one of the Government representatives. Mr. Aston has intimated to me that he will be prepared to act as Honorary Secretary for some time to come. The Board will be invited later to consider how the office can be best filled. Should Mr Aston's generous offer be accepted it will help to lessen the cost of administration.

Arrangements for distributing the large stock of surplus copies of the Transactions which, through the kindness of the Librarian, are now stored, not without inconvenience, in the Parliamentary Buildings will be submitted for the consideration of the Board It is proposed to offer as complete sets as possible to all public libraries and all secondary and technical schools free of cost, other than that of transmission to their destination.

The Standing Committee has considered the propriety of increasing the number of scientific societies and institutions to which our Transactions are presented annually, and proposals to give effect to their views will no doubt be submitted at the present meeting.

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Wellington Philosophical Society.

First Meeting: 28th April. 1915

Mr T King, F.R A S., President, in the chan, and about forty members present

New Members —Professor D M Y Sommerville, M A, D Sc, FRSE, Professor E Marsden, D Sc; Mr. C. J Westland, FRAS, Miss Ellen Pigott, M A., Miss Elizabeth Pigott, M.A

New Section.—The formation of a Literary Section was approved

Rearrangement of the Library—Dr J A Thomson reported on the rearrangement of books in the library

Presidential Address —Mr T King delivered his presidential address, dealing with the war and the duties of scientific societies during its continuance.

Paper.—“Maori Ait in the Arawa Country,” by Mr James Cowan, communicated by the President.

Second Meeting 26th May, 1915

Mr T King, FRAS, President, in the chan, and about forty members and friends present.

New Members—Mr W Donovan, M Sc, Mr. H. S. Tily, and S John Findlay, K C.

Papers —1 “The Botany of the Kaikoura Mountains.” by Mr B C Aston, FCS, FIC

2 “Fault Coasts,” by Dr. C A Cotton, FGS

Third Meeting 23rd June, 1915

Mr T King, FRAS, President, in the chan, and about forty-five members and friends present

Address —“A Review of Maori Ait,” by Dr A K Newman, M P

Paper —“The Maon as a Voyager.” by Mr. Elsdon Best

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Fourth Meeting: 28th July, 1915.

Mr T. King, F.R.A.S., President, in the chair, and about a hundred members and friends present.

Address.—“A Few Minutes with Microbes,” by Dr. J. M. Mason, F.C.S., D.P.H.

Kinematography Exhibition—Mr J. McDonald exhibited a number of films of scientific interest.

Fifth Meeting. 25th August, 1915.

Mr. T. King, F R A.S., President, in the chair, and about twenty-five members and friends present

New Member.—Mr. J. W. Burbidge, M.Sc.

Lecture. —“Indonesia to Hawaiki and the Land of Hiwa,” by Mr F W Christian, corresponding member of the Polynesian Society of New Zealand.

Sixth Meeting: 22nd September, 1915.

Mr. T. King, F.R A.S., President, in the chair, and about twenty-five members and friends present.

Addresses.—“The Manufacture of Searchlight Carbons,” and “The Preparation of Morphia from Confiscated Opium,” by Professor T. H. Easterfield, M.A., Ph.D

Papers— 1 “East Coast Earthquakes, September to November, 1914,” by Mr. G. Hogben, C M.G., F.G.S.

2 “Catalogue of Changes proposed in the New Zealand Flora (Vascular Plants only) since the Appearance of Cheeseman's Manual in 1906,” by Dr. L. Cockayne, F R.S.

3. “Notes on the Plant Ecology of the Awatere River Basin, together with a List of the Vascular Plants,” by Dr. L. Cockayne, F R.S.

4. “Notes on the Occurrence of the Genus Trachrpterus in New Zealand,” by Mr H Hamilton.

5. “Records of Unconformities from Late Cretaceous to Early Miocene in New Zealand,” by Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A.

6. “The Continental Shelf,” by Dr C A Cotton, F G.S

7. “Notes on some of the Coast Features of New Zealand,” by Dr. C. A Cotton, F.G.S.

8. “Notes on Puccinea otagoensis found on Clematis,” by Miss H. Jenkins, M.A

9 “Early Stages in the Development of Dolichoqlossus otagoensis,” by Professor H. B. Kirk, M.A.

10 “On the Gonoducts of the Porcupine-fish (Dicotylichthys jaculiferus Cuvier),” by Professor H B. Kirk, M A

11 On Stage Names applicable to the Divisions of the Tertiary in New Zealand,” by Dr J Allan Thomson, F G.S

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Annual General Meeting. 27th October, 1915

Mr T. King, F.R.A S, President, in the chair, and twenty-eight members and friends present.

Annual Reports.—The annual report and balance-sheet, the report of the Hamilton Memorial Committee, the report of the Library Committee, and the annual reports of the Astronomical, Technological, and Geological Sections were read and adopted

Abstract of the Annual Report

During the year there have been eight general meetings of the society, seven meetings of the Astronomical, eight of the Geological, and seven of the Technological Section.

At the general meetings seven lectures or addresses have been delivered, and twenty-five papers presented, which may be classified as follows Ethnology, 5, botany, 10, geology. 9, ichthyology, 1, zoology, 4, chemistry, 2, and 1 of a more general character The average attendance at the general meetings was oven fifty.

The Sections—The Astronomical, Geological, and Technological Sections have been very active, and a number of important papers have been read before them.

Membership.—Two members of the society have died during the year, fifteen have resigned their membership, four have been struck off the roll Twelve new members have been elected The roll at present contains 169 names, including those of ten life members and of seven on active service Members on active service retain the full privileges of membership (including the right to the annual volume) without payment of any subscription during the time they are on active service.

Hamilton Memorial —The fund collected to provide a memorial to the late Mr. Augustus Hamilton, amounting now to £122 2s 10d, is deposited in the Post Office Savings-bank. Arrangements are now in progress for the erection of a suitable monolith over the grave at Russell, in the Bay of Islands.

Finance.—The receipts during the year amounted to £189 2s 9d, and the total payments to £172 18s. 2d., including £60 17s. 4d spent on the library The Life Subscription Fund, with accrued interest, amounts to £80 7s Id, and the Research Fund to £47 12s. 2d These two funds are invested with the Public Trustee A sum of £122 2s 10d has been deposited in the Post Office Savings-bank, leaving a balance of £43 8s 8d. in the current account at the Bank of New Zealand.

The report of the Astronomical Section shows that the Proctor Library Fund in connection with the proposed Solar Physics Observatory now amounts to £80 11s 10d.

