Art. IV.—Descriptions of New Native Flowering-plants, with some Notes on Known Species.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 13th December, 1916; received by Editors, 30th December, 1916, issued separately, 28th June, 1917.]
1. Wahlenbergia flexilis sp. nov.
Caules a summa radice complures gracillimi elongati flexuosi procumbentes teretes glabri parce ramosi. Folia ± conferta anguste lanceolato-spathulata integra acuta v. subacuta, inferiora opposita distantia, superiora alterna. Pedunculi terminales elongati 1-flori. Corolla infundibuliformis; stylus in ramos 2 recurvatos divisus.
Stems several from the top of a long slender root, very slender, usually with long internodes, flexuous terete glabrous, 4–8in. long, more or less branched near the base and at the tops, the branches often loosely interlaced.
Leaves in opposite distant pairs on the lower part of the stem, alternate higher up and often more or less crowded at the tops, variable in size and outline, ¾–1½ in. long, ¼ in. in greatest width, narrow lanceolate-spathulate or almost linear, gradually narrowed to the base, acute (rarely subacute), entire, glabrous thin or slightly coriaceous, edges somewhat cartilaginous, when dried more or less recurved, midrib evident, veins oblique reticulate rather obscure.
Peduncles terminal, 4–6 in. long, filiform, glabrous, 1-flowered, with or without one or two short linear bracts.
Flowers ± ⅚ in. long; calyx narrow, one-fifth as long as the corolla, cut half-way down into 5 linear-subulate lobes; corolla funnel-shaped, cut for one-third its length into 5 triangular acute lobes; style ending in 2 rather long arms that are recurved when mature; capsule obconic, ¼ in. long, usually 2-celled.
Hab.—Higher parts of Clarence Valley, Inland Kaikouras, Marlborough: end of December, 1915: B. C. Aston!
2. Gentiana tereticaulis sp. nov.
Annua: caules simplices erecti teretes 2.5–4.5 dcm. alti, internodiis elongatis. Folia pauca tenuia subacuta; radicalia longe petiolata, 4–5 cm. longa, laminis anguste ovatis, 3–5-nerviis; caulina perdistantia, supremis cuneato-ovatis sessilibus; pedunculi floribus 1½–2 longiores graciles teretes. Flores albi 15–18 mm. longi, terminalibus umbellatim dispositis; pistilla matura corollam excedentia.
Annual stems simple, erect, moderately slender, terete, 2.5–4.5 dcm. (10–18 in.) high, internodes several times longer than the cauline leaves.
Radical leaves few, thin, subacute, the blades narrow-ovate contracted into thin flattened petioles equalling or exceeding the blades, ± 1¾ in. long, 3-nerved or with an additional outer pair reaching half-way up the blade; cauline in few opposite widely distant pairs, the lower like the radical but shorter, the upper ovate-cuneate with a broad more or less decurrent base.
Inflorescence a terminal 4–7-flowered umbel, with or without a few long-pedunculate smaller umbels or solitary flowers from the axils of the uppermost cauline leaves.
Peduncles about twice as long as the flowers, slender, terete.
Calyx nearly half as long as the corolla, cut for two-thirds its length into linear-subulate 1-nerved lobes; corolla ⅝ in. long, cut for three-quarters its length into obovate rounded lobes; stamens a little longer than the calyx; the mature pistil exserted beyond the corolla.
Hab.—Gentle grassy slopes at the foot of Lake Harris, Routeburn Valley, Lake County.
This plant is intermediate between G. tenuifolia (mihi) and G. corymbifera T. Kirk.
3. Gentiana Gibbsii sp. nov.
Annua: G. lineatae T. Kirk similis, differt foliis majoribus subcarnosis, scapis crassioribus rigidis numerosis, floribus majoribus (2–2 5 cm longis), capsulis maturis multo longioribus (2 5 cm. longis).
Annual, not tufted stems several from the top of a long slender roo, more or less branched, ascending or erect, 3–4 in high.
