VI. Literature and History
1853. Proposed New Penal Settlement. Sydney, Contains a number of reports on Lord Howe Island. That by J. D. Macdonald, “Remarks on the Natural History and Capabilities of Lord Howe Island,” contains a short general account of the vegetation. Macdonald visited Lord Howe Island as Assistant Surgeon on H.M.S. “Herald,” which surveyed the island in 1853.
1854. J. Macgillivray, Letters from, Naturalist on H.M.S. “Herald,” in Hooker's Kew Journal of Botany, vi, 353. Gives a short general account of the vegetation. The vascular plants collected by Milne and Macgillivray, naturalists to the “Herald,” are included in Bentham's Flora Australiensis.
1870. Lord Howe Island: Official Visit by the Water Police Magistrate and the Director of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Contains reports on Lord Howe Island by members of a party which visited the island on official business in the New South Wales Government steamer “Thetis” in May-June, 1869. The report at page 17, by C. Moore, Director of the Sydney Botanical Gardens, “Sketch of the Vegetation of Lord Howe Island,” contains a general account of the vegetation and the first published list of the plants of Lord Howe Island. A hundred and nine names are given, of which twenty-nine are generic names only, and nine are recorded as apparently introduced, thus leaving seventy-one indigenous species. (I have omitted three of Moore's species, transferred two to the list of introduced plants, and consider as indigenous Sonchus oleraceus, which he lists as introduced.). In the report by E.S. Hill, “Description of Lord Howe Island,” an interesting general account of the island is given, with a description of the vegetation.
1872. “Iris Robinsoniana F. v. M.,” Gardeners' Chronicle, p. 393, 1872. A full account of the species, with two figures.
1872. J. G. Baker, “Ferns of Lord Howe Island,” Gardeners' Chronicle, p. 253, 1873. Records Alsophila excelsa, and describes as new Hemitelia Moorei and Deparia nephrodioides.
1872. C. Moore, “Remarks on the Botany of Lord Howe's Island,” Trans. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 1871, p. 29. Gives a table of the genera of plants, with remarks on the geographical relationships.
1873. J. G. Baker, “New Ferns from Lord Howe Island,” Journ. Bot. xi, 16. Todea Moorei and Asplenium pteridoides, collected by the Eclipse Expedition of 1871, are described as new.
1874. J. G. Baker, “Tree-fern from Lord Howe Island,” Journ. Bot. xii, 279. States that Hemitelia Macarthuri F. Muell. is identical with Cyathea Moorei Hook. & Baker.
1875. F. v. Mueller, Fragmenta Phytographicae Australiae, ix. Melbourne. A list is here given containing 185 names. In addition to these, four other species are mentioned in numbers of the Fragmenta between 1873 and 1877. (I have omitted four species from Mueller's list, transferred five to the list of introduced plants, and include his Marsdenia tubulosa as not different from M. rostrata. Mueller's names include four generically
determined only, so that 175 indigenous species are accepted in my list.) In vols. vii to ix of the Fragmenta, issued between 1870 and 1875, Mueller, either alone or conjointly with C. Moore, published the descriptions of thirty-two new species of plants from Lord Howe Island.
1863–78. G. Bentham, Flora Australiensis. London. The first volumes contain very few plants recorded from Lord Howe Island, only twenty appearing in the first five volumes (1863–70), sixteen in vol. vi (1873), and seventy-six in vol. vii (1878). One hundred and twelve names are thus given by Bentham as Lord Howe Island plants, of which four are indicated as being introduced. (I have omitted three species and transferred three to the list of introduced plants, thus leaving 102 indigenous species.).
1882. J. B. Wilson, Report on the Present State and Future Prospects of Lord Howe Island. Sydney. The island was visited officially on the 4th April, 1882, by the Hon. J. B. Wilson and a party of observation in the “Thetis.” The volume is illustrated by seventeen photographic views and two maps. At page 17 is a “Report on the Geology,” by H. Wilkinson. A list of the timbers of the island is given, eighteen specific names being mentioned. At page 28 is a “Report on the Vegetation,” by J. Duff. Interesting information is given of twelve of the principal forest-plants of the island.
1889. Lord Howe Island: its Zoology, Geology, and Physical Characters. Memoir No. 2, Australian Museum, Sydney. This volume consists of the reports on the collections made by a party, despatched by the Australian Museum to Lord Howe Island, in August-September, 1887. It is illustrated by seven plates and four maps. In Report No. 5, “The Physical and Geological Structure of Lord Howe Island,” by R. Etheridge, there is a short general account of the vegetation; while the same author, in Report No. 1, “The General Zoology of Lord Howe Island,” makes some remarks about the Ficus and four species of palms found on the island.