Astronomical Section.—The meetings have been well attended, the average number of members present at each meeting being twenty-five The total number of members of the Philosophical Society who are registered as members of the Astronomical Section is sixty The observatory at Kelburn has been open to the general public on fine Tuesday evenings from 7.30 to 9 30 p m During the absence of Dr C E Adams, Mr C J Westland, Acting Government Astronomer, has acted as Director and Curator of Instruments Some very fine photographs of star clusters, nebulae, &c, have been presented to the section by Mr A C Gifford. and these are now hung on the walls of the ante-room Arrangements have been made with the Dunedin Astronomical Society to exchange papers of interest, and two such papers have been read during the year The credit balance of the section, as shown by the balance-sheet, stands at £32 5s 7d

Geological Section —On two occasions since the last annual meeting the section has been favoured with addresses by visiting geologists of note—Professors W M Davis and J P Iddings A considerable number of papers have been read members, and many interesting exhibits have been made.

Technological Section —The active membership of the section is about fifty and an average attendance of about twenty-five has been the rule During the year nine papers were read, all of high character and interesting nature. The question of a technical library in Wellington is under consideration, and there are good prospects that a definite result will ensue next year, as a practicable scheme has been formulated.

Revision of Rules.—Dr J. A Thomson presented the report of the Revision of Rules Committee, and gave notice that he would move the adoption of the rules suggested by the Committee.

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Election of Officers for 1916.—President—Mr. Thomas King; Vice-Presidents—Dr. C. M. Hector and Dr. J. A. Thomson; Council—Mr. C. G. G. Berry (Chairman, Astronomical Section), Mr. G. Hogben (Chairman, Geological Section), Mr. E. Parry (Chairman, Technological Section), Dr. L. Cockayne, Professor H. B. Kirk, Professor T. H. Easterfield, Mr. B. C. Aston, Mr. P. G. Morgan, Dr. C. A. Cotton, Mr. S. H. Jenkinson; Secretary and Treasurer— Mr. A. C. Gifford; Auditor—Mr. E. R. Dymock.

Address.—“Block Mountains in New Zealand,” by Dr. C. A. Cotton, F.G.S.

Papers.— 1.“Records of Unconformities from Late Cretaceous to Early Miocene in New Zealand,” by Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A.

2. “Maori and Maruiwi,” by Mr. Elsdon Best.

3. “On the Much-abbreviated Development of a Sand-star (Ophionereis schayeri?),” by Professor H. B Kirk, M.A.

4 “The ‘Red Rocks’ and Associated Beds of Wellington Peninsula,” by Mr. F. K. Broadgate, M.Sc.

5. “Some Hitherto-unrecorded Plant-habitats (No. 10),” by Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S.

6 “Notes on New Zealand Floristic Botany, including Descriptions of New Species (No. 1),” by Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S.

7 “Preliminary List of Mollusca from Dredgings taken off the Northern Coasts of New Zealand,” by Miss Marjorie K. Mestayer; communicated by Dr. J. Allan Thomson, F.G.S.

8 “Additions to the Knowledge of the Recent and Tertiary Brachiopoda of New Zealand and Australia,” by Dr. J. Allan Thomson, F.G.S.

9. “On the Geology of the Neighbourhood of Kakanui, Otago,” by Mr G. Uttley, M.Sc.; communicated by Dr. J. Allan Thomson, F.G.S.

10. “On the Flint-beds associated with the Amuri Limestone of Marlborough,” by Dr. J. Allan Thomson, F.G.S.

11. “Note on Matai Beer,” by Professor Easterfield and Mr. J. C. McDowell, B.Sc.

12 “Studies in the Chemistry of the New Zealand Flora: Part V—The Chemistry of Podocarpus totara and Podocarpus spicatus,” by Professor Easterfield and Mr. J. C. McDowell, B.Sc.

13 “Block Mountains and a ‘Fossil’ Denudation Plain in Northern Nelson,” by Dr. C. A Cotton, F.G S.

14 “List of Foraminifera dredged from 15′ South of the Big King at 98 Fathoms Depth,” by R L Mestayer.

Special General Meeting 8th December, 1915.

Mr T King, F R.A.S., President, in the chair, and about fifty-five members and friends present.

Lecture —“The Physiology of Scenery,” by Dr. L Cockayne, F.R.S.

Papers —(1) “A Comparison of the Montane Floras of the North Island,” (2) “Plant-habitats Hitherto Unrecorded,” and (3) “Wellington Island Florulas,” by Mr. B C Aston, F.C.S., F.I.C.

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Astronomical Section.

Seven meetings were held and the following papers were read (4th November, 1914) “Magnetism of the Sun,” by Rev. I. von Gottfried, “Ball's Theory of the Great Ice Age,” by Mr. R Grlkison (by arrangement with the Dunedin Astronomical Society) (5th May, 1915) “Note ‘on Kappa Crucis,” by Mr A C Gifford, M A, F R A S; “Recent Astronomy,” by Rev P Fairclough (by arrangement with the Dunedin Astronomical Society). (2nd June, 1915) “Solar Radiations,” by Rev I. von Gottfried, “Spectra of Helium and Hydrogen,” by Professor E Marsden D Sc (7th July, 1915) “The Seasonal Variations in the Duration of Twilight,” by Professor D M Y Sommerville, M A, D Sc, F.R.S.E. (4th August, 1915) “Southern Variable Stats,” by Mr C. J Westland, F.R A.S. (1st September, 1915) “Some Engineering Problems of Mars,” by Mr W S La Trobe, M A (6th October, 1915) “Some Points in the Theory of Optical Instruments,” by Professor E Marsden, D Sc.

At the annual general meeting (6th October, 1915) the following officers for 1916 were elected: Chairman—Mr. C G G Berry; Hon. Member of Section—Miss Mary Proctor, F R A S, Vice-Chairmen— Mr. C. P. Powles, Professor E Marsden, D Sc, and Mr C J Westland, F.R A.S.; Committee—Mr G Hogben, C M G, M A, F G S, Mr E Parry, B.Sc., M I E E, A M Inst C E, Professor D M Y Sommerville, M A, D Sc, F R S E, Dr. C M Hector, B.Sc, Mr. A C Gifford, M A, F R A S, Mr. W S La Trobe, M A, Captain G Hooper, Director and Curator of Instruments—Mr C. J Westland, F R A S, Hon Treasurer—Mr C P Powles, Hon Secretary—Mr. E G Jones, B A

Geological Section

At a special meeting on the 31st March, 1915, Professor J P Iddings delivered an address entitled “The Mechanics of Igneous Intrusion” Seven ordinary meetings were held during the year, and the following papers were read (21st April) “The ‘Red Rocks’ and Associated Beds in the Wellington Peninsula,” by Mr F K Broadgate (19th May) ‘Types of Folding in the Terebratulacea,” by Dr J A Thomson, ‘The Amuri Limestone and Flint Series of Marlborough,” by Dr J A. Thomson. (16th June) “Fault Coasts—Examples from Marlborough and Wellington,” by Dr C A′ Cotton (21st July) “The Weka Pass District,” by Mr P G Morgan, “Evolutionary Stocks in New Zealand Tertiary Brachiopoda,” by Dr. J. A Thomson (18th August) “The Structure of the Paparoa Range,” by Dr. J. Henderson. (15th September) “East Coast Earthquakes, September to November, 1914.” by Mr G Hogben (20th October)” High-water Rock-platforms. A Phase ot Shore-line Erosion,” by Mr J A Bartrum, “Stage Names applicable to Divisions of the Tertiary in New Zealand,” by Dr. J A Thomson, “The Continental Shelf,” by Dr C A Cotton, “An Artesian Trial Bore at the Westshore, Napier,” by Mr. R W Holmes.