Leaves slightly coriaceous, radical few ovate-spathulate, ½–¾ in. long, cauline in opposite pairs sessile, broadly linear or narrow-ovate acute.
Flowers numerous, white, narrow, solitary, terminating the scapes or branches; peduncles slender, terete, three to four times as long as the flowers; calyx ± ¾ in. long, equalling the corolla or nearly so, cut almost to the base into linear acute lobes; corolla divided for four-fifths its length into narrow ovate-lanceolate acute and subapiculate conspicuously veined segments; stamens half as long as the corolla; ripe capsules ± 1 in. long, exceeding the corolla.
Hab.—Mount Anglem, Stewart Island. F. G. Gibbs
The radical leaves are not well shown in the specimens I have been able to examine. I have to thank Mr. Gibbs for the gift of some of the specimens seen, and Dr. Cockayne, F.R.S., for the loan of the remainder.
4. Veronica longiracemosa sp. nov.
Frutex altus robustus ramosus; ramis ramulisque glaberrimis atrofuscis. Folia valde elongata ± 10 cm. longa 1 cm lata, anguste lineari-lanceolata, apicibus acum inatis valde attenuatis. Racemi crassiores valde elongati ± 18 cm. longi 2 cm lati, flores pernumerosos gerentes. Flores majusculi, corollae tubo lato calyce duplo longiore, limbi lobis tubum aequantibus ovatis acutis. Capsula glabra ovato-elliptica subacuta 4 mm longa.
A tall stout much-branched sh rub, branches and twigs stout, blackish-brown, quite glabrous.
Leaves moderately closely placed (± 1–5 cm. apart), narrow - linea -lanceolate, ± 10 cm (4 in.) long, 1 cm (⅜ in.) broad, widest near the base, uniformly narrowed upwards to the finely acute or acum inate apex, sharply contracted at the base into a short broad petiole, glabrous, coriaceous entire, flat, straight, spreading, midrib evident on both surfaces, paler below.
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Racemes 1 or 2 in the axils of the upper leaves, very long up to 18 cm (7 in.), 2 cm (¾ in.) broad, very many flowered. Rhachis naked below, stou, puberulous; bracts linear-subulate, short; peduncles sho rt, puberulous or slightly pubescent. Flowers large, white (?); calyx deeply 4-partite, segments thin oblong obtuse (rarely subacute), ciliate along the pale margins corolla-tube wide, fully twice as long as the calyx, limb cut into 4 ovate acute lobes about as long as the tube. Capsules glabrous, ovate-elliptic, 4 mm (3/16 in.) long, subacute apiculate, about twice as long as the calyx
Hab.—Awatere Valley, Marlborough: H. J. Matthews.
A very distinct species, allied, but not closely, to V. salicifolia Forst. f. and V. rotundata T. Kirk. My specimens came from a plant cultivated by Mr. Matthews, who informed me in letters of its native habitat. It shows no sign of being intermediate between any of the larger-leaved species of the genus, and it seems to me impossible that it can be a hybrid.
5. Note on Veronica rakaiensis J. B. Armstrong.
Specimens of what I take to be this species were given me by Mr. W. Willcox, of the Queenstown Domain, who found the plant near the Arrow-town-Macetown Road, in Lake County. The leaves do not show pubescence on the under-surface, but the characters of the flowers and capsules agree closely with Mr. Armstrong's description. It is a much taller and more slender plant than V. pinguifolia Hook. f., with shortly petiolate thinner narrower subacute leaves, and much longer and less pubescent racemes.
6. Veronica albicans sp. nov.
Species V. amplexicauli J. B. Armstrong affinis: differt foliis basi haud subcordatis, subtus nervis 2 subobscuris submarginalibus supra evanidis notatis; bracteis parvis brevibus anguste lanceolato-subulatis; corollae tubo lato calycem duplo superante; ovario glabro; capsula glaberrima elliptico-ovata subacuta.
A closely branched low shrub; main branches rather stout, much subdivided towards their tips, bark glabrous dark-brown closely ringed by leaf-scars; branchlets densely leafy almost to the base, marked by a pubescent tract running down from between the leaves and often extending along the leaf-bases.