1893. C. Moore and E. Betche, Handbook of the Flora of New South Wales. Sydney. At page 518 there is a “List of Lord Howe and Norfolk Island Plants excluded from the Descriptive Part of the Flora.” Lord Howe Island is credited with sixty-seven species, one of which, Marsdenia tubulosa, I treat as identical with M. rostrata.
1893. R. Tate, “The Geographic Relations of the Floras of Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands,” Macleay Memorial Volume, p. 205. The author discusses the relationships of the genera and species, regarding “Lord Howe Island as a companion outlier to Norfolk Island of the New Zealand region.” Tate's list is a compilation which unfortunately contains many mistakes. Altogether 207 species are listed as occurring in Lord Howe Island. (I reduce his list to 189 indigenous species by transferring four to the list of introduced plants, omitting thirteen, and reducing Marsdenia tubulosa to the synonymy of M. rostrata.).
1896. J. Daveau, “Dichogamie Proterandre chez le Kentia (Howea) Belmoreana,” Journ. Botanique.
1896. W. B. Hemsley, “The Flora of Lord Howe Island,” Ann. Bot. x, p. 22. This is the most complete account of the plants of Lord Howe. Island that has yet appeared. Besides a list of the species, giving references and distribution, there is a discussion on the origin of the flora. Hemsley's list contains 210 names, besides Pandanus sp indet. (and, in a supplementary note, two names taken from Tate's list). (I have transferred five of Hemsley's species to the list of introduced plants, omitted eleven altogether, and consider Marsdenia tubulosa the same as M. rostrata. This leaves 193
indigenous species accepted in my list. Of the two species added from Tate's list I omit Aspidium decompositum.).
1898. J. H. Maiden, “Observations on the Vegetation of Lord Howe Island,” Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 23, 112. Mr. Maiden visited Lord Howe Island in March-April, 1898, in H.M C.S. “Thetis”. His paper only enumerates those plants about which he has some information to add, besides which he gives a list of introduced plants and some bibliographical notes. (Altogether 100 species are dealt with, of which twenty are listed as introduced, four could not be identified, four are Hemsley's names recommended to be removed, three I consider to be introduced, and Asplenium Robinsoni I treat as a form of A. nidus, thus leaving sixty-eight indigenous species, of which eight are additions to Hemsley's list. Of Maiden's introduced plants I include in my list as indigenous Bidens pilosa, Solanum aviculare, and S. nigrum—this last an addition to Hemsley's list.).
1899. J. H. Maiden, “Some Further Observations on the Vegetation of Lord Howe Island,” Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 24, 381. Four species are mentioned, including the Lord Howe Island variety of Dendrobium gracilicaule, which is described as new (howeanum).
1901. J. H. Maiden, “On one of the So-called Honeysuckles of Lord Howe Island,” Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 26, 156 (Guioa coriacea Radlk.)
1902. J. H. Maiden, “On a New Cryptocarya from Lord Howe Island, together with Notes on other Plants from that Island,” Proc. Linn Soc. N.S.W. 27, 347. Seven species are mentioned, including Cryptocarya Gregsoni Maiden n. sp., Rapanea myrtillina Mez.
1906. A. Thelling, “Die Gattung Lepidium (L)” Zurich. Describes as new L. howei-insulae.
1907. W. B. Hemsley, Kew Bulletin, p. 56. Describes as new Dysoxylum pachyphyllum.
1913. W. W. Watts, “The Ferns of Lord Howe Island,” Proc Linn. Soc N.S.W. 37, 395. Mr. Watts visited Lord Howe Island in July-August, 1911, and made a special study of the ferns. In his paper he admits forty-one species, of which two (Asplenium howeanum n sp. and Ophioglossum vulgatum) are additions to the flora.
1914. J. H. Maiden, “Further Notes on the Botany of Lord Howe Island,” Proc Linn Soc N.S.W. 39, 377. Notes are given on sixteen species, including Plantago Hedleyi, described as new. There is also a list of twenty-four species collected by Mr. Hedley in September, 1908.
1914. W. W. Watts, “Additional Notes on the Ferns of Lord Howe Island,” Proc Linn Soc. N.S.W. 39, 257. Notes on eleven species, describing as new Polystichum Whiteleggei and P Kingii.
1916. W. W. Watts, “Two Lord Howe Island Polypodia,” Proc Roy. Soc N.S.W. 49, 385. Two species described as new, P. pulchellum and P howeanum.