At the annual general meeting (18th August) the following officers were elected for 1916. Chairman—Mr G. Hogben, Vice-Chairman— Dr C A Cotton, Hon Secretary—Dr J A Thomson, Committee—Mr. W. Gibson, Dr J. Henderson, Mr R W. Holmes, Mr. P. G. Morgan, Mr. M. Ongley. It was resolved that the Government should be approached with a view to continuing the seismological observations at the Samoa Seismological Station.

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Technological Section.

The following papers were read during the year: (12th May) Technical Education,” by Mr. W. S. La Trobe, M.A.: (9th June) “Fluid Friction in Pipes,” by Mr. E. Parry, B.Sc.: (14th July) “The Electron Theory of the Conduction of Electricity,” by Professor Marsden: (11th August) “The Collection of Hydrographic Data for Engineering Problems, with Special Reference to the Upper Taieri Basin,” by Mr F W. Furkert, A.M.Inst.C.E.: (8th September) “Some Tests of Heat and Electrical Insulators,” by Mr G. B. Dall; “The Regulation of Water Turbines,” by Mr. A. D. Cook, M.Sc.: (13th October) “The Manufacture of Iron and Steel in New Zealand,” by Mr. S. H. Jenkinson (10th November) “An Extension of the Theory of Fluid Friction,” by Mr. E Parry, B.Sc.; “The Distribution of Titanium, Phosphorus, and Vanadium in Taranaki Ironsand,” by Mr. W. Donovan, M.Sc.

The Committee for 1916 was elected as follows: Chairman—Mr. E. Parry, B Sc; Vice-Chairmen—Mr. J. Marchbanks, M.Inst.C.E., Mr. F W Furkert, A M.Inst.C.E., Committee—Mr. A. Atkins, F.R.I.B.A., Mr. W Ferguson, M.Inst C.E, Mr R. W. Holmes, M.Inst.C.E, Professor Marsden, Mr. W. Morton, M.Inst.C.E., Mr. H. Sladden (of Surveyors' Board); Hon. Secretary—Mr S H. Jenkinson.

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Auckland Institute.

First Meeting: 7th June, 1915.

Professor H. W Segar, Vice-President, in the chair.

New Members.—Messrs H Atkinson, T. Crook, T. S. Culling, J. P. Grossmann, J. O. Horning, G Knight, J L McColl, G S. Poole, P Upton, F. Whittome.

Lecture.—“Europe, 1815 and 1915 a Survey and a Contrast,” by Professor J. P. Grossmann, M.A.

Second Meeting. 5th July, 1915

Hon E. Mitchelson, President, in the chair Lecture.—“Constantinople,” by E. D Mackellar, M.D

Third Meeting. 2nd August, 1915

Hon. E. Mitchelson, President, in the chair.

New Members—Messrs R. Jacobson, M A, G W Murray; J. A Warnock.

Lecture.—“Crystals,” by Professor F P Worley, M Sc

Fourth Meeting 30th August, 1915

Hon E Mitchelson, President, in the chair.

Lecture.—“The Elizabethan Debt to Rome,” by Professor H S Dettmann, M A.

Fifth Meeting. 27th September, 1915

Hon E Mitchelson, President, in the chair

Lecture.—“Modern Views of Matter,” by Professor G Owen, D Sc

Sixth Meeting 25th October, 1915

Hon E Mitchelson, President, in the chair.

New Member.—Mr A F Ellis

Lecture.—“The Newer Physiology,” by Dr. Kenneth Mackenzie. F.R C.S.

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Seventh Meeting: 8th November, 1915.

Hon. E. Mitchelson, President, in the chair.

Lecture —“Maori Voyagers and their Vessels,” by Mr. Elsdon Best. In the absence of the author the lecture was read by Mr. G. A. Hansard.

Eighth Meeting: 8th December, 1915.

Hon E Mitchelson, President, in the chair.

New Members.—Messrs E. C Blomfield. C A. Whitney.

Papers.—1 “Further Additions to the Flora of the Mongonui County,” by Mr. H. Carse.

2. “New Species of Plants,” by Mr. T F. Cheeseman

3 “Descriptions of New Native Phanerogams,” by Mr. D. Petrie.

4 “New Genera and Species of Coleoptera,” by Major T. Broun.

Annual Meeting. 28th February, 1916.

Hon E. Mitchelson, President, in the chair.

Annual Report.—The annual report and audited financial statement was read to the meeting, and ordered to be printed and distributed among the members.


Members.—The number of new members added to the roll during the year has been fourteen Against this, thirty-five names have been withdrawn—six from death, twenty-two from resignation or removal from the district, and seven from non-payment of subscription for more than two consecutive years The net loss has thus been twenty-one, reducing the number on the roll from 356 to 335.

Among the members removed by death it is the painful duty of the Council to mention the names of Mr A E T Devore, for many years a consistent supporter of the society; of Mr W C C. Spencer, of Mr. A. Wiseman, and of Mr W. Coleman One member, Mr S. B Bowyer, has been killed in action in the Dardanelles while serving his King and country; and another, Dr T. C. Savage, died from sickness in Egypt while engaged in a similar capacity in the medical service of the Army At the present time no less than seventeen members of the Institute are serving in the Expeditionary Forces equipped and maintained by the Dominion.

Finance —Balance-sheets showing the financial position of the Institute are appended to this report, but it may be convenient to present a brief synopsis here. The total revenue credited to the Working Account, excluding the balance in hand at the beginning of the year, and also omitting for the present the particulars of a temporary advance made from the Investment Account to cover the cost of fitting up the new Foreign Ethnographical Hall, has been £1,483 17s 5d. The amount for the previous year was £1,530 17s 7d, so that there is a deficiency of £47 0s 2d Examining the separate items, it will be found that the members' subscriptions have reached £308 14s, against £322 7s obtained last year. The slight decrease in the membership already alluded to is sufficient explanation for this The receipts from the Museum endowment have been £550 16s. 10d, last year's amount being £537 14s. 5d. The invested funds of the Costley Bequest have realized £441 15s, against £480 15s. credited last year The difference is partly due to a temporary delay in the payment of two items of interest, and partly to the fact that one of the securities has been discharged, thus causing a loss of interest for a brief period The total expenditure has been £1,420 7s, but this does not

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include payments to the amount of £561 5s 4d on account of the expense of fitting up the new Foreign Ethnographical Hall, which have been met by means of an advance from the Investment Account The cash balance in hand at the present time amounts to £282.