Leaves decussate, spreading, closely placed, broadly ovate or orbicular-ovate (not subcordate), 1.7–2 cm. (¾ in.) long, 1–1.5 cm. (± ½ in.) broad, silvery grey when fresh, coriaceous, obtuse, entire, glabrous, sessile by a broad base not keeled, more or less concave above, with 2 rather obscure submarginal nerves running up for three-quarters their length, midrib evident above and below.
Racemes in the axils of the upper leaves, usually in 2 or 3 opposite pairs, twice to thrice as long as the leaves, stout, many-flowered; rhachis naked below, pubescent or almost villous-pubescent; bracts small, short, narrow lanceolate-subulate, acute; peduncles rather stout, pubescent like the rhachis, twice as long as the bracts or more; calyx deeply 4-partite, the lobes ovate-oblong obtuse thin dark, delicately ciliate along the margins. Corolla-tube wide, twice as long as the calyx, the limb cut into 4 short broad obtusely rounded lobes; anthers and style exserted.
Capsule glabrous, ovate or elliptic-ovate, subacute, about twice as long as the calyx.
Hab.—Mount Arthur and Mount Cobb, north-west Nelson: H. J. Matthews! F. G. Gibbs!
In one specimen in fruit the leaves are narrower ovate-oblong and subacute, and the lines of pubescence on the ultimate twigs are less conspicuous.
7. Veronica Lyallii Hook. f. var. angustata var. nov.
Caules erecti graciles ramosi (plerumque a basi), dense villoso-pubes-centes; foliis confertis patentibus angustis ± 1 cm. longis 2.5–4 mm. latis
subacutis vix coriaceis sublonge petiolatis; rhachi puberulo, pedunculis ± pubescentibus.
Hab.—Low flat rocky bars across the Ngakawau River near its mouth, south-west Nelson. The habitat is but little above sea-level, and is frequently submerged during floods. Collected 25th February, 1913.
8. Euphrasia diversifolia sp. nov.
Annua: caules gracillimi atro-rubri 8–10 cm. alti, ramos paucos basim juxta emittentes. Folia parva ± sessilia obovata v. obovato - cuneata (raro sublanceolata), glabra obtusa integra v. sub apice bidentata, ± 2–5 mm. longa, tenuia, subfloralia majora multo latiora coriacea valde obtusata, marginibus manifeste recurvis. Flores in racemis 2.5–5 cm. longis dispositi, pedunculis gracillimis bracteas duplo v. ter superantibus; calyce obconico pedunculis ½ breviore glabro, segmentis obtusis conspicue inaequalibus ac a marginibus recurvatis; capsula oblanceolata glabra vix emarginata calycem ½ superante.
Annual: stems very slender, erect or arcuate below, 3–4 in. high, deep-brown marked by two faint pubescent lines running down from the base of the petioles, giving off a few filiform branches mostly near the base.
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Leaves small, the lower 1/12 in. long or less, sessile or almost so, obovate or obovate-cuneate (rarely sublanceolate), spreading, entire or with a shallow notch on either side near the tips, thin, distant, more or less recurved at the margins; the subfloral larger much broader and thicker, mostly appressed, margins obviously recurved.
Flowers in a raceme 1–2 in. long, solitary or more commonly in opposite pairs, in the axils of the bracts; peduncles two to three times as long as the bracts (± ⅜ in. long), slender, erect, marked by 2 pubescent lines; calyx obconic, about half as long as the peduncles, glabrous, margins recurved, cut about half-way down into 2 principal segments that are again shortly notched at the top, segments obtuse; corolla not seen; capsules one and a half times as long as the calyx, oblanceolate, obtuse, glabrous, the top entire or very shortly and obliquely emarginate.
Hab.—Wet ground on Mount Hector, Tararua Range; about 3,500 ft.: B. C. Aston!