The position of the invested funds of the society must be regarded as satisfactory. Such funds consist of those comprised under the headings Costley Bequest, Museum Endowment Account, Mackechnie Bequest, Campbell Bequest, and one or two minor divisions, and include all capital the annual income from which can alone be used for the purposes of the society The total of these funds has been materially increased during the year by the sale of some endowments, and now amounts to £21,457 18s 5d, almost the whole of which is invested in specially selected mortgages or Government debentures.

Meetings.—Eight meetings have been held during the year, at which eleven papers were read and discussed.

Museum.—The attendance of visitors has been satisfactory, showing a slight increase over the figures for last year.

Since the establishment of a Municipal Ait Gallery, and the association with it of the Mackelvie Gallery, it had become evident that the growth and management of art collections in Auckland would be most satisfactorily conducted by the City Council. Similarly, the great expansion in recent years of the Maori collections in the Museum clearly indicated the desirability of concentrating within the Museum all the ethnographical collections of the city It was therefore decided to advocate a proposal to place the Russell collection of statues in the Art Gallery, and the Grey Maori collection in the Museum. The matter was sympathetically received by the City Council, and it was decided that the Russell collection should be handed over to the city on deposit, and the Grey collection to the Museum, each body retaining the actual ownership of its articles, and preserving the right of withdrawal if circumstances should ever make such a course necessary At a later date the Council decided to grant a request by the City Council to deposit for exhibition in the Old Colonists' Museum a series of 127 pictures, drawings, photographs, historical documents, sets of old newspapers, &c, bearing on the early history of Auckland.

As soon as the removal of the statues placed the hall at the disposal of the Council it was decided to utilize it for the reception, in the first place, of the Grey Maori collection, which under the agreement with the City Council must be kept separate from the Maori collections belonging to the Museum, and, secondly, for the display of the fine series of foreign ethnographical articles in the possession of the Museum, a large proportion of which has never been exhibited Much care has been taken in designing the show-cases and other fittings required, and only the best material and the best workmanship has been admitted The total cost has been about £600, which amount has been temporarily borrowed from the invested funds of the society, with the understanding that it shall be returned in instalments as rapidly as possible, regular interest being payable on the sum outstanding.

Many additions of importance have been made to the Museum during the year In the zoological department a special group has been prepared illustrating the habits and mode of life of the North Island kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) It includes several excellent specimens of the adults of both sexes and of the young, together with the nest and eggs It represents a little glade in the Wartakerei Forest at the base of a large rata-tree, around which the kiwis are arranged Another conspicuous addition is a specimen of the round-snouted swordfish (Histiophiuherschelli), caught by Mr. Campbell off Cape Brett, and kindly presented by him to the Museum A painted plaster cast has been prepared of the well-known frost-fish (Lepidopus caudatus) based upon a remarkably fine specimen forwarded from Mercury Bay by Mr W Bonella Reference should also be made to a series of nineteen skins of Chatham Island birds, purchased from Mr. S Dannefaerd.

The most important accession to the Maori collections is the huge carved gateway, over 21 ft in height, of the ancient pa at Te Koutou, Lake Okataina, which has been purchased from the Maori owners So far as can be ascertained, it was carved prior to 1820, and thus may possibly be well over a hundred years of age It is known to have been standing at the time of Hongi's raid on the Rotorua district in 1824. It was observed when the first missionaries reached Rotorua a few years later, and a rough sketch of it is given in Terry's “New Zealand,” published in 1843 Other interesting additions are the stern-piece of an ancient war-canoe, dug up near the bottom of a deep drainage-canal on the Hauraki Plains and presented by Mr. G A Hodge, a bone manara, the figurehead of a small river-canoe, and various other articles donated by Mr G Graham, a carved

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burial-chest of unique type, an elaborately carved stern-post of a war-canoe, several ancient albatross-hooks, and other specimens purchased from various individuals.

In foreign ethnography, Dr Bucknill, of Tauranga, has presented a valuable and comprehensive series of seventy-nine selected specimens illustrating the development of English glassware from the time of the Roman occupancy to the eighteenth century Another donation of special value has been received from Mr. Henry Shaw, well known in Auckland by his previous benefactions both to the Institute and the Free Library It consists of a collection of 131 Japanese ivories, bronzes, and cloisonné work, and contains many examples of indisputable age and of much ethnographic and artistic excellence.

Among numerous other additions the following deserve special mention Mr. A F Ellis has contributed several specimens from Ocean Island, of the Gilbert and Ellice Protectorate, Mr. J L. Young has presented two stone carvings of considerable size from eastern Polynesia, Miss Morrisby has donated an excellent little series of thirty-three specimens from South Africa; Mrs. Reid, of Motutapu Island, has presented a Polynesian collection of over 250 specimens, as well as a large series of shells, and, finally, Mr. Cameron, the Resident at Aitutaki, has for warded two chiefs' carved seats, said to be the last remaining of that type on any of the islands in the Cook Group.

Library.—An expenditure of £141 3s 8d has been incurred on the library during the year. A consignment of ninety volumes was received in July. An order of rather larger size was dispatched during November last, but no advice has yet been received of its shipment. Various books and memoirs have been received in exchange, and several donations have been made by private individuals. Among the latter the Council have pleasure in mentioning Shelley's slendid monograph of the sun-birds, with 121 coloured plates, presented by Mr. H Shaw.

Election of Officers for 1916.—President—Hon. E Mitchelson; Vice-Presidents—C J. Parr, C.M.G, M.P, Professor H W. Segar; Council—Professor C. W Egerton, Mr. J Kenderdine, Mr. E V. Miller, Professor G Owen, Mr. T. Peacock, Mr D. Petrie, Mr J. A. Pond, Professor A. P W Thomas, Mr. J. H Upton, Professor F. P. Worley, Mr. H. E. Vaile, Trustees—Messrs T Peacock. J Reid, J H Upton; Auditor—Mr. S. Gray.

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Philosophical Institute of Canterbury.

First Meeting. 5th May, 1915.

Present: Dr. Chilton, in the chair, and seventy-five others.

Ex-Presidential Address —“Nitrates and the War,” by Dr W P Evans.

Second Meeting 2nd June, 1915.

Present: Mr. A D. Dobson, President, in the chair, and sixty others.

New Members —Mis Humphreys, Messrs G E. Blanch, H T Ferrar, W. O. R Gilling, W. Martin, P. S Nelson, H. Rands, H V Rowe, and George Scott, Drs H T Thacker, J P Whetter, and J. C Pairman.

Address.—“Flight,” by Professor R J Scott.

Third Meeting 7th July, 1915.

Present. Mr A. D Dobson, President, in the chair, and forty-five others.

New Members —Messrs. W Murray, C MacIndoe, E E. Stark, J Stevenson, R. E Alexander, H A. Knight, A. V Mountford, John W Garton, H D Broadhead, and Rev. A T Thompson.

Papers.—1 “On an Exhibit of Acorns and Leaves of Oaks grown by the Author at Greendale, Canterbury, New Zealand,” by Mr T W Adams.

2 “The Norfolk Island Species of Pteris,” by Mr. R M. Lang.

3 “Investigations into the Resistance of Earth Connections,” by Messrs. L Birks and Eric Webb.

Fourth Meeting 4th August, 1915

Present Mr. A. D. Dobson, President, in the chair, and forty others.

New Members.—Messrs. H. C. Brent and C E St John Microscopical Evening, under the direction of Mr. C B. Morris.

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Fifth Meeting: 1st September, 1915.

Present Mr A. D. Dobson, President, in the chair, and forty others.

Papers.—1. “A Note on the Estimation of the Increase of Iron Loss with Load in a Direct-current Machine,” by Mr. P. H. Powell.

2. “On the Inheritance of Wool,” by Mr. H. T. Ferrar.

3. “On the Rate of Growth of certain English Trees,” by Mr. E. F. Stead.

4 “The Orientation of the River-valleys of Canterbury,” by Mr. R. Speight.

5. “On the Inscribed Parabola,” by Mr. E. G. Hogg.

Sixth Meeting: 6th October, 1915.

Present. Mr A D. Dobson, President, in the chair, and sixty others.

Address —“Biology and Economics of Bread,” by Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf.

Seventh Meeting: 3rd November, 1915.

Present: Mr. A. D. Dobson, President, in the chair, and thirty others.

New Member.—Miss Ferrar.

Papers.—1 “Notes on some occidae in the Canterbury Museum,” by Mr G. Brittin.

2. “New Coccidae,” by Mr. G. Brittin

3 “Studies in the New Zealand Species of the Genus Lycopodium, Part I,” by Rev. J. E. Holloway.

4 “Observations on the Lianes of the Ancient Forest of the Canterbury Plains,” by Mr. J. W. Bird.

5 “Notes on the Marine Crayfish of New Zealand,” by Mr. G. E. Archey.

6 “A New Species of Orchestia,” by Dr. Charles Chilton.

7 “Some Australian and New Zealand Gammaridae,” by Dr. Charles Chilton.

8 “Physiography and Geological History of Banks Peninsula,” by Mr R Speight.

Annual Meeting 1st December, 1915.

Present: Mr. A. D Dobson. President, in the chair, and forty others.

Annual Report.—The annual report and balance-sheet were adopted.


The number of Council meetings held during the year was eleven. The Council nominated Dr Charles Chilton to be representative of this Institute on the Board of Trustees of the Riccarton Bush. On the suggestion of the Council of the Institute, the Mayor accorded a civic welcome to the scientific members of the Magnetic Survey vessel “Carnegie”

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Eight meetings of the Institute have been held during the year, at which the following addresses were delivered: “Nitrates and the War” (ex-presidential address), by Dr. W. P. Evans; “Flight,” by Professor R. J. Scott; “Biology and Economics of Bread,” by Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf; also a “Microscopical Evening” was held under the direction of Mr. C. B Morris. In addition to these, twenty-one papers have been read, which may be classified as follow: Botany, 7; geology, 4; mathematics, 1; zoology, 6; engineering, 2; chemistry, 1.

During the year twenty-six new members have been elected, and eleven have either resigned or have been struck off the roll, so that the number now stands at 179.

The Council desires to place on record that the following members of the Institute are now on active service in various parts of the Empire: Hon R Heaton Rhodes, Drs Acland, Irving, and Whetter, Messrs L S Jennings, H Lang, F. S Wilding, A. Taylor, and Major A. A. Dorrien Smith, D.S O.

Arthur's Pass Tunnel Investigation: The usual temperature observations have been continued, and specimens of rock were received for examination, thus keeping the series complete.

The Council at several of its meetings during the year had under consideration the question of the publication of an account of the natural history of Canterbury, but after due consideration, while approving of the scheme, the Council decided that, in view of the present war-conditions, further consideration of the matter should be postponed until 1916. The Council desires to express its appreciation to Mr T. D. Burnett, who has offered to donate the sum of £10 towards a certain portion of this investigation.

The Institute's representative on the Board of Trustees of the Riccarton Bush reports that the control of the bush has been taken over by the trustees and a Ranger appointed The bush has been securely fenced, elderberry and other introduced plants are being carefully removed, and a few narrow paths have been made. It is hoped, as soon as sufficient funds are available, to erect a cottage for the Ranger, and to allow the bush to be visited by members of the public under the conditions necessary for its due preservation.

The library has been maintained in an efficient condition during the past year, and has been considerably increased by various gifts and purchases.

The balance-sheet shows that during the vear the receipts were £227 2s 11d This includes a balance of £22 11s 5d. carried forward from last year, and a sum of £52 transferred to the ordinary account from deposit with the Permanent Investment and Loan Association The expenditure amounted to £112 13s 3d, of which £73 12s. was spent on the library The balance to the credit of the Institute in the Bank of New Zealand stands at £114 9s 8d The Council has decided to accord all members who are on active service the privilege of membership without payment of subscriptions.

Election of Officers for 1916 —President—Mr. L Birks, Vice-Presidents—Messrs. A. D. Dobson and R. Speight; Secretary—Mr. A, M. Wright; Treasurer—Dr. Charles Chilton; Librarian—Mr E G Hogg, Council—Drs F J. Borrie, C Coleridge Farr, and F. W. Hilgendorf, and Messrs R M Laing, G. E Archey, and L P. Symes, Representatives on the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute—Dr Hilgendorf and Mr A M Wright, Auditor—Mr G E Way.

Papers.—1 “Studies on the Lime Requirements of certain Soils,” by Mr. L. J. Wild.

2 “The Succession of Tertiary Beds in the Pareora District,” by Mr M C Gudex

3 “Notes from the Canterbury College Mountain Biological Station”: “No. 2, The Physiography of the Cass District, by Mr R Speight, “No 3, Some Economic Considerations concerning Montane Tussock Grassland,” by Mr A. H. Cockayne; “No 4, The Principal Plant Associations in the Immediate Neighbourhood of the Station,” by Dr L Cockayne and Mr. C E. Foweraker.