The present species is allied to E. tricolor Colenso. In the latter the calyx-segments are often more or less unequal, but never so conspicuously so as in Mr. Aston's plant, which is, moreover, annual, and has quite different leaves. Colenso's E. tricolor appears to me to be a valid species.
9. Pimelea Poppelwellii sp. nov.
Frutex subrobustus ramosus glaber ad 15 dcm altus. Folia conferta imbricata crassa coriacea brevia, late ovata v. elliptico-ovata, 8–10 mm. longa ± 6 mm lata, obtusa v. subacuta, vix appressa glabra, supra ± concava, evenosa carinata, breviter petiolata; floralia longiora ac latiora tenuiora ± venosa plana flavo-viridia. Flores term inales in capitulis 8–15-floris aggregati, ± 1 cm longi sessiles pallide rosei dio ici v. polygamodioici, sericeo-villosi; antheris vix exsertis; stylis elongatis gracillimis delicate capitatis. Fructus ignotus.
A rather robust much-branched erect shrub 5 ft. high or less.
Branches moderately stout, leafy towards the tops, glabrous.
Leaves very dark green, close-set, overlapping, more or less appressed, thick and coriaceous, broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate, about ⅜ in. long and
¼ in. broad, obtuse or subacute, glabrous, more or less concave above, keeled veinless, cartilaginous at the edges, contracted into a short stout-petiole; floral leaves longer and broader, much thinner, yellowish-green, and more or less obviously veined.
Flowers in terminal heads of 9–15, ⅜ in. long, sessile, pale-rose, silky-villous, dioecious or polygamo-dioecious; anthers scarcely exserted; styles elongated, very slender, finely capitate.
Hab.—Garvie Mountains, Southland County; and Symmetry Peaks, Eyre Mountains, Lake County: D. L. Poppelwell! Mount Cleughearn, Fiord County: J. Crosby Smith!
The present species is intermediate between P. Traversii Hook. f. and P. Crosby-Smithii (mihi)
10. Note on the Discovery of Simplicia laxa T. Kirk.
In Mr. Cheeseman's Illustrations of the New Zealand Flora this grass is stated to have been first collected by the late Mr. Kirk at the Dry River Station, Ruamahanga, Lower Wairarapa, in January, 1880. This is incorrect, as the plant was discovered by me near the Deep Stream accommodation-house or hotel at the end of February, 1877. That was the only occasion on which I visited that locality, or journeyed over the Rock and Pillar Road from Alexandra to Outram. The occasion was made memorable to me by the fact that I was hurriedly returning from Arrowtown to Dunedin because Mr. John Hislop (later Dr. Hislop), the Secretary to the Otago Education Board, had just been invited to proceed to Wellington to assist the Hon. Mr. Bowen in drafting the Education Act that was passed during the parliamentary session of 1877. I was at the time fully aware that my find belonged to a genus of grasses new to New Zealand, but the specimens were imperfect, and as the Kew authorities referred them to Sporobolus I took no steps to publish my discovery. When a few years later I got good specimens near Waikouaiti, Mr. Kirk sent me, in return for specimens forwarded to him, some pieces of the Wairarapa plant, named Pyxidiopsis prona, a name that he afterwards abandoned.
11. Note on Deyeuxia filiformis (G. Forst.) Petrie.
In January, 1913, I collected, at the seaside near Bluff (Southland), specimens of this species in which a few of the spikelets contain two florets. The upper floret terminates the rhachilla, and is considerably smaller than the lower. It is generally infertile, but in some cases it had developed a caryopsis. In works accessible here I have not been able to find any record of an abnormality of this kind, and it may be that the occurrence of a second floret in the spikelets of Deyeuxia has not been observed before. The rhachilla in this genus suggests the suppression of a second or upper floret, and the occasional development of the second floret lends to the rhachilla, in itself apparently a trivial character, considerable genetic significance, enhancing its value as a diagnostic character in marking the genus off from Agrostis L. and Calamagrostis Roth, in both of which there seems to exist no indication of descent from forms having more than one floret in the spikelet.