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Otago Institute.

First Meeting: 4th May, 1915.

Present. Mr. R. Gilkison, President, in the chair, and about a hundred members and friends.

Address.—“Recent Climbs in the Southern Alps,” by Mr. H. F. Wright.

Second Meeting: 1st June, 1915.

Present: Mr. R. Gilkison, President, in the chair, and about forty members and friends.

New Members.—Professor W P. Gowland, M.D., and Mr. O. J. W. Napier, M.A.

Presidential Address.—“The Rise and Fall of Nations,” by Mr. R. Gilkison.

Third Meeting: 6th July, 1915.

Present: Mr R. Gilkison, President, in the chair, and about thirty members and friends.

New Members.—Messrs. J. C. Begg, W. T. Monkman, and S. P. Seymour, B.A.

Address.—“Modern Problems of Chemistry,” by Dr. J. K. H. Inglis, F I C.

Fourth Meeting. 3rd August, 1915

Present Mr R Gilkison, President, in the chair, and about twenty members.

Address.—“Friedrich Nietzsche,” by Professor F. W. Dunlop, M.A., Ph D.

Fifth Meeting. 7th September, 1915.

Present. Mr. R. Gilkison, President, in the chair, and about twenty members.

Papers —1 “Notes on the Plant-covering of Breaksea Islands,” by Mr D L. Poppelwell.

2 “Notes on the Plant-covering of Pukeokaoka, Stewart Island,” by Mr. D. L Poppelwell.

3 “Descriptions of New Species of Lepidoptera,” by Mr. A. Philpott; communicated by Dr. W. B. Benham, F R.S.

4 “Notes on New Zealand Polychaeta, Part II,” by Dr. W. B. Benham, F R S.

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Sixth Meeting. 5th October, 1915

Present: Mr. R. Gilkison, President, in the chair, and about forty members and friends.

Hector Medal.—Mr. G. M. Thomson, a past President of the New Zealand Institute, presented to Dr. P. Marshall, F.G.S., the Hector Memorial Medal awarded to him by the New Zealand Institute for his researches in New Zealand geology.

Address.—“Work at the Marine Fish-hatchery,” by Mr. G. M. Thomson, F L.S.

Seventh Meeting. 7th December, 1915

Present: Dr W. B. Benham, F.R S., Vice-President, in the chair, and about fifteen members.

New Members.—Messrs. J. M Lowry, J McNair. and J E Wingfield, and Dr. J. T. Bowie.

Papers.—1. “Notes on the New Zealand Cuckoo,” by Mr. W W. Smith; communicated by Mr. G M. Thomson.

2. “A List of the Lepidoptera of Otago,” by Mr. A Philpott; communicated by Dr W. B. Benham, F R.S.

3. “The Younger Limestones of New Zealand,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc., F G.S.

4. “Some New Fossil Gastropods,” by Professor P Marshall, D Sc, F G.S.

5. “Relations between Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc., F G.S.

6. “Notes on a Botanical Visit to Bold Peak, Humboldt Mountains,” by Mr. D. L. Poppelwell.

7. “The Occurrence of a Striated Erratic Block of Andesite in the Rangitikei Valley,” by Professor J. Park, F.G.S.

Annual Report.—The annual report and the balance-sheet for 1915 were read and adopted.


During the year the Council has met six times for the transaction of the business of the Institute.

Early in the year the Council decided to vote from its accrued funds the sum of £100 to the Portobello Marine Fish-hatchery Board, for the purpose of enabling it to prosecute researches on the fauna of our New Zealand seas, provided that the Government would supplement this grant with a pound-for-pound subsidy The Minister, on being approached, was in sympathy with the proposal, and the desired grant was finally placed on the supplementary estimates. The Council has since paid over its promised donation to the Hatchery Board.

Meetings.—During the year seven ordinary meetings of the Institute have been held, at which there have been read or received eleven papers, embodying the results of original research.

The following addresses have also been delivered during the past session “The Rise and Fall of Nations” (presidential address), by Mr R Gilkison, “Recent Climbs in the Southern Alps,” by Mr. H F. Wright; “Modern Problems of Chemistry,” by Professor J. K. H. Inglis; “Friedrich Nietzsche,” by Professor F. W. Dunlop; and “Work at the Marine Fish-hatchery,” by Mr. G. M. Thomson.

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At the October meeting opportunity was taken to present Professor P. Marshall with the Hector Medal (1915) of the New Zealand Institute, the presentation being made by Mr. G. M Thomson, as a Governor and past President of that Institute. The society, as a body, has been honoured by this recognition of the value of the scientific research so ably carried out in recent years by one of its most active members, and takes this opportunity of placing on record its congratulations to Protessor Marshall on his well-merited distinction.

The attendances at the meetings, though somewhat better than they were last year, are still poorer than they should be, considering the society's membership roll It is to be hoped that the many distractions connected both directly and indirectly with the war will have ceased by next winter's session, so that the meetings may be attended in the way that they deserve to be.

Technological Branch.—The year 1915 is the fifth year of the existence of the Technological Branch. An innovation adopted by the Committee has been to restrict the meetings to the winter months. There will be no meeting in November as formerly; while yet another evening is saved by combining the business of the annual meeting with the final lecture for the year. It has not been thought advisable to attempt to continue the annual dinner for the present. The short-paper evening in September was allowed to lapse. The Committee has had under consideration the question of obtaining better attendances at our meetings by securing a room more central and accessible than the University. The Technical School has been suggested.

Astronomical Branch.—During the year six meetings of the branch have been held, at which seven papers have been read. Although the attendance of the meetings has suffered somewhat as a result of the war, on the whole they have been entirely satisfactory.

The observatory at Tanna Hill has been open every fine Friday night for two hours, a member of the Committee being in charge. The Committee hopes that the time is not far distant when the society will be in a position to secure an up-to-date refracting telescope, with the necessary accessories, so that interested members may be able to do some useful work. On account of the removal of Tanna Hill, the Committee has been faced with the problem of securing a fresh site for the observatory, and has decided to approach the City Council on the matter. The Committee recommends a site at the end of Clyde Street, on the rise above the Leith, near the University, and hopes to be able to obtain permission for the re-erection of the observatory on the site chosen by the Committee. The society is grateful to Mr. Skey for the use of his telescope, and to the Otago University Council for the use of the Beverley telescope.

Librarian's Report.—During the year eight new works have been purchased, and five have been presented to the Institute, a smaller number than during last year The majority of these works are of a scientific character.

As a result apparently of the troublous times, the journal Bedrock has ceased publication.

During the year some forty volumes have been bound; some of these were periodicals, others reports of Government Departments, and yet others were monographs which were in paper covers.

Mr. G M. Thomson has been good enough to arrange with the Linnean Society that the Journal and Transactions of that society, due to him as a Fellow, shall in future be sent to the Institute library. To Mr. Thomson for this and other donations to the library the society's best thanks are due.

Quite recently the Council has presented to the University the eight volumes of Murray's New English Dictionary that have hitherto been in our own library. In a measure, this donation may be regarded as a recognition of the many kindnesses shown to the Institute by the University authorities in recent years.

Membership.—During the year six new members have been elected. On the other hand, nineteen members have resigned their membership, and four members (Dr. F C. Batchelor, and Messrs. T. W. Kempthorne, R. Price, and John Sidey) have been removed by death The membership roll, therefore, has suffered a net decrease of seventeen, and now stands at 184.

In connection with the war, it is perhaps worthy of record that twelve members of the Institute have enrolled themselves in the Dominion or Imperial Forces. Drs Batchelor, Barnett, and O'Neill were given commissions in the New Zealand Medical Corps; Dr Buddle is serving in the Royal Navy; the Rev. Dutton is Chaplain-Major on the hospital ship “Maheno”; Major R. Price, Major F. H. Statham, Lieutenant W D Stewart, and W. P. Macdougall left either in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force or in its reinforcements; Captain D. B. Waters is to sail with the Engineering Tunnelling Corps; Lieutenant T. R. Overton with the 4th Maori Contingent; and Lieutenant E. F Roberts is in the Ordnance Engineers

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at Home Of these, it is with regret that we have to record that Major Price was killed in action at the Dardanelles, and Major Statham has been posted as missing since August; whilst Dr. Batchelor died shortly after his return from Egypt on furlough.

Balance-sheet.—The balance-sheet, presented by the Treasurer (Mr. R. N. Vanes), showed a credit balance of £62 2s. The gross receipts totalled £732, including subscriptions amounting to £147, deposits at call amounting to £445 7s.

Election of Officers.—The election of officers for the year 1916 resulted as follows: President—Professor P. Marshall; Vice-Presidents—Mr. R. Gilkison and Professor J. K. H. Inglis; Hon. Secretary—Mr. E. J. Parr; Hon. Treasurer—Mr. R. N. Vanes; Hon Auditor—Mr. H Brasch; Hon. Librarian—Professor Benham; Council—Professors W. B. Benham, R. Jack, J. Park, Dr. R. V. Fulton, Messrs. W G. Howes, J. B. Mason, and G. M. Thomson.

Mr. G. M. Thomson and Professor P. Marshall were re-elected representatives of the Institute on the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute.

Technological Branch

Five meetings were held during 1915, and the following papers and addresses were read: (18th May) “The Future of Otago Harbour,” by Mr. J. B. Mason; (15th June) “The Forth Bridge,” by Mr J B Mason; (20th July) “The Economics of Agriculture,” by Mr. H Mandeno; (17th August) “The Silting of Warpori River,” by Mr. R. T Stewart; (19th October) “The Strength of Materials,” by Professor James Park.

At the meeting of the 10th October the annual report was read and adopted, and the following officers for 1916 were elected: Chairman—Mr. J. B. Mason; Vice-Chairmen—Professors J. Park and D. B Waters, and Mr B. B. Hooper; Hon. Secretary—Mr. H. Brasch, Committee—Messrs. G. W. Davies, H. Mandeno, W D R McCurdie, G. Simpson, and R. N. Vanes.

Astronomical Branch.

Six meetings were held during 1915, and the following papers and addresses were read. (25th May) “Cosmological Hypotheses,” by Mr. R. T A. Innes (communicated by Mr. J. W. Milnes): (22nd June) “Everyday Phenomena of Astronomy,” by Professor D J. Richards, M.A.; “The Value of a Little Knowledge of the Sun,” by Rev. A. M Dalrymple, M.A.: (27th July) “The Beginning of Worlds,” by Mr. R. Gilkison; (24th August) “An Explanation of some Meteorological Phenomena,” by Professor R Jack, D.Sc (21st September) “Some Astronomical Phenomena,” by Professor D. J. Richards, M.A (26th October) “Atmospheric Refraction,” by Mr. W. T. Neill.

At the meeting of the 26th October the annual report was read and adopted, and the following officers for 1916 were elected: Chairman—Mr. R Gilkison; Vice-Chairman—Professors J. Park, D J Richards, and R. Jack; Hon. Secretary—Mr. J. Bremner; Committee—Messrs H Brasch, J. W Milnes, W T Neill, W S Wilson, and Dr P D. Cameron.

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Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute.

Four meetings were held during 1915, and the following papers were read. “Between Two Rivers,” by F. Hutchinson, jun.; “The Puketitrri Hot Springs,” by F. Hutchinson, jun.; “National Character,” by W. Dinwiddie; “Chemistry of some Explosives and Noxious Gases used in Warfare,” by J. Niven.

At the annual meeting, 4th December, 1915, the annual report was read and adopted.


The membership at the end of the year numbers seventy-nine. The loss by death of three members is noted—Messrs. Taylor White, J. N. Williams, and E W. Andrews.

Appreciation of the action of Mr. Gordon in conveying to the Crown the Kidnappers gannet nesting-place as a public reserve is placed on record.

Additions have been made as usual to the library, among which are specially noted the two volumes of “Illustrations of the New Zealand Flora,” presented to the library by the Minister of Internal Affairs.

The Treasurer's statement shows a credit balance of £54 5s. 1d.

Election of Officers for 1916.—President—Mr. D. A. Strachan, M.A.; Vice-President—Mr. W. H. Skinner; Council—Messrs. W. Dinwiddie, H Hill, B.A., F.G.S., F. Hutchinson, jun., W. Kerr, M.A., T. C. Moore, M.D, T. Hyde, Hon. Secretary—Mr. J. Niven, M.A., M.Sc. (Technical College, Napier); Hon. Treasurer—Mr. J. Wilson Craig (Coote Road, Napier); Hon Auditor—Mr. J. S. Large; Hon. Lanternist—Mr. E. G. Loten; Representative on Board of Governors—Mr. H. Hill, B.A., F G.S.

Nelson Institute.

During 1915 four ordinary general meetings were held, at which the following papers were read: (26th April), “Maori Implements in the Museum,” by Mr. F. V. Knapp; (31st May) “Rusts,” by Mr. F. Whitwell; (5th July) Miscellaneous Items; (6th September) “Maori Implements in the Museum, Part 2,” by Mr. F. V Knapp.

At the annual meeting, 20th December, 1915, the annual report and balance-sheet were read and adopted.


Early in the year it was decided to open the Atkinson Observatory to the public every Tuesday evening, weather permitting, and, though weather-conditions have been to a great extent unfavourable, the proposal met with fair success, particularly during the visit of Mellish's Comet in June.

It was with great regret that news was received of the death of the late Mr Thomas Cawthron During recent years Mr. Cawthron, whose many benefactions to Nelson are well known, had made several gifts of great value to the Museum Among these may be mentioned a very fine set of show-cases in which to set out the Museum exhibits, and a splendid collection of curios purchased from Mr Lakins, the chief value of which lay in its collection of Maori implements, some of which are unique.

Election of Officers for 1916.—President—Mr. G. J. Lancaster; Committee—Messrs. F G. Gibbs, F. V. Knapp, W. F. Worley, T. A. H. Field, M P, H P. Washbourn, J. Strachan, G. R. Wise, and F. Whitwell; Hon. Secretary and Treasurer—Mr. E. L. Morley; Hon. Auditor—Mr. F. Whitwell.

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Manawatu Philosophical Society.

During 1915 eight general meetings (including the annual meeting) were held, at which the following papers were read (11th February) “The Marine Biology of New Zealand,” by Dr Mortensen, of Copenhagen, “Continental Experiences during the War,” by Mr M. A. Eliott: (18th March) “The Effects of Recent Chemical and Physical Research on Astronomy,” by Mr C. T Salmon. (15th April) “Luminlferous Ether, with Special Reference to Occult Forces, Telepathy, and Wireless Telegraphy,” by Mr. J. W Poynton, S M, “The Working of Wireless Telegraphy,” by Mr. A. J Colquhoun, M.Sc:' (21st May) “Two Notable Years, 1815 and 1915,” by Mis J H Primmer (19th August) “Radio-active Substances,” by Mr. A J Colquhoun, M Sc (16th September) “Wool in 1815 as compared with 1915,” by Mr. M A Eliott, “X Rays,” by Rev. H. M. Smyth, M A (21st October) “A Survey of Bacteriology, Economic and Clinical,” by Mr J W Poynton, S.M: (29th November) “Recent Progress in Chemical and Physical Research,” by Mr. A. J Colquhoun, M.Sc., “The Use and Influence of Novel Machines in Warfare,” by Mr. C T Salmon

At the annual meeting, 29th November, 1915, the annual report was read and adopted


It was stated that the continuance of the war had prevented the Government from taking any further action in the matter of the preservation and improvement of the Tongariro Park and the reserves on Wharite.

In April last the Council had decided, on the recommendation of the Curator, to open the Museum on Sunday afternoons instead of Thursday, and the experiment had so far been a success, for, while the average daily attendance for the whole year had been twenty, for the Sundays it had been thirty-one.

During the year 140 fresh exhibits had been received, amongst the most notable of which were a collection of marine fossils from the Dominion Museum, received through the kindness of Dr Allan Thomson, and one of rocks, presented by Mr. M W Walmsley, illustrating the geology of Otago Peninsula, and a valuable collection of native weapons from, presented by King Cacabau to the late Mr Hawkins, of Palmerston.

During the year a limited advantage had been taken by the public schools of the free use of the telescope, and classes, accompanied by then teachers, had visited the Observatory.

Election of Officers for 1916 —President—Mr J W Poynton, S M, Vice-Presidents—Messrs M. A. Eliott and J L. Barnicoat; Officer in charge of the Observatory—Mr. C. T. Salmon, Secretary and Treasurer—Mr K Wilson, M A., Council— Miss Ironside, M A, and Messrs R Gardner, J. B. Gerrand, H D Skinner, B A, W Park, F R H S, and J E. Vernon, M A., Auditor—Mr W E Bendall, F.P.A.

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Wanganui Philosophical Society.

Six ordinary meetings and two special meetings were held during the year 1915–16, at which the following lectures were delivered and papers read: (19th March, 1915) Lecture—“War Explosives,” by Professor T. H Easterfield, M.A., Ph.D.: (12th April, 1915) Lecture—“New Zealand Volcanoes,” by Professor P. Marshall, D.Sc., F.G.S.: (17th May, 1915) Papers—1, “Easter Trip to Tongariro Group,” by Mr. T W Downes, 2,” At the Observatory,” by Mr. J. T. Ward; 3, “The Star Test for Telescopic Mirrors,” by Mr. Thomas Allison: (21st June, 1915) Paper—“The Classic Architecture of Greece and Rome,” by Mr. C Reginald Ford, F R.G.S.: (26th July, 1915) Paper—“Some Features of the Flora of the Swiss Alps,” by Mr. J. A. Neame, B.A.: (29th September, 1915) Lecture—“The Architectural Monuments of Belgium,” by Mr. S. Hurst Seager, F.R I B.A: (1st November, 1915) Papers—1, “The German Spirit,” by Mr. H. E. Sturge, B.A.; 2, “Description of a New Species of Melanchra,” by Mr. Morris N. Watt, F.E.S.; 3, “Contributions to the Study of New Zealand Entomology, No. 8,” by Mr. Morris N Watt, F.E.S. (26th January, 1916) Papers—1, “Impressions of England in War-time,” by Dr. Hatherly; 2, “New Light on the Period of the Extinction of the Moa (according to Maori Record),” by Mr T. W. Downes.

At the annual meeting, 14th February, 1916, the annual report and balance-sheet were adopted.

Abstract of Annual Report

The two special meetings held were arranged to enable the society to help directly in the work of collecting for the patriotic funds, while simultaneously serving its own special aims. Both meetings were held in the Opera House, the public invited to attend, and a charge made for admission. In each case a considerable sum was handed over to the local Patriotic Committee. The lectures were—(1) “War Explosives,” by Professor T. H. Easterfield, M.A. Ph.D., and (2) “The Architectural Monuments of Belgium,” by Mr. S Hurst Seager, F R I.B.A.

The roll of the society includes at date fifty-nine ordinary and thirty-six associate members. There is a slight falling-off in numbers, due to resignations, some of them unavoidable owing to members leaving the district.

The financial position is satisfactory, showing a balance on hand of £53 7s 5d. after paying a subsidy to the Museum of £21 14s. 6d.

It was resolved to suggest to the Board of Governors the desirability of making a collection of interesting lantern-slides in connection with the library of the Institute, with the object of loaning them to the affiliated societies.

Dr. Hatherly was elected a life member.

Election of Officers for 1916.—President—Mr. H. R. Hatherly, M R C S; Vice-Presidents—Messrs. J. T. Ward, R. Murdoch; Council—Messrs T Allison, J. A Neame, B.A., Morris N. Watt, F.E.S., C. P. Brown, M A., LL.B., T W Downes, H. E. Sturge, B.A, Harry Drew; Hon. Treasurer—Mr. E. P. Talboys; Hon. Secretary—Mr. J. P. Williamson; Representative on Board of Governors, New Zealand Institute—Mr. H R Hatherly, M R C.S.